1

OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO ?ICAAAeAIIss ? AAIAOEEE OAA?EI

?ae?iothe Ieueaa ?aai?aia

OAeE 636.22/28. 082. 26

I?AeAEUAIIss AOAEOEAIINO? IOe?IEE ? AeIAI?O

AOAA?A *I?II-?ssAI? II?IAeE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 06.02.01- ?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

n. *oaeinueea Ee?anueei? iaeano?

-1998-

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a A?eioea?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: ?oaeee ?aai Aaeaiiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
?icaaaeaiiy oa aaiaoeee oaa?ei A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
Iaeaoaoee Ieeiea Na?a?eiae/, ?inoeooo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Iie?nny
OAAI; eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, Aioiiaiei Aaaeei
?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae ?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
aaiaoeee n. -a. oaa?ei.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 5 ” n?/iy 1999 ?. i 10-00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 27. 355. 01. ?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy oa
aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI,

25639, Ee?anueea iaeanoue Ai?eni?euenueeee ?aeii, n.*oaeinueea, aoe.
Iia?aaiyea,1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
?icaaaeaiiy oa aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 28 ” aa?aniy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe
TH.A. I?eue/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ca inoaii? 30 ?ie?a nenoaia ieai?iii? ?iaioe a
iiei/iiio neioa?noa? aaco?oueny ia i?eioeeiao aaeeeiianooaaii?
naeaeoe??: oeaio?ae?ciaaia ioe?iea, aeia?? oa ?ioaineaia aeei?enoaiiy a
ianooaaao ii?iaee aenieioe?iieo ie?aeiee?a, noai?aiiy aaieo nia?ie ia
ia?aa??thaaieo aoaa?a, aeei?enoaiiy a ieai?ii?e ?iaio? AII, iaoiae?a
iiioeyoe?eii? aaiaoeee oa ?ioeo aeinyaiaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee. ?ic?iaeai?
iaoiaee iiaeaethaaiiy ia AII naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/ieo i?ioean?a o
iiioeyoe?yo iiei/ii? ooaeiae ? aaiaoeei-noaoeno/ieo i?ioean?a
aaeeeiianooaaii? naeaeoe?? ( Rendel, Robertson, 1950; Peterson,
Cherstensen, Anderson, 1974; Aanianueeee I.C., Eoci?oeia A.I., 1977,
1982 oa ?io?).

Iniiaiei oaeoi?ii i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ieai?iii? ?iaioe ?
?ioaineaiee aeia?? ? aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a, ia /anoeo yeeo i?eoiaeeoueny
a?ey 95% aoaeoo naeaeoe?? a ii?iae?. I?ioa, ia aeaiee /an a iiioeyoe??
/i?ii-?yai? ooaeiae ia?aaaaea? aenoaineaia nenoaia naeaeoe?? ieai?iieo
oaa?ei ( iaaeineiiae? iaoiaee ioe?iee ? aeiai?o aaouee?a oa iaoa??a
aoaa?a, iecueea aoaeoeai?noue ioe?iee ie?aeiee?a ca iioiinoaii, cia/i?
aeo?aoe ia oo?eiaiiy aoaa?a oa caa??aaiiy aaieo nia?ie). Oiio, iac??ea
iaiao?aei?noue o ?ic?iaoe? a?eueo aoaeoeaii? nenoaie ioe?iee, aeiai?o ?
aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a c o?aooaaiiyi aaiaoe/ieo ? ia?aoei?/ieo oaeoi??a
oa aeaiaio?a ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia i?eeeaae? /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee
ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue ?nioth/i? nenoaie naeaeoe?? iiei/ii? ooaeiae ?
oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaee ioe?iee oa aeiai?o ie?aeiee?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
??cieo aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy ?o ieai?iii?
oe?iiino?. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeei aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:
aea/eoe aoaeoeai?noue ?nioth/i? nenoaie ioe?iee, aeiai?o, aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??a ? aaouee?a aoaa?a, ie?aeiee?a ca iioiinoaii; aea/eoe iniiai?
oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia a??ia?aei?noue ioe?iee ieai?iieo yeinoae
aoaa?a; aea/eoe aoaeoeai?noue aeiai?o ?aiiioieo aoaa?a ia iniia?
i?iaiico ?o ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ca iioiaeaeaiiyi; aecia/eoe
aoaeoeai?noue ioe?iee ? aeiai?o ca iioiinoaii i?e i?aeii?iaeiiio
no?auoaaii?; ioe?ieoe ?ieue aoaa?a-e?aea??a o aaiaoe/iiio iie?ioaii?
ii?iaee; aecia/eoe aoaeoeai?noue ??cieo aa??aio?a naeaeoe?? ?
aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a c o?aooaaiiyi aaiaoe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo ?
na?aaeiaeuieo oaeoi??a.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiiai? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a 1994 —
1997 ??.( iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? ? 0197 U001882).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Aia?oa oaeineaiaeaii
iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee, aeiai?o ? aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a, c o?aooaaiiyi
aaiaoe/ieo ? na?aaeiaeuieo oaeoi??a oa oiia ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey a??ia?aeii? ioe?iee ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aoaa?a o
a?aee?eoeo iiioeyoe?yo iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe no?oeoo?o aaiioeio
iioiie?a ie?aeiee?a ? ?aaeoe?th ?o ia oiiae na?aaeiaeua.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo
ieai?iii? ?iaioe c /i?ii-?yaith ii?iaeith aa??aioo i?ia?aie naeaeoe??
?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iieiaeeo aoaa?a, ioe?ithaaieo ca aeiiiiiaith
eiiieaeniiai naeaeoe?eiiai ?iaeaeno, ii??aiyii c ?nioth/ith nenoaiith,
aoaea ni?eyoe cia/iiio ciaioaiith aeo?ao eioo?a ia ae?iuoaaiiy ?
oo?eiaiiy ie?aeiee?a oa caa??aaiiy ?o nia?ie i?e iaeii/aniiio
ca?eueoaii? aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano a iiioeyoe?? ca iaaei?i a?ae 19,5 aei
46,8 ea iieiea a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeio ei?iao a ??e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “A/ai? AOeAeNA? — ae?iaieoeoao” ( A?ea Oea?eaa, 1994);
“Aaiaoeea i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei” (Ee?a, 1994), “Iaoeiaa caaacia/aiiy
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao” (Ee?a, 1995); “
Iia? iaoiaee naeaeoe?? a?aeoai?aiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ii??ae ? oei?a
oaa?ei” (Ee?a, 1996); “Oai??y ? i?aeoeea ieai?iii? ni?aae o
oaa?eiieoeoa?” (Oa?e?a, 1996); “I?iaeaie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
n.-a. oaa?ei” ( Ee?a,1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 9 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo, a o./. 3 noaooyo ? 6 iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa. Aeena?oaioii naiino?eii c?a?aia
iaiao?aeia ?io?i?iaoe?y i?i aoaa?a /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee, ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue; i?iaaaeaia ioe?iea oaeoi??a, ui aieaathoue ia
a??ia?aei?noue aecia/aiiy ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aoaa?a ? aoaeoeai?noue ?o
aeiai?o; ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe??
? aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a o ii?iae?.

