I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEEE I?AEIA?IAeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO OeEA?EUeII? AA?AOe??

Eo/a?oe Aaeeia TH???aia

OAeE: 656.6.073(477)(043.3)

I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? noaeiiieaaii?
eiiiai??

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.04 aeiiii?ea o?ainii?oo oa ca’yceo

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ia?aaacaiue oa ia?eaoeiao Ee?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiaa Ay/aneaa
A?eai?iae/, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith aeiiii?ee ? iaiaaeaeiaioo
(Ee?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo).

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie Ne/ ?aaai?e Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith o?iain?a,
aeiiii?ee ? ia?eaoeiao (*a?i?a?anueeee oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo)

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, eao?aao Aea?aeiaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie
I?aee?niee Iaaei ?aaiiae/, a?oea-i?aceaeaio Aeoe?iia?ii? noaeiiieaaii?
eiiiai?? “Oe???/oeio”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “09” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. a 1000 aiaeei ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.062.02 i?e Ee?anueeiio
i?aeia?iaeiiio oi?aa?neoao? oeea?eueii? aa?aoe?? ca aae?anith: 252058,
Ee?a 58, i?iniaeo Einiiiaaoa Eiia?iaa, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iiciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oeea?eueii? aa?aoe?? ca aae?anith: 252058,
Ee?a 58, i?iniaeo Einiiiaaoa Eiia?iaa, 1.

A?aeaoee ia aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? a aeaio i?ei??ieeao, caa??ai?
ia/aoeith, i?ineii iai?aaeyoe ca aeacaiith aae?anith.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “08” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?

?aaee, eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo

iaoe, i?ioani? ?iae/aiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy

O?ainii?o ? iaeaaaeeea?oith neeaaeiaith aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie.
No?eea ? aacia?aa?eia ?iaioa o?ainii?oo caaacia/o? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ae?yeuei?noue aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo
Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i??i?eoaoiei ?icaeoeii ciai?oiueioi?a?aaeueieo
? ??ceei cieaeaiiyi ieoiii? aaae aioo??oi?o aanaeiiaeo ia?aaacaiue,
iecueeei ??aiai oaoi?/iiai noaio iaoe?iiaeueiiai oeioo, na?aaei?e a?e
yeiai iaaeeaea?oueny aei e?eoe/iiai, aeao?oeeoii o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
aeey iiiaeaiiy oeioo, no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie a aaeoc?. Ia??ai? c oeei
ia ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?e aieeaathoue ??ci? /eiieee
ciai?oiuei? ? aioo??oiuei? na?aaee, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei aeanoaa?e?caoe??
o?ainii?oieo i?ioean?a. sse iane?aeie, a??oathoue ae?iaie/a-o?iainia?
iieacieee ?iaioe noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?e, aaaaoi ye? ?aene ?
iaei?aioaaaeueieie, a ie?ai? caeoeiaeie.

Neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany, ea?aeeiaeueii a iaeaeeae/ee /an ia ci?ieoueny,
ine?eueee iaa?oue i?e iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiio iiiiaiaii? neeaaeo oeioo
ua aeineoue o?eaaeee /an a aenieoaoaoe?? aoaeooue ciaoiaeeoeny
ooieoe?iioth/? oeie noaeai. Ioaea, iaeaaaeeea?oith i?iaeaiith
caeeoa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe ae?th/iai oeioo. Iaeiei c
oeyo?a ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ? aaeineiiaeaiiy iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai??.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? ? i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? oeioo, ui aenieoaoo?oueny, ?icaeyioo? a iaoeiaeo ?iaioao
aaaaoueio a/aieo ? oao?aoe?a a 60 – 80- ? ?iee eieeoiueiai N?N?:
/e.ei?. AI N?N?, i?io. A.A. Caiieiaa, aeaae. O.N. Oa/aoo?iaa,
ae.o.i., i?io. I.I. Nithciaa, i?io. C. I. Aeaiea, ae.o.i. i?io. I.I.
??o?ia, ae.a.i i?io. A.A. *a?eaniaa-*eaeciaa, ae.a.i i?io. A.N.
Aooiaa, ae.a.i. i?io. A.I. Eaainoa?aa, i?io. I. A. Iaeeoe?ia, ae.a.i.,
i?io. I.O. I?eia/iaa, ae.a.i., i?io. A.A. *aeaeiaoey oa ?ioeo.
?ic?iaeaie oeeo ieoaiue caeiaeeny iaoeiai-aeine?aei? eieaeoeae, oae? ye
OeIAe?IO, Nithcii?IAe?i?iaeo, *a?iiii?iae?i?iaeo, OeIAe?AAO, A?i?io?ain
OAAe, Oe?a?i?i??/o?ain, I??AO, A??AO, E?AO, I??AO oa ?ioeo. Iaeiae
caeeoa?oueny iaae??oaiith caaea/a iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy oeioii noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai?? a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.
O iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aeeiiaieo ua aei
i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, ia a?aeia?aaeai? iniaeeaino?
no/anii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??, yea neeaeany ia aiaeiiio
o?ainii?o?, ia a?aoiaai? ?eieia? oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, oae?
ye: caaino?aiiy eiieo?aioe?? i?ae ??cieie aeaeaie o?ainii?oo, niaoeeo?ea
oi?ioaaiiy ia’?i?a ia?aaacaiue noaeiiieaaieie eiiiai?yie a ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae, iaiao?aei?noue a?aeiia?aeiino? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? ae?yeueiino?
na?oiaei noaiaea?oai oa ?io?.

Ieoaiiyi iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? i?enay/aii ii??aiyii iaaaeeea /enei
i?aoeue, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue eeoa ie?ai? noi?iie oe??? noa?e
ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth. O
ae?yeueiino? noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?e iia?aoeaia oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii
ia?aaacaiue caniiao?oueny ia i?aeoeoe? oa i?ioan?eiiio aeina?ae?, ui
neeaeeny o oao?aoe?a-iaiaaeaea??a aac aeinoaoiueiai aeiiii?/iiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy ??oaiue, ui i?eeiathoueny. A Oe?a?i? a ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei oaeiai ?iaeo ieoaiiy ia ?icaeyaeaeeny.

Iaaeinoaoiy oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaeai?noue ? i?aeoe/ia aeooaeuei?noue
ieoaiue iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? iaoiiaeee iai?yi aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/eee iaoo oa iniiai? caaea/? aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo
ieoaiue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo ia iniia?
aaeineiiaeaiiy iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?e.