No?oeoo?a oa ia`?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai nieneo.
?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 146 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? aeeth/a? 45
oaaeeoeue, 5 ?enoie?a. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 164 aeaea?ae, a o./.
54 ?iicaiieo.

2. CAAAEUeIA IAOIAeEEA ? INIIAI? IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? ca ia??iae c 1994 ii 1997 ??., aeey /iai
aeei?enoai? : ?ioi?iaoe?y ia 224 aoaa?a ca oi?iith 1-IIE, ye? aoee
ioe?iai? ca iioiinoaii ? caianai? a eaoaeiae aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a iiei/ieo
ii??ae a ia??iae 1980-1992 ??.; iaoa??aee 195 ie?aeiee?a /i?ii-?yai?
ii?iaee aieooeinueeeo oa aieeaiaenueeeo e?i?e, ui ?ioaineaii
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a ??cieo ainiiaea?noaao Oe?a?ie a inoaii? 10-15 ?ie?a;
iaoa??aee 19 aieooeinueeeo aoaa?a, ye? ioe?iai? c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
aaiaoe/ieo oa na?aaeiaeuieo oaeoi??a; iaoa??aee ieai?iiiai iae?eo 4107
ei??a ca oi?iith 2-IIE o ieai?iieo ? e?aueo oiaa?ieo ainiiaea?noaao
Ee?anueei? iaeano?; aeai? Ee?anueeiai iaeaniiai ieaiia`?aeiaiiy, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ciioaoie/i? iieacieee iiioeyoe?? /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee.

Ioe?iea ca iioiinoaii i?e i?aeii?iaeiiio no?auoaaii? i?iaiaeeeanue
oeyoii ii??aiyiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aei/ie aoaa?a c aiaeia?/ieie
iieacieeaie iaeiiaaiioeiieo ?iaanieoeue ca oi?ioeith ( Aanianueeee
I.C., ?oaeee ?.A., 1990):

G = b W i j k ( D i j k — P i j k ) : W i j k ,
(1)

aea G — ieai?iia oe?ii?noue ie?aeieea; b — ?aa?an?y ieai?iii? oe?iiino?
aoaay ia oaiioei iioiie?a c o?aooaaiiyi oniaaeeiaaiino? iciaee; Di j k
— i?iaeoeoeai?noue aei/ie ?-ai aaiioeio, j-ai ?ieo k- ai noaaea; ?i j k
— i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaeiiaaiioeiieo ( ? ) ?iaanieoeue oiai ae j — ai
?ieo a k noaae?; W — aoaeoeaia /enei aei/ie .

Aeey ioe?iee i?iaiiciaaiiai aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano ( DG) o a?aee?eoeo
iiioeyoe?yo iiei/ii? ooaeiae aoea aeei?enoaia oaea iiaeaeue:

DG= S II /S LI ,
(2)

aea Ii — aaiaoe/ia ia?aaaaa i-?? eaoaai??? ieai?iieo oaa?ei a iiioeyoe??
( IA ? AA,

IE ? AE); L? — aaia?aoe?eiee ?ioa?aae aeey oeeo oaa?ei.

?iaeaen i?iaiiciaaii? ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ?aiiioieo aoaa?a (??A)
aecia/aany ca oi?ioeith ( Aanianueeee I.C., ?oaeee ?.A.,1994):

??A= 1/2 [ ?ia -Dq (L-1) + IAA — Dq ( L-1)] ,
(3)

aea ?AA — ?iaeaen ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aaouee?a aoaa?a ca iioiinoaii,
aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith1; Dq — aaiaoe/iee o?aiae a ii?iae?, L —
aaia?aoe?eiee ?ioa?aae aeey IA ? AA; ?IA — ?iaeaen ieai?iii? oe?iiino?
iaoa??a aoaa?a.

Nooi?iue ?aae?caoe?? aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a ??cieo oiiaao
na?aaeiaeua i?iaiaeeee ca oi?ioeith:

a? =I? / ?? . 100% ,
(8)

aea a? — nooi?iue ?aae?caoe?? aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo oaa?eiaie ?-ai
aaiioeio; I? — oaeoe/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue oaa?ei ?-ai aaiioeio; ?? —
aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae ca iiei/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth oaa?ei ?-ai
aaiioeio, yeee aecia/eee ca oi?ioeith:

?= d1 A + d2A,
(9)

aea d1, d2 — /anoea niaaeeiaino? a?aeiia?aeii ca aieooeinueeith ?
/i?ii-?yaith ii?iaeaie, A ? A — aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae ca iaaei?i
a?aeiia?aeii aieooeinueei? (8000 ea) ? /i?ii-?yai? (5500-6000 ea)
ii??ae.

Aeey ioe?iee aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a i?ia?aie naeaeoe??,
?ic?aoiaaieo ia ??cio ?ioaineai?noue aeiai?o ? aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a
aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoeiio i?ia?aio aeey IAII ?ic?iaeaio A.?.Iiiiaei,
A.I.Oaietheii ? I.A.Oea/aiei ca aeai?eoiii I.C.Aanianueeiai ?
?.A.?oaeeea (1995).

AOAEOEAI?NOUe ?NIOTH*I? NENOAIE IOe?IEE ? AeIAI?O AOAA?A-IE?AeIEE?A

Ioe?iea ? aeia?? iaoa??a aoaa?a. Aianie iaoa??a aoaa?a o caaaeueia
aaiaoe/ia iie?ioaiiy iiioeyoe?? noaiiaeoue 32-46%, oiio aaea i?e
a?aeai?? iioaioe?eieo iaoa??a aoaa?a iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeai i?aaeeueii
aecia/eoe ?o ieai?iio oe?ii?noue. Aeine?aeaeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? ia 211
ia?ao “iaoe-nei” iieacaee, ui aaniethoi? iieacieee i?iaeoeoeaiino?
iaoa??a aoaa?a iaaeinoaoiuei aieeaathoue ia ??aaiue ieai?iii? oe?iiino?
?o nei?a. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae i?iaeoeoeai?noth iaoa??a ca
iaeaeuo eaeoaoe?th ? ieai?iiith oe?iiinoth ?o nei?a neeaaea? r= 0,15
0,1. Aeaui aeua aoaeoeai?noue aeiai?o iaoa??a aoaa?a ca na?aaeiueith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth ca ia?o? o?e eaeoaoe??, r= 0,29 0,13. Caeaaei?noue
eaoaai??? ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aoaa?a a?ae ??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?o
iaoa??a iieacaia a oaaeeoe?4. Ioaea, ?nioth/a ia i?aeoeoe? nenoaia
aeiai?o iaoa??a aoaa?a ca aeaniei oaiioeiii iaaoaeoeaia ? ia iiaea aooe
e?eoa???i aeiai?o ?aiiioieo aoaa?a.

Ioe?iea ? aeia?? aaouee?a aoaa?a. Ia /anoeo aaouee?a aoaa?a
i?eoiaeeoueny 36-46% aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano a iiioeyoe??. Oae, yeui a?ae
74 aoaa?a-iie?iooaa/?a, na?aaeiy ieai?iia oe?ii?noue yeeo neeaaea? +306
ea iieiea, io?eiaii 172 neia c ieai?iiith oe?ii?noth +107 ea iieiea, oi
a?ae aaouee?a iia??ooaa/?a, a?aeiia?aeii — 21 aie. ? -181ea, 35 aie. ?
-72 ea iieiea (oaae.1). Ei?aeyoe?y i?ae ieai?iieie oe?iiinoyie aaouee?a
? ?o nei?a noaiiaeoue r= 0,51(?0,999).

1. Aieea aaouee?a aoaa?a ia ??aaiue ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ?o nei?a

Eaoaai???Ieai?iia oe?ii?noue aaouee?aIeai?iia oe?ii?noue nei?aieai?iii?
oe?iiino? aaouee?a aoaa?ae?euee?noue aoaa?a, aie.e?euee?noue aei/ie ia
iaeiiai aoaayna?aaeiy ieai?iia oe?ii?noue,

ea iieiea Mme?euee?noue aoaa?a, aie.e?euee?noue aei/ie ia iaeiiai
aoaayna?aaeiy ieai?iia oe?ii?noue,

ea iieiea MmIie?iooaa/?,

a oe?eiio

74

114

+30627,7

112

22

+10720,2a o./.
60-19934132+18241,29124+8930,6200-5504098+41137,98120+12738,3Iaeo?aeuei?
,

a oe?eiio

19

221

+254,3

37

30

+9725,1a o./. 0 : +5910347+2074,72228+16562,40 :
-59952-1979,61532-367,3Iia??ooaa/?,

a oe?eiio

21

164

-18151,9

35

32

-2226,2a o./.-60 : -20011137-9972,41727+146,3-201:
-55010194-27171,51836-14167,3Na?aaei?114141+16622,324425+8067,3

Aiae?c aeaieo ii ii?iae? iieacaa iecueeo ?ioaineai?noue aeiai?o
aaouee?a aoaa?a. A iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo 244 ie?aeiee?a, ye?
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ia noaioe?yo ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy a aiae?coth/ee
ia??iae, iaea?aeai? a?ae 114 aaouee?a, oiaoi ?ioaineai?noue aeiai?o
neeaae? eeoa 2,1 neia a?ae iaeiiai aaoueea.

I?ae oei, i?e i?aaeeuei?e ioe?ioe? aoaa?a, ye i?aaeei, niinoa??aa?oueny
iiceoeaia caeaaei?noue i?ae ieai?iiith oe?ii?noth aaouee?a ? nei?a
(oaae.2). Oae, yeui a?ae aaouee?a Aoii 386, O?eon 337, Naaaio 1394,
ieai?iia oe?ii?noue yeeo neeaaea? +430 ea ? iieiea, iaea?aeai? neie c
ieai?iiith oe?ii?noth +209 ea iieiea ? , oi a?ae aoaa?a ieai?iiith
oe?ii?noth 136-169 ea o?eueee 78-89 ea iieiea. Ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiino?
aeiai?o aaouee?a aoaa?a i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy ?o ieai?iii?
oe?iiino? ca iaaei?i. Oae, yeui 114 aaouee?a aoaa?a iaee na?aaeith
ieai?iio oe?ii?noue +166 ea iieiea, oi 5 e?aueo c ieo, oae caaieo
e?aea??a ii??ae, a aeae?eueea ?ac aeua, +612 ea iieiea. Iiynith?oueny
oea oei, ui i?e nei?i/aii? /enea aaouee?a aoaa?a , a oeth a?oio
a?aeae?athoue iaea?eueo oe?iieo ie?aeiee?a, ye? /a?ac nai?o nei?a
?noioii aieeaathoue ia aaiaoe/ia iie?ioaiiy iiioeyoe??.

2.Ieai?iia oe?ii?noue aeayeeo aoaa?a ? ?o nei?a

Eee/ea ?Aeai? i?i aaouee?aAeai? i?i ?o nei?aiiia? aoaayE?i?ye?euee?noue
aei/ieIOe ca iaaei?i, eae?euee?noue nei?aIOe ca iaaei?i, eaAoii
386N.O.?ie?o 25280353+10919+531O?eon 337Oaeueoa 6664234+5677+299Naaaio
1394?.Niaa??ia 19899861+43011+209Aoeoe?ii 1171Iaioa?a
691151+34615+154Aeeiie 665A.Aaeaia 5058753+2746+154?iia?e 6547?.ssia
3455832+24612+170?aei?ae 0035Ee?iaoa 222255+1697+89O?iio 1346A.Aaeaia
3058737+1368+78

Ioe?iea ? aeia?? aoaa?a ca iioiinoaii. Ioe?iea oa aeia?? aoaa?a ca
iioiinoaii ? ae??oaeueiei ? iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei aoaiii naeaeoe?eii?
i?ia?aie c ii?iaeith. ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiiy oa ioe?iee ie?aeiee?a a
ia??iae 1980-1992 ??., iieacaee, ui ieai?iia oe?ii?noue 244 aoaa?a
iaaeniea ? neeaaea?: ca iaaei?i +80 ea, ai?noii aee?o -+0,0156%,
e?euee?noth iiei/iiai aee?o — +7 ea ( oaae.3).

I?ioa, ie?ai? c ieo iathoue aenieee aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae. Oae, na?aaeiy
ieai?iia oe?ii?noue 6 e?aueo aieooeinueeeo aoaa?a neeaea +807 ea iieiea
? +0,09% aee?o, a 6 e?aueo aoaa?a aieeaiaenueeeo e?i?e a?aeiia?aeii
+601 ea iieiea ? +0,1% aee?o.

Aiae?c aaiaieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?? aieeaiaenueeiai oa
aieooeinueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ii?iaea neeaaea?oueny
?c /eneaiieo e?i?e, 244 aoaa?a iaeaaeaoue aei 35 e?i?e ( cai?noue 6-8,
coiiaeaieo iioeiaeueiei aa??aioii i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? iiioeyoe??) ? aoee
neiaie 114 aaouee?a.

Oaea ?icae??aeaiiy aaiaaeia?/ii? no?oeoo?e ii?iaee iaieio/a i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ??ceiai ciaioaiiy iiaeeeainoae aeiai?o aenieioe?iieo ie?aeiee?a ye a
a?oio aaouee?a aoaa?a, oae ? aaouee?a ei??a. I?e oae?e nenoai? aeiai?o ?
i?aeai?o i?ae e?i?yie a?aenooi? aaiaoe/i? a?aei?iiino?, a na?aaeiy
ieai?iia oe?ii?noue aoaa?a o e?i?yo ciaoiaeeoueny ia iecueeiio ??ai?
:+60 ea iieiea aieeaiaenueeeo ? +130 ea iieiea aieooeinueeeo e?i?e.