I?ae /an ?aae?caoe?? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aecia/ai? ? ae??oai?
ianooii? caaea/?:

aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie
a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae;

i?iaaaeaii aiae?c caaea/ iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? c o?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo ia no/aniiio aoai?;

aea/ai? i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?e, ioe?iaia
?ioi?iaoe?eia ? oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy caaea/ iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy;

i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeo?ao /ano i?aoe?aiee?a aia?aoo iia?aoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ia ae?iaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue;

aeine?aeaeai? /eiieee, ui iaaeathoue aeanoaa?e?coth/iai aieeao ia
ia?aa?ciee i?ioean, ? aeeiai?ea oi?ioaaiiy ia’?i?a ia?aaacaiue
??/eiaei o?ainii?oii;

iaa?oioiaai? e?eoa??? ae??oaiiy caaea/ iia?aoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy, ye
aeaiaioa iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?;

?ic?iaeaia oi?aa?naeueia iiaeaeue aeai?o iia?aoeaieo oi?aaeyth/eo
aieea?a;

i?iaaaeaia ai?iaaoe?y iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue ii iaa?oiooaaiith
iia?aoeaieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ia eiie?aoieo ?aenao ? ioe?iea
aoaeoeaiino? ?o ?aae?caoe??.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaia aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ye?
aeieeathoue a i?ioean? iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai??.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noaeiiieaai? eiiiai?? ? Aeoe?iia?ia
noaeiiieaaia eiiiai?y “Oe???/oeio” («ANE Oe???/oeio»).

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy

Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ?iaioe aenooiathoue
ia’?eoeai? caeiie aeiiii?ee c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee aiaeiiai
o?ainii?oo, ia iniia? yeeo oi?iothoueny ?eieia? a?aeiineie. A
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoaiee nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, iaoiaee
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee
?ioi?iaoe??, iaoiaee iioei?caoe??. O aeine?aeaeaii? ocaaaeueiaiee
aeina?ae ae?yeueiino? eiiiai?? «ANE Oe???/oeio» o caei?aeiiieo
ia?aaacaiiyo a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia

1.Aecia/aia nooi?noue iiiyooy “iia?aoeaia ae?yeuei?noue noaeiiieaaii?
eiiiai??”, yea a?aeia?aaea? iniaeeaino? eiia?oe?eii-i?aaiaiai oa
o?iainiaiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaacaiiyie a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.
2.Iaa?oioiaaia ?icae?eaiiy oaeoi??a a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaith
ea?iaaiino? o?ainii?oiiai i?ioeano, ui aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe ?o aieea ia
aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe oeioo.

3.Cai?iiiiiaaia ? iaa?oioiaaia iiaa noa?a aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
e?eoa???a i?eeiyooy iia?aoeaieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue, ui a?aoiaothoue
noai o?aooiaiai ?eieo o?ainii?oieo iineoa.

4.?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? iniiae iia?aoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy ?iaioe oeioo, ye?
aacothoueny ia aeei?enoaii? oai??? a?ao?a (aeai??oi Aeaeeno?e) ?
a?aoiaothoue nooi?iue caaeiaieaiiy iiieoo ia ia?aaacaiiy aaioaae?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeai? o aeaeyae? aioiaeo aei
?aae?caoe?? iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue, i?eeeaae?a ?o canoinoaaiiy aeey
iaa?oiooaaiiy iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue ii eiie?aoieo ?aenao, oi?aa?naeueiiai
i?ia?aiiiai i?iaeoeoo. ?ic?iaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? oao?aoeyie
noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?e, Aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe?? ii?nueeiai ?
??/eiaiai o?ainii?oo, a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? o/aiaiio i?ioean?
oa caaacia/othoue:

iaoiaee/io iniiao aeey cae?eniaiiy iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai??;

aeieoiaioaeueia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?aaeeueiino? ??oaiiy iaiaaeaea?a;

nei?i/aiiy iai?iaeoeoeaieo aeo?ao /ano i?aoe?aieea aia?aoo iia?aoeaii?
neoaeae;

i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe oeioo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee /anoeiai aeei?enoai? Ee?anueeei
?inoeoooii aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo IAeIA i?e aeeiiaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe «?ic?iaea eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo o?ainii?oii-oaoiieia?/ii?
nenoaie ia?aaacaiue ii noai? ??ea-ii?a» (iiia? aea?ae?aa?no?aoe??
0194UO35497). ?ic?iaee aoee aeei?enoai? oaeiae a o/aiaiio i?ioean? i?e
/eoaii? aeenoeeie?i: «I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y i?aeia?iaeieo
ia?aaacaiue», “I?aai?caoe?y aeeniao/a?nueei? ?iaioe” aeey
niaoe?aeueiino? 7.050.208 «O?ainii?oiee iaiaaeaeiaio».

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iaaiai?ai? ? noaaeai? ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo E?AO IAeIA (1996
? 1997 ?. ?.), aee?aeoe?? «ANE Oe???/oeio» a i. Ee?a? (1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe?? ii oai?

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a i’yoe iaoeiaeo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c aaaaeaiiy, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeth/a? a naaa 157
noi??iie oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 25 oaaeeoeue, 24 iaethiiea, nienie
e?oa?aoo?e c 78 aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a ia 13 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai?
i?aaeiao, ia’?eo ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai? oe?e? ?
caaea/? ?iaioe, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo
ia no/aniiio aoai?, aecia/ai? caaea/? ? cia/aiiy iia?aoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? ia ia?aaacaiiyo c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia /ano. Noi?ioeueiaai?
aeiiae aei ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ? i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?,
canoiniaii aei caaea/ iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?, aeaia ioe?iea ?o
a?aeiia?aeiino? no/aniei oiiaai ae?yeueiino? noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?e.

Aeoiaey/e c aiae?co anoaiiaeaii, ui a ia?niaeoea? ?icaeoie aiaeiiai
o?ainii?oo ia aioo??oi?o ia?aaacaiiyo aoaea iaiaaeaiei. Iniiaiith
caaea/ath aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo ia aioo??oi?o aanaeiiaeo ia?aaacaiiyo ia
iaeaeeae/? ?iee ? nei?i/aiiy aa?oino? ia?aaacaiue ? ?aoe?iiaeueia
ooee?caoe?y canoa??eeo ? iacao?aaoaaieo o?ainii?oieo cania?a.

Iaeaaaeeea?oith oaiaeaioe??th a ?iaio? aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie ?
?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeieo ia?aaacaiue. Ae?yeuei?noue a ?eieiaiio
eiieo?aioiiio na?aaeiaeu? ? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a neeaae? noaeiiieaaieo
eiiiai?e ? o aaioaaeiiioieao oneeaaeiththoue i?ioeane iia?aoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? ia ia?aaacaiiyo, iaoiiaeththoue iaa?aeeeaaeio
iaiao?aei?noue iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy iia?aoeaieo caaea/, ui
ae??oothoueny.

O ?eieiaeo oiiaao ci?no iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ?icoe?eany a ca’yceo
c? no?oeoo?ecaoe??th aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo, iia’ycaiith c iiyaith
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aeaniino?. Noaeiny ?icae?eaiiy eieeoi?o ia?iieaanoa
ia ie?ai? i?aei?e?inoaa c? nai?ie niaoeeo?/ieie aeaeaie ae?yeueiino?.
Oea i?eaaei aei a?eueo /?oeiai aecia/aiiy ooieoe?e i?aei?e?inoaa, a oiio
/ene? c oi/ee ci?o o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy ?ia?o. Iniiaiei
iinoa/aeueieeii eioo?a noaea noaeiiieaaia eiiiai?y, ui iaeeaei nai?
iniaeeaino? ia nooi?noue iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?, oae? ye:
iaiao?aei?noue a aeiaia??i?e ?iaio? c ?ioeie i?ae?icae?eaie aiaeiiai
o?ainii?oo, aeiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo, ae?iaie/eo ? iaoa??aeueieo
aeo?aoao. O ca’yceo c i???ioaoe??th ia ciai?oiueioi?a?aaeuei?
ia?aaacaiiy, o noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?e aeieeea iio?aaa a iia?aoeaiiio
?ica’ycaii? eiia?oe?eieo ? o?iainiaeo ieoaiue.

Ioaea, a no/anieo oiiaao iia?aoeaia oi?aae?iiy a oiio ?icoi?ii?, yea
?nioaaei aei 1992 ?ieo, ?noioii ?icoe?eeiny. Ci?ieeeny oe?e?,
?icoe?eeiny eiei caaea/, ei?aeeiaeueii ci?ieeeny oiiae naii? iia?aoeaii?
?iaioe. O ca’yceo c oeei, a ?eieiaeo oiiaao iiaeia c iiaiith iniiaith
aiai?eoe ia i?i iia?aoeaia oi?aae?iiy, a i?i iia?aoeaio ae?yeuei?noue
i?aei?e?inoa aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo, aeeth/ath/e iia?aoeaio ae?yeuei?noue
noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?e. I?e oeueiio i?ae iia?aoeaiith ae?yeuei?noth ie
?icoi??ii iia?aoeaia ieaioaaiiy, ?aaoethaaiiy ? eiio?ieue, iia?aoeaiee
iae?e ? aiae?c, iia?aoeaia eiia?oe?eii-i?aaiaa ? o?iainiaa oi?aae?iiy
ia?aaacaiiyie (iae. 1).

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii, ui iniaeea?noth ?icaeoeo aiaeiiai
o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie, ui aieeaa? ?noioiee /eiii ia iia?aoeaio
ae?yeuei?noue, ? iiaeeea?noue eiai ?iaioe ye i?e caaeiaieaiiio, oae ?
i?e iacaaeiaieaiiio iiieo?. O nioe?ae?noe/i?e aeiiii?oe? o?ainii?o, ye
i?aaeei, i?aoethaaa a oiiaao iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo, ine?eueee i?aeoe/ii
caaaeaee niinoa??aaany aeao?oeeo oiiiaaeo ia ia?aaacaiiy. I?e oeueiio,
i?ae iiieoii ie ?icoi??ii noeoiio noni?eueio iio?aao a ??cieo
ia?aaacaiiyo, ui neeaaea?oueny c aace?/? eiie?aoieo i?iiiceoe?e ian
niiaeeaa/?a, a?aei?iieo aaeeeith ??ciiiai?oi?noth ? iino?eii
ci?ithth/eony. A oiiaao ?iaioe aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo i?ae iacaaeiaieaiei
iiieoii ?icoi??oueny oaeee noai o?aooiaiai ?eieo, eiee iiieo ia
ia?aaacaiiy ia?aaeuo? i?iiiceoe?th, oiaoi niinoa??aa?oueny aeao?oeeo
oiiiaaeo. I?ae caaeiaieaiei iiieoii ?icoi??oueny cai?ioia neooaoe?y
ia?aaeuaiiy oiiiaaeo iaae iiieoii. Aeoiaey/e c aiae?co iai?yi?a
iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?, oiia ?o iinoaiiaee ? ??oaiiy, aeeth/ath/e
iniaeeaino? caaeiaieaiiai ? iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo, noi?ioeueiaai?
caaea/? iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?, ui noiyoue a oeae /an ia?aae
iia?aoeaiith neoaeaith. Iniiaieie c ieo ? aea?, ye? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oiia ?iaioe, neeaaeathoue iniiao i?eeiyooy ??oaiue:

caaea/a aecia/aiiy iaea?eueo aea?aeiiai aaioaaeiiioieo aeey noaeai, ui
eaeooue i?ae caaaioaaeaiiy a oiiaao iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo ia
ia?aaacaiiy;

caaea/a aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai oeio noaeia aeey eiie?aoiiai
cai?iiiiiaaiiai aei ia?aaacaiiy aaioaaeo a oiiaao caaeiaieaiiai
iiieoo.

Iia?aoeaia ieaioaaiiy

Iia?aoeaia Iia?aoeaia

oi?aae?iiy ?aaoethaaiiy

ia?aaacaiiyie

Iia?aoeaia Iia?aoeaia

ae?yeuei?noue eiia?oe?eii- Iia?aoeaiee

noaeiiieaaii? i?aaiaa eiio?ieue

eiiiai?? oi?aae?iiy

Iia?aoeaia

oeiainiaa Iia?aoeaiee

oi?aae?iiy iae?e

Iia?aoeaiee

aiae?c

Iae.1. Ci?no iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ia no/aniiio aoai?

?icaeyioo? oaeiae ieoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy caaea/, ui
ae??oothoueny a ?aieao ?nioth/eo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? noaeiiieaaii?
eiiiai??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a iieacaei, ui a ieo
ia?aaaaeathoue ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iae?eia? ooieoe?? ? ?a?no?o?oueny
aeaiaioa?ia aeeniao/a?nueea ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui caeia? aaaaoi /ano a ?iaio?
iaiaaeaea?a. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?iciiae?eo aeo?ao /ano i?aoe?aiee?a
aia?aoo iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy (iae. 2) ca ia??iae 1995-1997 ?. ?.
iieacaa, ui iniiaio /anoeio /ano iaiaaeaea? caeiyoee cai?ii ?ioi?iaoe??
? ia?aaiai?aie ii ?? ooi/iaiith (68% ?iai/iai aeiy o noa?oiai
iaiaaeaea?a ? 62% ?iai/iai aeiy o aieiaiiai iaiaaeaea?a) ? ia
caeeoa?oueny /ano aeey ae?iaeaiiy ??oaiue, ui aeicaieythoue caaacia/eoe
o?ainii?oiee i?ioean a iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei?.