3. I?iaeoeoeai?noue aei/ie oa ieai?iia oe?ii?noue aoaa?a ??ciiai
iioiaeaeaiiy.

Aaiioei

E?eue-e?noueNa?aaeiy e?euee?noueI?iaeoeoeai?noue aei/ie Ieai?ii?
oe?ii?noue caaoaayaoaa?aaei/ie ia 1 aoaayiaae?e, ea%

aee?oiie.

aee?o, eaiaaei-?i, ea%

aee?oiie. aee?ii, eaAieeaiaenuee?
e?i??1732432313,67119+57+0,018+4Aieooeinuee?
e?i??172636873,59132+246+0,013+11Iii?ni?
ie?aeieee542433023,62120+100+0,016+6Na?aaei?

2442533123,63123+80+0,016+7

Nei?i/aiiy /enea e?i?e a iiioeyoe?? ? iiaeaeueoa oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
?icaaaeaiiy ca e?i?yie , aeathoue iiaeeea?noue a?aeae?aoe aenieioe?iieo
aoaa?a aeey a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea, ui ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aaiaoe/iiai
i?ia?ano a ii?iae?. sseui ?c eiaeii? i?ia?aeii? e?i?? a?aeae?aoe
iaeiiai e?auiai ie?aeieea aeey iaea?aeaiiy a?ae ieo ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a,
oi e?euee?noue aaouee?a aoaa?a noaiiaeea a 18 aie?a, a na?aaeiy ?o
ieai?iia oe?ii?noue i?aeaeueeany a aei +383 ea iieiea.

Aoaeoeai?noue ioe?iee aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ca iioiinoaii a aaeee?e i???
caeaaeeoue a?ae e?eueeino? aei/ie, yea iio??aia aeey aecia/aiiy
a??ia?aeii? ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aoaay.

sseui ie?aeieee a??ia?aeii ioe?iai? ca iioiinoaii, oi ?iciiae?e ?o ia
eaoaai??? ieai?iii? oe?iiino? iaaeeaea?oueny aei i?iii?oe?eiiai
?iciiae?eo: a?ey 33% iie?iooaa/?a, 33% iia??ooaa/?a ? 33% iaeo?aeueieo,
a na?aaeiy ?o ieai?iia oe?ii?noue iaaeeaeo?oueny aei 0. A iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?iciiae?e 244 aoaa?a ia eaoaai??? ie?i?iii? oe?iiino? ia
iaa i?iii?oe?eiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy: /enei iie?iooaa/?a neeaei 54%,
iaeo?aeueieo — 22% ? iia??ooaa/?a 24%. Oea aeaco? ia ?acoeueoao ia
o?eueea iiia?aaeiueiai aeiai?o e?aueo aoaa?a ia ieaii?aei?e?inoaao, a e
ia iecueeo a??ia?aei?noue ioe?iee ie?aeiee?a ca iioiinoaii. Aeey ioe?iee
ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aoaa?a ia i?aeoeoe? aeei?enoiaoaaeanue iaaaeeea
e?euee?noue aei/ie ( a na?aaeiueiio ii 15 aie?a ia 1 aoaay), a ie?ai?
ie?aeieee aieeaiaenueeeo e?i?e aoee ioe?iai? ca 10-12 aei/eaie, ui
iaaaoeaii aieeioei ia a??ia?aei?noue ioe?iee ? a?aeiia?aeii ia
aoaeoeai?noue aeiai?o. ?iciiae?e ie?aeiee?a a??ia?aeii ioe?iaieo ca
iioiinoaii ( ia iaioa 20 aei/ie) aoei ianooiiei: /enei iie?iooaa/?a
neeaei 36 %, iaeo?aeueieo ? iia??ooaa/?a — ii 32 %. Ieai?iia oe?ii?noue
ie?aeiee?a ca iaaei?i i?e oeueiio cieceeanue aei + 25 ea iieiea. Oaea
ioe?iea a?eueo ?aaeueia, i?i ui ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue i?ioeaioia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae eaoaai??yie ie?aeiee?a. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae
iieacieeaie ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aaouee?a ? nei?a i?e oeueiio
i?aeaeueany a?ae r=0,51 aei r=0,71.

IOe?IEA AOAA?A CA IIOIINOAII I?E I?AEII?IAeIIIO NO?AUOAAII?.

I?iaeoeoeai?noue oaa?ei ? ?acoeueoaoii aieeao niaaeeiaino? oa oiia
na?aaeiaeua ( ??aiy aiae?ae? oa oo?eiaiiy, i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia oa
?i.). A cae?eoeo iiioeyoe?yo, a yeeo canoiniao?oueny /enoiii?iaeia
?icaaaeaiiy, c iie?ioaiiyi oiia na?aaeiaeua, ??aaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino?
oaa?ei i?aeaeuo?oueny, ai i?e oeueiio ca?eueoo?oueny nooi?iue
?aae?caoe?? ?o aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo. sse iieacothoue oai??y ?
i?aeoeea, o a?aee?eoeo iiioeyoe?yo, aea iniaeie io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao?
no?auoaaiiy, niinoa??aa?oueny aca?iiae?y i?ae aaiioeiii ? na?aaeiaeuai.
Aeey oiai, uia i?aaeeueii ioe?ithaaoe ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a
iie?iooaaeueieo ii??ae i?e no?auoaaii? ?o c i?noeaaeie /i?ii-?yaeie
ei?iaaie, iaie i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith aecia/aiiy nooiaiy
?aae?caoe?? aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a ??cieo oiiaao na?aaeiaeua.

O ainiiaea?noaao c ??aiai aiae?ae? 30 — 40 oe e. iae. oa 41-50 oe e.
iae. ia iaeio aieiao a ??e niinoa??aa?oueny a??ia?aeia iaaaoeaia
?aaeoe?y aenieie?iaieo aieooeinueeeo iii?nae ia oiiae na?aaeiaeua.
??cieoey ca iaaei?i i?ae aenieie?iaieie ? iecueeie?iaieie iii?nieie
ei?iaaie a noaaeao ?c iecueeei ??aiai aiae?ae? neeaaea? a na?aaeiueiio
238 ea iieiea ? a noaaeao ?c na?aaei?i ??aiai — 66 ea iieiea. O?eueee a
ieai?iieo noaaeao c ??aiai aiae?ae? 51 ? a?eueoa oe e. iae. ia iaeio
aieiao a ??e, a?aei?/aia iiceoeaia ?aaeoe?y aenieie?iaieo iii?nae ia
oiiae na?aaeiaeua (+713 ea iieiea). Ca?eueoaiiy /anoee niaaeeiaino?
aieooei?a aei 75% ia oeueiio ??ai? aiae?ae? ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith iiei/ii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a ia 280 ea a ii??aiyii? ?c /i?ii- ?yaeie
?iaanieoeyie, a a ii??aiyii? ?c /enoiii?iaeieie aieooeinueeeie ei?iaaie
oey ??cieoey i?aeaeuo?oueny aei 617 ea iieiea. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy
aiae?ae? a noaaeao ca?eueoo?oueny ??aaiue iaaeith ei??a ? nooi?iue
?aae?caoe?? aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?ae 46,6% aei 71,3%.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a ainiiaea?noaao c na?aaei?i ??aiai aiae?ae?,
e?aua ?aae?cothoue na?e aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae oaa?eie 5/8 ? 3/4
e?iaiino? ca aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith. A noaaeao, aea ia iaeio aieiao a
??e caiaeiaothoue 30-40 oe e.iae., iaea?eueo i?enoiniaai? aei i?noeaaeo
oiia na?aaeiaeua iii?n? c aieooeinueeith e?iai?noth aei 25%.

A oiaa?ieo ainiiaea?noaao, aea ??aaiue aiae?ae? ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai
aaiioeio oaa?ei, iaia? aeioe?eueiino? ?icaiaeeoe aenieie?iaieo ca
aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith oaa?ei. Oiaoi, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui o
a?aee?eoeo iiioeyoe?yo ?nio? oaea ?aaeoe?y aaiioei?a ia oiiae
na?aaeiaeua: ia aenieiio ??ai? aiae?ae? e?aueie ? e?au? aaiioeie, a a
a??oeo oiiaao — e?aueie ? a??o? aaiioeie. Oiio iaiao?aeii ei?aaoaaoe ye
iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee ? aeiai?o ieai?iieo oaa?ei, oae ? i?ia?aio ?o
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaaaeaiiy. Aeey i?aaeeueii? ioe?iee aoaa?a ca iioiinoaii
i?e no?auoaaii? iaiao?aeii ?o aei/eai i?aeae?aoe iaeiiaaiioeiieo
?iaanieoeue, a ieai?iio oe?ii?noue aecia/aoe ca oi?ioeith 1. ??cieoeth
i?ae i?iaeoeoeai?noth aei/ie ? ?iaanieoeue, ye? eaeooaaee a ??cieo
ainiiaea?noaao ? a ??ci? ?iee ne?ae ei?aaoaaoe ia aoaeoeaia /enei
aei/ie, ui aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith: W =n i j k n i jk / n i j k
+ n i j k , (10)

aea n- e?euee?noue aei/ie ?- ai aaiioeio a j- io ?ioe? k — io noaae?;
n — e?euee?noue ?iaanieoeue a?aeiia?aeiiai aaiioeio, ?ieo e noaaea.

Iai?eeeaae, o ie?aeieea I?e/aea 1179 iae?/o?oueny 13 iai?ae?iaieo
aei/ie c iaaei?i 4391 ea iieiea, 18 aei/ie c e?iai?noth5/8 ? iaaei?i
4255 ea, 5 o?ueio/aoaa?oieo aei/ie c iaaei?i 4047 ea , 10 aei/ie c
e?iai?noth 3/8 ? iaaei?i 2362 ea ? ii iaei?e aei/oe? c e?iai?noth 7/8
oa 1/4 ca aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith c iaaei?i 4257 oa 3794 ea iieiea
a?aeiia?aeii. Ca?aeii c ?ino?oeoe??th INA eieeoiueiai N?N? ieai?iia
oe?ii?noue ie?aeieea I?e/aea 1179 noaiiaeoue:

G = b ( D — P ) + 0,79 (4276-3930) = +273 ea

Ioe?iea aoaay ii??aiyiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? eiai aei/ie c
iaeiiaaiioeiieie ?iaanieoeyie iieacaea ?io? ?acoeueoaoe ? oeae aoaae
aeyaeany iaeo?aeueiei:

G = 0,79 ( 2439,2 : 37,07)= +52 ea.

Aiae?c aeaieo ieai?iii? oe?iiino? 19 ie?aeiee?a i?e ioe?ioe? ?o ?c
aeeeth/aiiyi ? aac aeeeth/aiiy aieeao aaiioei?/ieo oa na?aaeiaeuieo
oaeoi??a iieacaa, ui i?e oeueiio ni?aiaea eaoaai??y ieai?iii? oe?iiino?
o?eueee o 42% ie?aeiee?a. Ia?aa??ea ia i?aeoeoe? iieacaea, ui ioe?iea
aoaa?a ca iioiinoaii ca oe??th iaoiaeeeith aea? iiaeeea?noue ei?aaoaaoe
aeia?? oa i?aea?? ie?aeiee?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?aaeoe?? ?o iioiinoaa ia
oiiae na?aaeiaeua. Oae, iie?iooaa/aie aeyaeeenue o? aoaa?, o yeeo
aenieie?iaia ca aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith iioiinoai a iaio?e i???
iaaaoeaii ?aaao? ia oiiae na?aaeiaeua.

Ioaea, aeey i?aaeeueii? ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia o?eueee no?oeoo?o aaiioeio aei/ie ?
?iaanieoeue, a e aieea noaaea, ?ieo eaeoaoe?? oa ?ioeo na?aaeiaeuieo
oaeoi??a.

AOAEOEAI?NOUe IOe?IEE ? AeIAI?O ?AIIIOIEO AOAA?A CA IIOIAeAEAIIssI ?C
AEEI?ENOAIIssI ??CIEO AeAEA?AE ?IOI?IAOe??

A oiiaao na?aaeiaeua, ye? ia ni?eythoue ?aae?caoe?? aaiaoe/iiai
iioaioe?aeo o iioiie?a aenieioe?iieo ie?aeiee?a, a aeo?aoe ia ?o ioe?ieo
ca iioiinoaii ? oo?eiaiiy aaeeeiai caiano nia?ie aeiiii?/ii ia
iaa?oioiaai?, iio??aia nenoaia aeei?enoaiiy nia?ie iieiaeeo aoaa?a, ia
ioe?iaiieo ca iioiinoaii, aea io?eiaieo a?ae aaouee?a c aenieei
aaiaoe/iei iioaioe?aeii. Aeey ia?aa??ee aoaeoeaiino? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oe??? nenoaie ie a nai?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeei?enoaee iaoiaeeeo
i?iaiicoaaiiy ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ie?aeiee?a c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeae?
naeaeoe?eiiai ?iaeaeno ( oi?ioea 3).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aeey a??ia?aeii? i?iaiiciaaii? ioe?iee
ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ?aiiioieo aoaa?a ca iioiaeaeaiiyi aaeeea cia/aiiy
ia? a?aooaaiiy ?ioa?aaeo a ?ieao i?ae aeaoith aecia/aiiy ieai?iii?
oe?iiino? aaouee?a oa a?eii i?iaiiciaaii? ioe?iee ?o nei?a. O aaaaoueio
ie?aeiee?a oaeoe/iee ?ioa?aae neeaaea? 10 ? a?eueoa ?ie?a, oiio
aenoaineaia nenoaia ioe?iee ? aeiai?o aoaa?a cia/ii cieaeo? ?o ieai?iio
oe?ii?noue. Aaeaea aaiaoe/ia ia?aaaaa aoaay iaae noaaeii aai
iiioeyoe??th ia ? iino?eiith. Oea iiynith?, /iio a eaoaai???
iaeo?aeueieo aoaa?a a?ae 54 aaouee?a aoaa?a-iie?iooaa/?a, na?aaeiy
ieai?iia oe?ii?noue yeeo neeaaea? +181 ea iieiea, io?eiai? iaeo?aeuei?
neie c na?aaeiueith ieai?iiith oe?ii?noth -2 ea( oaae.4).