Iae.2. Ae?aa?aia aeo?ao /ano a % ia ??ci? iia?aoe?? aieiaiiai
iaiaaeaea?a ca a?oiaie noaeai

1 – neeaaeaiiy oa ooi/iaiiy aeiaiaiai ieaio; 2 – i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oiia
?aeniaeo /a?oa??a; 3 – ia?aaiai?e c aaaioaie ii?o?a; 4 – ia?aaiai?e c
ea??aieoeoaii; 5 – ?ic?iaea iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue; 6 – aeeniao/a?nuee?
ia?aaee; 7 – aaaeaiiy aeieoiaioaoe??; 8 – ia?aaiai?e c noi?aeieie
i?aai?caoe?yie; 9 – ciaeiinoai c iia?aoeaiith ianoaiiaeith; 10 – ?iaioa
c ee??ioo?ith; 11 – ia?aaiai?e c noaeiiaiae?yie; 12 – ia?aaiai?e c?
noa?oeie iaiaaeaea?aie ii a?oiai noaeai.

Aiae?c aeo?ao /ano ia ?ooeii? iia?aoe?? aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
aeei?enoaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a ? no/anii? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee
nei?ioeoue /an aeeniao/a?a ia ca?? ? ia?iaeo ?ioi?iaoe?? o noa?oiai
iaiaaeaea?a i?eaeecii ia 6%, o aieiaiiai iaiaaeaea?a ia 10%, ui
aeanoue iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoeoe ianya /ano ia ?ic?iaeo oa i?eeiyooy
iioeiaeueieo iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeai? oaeoi?e, ui aeanoaa?e?coth/a
aieeaathoue ia i?ioean ia?aaacaiue, ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?o ea?iaaiino? c
aieo iia?aoeaii? neoaeae, oae naii aeine?aeaeaia aeeiai?ea ia’?io
ia?aaacaiue noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai?? ? aeeiiaiee i?iaiic ia?aaacaiue ia
ia?niaeoeao.

Aeanoaa?e?coth/? oaeoi?e a ?iaio? aoee ?icae?eai? ia ea?iaai? ?
iaea?iaai? (iae. 3). Aei a?oie ea?iaaieo a?aeiinyoueny o? oaeoi?e, ia
ye? iaiaaeaea?, ui i?eeia? ??oaiiy, iiaea iaaeaoe aaciina?aaei?e aieea;
aei iaea?iaaieo oaeoi??a a?aeiinyoueny o?, ia ye? iaiaaeaea? a ?aieao
caaea/?, ui ae??oo?oueny, aieeaaoe aaciina?aaeiuei ia iiaea. I?eeiyooy
i?aaeeueiiai ? iaa?oioiaaiiai ??oaiiy aeiaaa? iae?eo an?o oaeoi??a, a
oiio /ene? ? iaea?iaaieo, i?aaethaaiiy ii i??? iiaeeeainoae aieeao ?o ia
aea?aia ??oaiiy.

Aiae?c iiaeeeaino? ?aaoethaaiiy ea?iaaieo oaeoi??a c aieo i?aoe?aiee?a
iia?aoeaii? neoaeae iieacaa, ui a ?yae? aeiaaee?a iaiaaeaea? ia?
iiaeeea?noue iaaiei niiniaii ia?aaeaa/eoe ? eiiiainoaaoe a?aeoeeaiiy
a?ae ieaiiaiai oiaeo o?ainii?oiiai i?ioeano ? aeyaeoe i?eoiaai? ?aca?ae
oeyoii i?eeiyooy iioeiaeueieo iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue.

. Oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia i?ioean ia?aaacaiue

Oaeoi?e, yeeie iaiaaeaea? iiaea ea?oaaoe

Oaeoi?e, ye? ia i?aeaeathoueny ea?oaaiith

aea?? aaioaaeo c a?aeiia?aeieie o?ainii?oieie iniaeeainoyie;

aea?? noaeia c a?aeiia?aeieie oaoi?ei-aenieoaoaoe?eieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie;

ia?o?oo i?yioaaiiy;

no?ie aeinoaaee;

noaaea o?aooo;

nei?i/aiiy iai?iaeoeoeaieo aeae?a i?inoith noaei?a;

nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oaeoi?e.

naciii?noue ?ia?o;

iayai?noue ?io?ano?oeoo?e;

iaiino?ei?noue oiia ?iaioe;

noai o?aooiaiai ?eieo;

ia??aiii??i?noue iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aaioaae?a aeey a?aei?aaee;

a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/i? oiiae;

aeiaaeeia? /eiieee

(iieiiaiiy, aaa???, noeo?ei? eeoa oa ?io?).

Iae.3. Oaeoi?e, ye? iathoue aeanoaa?e?coth/ee aieea ia i?ioean
ia?aaacaiue

Aoaeoeai?noue i?eeiyooy iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue aeeniao/a?nueeei ia?niiaeii
a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae ia’?i?a ?ia?o, ui aeeiiothoueny. Oiio a
aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c noaio ia?aaacaiue noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai??
«ANE Oe???/oeio», yeee iieacaa, ui ia’?i caei?aeiiieo ia?aaacaiue ca
ia??iae 1996 -1999 ?.?. noaa?e?coaaany.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee oiiiaaeo noaeai, ui aenieoaoothoueny ca
ei?aeiiii, iieacaei, ui ia? i?noea ciaioaiiy oiiiaaeo aei 2002 ?ieo,
iacaaaeath/e ia i?eaeaaiiy iiaeo noaeai, ui ieaio?oueny. Oea
iiynith?oueny ia?aaeuaiiyi e?eueeino? noaeai, ui ieaiothoueny ia
nienaiiy iaae e?euee?noth i?eaeaaieo.

A?aeiia?aeii aei i?iaaaeaieo i?iaiicieo ?ic?aooie?a ia’?i ia?aaacaiue
ANE “Oe???/oeio” aoaea c?inoaoe ? aei 2002 ?ieo noaiiaeoeia 5 175 oen.
oiii. Ca?eueoaiiy ia’?i?a ia?aaacaiue aaioaae?a i?e cieaeaii? e?eueeino?
oeioo ? ia?aaeoiiaith aei caaino?aiiy i?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia aiaeiiio o?ainii?o?. I?iaiic ia?aaacaiue
iieacaa, ui a oeae ia??iae iiaeeeai cae?eniaiiy ia?aaacaiue i?e
aoaeue-yeiio noai? o?aooiaiai ?eieo, oiaoi ye i?e oiiaao caaeiaieaiiai,
oae ? iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo.

O aeena?oaoe?? aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? i?e/eie aeyao noai?a o?aooiaiai
?eieo. Iayai?noue iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo iaoiiaeth?oueny a?aenooi?noth
oiiaaeo. I?e ?iaio? ca aeiaiai?aie o 60 – 70 % aeiaaeeao oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ii?ooaiiy oa?i?i?a iiaea/? noae?a /a?ac
cao?eiee ?o a ?aenao ca iiia?aaei?ie eiio?aeoaie. I?e ?iaio? ca
o?aiiiaith oi?iith i?e/eiaie a?aeoeeaiiy cayaie iiaeooue aooe:
a?aenooi?noue noaeai iaiao?aeiiai eeano (20 % cayaie),
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ia?aa?cieo oa?aeoa?enoee aaioaae?a (10 – 12 %
cayaie) aai e?eueeino? aaioaaeo (3 – 5 % cayaie) aeiiaai eiiiai??.
Aea/aiiy iieaco?, ui a iaeaeeae/?e ia?niaeoea? ?c caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo ii ??cieo i?e/eiao iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaia 70%
eioe?iaie i?e oiia? iayaiino? a?eueiiai oiiiaaeo.

O ?iaio? aeieacaii, ui noai o?aooiaiai ?eieo aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/a?
aeae e?eoa??th i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. sse a?aeiii, aea?? ?
iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoa??th ? iaea?eueo neeaaeiith ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiith
caaea/ath a caaaeueiiio i?ioean? i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy (iae. 4), ine?eueee
iai?aaeeueii aea?ai? e?eoa??? iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei iiieeeiaeo
aeniiae?a.

I?e iia?aoeai?e ae?yeueiino?, a oiiaao «oi?ioiai» ?eieo (ia? i?noea
iacaaeiaieaiee iiieo) i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoaoe ye e?eoa??e
iioeiaeueiino? /enoee i?eaooie ca aeiao, yeee ?ic?aoiao?oueny ii
oi?ioe?:

Ae—A

*IAe = –––––––- ––> max,

O?.

aea *IAe – /enoee i?eaooie ca aeiao, a?i/aeia;

Ae – i?eaooee ca ?aen, a?i.

A – aeo?aoe ca ?aen, a?i.

O?. – o?eaae?noue ?aena, aeiae

Ia?aaaaa oeueiai e?eoa??th a oiio, ui a?aoiaothoueny aeo?aoe /ano ia
aeeiiaiiy eiaeiiai ?aena, ui ? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii i?e iayaiino? aaeeei?
e?eueeino? i?iiiceoe?e aei ia?aaacaiiy. Oe?ii?noue oeueiai e?eoa??th
neeaaea?oueny oaeiae a oiio, ui iaie aoa anoaiiaeaiee eiai
aaciina?aaei?e ca’ycie c oaei-/a?oa?iei aea?aaeaioii, ui
aeei?enoiao?oueny a oeae /an aeey ioe?iee ??aiy noaaie a?aee?eoiai
o?aooiaiai ?eieo. I?ae oaei-/a?oa?iei aea?aaeaioii ie ?icoi??ii oaeo
noaaeo i?aiaee ca noaeii a aeaiue aai ca oiiio aeaaeaaeoa a i?nyoeue,
yea aeicaieeea a io?eiaoe noaeiaeanieeo i?i?iaeueiee i?eaooie ca /an
i?aiaee noaeia aeey ia?aaacaiiy aeaiiai aaioaaeo i?e o?aoooaaii? ia
oiiaao oaei-/a?oa?o ca oa?i?i, iaiao?aeiee

1. Aea/aiiy noaio

8. Neeaaeaiiy

oa i?aeienoaaiiy aeiaiai?o ia?aaacaiiy

Iae.4. Noaia i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue

aeey cae?eniaiiy ?aena. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, e?euee?nia ae?aaeaiiy
/enoiai i?eaooeo ca aeiao iiaeia ae?aceoe ye:

min *IAe >= O*A – Oaeia. ,

aea O*A- /enoee i?eaooie ca aeiao, a?i/aeia;

Oaeia. – ?ici?? aeo?ao, ye? iana noaeiiaeaniee ia oo?eiaiiy ae?iaaeo ca
oiiaaie oaei-/a?oa?o, a?i/aeia.

Oaeei /eiii, /enoee i?eaooie, ui io?eio?oueny noaeiii ca aeiao iiaeiai
aooe ia iaioa aaee/eie oaei-/a?oa?iiai aea?aaeaioo ca ae?aooaaiiyi
aeiaiaiai ?ici??o ia oo?eiaiiy ae?iaaeo.

Aea?? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aa??aioo i?iaiaeeoueny oeyoii iiooea
ia?o?ooo aaioaaeiiioie?a, ui iine?aeiaii inaiththoueny, yeee
ii/eia?oueny ? cae?i/o?oueny a o?eniaaieo /aniaeo oi/eao, a?aeiia?aeieo
ia??iaeo iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo, ? yeiio a?aeiia?aea? iaeneiaeueia
cia/aiiy aaee/eie na?aaeiueiai /enoiai i?eaooeo ca aeiao a ii??aiyii? c
?ioeie iiaeeeaeie ia?o?ooaie iine?aeiaieo ?aen?a.

A oiiaao «iiaaiiai» ?eieo (caaeiaieaiee iiieo) i?iiiio?oueny
aeei?enoaoe e?eoa??e ?aioaaaeueiino? ?aena, ui oe?iei canoiniao?oueny.
I?e oeueiio aeae?a?oueny ?aen c iaeneiaeueiith ?aioaaaeuei?noth.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy ii oi?ioaaiith oa
ioe?ioe? ??oaiue ii iia?aoeai?e ae?yeueiino? ia ia?aaacaiiyo
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?eeiyoeo e?eoa???a ? i?iaaaeaia ?o ai?iaaoe?y ia
eiie?aoieo ?aenao.

Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue, ui i?eeiathoueny a
i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy ?iaioith oeioo, ia?oi?yaeia cia/aiiy iathoue oae?
aeiiii?/i? iieacieee ye aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe, nia?aa?o?noue
ia?aaacaiue, i?eaooee. Oiio a ?iaio? ?icaeyiooa iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy
i?eaooe?a ? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaioaaeieo ia?aaacaiue
noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai??. O ca’yceo c oei, ui ??oaiiy iia?aoeaieo caaea/
aeiaiaeeoueny i?eeiaoe ii iaeeie/iiio noaeio a iaeeie/iiio ?aen?, ia?aae
iaiaaeaea?ii noi?oue caaea/a ieaioaaiiy oeeo iieaciee?a a iaeaooiueiio
?aen? c iaoith ioe?iee eiai aoaeoeaiino?.