4. Caeaaei?noue ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ca iaaei?i a?ae ieai?iii? oe?iiino?
iaoa??a ? aaouee?a

Eaoaai???Aie?a

Ieai?iia oe?ii?noue iaoa??a ? aaouee?a aoaa?aIeai?iia oe?ii?noue ?o
nei?aieai?iii? oe?iiino?nIaae?e iaoa?? ca:IOe iaoa?? ca:IOe aaouee?a ca
iioiinoaiiI?iaiiciaaiaOaeoe/iaaoaa?a ca iaaei?i,

ea iieieaiaeaeuo eaeoa-oe?th, ea iieiea3 ia?-oeo eaeo., ea
iieieaaeaniith i?iaeoeo. ea iieiea3 aeaea?a-eaie ?ioi?i., ea
iieieae?eue-e?noue aei/ie ia 1 aoaayea iiei-eaaac ei?aeoe?? ia aaiao.
o?aiaec ei?ae-oe??th ia aaiao. o?aiaee?eue-e?noue aei/ie ia 1 aoaayIOe
ca iaaei?i, ea

iieiea Iie?iooaa/?,

a oe?eiio8370965761+218+126115+289+207+16428+204a o./.
200-5503472196273+371+207106+362+386+18222+300
60-1994970115407+113+71122+239+175+6730+132Iaeo?aeuei?,

a oe?eiio5467235115+100+82202+181+132-432-2a o./. 0 —
(+59)3172425353+170+107317+236+155+3239+25 0 —
(-59)2360244794+66+4846+167+79-5235-37Iia??ooaa/?,

a oe?eiio5864114790-20-26127+50+12-12424-231(- 60 )-
(-200)2861534815-6+1134+32+14-11024-128(-201) —
(-550)3066524766-33-52122+67+6-13824-328 Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ui
aieeaathoue ia oi/i?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ? ye
aaiaoe/i?, oae ? ia?aoei?/i? oaeoi?e. Oae, /ei ca a?eueoith e?euee?noth
aei/ie ioe?iai? aaoueee aoaa?a, oei a?eueoa ni?aiaaea? i?iaiiciaaia
ieai?iia oe?ii?noue ?aiiioieo aoaa?a c ioe?ieith ca iioiinoaii

( i?e e?eueeino? aei/ie 35 ? > ca?aaiiy i?iaiiciaaii? oa oaeoe/ii?
ieai?iii? oe?iiino? neeaaea? 68%). A?eueo iaae?eiei ? i?iaiic ieai?iii?
oe?iiino? aeey /enoiii?iaeieo ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a a ii??aiyi? c
iii?nieie, ui iiaeia iiynieoe eiinie?aeaoe??th niaaeeiaino? o
/enoiii?iaeieo ? aenieith niaaeeiaith i?ieea?noth o iii?nieo oaa?ei.
Aoaeoeai?noue ioe?iee ?aiiioieo aoaa?a caeaaeeoue a cia/i?e i??? a?ae
oiia na?aaeiaeua, c yeeo iaea?eueo aieeaiaeie ? ??aaiue aiae?ae? oa
oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei. sseui ioe?ieo ie?aeiee?a ca iioiinoaii i?iaiaeeoe o
noaaeao c i?iaeoeoeai?noth 2000 — 2499 ea, oi ca?aaiiy i?iaiiciaaiii?
ieai?iii? oe?iiino? c oaeoe/iith noaiiaeoue eeoa 33%, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? noaae oeae iieaciee c?inoa? aei 68%. Ei?aeyoe?y
i?ae i?iaiiciaaiith ieai?iiith oe?ii?noth ca naeaeoe?eiei ?iaeaenii ?
oaeoe/iith ieai?iiith oe?ii?noth aoaa?a neeaaea? 0,690,17 i?e ?>0,999,
ui na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo a??ia?aei?noue oaei? ioe?iee.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaiicoaaiiy ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a ca
aeiiiiiaith naeaeoe?eieo ?iaeaen?a ia iniia? eiiieaeno aeaea?ae
?ioi?iaoe?? c ei?aeoe??th ia aaiaoe/iee o?aiae a iiioeyoe?? aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue a?aeae?aoe aeey in?iai?iiy ei??a e?aueo iieiaeeo aoaa?a ( o
a?oe? 2-o ?ie?a), ui aoaea ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith oaii?a aaiaoe/iiai
iie?ioaiiy iiioeyoe?e ? ciaioaiith aeo?ao ia ae?iuoaaiiy aoaaeoe?a oa
caa??aaiiy caiano nia?ie.

CAEAAEI?NOUe AAEE*EIE AAIAOE*IIAI I?IA?ANO A IIIOEssOe?? A?Ae I?IA?AIE
AeIAI?O ? AEEI?ENOAIIss AOAA?A-IE?AeIEE?A

A iniiao ioe?iee aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano a iiioeyoe?? (DG) ca iiei/iith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth iieeaaeaia oi?ioea Rendel, Robertson (1950) a
aeiiiaiaii? O.Peterson(1974), I.C.Aanianueeee, ?.A. ?oaeee (1996). Aeey
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?nioth/i? i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? ? aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a
a iiioeyoe?? /i?ii-?yai? ooaeiae aoee acyo? oaeoe/i? iieacieee i?i
aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a a ii?iae? a ia??iae 1988-1992 ??.: e?euee?noue
aaouee?a ei??a 244, e?euee?noue iaoa??a aoaa?a -110, e?euee?noue
aaouee?a ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a — 114 aie?a, ieoiia aaaa iiioeyoe?? ei??a,
ui in?iaiyeanue nia?iith ia?aa??thaaieo aoaa?a — 0,50.

Aiae?c iieacaa, ui ?nioth/a i?ia?aia naeaeoe?? ? aeei?enoaiiy
ie?aeiee?a caaacia/o? iecueeee ??aaiue aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano a iiioeyoe??
(DG=19,5 ea ca ??e), a aianie 4-o eaoaai??e ieai?iieo oaa?ei aeaui
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a: aaouee?a aoaa?a -36%,
aaouee?a ei??a — 17,7%, iaoa?? aoaa?a — 32,2%, iaoa?? ei??a — 11,1%. Ca
aeaieie ?yaeo aaoi??a, ye a oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooieao, oae ? ca
iaoa??aeaie i?aeoe/ii? naeaeoe??, aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an a iiioeyoe?? ia
90-95% caeaaeeoue a?ae naeaeoe?? aoaa?a ( aaoueee aoaa?a + iaoa?? aoaa?a
? aaoueee ei??a). Ei?iae, a?ae?a?ai? a ieai?iia yae?i aeey
iaea?aeaiiy a?ae ieo ?aiiioieo oaeeoeue (iaoa?? ei??a) ia ?noioii
aieeaathoue ia aaiaoe/ia iie?ioaiiy ii?iaee, eeoa ia 5-10%. Oiio
?ioaineai? aa??aioe naeaeoe?? iiei/ii? ooaeiae c aenieei aaiaoe/iei
i?ia?anii a?oioothoueny ia nenoai? ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a.