Aeioiaee a?ae caei?aeiiieo ia?aaacaiue ca ?aen ?ic?aoiaothoueny ii
oi?ioe?:

Ae? = d o G,

aea Ae? – aeioiaee a?ae caei?aeiiieo ia?aaacaiue, a?i;

d – o?aooiaa noaaea ca ia?aaacaiiy oiie aaioaaeo, a?i./o;

G – ianya o?ainii?oii? i?iaeoeoe?? ca aeeiiaiee ?aen, o.

Aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe ca caei?aeiiiee ?aen iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe ii
oi?ioe?:

— aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe ca caei?aeiiiee ?aen

– aeo?aoe ia oo?eiaiiy e-ai noaeia ca aeiao noiyiie, a?i/aeia;

– aeo?aoe ia oo?eiaiiy e-ai noaeia ca aeiao oiaeo, a?i/aeia;

– /an aaioaaeii? ia?iaee e-ai noaeia a i-i ii?oo, aeia;

– /an i/eeoaaiiy aaioaaeii? ia?iaee e-ai noaeia a i-i

ii?oo, aeia;

– /an oiaeo e-ai noaeia ii j-e ae?eueieoe? oeyoo, aeia;

– ii?oia? cai?e a i-i ii?oo, a?i;

– cai?e ia j-e ae?eueieoe? oeyoo, a?i.

O ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaai? aeai?eoie ??oaiiy caaea/ iia?aoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy. Aiane?aeie aiae?co aoa cai?iiiiiaaiee aei aeei?enoaiiy a
oiiaao iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo aeai?eoi Aeaeeno?e ye oaeee, ui
caaeiaieueiy? an?i aeiiaai iia?aoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy: aaaaoiaa??aioiino?
caaea/?, a?aeiinii iecueei? o?oaeii?noeino? ??oaiue, iiaiioe
caaacia/aiiy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae aeaiaioaie o?ainii?oiiai i?ioeano,
oi?iae?caoe??, i?inoioe ia/enethaaeueii? neeaaeiino?. I?e ??oaii?
caaea/? iia?aoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy a oiiaao caaeiaieaiiai iiieoo
i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoaoe iaoiaeeeo aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai inai?iiy
aaioaaeiiioieo ii iaeneiaeuei?e ?aioaaaeueiino? ?aena.

Aeei?enoaiiy a iia?aoeaiiio ieaioaaii? cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaee/ieo
iieiaeaiue aea? ianooii? ia?aaaae ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?nioth/i? a oeae
/an i?aeoeee ??oaiiy oaeiai ?iaeo caaea/:

?ic?aooiee cae?eniththoueny a ?aaeueiiio /an?;

i?aeaeuo?oueny oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieo;

ca?eueiy?oueny /an aeey i?eeiyooy iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue;

aeieoiaioo?oueny ?acoeueoao i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy;

a?aoiao?oueny ?nioth/ee noai o?aooiaiai ?eieo.

Oaeei /eiii, i?eeiyo? ??oaiiy ? a?eueo ye?nieie ? iaa?oioiaaieie, ui
cia/ii i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe oeioo: c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue
ca?eueoaiiy caaaioaaeaiiy noaeai, i?enei?aiiy iai?ioo oeioo,
a?aeiia?aeii c?inoathoue aeioiaee ? i?eaooee, aea?eueith?oueny
aeiaeaoeiaee /an iaiaaeaea??a ia oai?/o iia?aoeaio ae?yeuei?noue.

Ai?iaaoe?y iaoiaeeee iia?aoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy o?ainii?oieie caniaaie ii
eiie?aoieo noaeiao ? a eiie?aoieo ?aeiiao iieacaea iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe
? iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy a noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?yo. Aoee ?icaeyioo?
aeeiiai? ?aene oeioii caei?aeiiiiai ieaaaiiy ANE “Oe???/oeio” ca
ia??iae n?/aiue – ea?oaiue 1998 ?ieo. I?ioyaii n?/iy – aa?aciy ia
i?aeia?iaeiiio o?aooiaiio ?eieo iiieo ia ia?aaacaiiy ia?aaeuoaaa
i?iiiceoe?th, i?ioyaii ea?oiy niinoa??aaeany cai?ioia neooaoe?y:
ia?aaeuaiiy i?iiiceoe?? iaae iiieoii. I?e ?iaio? eiiiai?? a oiiaao
iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo aoa iiaoaeiaaiee a?ao iine?aeiaieo ?aen?a aeey
noaeia «Neaeea?e» i?iaeo 1557 oeio «Ni?iianueeee» (iae. 5) o aeaeyae?
ia?aa??i/iiai ?ic?aooieo ia ?aaeueieo aeaieo ca oeae ia??iae. ?ic?aooiee
iieacaee, ui aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe noaeia iiaea a aooe ia 16% a?eueoa i?e
aeei?enoaii? cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? (aeai?eoio Aeaeeno?e) aeai?o
iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue, ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?aaeueii aeeiiaieo ?aen?a. A
oiiaao caaeiaieaiiai iiieoo, ye i?eeeaae, aoa acyoee aaioaaeiiio?e aeeie
c Caii??aeaey a ?aaaio. Aiane?aeie ?ic?aooie?a aoei aea?aia iioeiaeueia
noaeii ia oe?e e?i?? — i?iaeo 1557 oeio «Ni?iianueeee».
?aioaaaeuei?noue ?aeno i?e aeei?enoaii? oeueiai noaeia noaiiaeoeia 264
%, ui ia 63 % a?eueoa, i?ae ?aaeueii io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?aen?a i?e
aeei?enoaii? noaeia i?iaeoo 92 040 oeio “Aei?i?i”.

Iae.5. Aea?aai iaeei?iooeo oeyo?a uiaei aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo
?iaioe noaeia a oiiaao iacaaeia?eueiaiiai iiieoo

I?eaaaeai? i?eeeaaee ?ic?aooie?a iieacothoue aenieo aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? aeai?o ea?oth/eo aieea?a a
iia?aoeai?e ae?yeueiino? ia ia?aaacaiiyo. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue
aeiaaaeaia aei ??aiy ?aae?caoe?? ia IAII, ui aeicaiey? iaiaaeaea?o i?e
aaaaeaii? ci?iieo ia?aiao??a: ia’?io ia?aaacaiue, aeeneieaoe?? noaeai,
noaaie o?aooo, oa?i?i?a aeinoaaee ? ia?o?oo?a i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii
a?ae?aco io?eiaoe ?acoeueoao ii aoaeoeaiino? ?aen?a, yeee neoaeeoue
iniiaith i?eeiyooy ??oaiue.

Iaoeii?e oi?iae?caoe?? i?ioeano i?eeiyooy ??oaiue aoaea oaeiae ni?eyoe
cai?iiiiiaaiee ? iaa?oioiaaiee a aeena?oaoe?? niin?a ?iaioe ca nenoaiith
ocaiaeaeaieo oiia. A?i neeaaea?oueny a oeeaaeaii? eiio?aeo?a c
iino?eieie a?iea?aie ca cacaeaeaa?aeue ocaiaeaeaieie oiiaaie ia?aaacaiiy
aac o?eniaaii? noaaee o?aooo. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo e?euee?noue ci?iieo
ia?aiao??a a iiaeae? aeai?o oi?aaeyth/eo aieea?a nei?i/o?oueny aei
iaeiiai cia/aiiy – ??aiy o?aooiai? noaaee. Oaea noaia ?iaioe
aeicaieeoue ia o?eueee aeiiiieoe eiooe ia ca’yceo ? ?iai/iio /an?, aea ?
aoaea ni?eyoe aaoi?eoaoo noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai?? ia o?aooiaiio ?eieo.

AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c iieacaa, ui a?o/eciyi? noaeiiieaai? eiiiai??
ia iathoue aeinoaoiueiai iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy caaea/ iia?aoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? ia ia?aaacaiiyo. O ?acoeueoao? iia?aoeai? ??oaiiy
i?eeiathoueny aac aeeaieiai aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy, ui cieaeo?
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy o?ainii?oieo cania?a.

Aiae?c ci?ie oiia ?iaioe aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo a no/anieo ?eieiaeo
a?aeiineiao, ?icoe?aiiy ooieoe?e ? caaea/ iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ci?no oeeo ?ia?o a a?eueoee i???
a?aeiia?aea? iiiyooth “iia?aoeaia ae?yeuei?noue”.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiai aea/aiiy aoa iaa?oioiaaiee ?iciiae?e oaeoi??a,
ui aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe oeioo ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?o
ea?iaaiino? c aieo iia?aoeaii? neoaeae, ui aeaei ciiao noi?ioethaaoe
iniiai? caaea/? iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?:

aecia/aiiy iaea?eueo aea?aeiiai aaioaaeiiioieo aeey noaeai, ui eaeooue
i?ae caaaioaaeaiiy a oiiaao iacaaeiaieaiiai iiieoo ia ia?aaacaiiy;

aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai oeio noaeia aeey eiie?aoiiai, cai?iiiiiaaiiai
aei ia?aaacaiiy aaioaaeo a oiiaao caaeiaieaiiai iiieoo.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?iciiae?eo aeo?ao /ano aieiaiiai ? noa?oeo
iaiaaeaea??a noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai??. A?i iieacaa, ui iniiai? aeo?aoe
/ano i?aoe?aiee?a iia?aoeaiiai aia?aoo i?eoiaeyoueny ia ia?aaiai?e ii
cai?o ? ia?aaea/? aeeniao/a?nueei? ?ioi?iaoe?? (68% ?iai/iai aeiy o
noa?oiai iaiaaeaea?a ? 62% ?iai/iai aeiy o aieiaiiai iaiaaeaea?a) ?
i?aeoe/ii ia caeeoa?oueny /ano ia ae?iaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo oi?aae?inueeeo
??oaiue. Eiii’thoa?iee ?ic?aooiie, cai?iiiiiaaiee a aeena?oaoe??,
caaacia/o? aecia/aiiy iaee?aueo oiia aeei?enoaiiy noaeai, ui
aenieoaoothoueny ? aeicaieeoue nei?ioeoe /an ia ca?? ? ia?iaeo
?ioi?iaoe?? o noa?oiai iaiaaeaea?a i?eaeecii ia 6%, o aieiaiiai
iaiaaeaea?a ia 10%.

O ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaia no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ia noaia i?eeiyooy iia?aoeaieo
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. O caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia ?iaioe, a naia,
iayaiino? iacaaeiaieaiiai aai caaeiaieaiiai iiieoo, iaa?oioiaaia
canoinoaaiiy e?eoa???a iioeiaeueiino? aeey aeai?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiiai
aa??aioo: e?eoa??? /enoiai i?eaooeo ca aeiao oa ?aioaaaeueiino? ?aen?a
a?aeiia?aeii.

Aeey ??oaiiy caaea/ iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeicaieythoue io?eioaaoe noaiaea?oi? a?ao?/i? iaoa??aee
a ?aaeueiiio /an? (a?aoe iine?aeiaieo ?aen?a), oi?ioaaoe iaa?oioiaai?
iia?aoeai? ??oaiiy ? aeieoiaiooaaoe ?o ?acoeueoaoe.

Ai?iaaoe?y iaoiaeeee iia?aoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy o?ainii?oieie caniaaie ii
eiie?aoieo noaeiao ? a eiie?aoieo ?aeiiao iieacaea, ui aoaeoeai?noue
?iaioe noaeia iiaea a aooe ia 16% a?eueoa i?e aeei?enoaii?
cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? (aeai?eoio Aeaeeno?e) aeai?o iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue,
ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?aaeueii aeeiiaieo ?aen?a a oiiaao iacaaeiaieaiiai
iiieoo ? ia 63 % a?eueoa, i?ae ?aaeueii io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?aen?a a
oiiaao caaeiaieaiiai iiieoo. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iiaeeea?noue
canoinoaaiiy iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue a noaeiiieaaieo eiiiai?yo.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaiee oa ?aae?ciaaiee niin?a ?iaioe ca nenoaiith
ocaiaeaeaieo oiia, ui aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe /an i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, aeo?aoe
ia oi?aae?iiy, i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue i?aai?caoe?? iia?aoeaii? eiia?oe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O

1. Eo/a?oe A. TH., Cac??ia I.I. I?iaeaie ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia
aiaeiiio o?ainii?o? Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?io?ano?oeoo?e. E.; EIOOeA. – 1997. – N.331–334.

Iniaenoee aianie iiooea/a – aecia/aiiy i?iaeai ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a
ia aiaeiiio o?ainii?o? Oe?a?ie.

2. Cac??ia I.I., Eo/a?oe A.TH. No/aniee noai oo?enoe/ieo ia?aaacaiue ia
aiaeiiio o?ainii?o? Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?io?ano?oeoo?e. E.; EIOOeA. – 1997. – N.335–337.