Ca aeiiiiiaith IAII iaie aoee ioe?iai? aeae?eueea aeueoa?iaoeaieo
aa??aio?a i?ia?aie naeaeoe??, ?ic?aoiaaieo ia ??cio ?ioaineai?noue
aeiai?o ? aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a. I?e oeueiio anoaiiaeaii, ui aaiaoe/iee
i?ia?an a ii?iae? iiaeia a 2-3 ?ace ca?eueoeoe ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy
?ioaineaiino? aeiai?o ? aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a.

E?euee?noue aaouee?a aoaa?a ? iaeiei c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo oaeoi??a.
sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, cieaeaiiy /enea
aaouee?a aoaa?a a?ae 114 aei 5 aie?a i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano a?ae 19,5 ea aei 50,2 ea iieiea. Oey oaiaeaioe?y
niinoa??aa?oueny i?e ??ciiio aaieo nia?ie ia iaeiiai aoaay oa aaee/ei?
aeoeaii? /anoeie iiioeyoe??, yea in?iaiy?oueny nia?iith ia?aa??thaaieo
aoaa?a. Iiynith?oueny oea oei, ui i?e nei?i/aii? /enea aaouee?a aoaa?a
cia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny iiaeeea?noue aeiai?o a oeth a?oio iaea?eueo
oe?iieo ie?aeiee?a.

Ia oaiie aaiaoe/iiai iie?ioaiiy iiioeyoe?? aieeaa? aaee/eia aaieo
nia?ie ia ia?aa??thaaieo ie?aeiee?a. I?e ca?eueoaii? ?ici??o aaieo
nia?ie c 30 aei 50 oeny/ aeic, aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i
ca?eueoo?oueny c 48,8 ea aei 50,2 ea iieiea.

A aeie?eciaee ia??iae iaeneiaeueiee i?ia?an a ii?iaeao io?eioaaee a
?ioaineaieo aa??aioao i?ia?aie naeaeoe??, ?ic?aoiaaieo ia aeei?enoaiiy
ie?aeiee?a i?ney ioe?iee ?o ca iioiinoaii. A no/anieo oiiaao, ye
iieacaee iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeee? aeo?aoe caian?a eiina?aiaaii?
nia?ie ia eiiiainothoueny oeie aeioiaeaie, ui caaacia/o? nenoaia
aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a i?ney ioe?iee ca iioiinoaii. A oiiaao na?aaeiaeua,
ia aeinoaoi?o aeey ?aae?caoe?? aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo ooaeiae a
ii?iaeueieo oiiaao aiae?ae? ? oo?eiaiiy, aeioe?eueiei ? aeei?enoaiiy
iieiaeeo aoaa?a, ia ioe?iaieo ca iioiinoaii, i?e oiia? aeniei?
a??ia?aeiino? ioe?iee ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ? ?ioaineaiiai aeiai?o iaoa??a
oa aaouee?a aoaa?a. A e?eciaee ia??iae oey nenoaia a?eueo aoaeoeaia.
Aiia ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano ca iaaei?i a?ae 19,5 ea
aei 46,8 ea iieiea a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeio ei?iao a ??e.

AENIIAEE

1. I?iaiaeeoueny iaaoaeoeaiee iaoiae aeiai?o iaoa??a aoaa?a ca
oaiioeiii (aeaniith i?iaeoeoeai?noth). Caeaaei?noue i?ae ieai?iiith
oe?iinoth 211 ie?aeiee?a ioe?iaieo ca iioiinoaii ? iaaei?i ?o iaoa??a
ia? aeoaea iecueeee ??aaiue: ca iaeaeuo eaeoaoe?th r=+0,150,1 (
P>0,999), ca na?aaeiueith i?iaeoeoeai?noth ca ia?o? 3-e eaeoaoe??,
r=+0,290,13 (?>0,999).

2. O ii?iae? canoiniao?oueny aenoaineaia nenoaia aeiai?o aaouee?a
aoaa?a. Oae, 244 ie?aeiee?a, ye? iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
o aiae?ciaaiee ia??iae ( 1986-1992 ??.) o Ee?anuee?e, *a?eanuee?e oa
?ioeo iaeanoyo, io?eiai? a?ae 144 aaouee?a-aoaa?a. Oiio ??aaiue
ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ye aoaa?a, oae ? ?o nei?a iecueeee, a?aeiia?aeii 166
ea ? 80 ea iieiea.

3. A aiae?ciaaiee ia??iae o?eueee 43,8% ei??a ii?iaee in?iaiyeeny
nia?iith aoaa?a, ioe?iaieo ca iioiinoaii, ?c yeeo 54% aoee
iie?iooaa/aie, a 46% iaeo?aeueieie ? iia??ooaa/aie. A oe?eiio ieai?iia
oe?ii?noue 244 /i?ii-?yaeo aoaa?a aoea +80 ea iieiea ? +0,005% aee?o, o
oiio /ene? 173 aoaa?a aieeaiaenueeeo e?i?e, a?aeiia?aeii +57 ea iieiea ?
+0,08% aee?o, 17 aieooeinueeeo e?i?e +246 ea iieiea ? +0,013% ? 54
iii?nieo ie?aeiee?a +100 ea iieiea ? +0,016% aee?o.

4. Iaaeineiiaea nenoaia ioe?iee, aeiai?o ? aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a ?
i?e/eiith oiai, ui a ii?iae? aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i neeaaea? eeoa
+19,5 ea iieiea a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 ei?iao a ??e. Iiaeaethaaiiy ia IAII
??cieo aa??aio?a i?ia?ai naeaeoe?? iieacaei, ui aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an a
ii?iae? iiaeia a 2-3 ?ace ca?eueoeoe ca ?aooiie iie?ioaiiy nenoaie
ioe?iee, aeiai?o ? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??a ? aaouee?a aoaa?a oa aaouee?a
ei??a.

5.A no/anieo oiiaao, eiee ??aaiue aiae?ae? ? oo?eiaiiy ooaeiae ia
ni?ey? ?aae?caoe?? aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo iioiie?a aenieioe?iieo
aoaa?a, iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei ? aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaiei ? aa??aio
i?ia?aie naeaeoe??, ?ic?aoiaaiee ia ?ioaineaia aeei?enoaiiy iieiaeeo,
iaioe?iaieo ca iioiinoaii ie?aeiee?a, iaea?aeaieo a?ae aaouee?a c
aenieei aaiaoe/iei iioaioe?aeii. I?e oeueiio ioe?ieo aoaa?a ca
iioiinoaii ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe o?eueee aeey aeiai?o aaouee?a aoaa?a ?
aaouee?a iaoa??a aoaa?a. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae oaeoe/ieth
ieai?iiith oe?ii?noth 195 aoaa?a ca iioiinoaii ? i?iaiiciaaiith ca
eiiieaeniei ?iaeaenii neeaaea? 0,69 (?>0,999).

I?IIICEOe??