Iniaenoee aianie iiooea/a – i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co no/aniiai noaio
oo?enoe/ieo ia?aaacaiue.

3.Eo/a?oe A.TH. A?cia/aiiy iio?aae o aaioaaeiiio oeio? aeey
caaania/aiiy aiaeieo ia?aaacaiue Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? o?ainii?oii? aaeoc?. E.; E?AO. – 1998. – N.85-88.

4. Eo/a?oe A.TH., Neaaoaiei O.A., Aiiy? N.A. Oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo
na?oiaiai aaioaaeiiai oeioo // I?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
o?ainii?oii? aaeoc?. E.; E?AO. – 1998. – N.89-92.

Iniaenoee aianie iiooea/a – aeyaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e a ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai
aaioaaeiiai oeioo.

5. Eo/a?oe A.TH., Cac??ia I.I. Iioei?caoe?y iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy
?iaioe aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo // I?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?io?ano?oeoo?e. E.; EIOOeA. – 1998. – N.231–234.

Iniaenoee aianie iiooea/a – eeaneo?eaoe?y caaea/ iia?aoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy a?aeiia?aeii aei noaio o?aooiaiai ?eieo.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eo/a?oe A.TH. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai??. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ii niaoe?aeueiino? 08.07.04 – Aeiiii?ea o?ainii?oo oa ca’yceo. –
Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??, Ee?a, 1999.

?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith ieoaiue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? noaeiiieaaii? eiiiai??. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaee/ia
aaca i?aeaioiaee ? ioe?iee iia?aoeaieo ??oaiue a oiiaao aieeao ia
ia?aa?ci? i?ioeane aeanoaa?e?coth/eo oaeoi??a. Cai?iiiiiaaia
oi?aa?naeueia iiaeaeue aeai?o iioeiaeueieo iia?aoeaieo ea?oth/eo
aieea?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?, iia?aoeaia ae?yeuei?noue,
noaeiiieaaia eiiiai?y, o?aooiaee ?eiie, i?eaooie.

A I I I O A Oe E ss

Eo/a?oe A.TH. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe iia?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
noaeioiaeiie eiiiaiee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.04 — Yeiiiieea o?ainii?oa e nayce. — Eeaaneee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oieaa?neoao a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee, Eeaa, 1999

?aaioa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aii?inia iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
iia?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe noaeioiaeiie eiiiaiee. ?anniio?aiu
iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey aiaeiiai o?ainii?oa ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia,
ii?aaeaeaiu caaea/e e cia/aiea iia?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia ia?aaiceao
n o/aoii o?aaiaaiee a?aiaie. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca eciaiaiey oneiaee ?aaiou
aiaeiiai o?ainii?oa a nia?aiaiiuo ?uii/iuo ioiioaieyo aeaeaaony auaiae,
/oi niaea?aeaiea ooieoeee e caaea/ iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey a aieueoae
ia?a niioaaonoaoao iiiyoeth “iia?aoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue”. I?e yoii iiae
iia?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth iu iiieiaai iia?aoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea,
?aaoee?iaaiea e eiio?ieue, iia?aoeaiue o/ao e aiaeec, iia?aoeaiia
eiiia?/anei-i?aaiaia e oeiainiaia oi?aaeaiea ia?aaiceaie

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiiai eco/aiey auei iainiiaaii ?acaeaeaiea
oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou oeioa ii ioiioaieth e eo
oi?aaeyaiinoe ni noi?iiu iia?aoeaiie neoaeau, /oi iicaieeei
noi?ioee?iaaoue iniiaiua caaea/e iia?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A aeenna?oaoeee iainiiaaii, /oi iniaaiiinoueth ?acaeoey aiaeiiai
o?ainii?oa Oe?aeiu, ieacuaathuae nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia iia?aoeaioth
aeayoaeueiinoue, yaeyaony aai ?aaioa eae i?e oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiii, oae e
i?e iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiii ni?ina. A nayce n yoei ii?aaeaeaiu
niioaaonoaothuea e?eoa?ee i?e ia?aaiceao.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec ?ani?aaeaeaiey cao?ao a?aiaie ?aaioieeia aiia?aoa
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey. I?aaeeiaeai eiiiuethoa?iue ?an/ao,
iaania/eaathuee iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey yenieoaoe?oaiuo
noaeia e nie?auaiea a?aiaie ia nai? e ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee.

A ?aaioa ?ac?aaioaia no?oeoo?ii-oaoiieiae/aneay noaia i?aaei?eyoey
iia?aoeaiuo oi?aaeythueo ?aoaiee a oneiaeyo aicaeaenoaey ia ia?aaici/iua
i?ioeannu aeanoaaeeecothueo oaeoi?ia. A caaeneiinoe io oneiaee ?aaiou, a
eiaiii, iaee/ey iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiiai e oaeiaeaoai?aiiiai ni?ina,
iainiiaaii i?eiaiaiea e?eoa?eaa iioeiaeueiinoe aeey auai?a iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiiai aa?eaioa: e?eoa?ee /enoiai aeioiaea a nooee e
?aioaaaeueiinoe ?aenia niioaaonoaaiii. Aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ iia?aoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua iicaieytho
a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie iieo/aoue noaiaea?oiua a?aoe/aneea iaoa?eaeu (a?aou
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo ?aenia), oi?ie?iaaoue iainiiaaiiua iia?aoeaiua
?aoaiey e aeieoiaioe?iaaoue eo ?acoeueoaou.

A aeenna?oaoeee iainiiaai e ?aaeeciaai niinia ?aaiou ii nenoaia
niaeaniaaiiuo oneiaee, /oi iicaieyao nie?aoeoue a?aiy i?eiyoey
iia?aoeaiuo ?aoaiee, cao?aou ia oi?aaeaiea, iiauneoue o?iaaiue
i?aaiecaoeee iia?aoeaiie eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe, iia?aoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue,
noaeioiaeiay eiiiaiey, o?aooiaue ?uiie, i?eaueue.

ANNOTATION

Kucheruk G.Yu. Increase of effectiveness of fleet operational activity
at a shipping company. – Manuscript.

A thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 08.07.04 – “Economics of
transport and communication”– The Kyiv International University of Civil
Aviation, Kyiv, 1999.

The study is directed to investigation of issues velatiug to the
increase in effectiveness of shipping company fleet unilisation on the
basis of improvement of operational activity. The methodical grounds of
elaboration and evalutation of operational decisions under the condition
of destabilizing factors effecting transportation processes have been
worked out. The universal model of options for optimal operational
regulating effects has been proposed.

Key words: increas of effectiveness, operational activity, shipping
company, freight market, profit.

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