1. Aeey aoaeoeaiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a naeaeoe?eio i?aeoeeo ?ioaineaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iieiaeeo, iaioe?iaieo ca iioiinoaii ie?aeiee?a, iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeineiiaeo nenoaio ioe?iee ? aeiai?o aaouee?a ? iaoa??a
aoaa?a. Ieai?iio oe?ii?noue iaoa??a aoaa?a iaiao?aeii ioe?ithaaoe ca
naeaeoe?eiei ?iaeaenii, ia iniia? eiiieaeno aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??, a
ieai?iio oe?ii?noue aaouee?a aoaa?a aecia/aoe aeeeth/ii ca iioiinoaii c
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao aaiaoe/ieo ? na?aaeiaeuieo oaeoi??a. Aaoueee aoaa?a
iiaeii? iaoe aenieo a??ia?aei?noue ioe?iee ca iioiinoaii ? aooe
iie?iooaa/aie ca iniiaieie naeaeoe?eieie iciaeaie.

2. Aeey a??ia?aeiiai aecia/aiiy ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aoaa?a i?e
a?aeoai?iiio no?auoaaii? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe aieea aaiaoe/ieo ?
na?aaeiaeuieo oaeoi??a ia ??aaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?o aei/ie.

Ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee o ioae?eaoe?yo, o oiio /ene?:

Iaoeia? noaoo? a aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao

1. Oaaei?aiei I.?. ( ?ae?iothe I.?.) Iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ioe?iee oa aeiai?o aoaa?a /i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee // A?niee
A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue. — Aei.3. — /.1 — A?ea Oea?eaa. — 1997. — N. 295-298.

2. Oaaei?aiei I.?. Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ioe?iee oa aeiai?o
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a i?e i?aeii?iaeiiio no?auoaaii? // A?niee AAeAO . Ca.
iaoe. i?aoeue. — Aei.3. — /.2 — A?ea Oea?eaa. — 1997. — N. 212-216.

3. Aanianueeee I.C., E?aa I.N., Oaaei?aiei I.?., Noa?inoaiei?.N.,
Oii`ye I. , Aa?eooa- Iiaeue/aiei N.N. // Ioe?iea ?aaeoe?? ??cieo
aaiioei?a ia oiiae na?aaeiaeua a iiioeyoe?yo iiei/ii? ooaeiae. A?niee
AAeAO. — Aei. 4.- *.1.-A?ea Oea?eaa, 1998.-N. 162-166.

Iaoa??aee iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e

4. Aooo?oe I.A., Oaaei?aiei I.?., ?oaeee ?.A. A?aeoai?i? iieacieee
aieoo?i?ciaaieo iii?nae // Oace iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe?? i?ena`y/ai?e
90-??//th i?io. I.I.Eieanieea “ Aaiaoeea i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei”. — E..
1994. — N.10.

5. Aanianueeee I.C., ?oaeee ?.A., Oea/aiei I.A., Oaaei?aiei I.?.
I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiai?o ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a // Iaoa?. eiio. “
Iaoeiaa caaacia/aiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie a no/anieo
oiiaao”. — A?ea Oea?eaa, 1995. — N.129-130.

6. Oaaei?aiei I.?. , Aeoa?i A.I. Ioe?iea aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a
aieooeinueei? oa neiaioaeuenueei? ii??ae ca a?aeoai?thaaeueiith
caeaoi?noth // Iaoa?. eiio. “ Iaoeiaa caaacia/aiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao”. — A?ea Oea?eaa, 1995. — N.164-165.

7. ?oaeee ?.A.. Oaaei?aiei I.?. I?iaiicoaaiiy ieai?iii? oe?iiino?
?aiiioieo aoaa?a ia ??cieo aoaiao naeaeoe?? // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?.
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiio. iina. 80 eaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey Yenia?a
O.O. — Oa?ueeia,1996. — N.32.

8. Oaaei?aiei I.?. Oaeoi?e , ui aieeaathoue ia oi/i?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy
ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ?aiiioieo aoaa?a // Oace aeiiia?ae? i?aeia?.
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. “ Iia? iaoiaee naeaeoe?? a?aeoai?aiiy
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ii??ae ? oei?a oaa?ei . — Ee?a. — Anioe?aoe?y
“Oe?a?ia”. — 1996. — N.167.

9. ?ae?iothe I.?. Ioe?iea oa aeia?? ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi c aeei?enoaiiyi naeaeoe?eieo ?iaeaen?a // I?iaeaie
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo n.-a. oaa?ei / Ca??iee iaoe. i?aoeue
i?aeia?iaei. iae.- ae?ia. eiio. i?enay/ai?e 90 ??//th a?ae aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy E.A.Naa/eia . — Ee?a, 1997. — N.70-71.

?ae?iothe I.?. “I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ioe?iee ? aeiai?o aoaa?a
/i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee”. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.02.01. — ?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei. ?inoeooo
?icaaaeaiiy oa aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI. n.*oaeinueea, Ee?anueei? iaeano?,
1998.

?ic?iaeaia nenoaia iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ioe?iee oa aeiai?o
ie?aeiee?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaoiae?a
aecia/aiiy ?o ieai?iii? oe?iiino?, ioe?iea aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a
i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? aeiai?o ? aeei?enoaiiy
ie?aeiee?a.

Eeth/ia? oa?i?ie: ieai?iia oe?ii?noue, ie?aeiee, aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an,
aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae, iiioeyoe?y, aaeeeiianooaaia naeaeoe?y.

?ae?iothe I.E. “ Iiauoaiea aooaeoeaiinoe ioeaiee e ioai?a aueia
/a?ii-iano?ie ii?iaeu”. ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa ia nieneaiea
o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa n.-o. iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.02.01 —
?acaaaeaiea e naeaeoeey aeeaioiuo. Einoeooo ?acaaaeaiey e aaiaoeee
aeeaioiuo OAAI.n.*oaeineia, Eeaaneie iaeanoe, 1998. ?ac?aaioaia nenoaia
iaoiaeia iiauoaiey aooaeoeaiinoe ioeaiee e ioai?a i?iecaiaeeoaeae n
eniieueciaaieai ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee e iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey
eo ieaiaiiie oeaiiinoe, i?iaaaeaia ioeaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioia
i?ia?aiiu naeaeoeee n o/aoii eioaineaiinoe ioai?a e eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ieaiaiiay oeaiiinoue, i?iecaiaeeoaeue, aaiaoe/aneee
iioaioeeae, aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?an, iiioeyoeey, e?oiiiianooaaiay
naeaeoeey.

Rekrotyuk O.I. “ Increasing of efficiency of evalucition and individual
selection of sires black and white breed. Handwriting.The Dissertation
in seek for scientific degree of a Candidate of Agricultural scienes on
the specialist 06.02.01 — animal breeding and selection/ The Institute
of Animal Breeding and Genetias of UAAS, village Chubinsky, Kyiv Regeon,
1998.

The system of emproved methods of ascessmat efficiency and selection of
studs has been elaborated with ubilization of different sourees of
information and methodes of defferention of thier stud value, their
alternative variants evaluation of selection programme taking into
consideration the selection and utilization of studs was conducted.

Key words: stud value, stud, genetical potential, genetical progress,
population, larqe-scale selection.

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