IIIINOA?NOAI INAIOE OE?A?IE

IAOeIIIAEUeIEE OAOII*IEE OIIAA?NEOAO

«EE?ANUeEEE IIEIOAOII*IEE IINOEOOO»

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

??AIAIEI Aiaoieie Iaaeiae/

OAeE 621.746.552.62:669.131.7

I?AeAEUAIIss AOAEOEAIINO? A?AOIOECOTH*IAI

IIAeEOIEOAAIIss AENIEII?OeIIAI *AAOIO

Niaoeiaeueiinoue 05.16.04 — «Eeaa?ia ae?iaieoeoai»

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoii/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oiceei-oaoiieia?/iiio ?inoeooo? iaoae?a

oa nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee Eaa/aiei TH??e Ieeieaeiae/,
O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a oa nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie,
noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Ei/aao?a Iaoaeiy Ieoaeeiaia, O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a
oa nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee Oeinueeee Ieaa Eineiiae/, O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo
iaoae?a oa nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie, cai. aee?aeoi?a

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Einy/eia Ay/aneaa
Ieaenaiae?iae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao “Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, aeioeaio

I?iaiaeia i?aei?e?inoai — ?inoeooo /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? IAI Oe?a?ie
A?aeae?e eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae, i. Aei?i?iiaoianuee

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny «21» aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia
caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.002.12 o Iaoeiiiaeueiiio
oaoii/iiio oiiaa?neoaoi Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iieioaoii/iee iinoeooo» ca
aae?anith: 252056, i.Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 37, ei?ion 9, aoae. 293.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aiaeiioaoei Iaoeiiiaeueiiai
oaoii/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iieioaoii/iee iinoeooo»

Aaoi?aoa?ao iaaeineaii «17» na?iiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoii/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A.?. Oaaei?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue ?iaioe oa nooiiiue ?? aea/aiiy.

Iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi i?iieneiainoi Oe?a?ie o oaia?ioiie /an ?
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa o aenieiyeiniie,
eiieo?aioiicaeaoiie i?iaeoeoeii, ui iaiiaeeeai aac aeeaiei?
oaoii/ii? ?aeiino?oeoei?, iiaoaeiaaiie ia iniiai iaeaieueo no/anieo
aeinyaiaiue iaoee i oaoiiee. Ia ia?oee ieai aenoaathoueny caaaeaiiy ii
noai?aiith ?ano?nicaa?iaath/eo iaoa?iaeia i oaoiieiaie, iiaeaeuaiiy
yeinoi iaoeiiaoaeiaii? i?iaeoeoei?.

Aoaeoeaiei i aeiiiii/iei caniaii iiaeaeuaiiy yeinoi aeeeaeia ?
iicaii/ia ia?iaea, iaeiei ic aeaeia yei? ? iiaeeoieoaaiiy. I?e
ae?iaieoeoai aeeeaeia ic /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii canoiniaothoue
aeiaoey?ecoth/a iiaeeoieoaaiiy. *aaoi, yeee i?e oeueiio iaea?aeothoue,
aiae?iciyaoueny ni?eyoeeaei ii?aeiaiiyi aenieeo iieacieeia iioeiinoi i
neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae. Iaeiae, ia?iaii c ia?aaaaaie. oeueiio, nieaao
i?eoaiaiii i iaaeieiee, iaeiei c yeeo ? noeeueiinoue aei
e?enoaeicaoei? c aiaeaieii, iniaeeai a oiieeo /anoeiao aeeeaeia.
Iayaiinoue oeaiaioeoo a no?oeoo?i aeeeaeia iiaeaeuo? oaa?aeinoue,
iiai?oo? ia?iaethaaiinoue, cieaeo? ieanoe/ii aeanoeainoi. Aeey onoiaiiy
aiaeaieo ia i?aeoeoei iaea?aeaii aeeeaee aiaeiaeththoue, aea oea
cia/ii iiaeaeuo? o?oaeiiinoeinoue, aeo?aoe ia ?o aeaioiaeaiiy, a i?e
oaia?ioiio ianoaaeiao ia caaaeaee iiaeeeai /a?ac aeaoioeeo
aeaeo?iaia?ai? oa aia?aiiini?a. Ia?iaea /aaoio eiiieaenieie
iiaeeoieaoi?aie ia caaaeaee caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy iio?iaii?
no?oeoo?e, iniaeeai a oiieeo /anoeiao aeeeaeia.

Aiaeiii, ui aeanoeainoyie aeeeaeia iiaeia ea?oaaoe oeyoii ciiie
oaieioice/ieo oiia aeieaaee i e?enoaeicaoei? iaoaeo, noai?thth/e
iaiaoiaeii oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy iaiaoiaeii? no?oeoo?e. Iaeiae, oeae
iaoiae aeineoue neeaaeiee i ia caaaeaee iiaeeeaee o i?aeoe/iiio
aeeiiaiii a oiiaao na?ieiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeineoue aoaeoeaiei i i?inoei
caniaii i?e ae?iaieoeoai aeeeaeia ic /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii ?
a?aoioecoth/a iiaeeoieoaaiiy. Caaea/a iiaeaeuaiiy yeinoi iaoaeo,
iaea?aeaiiy aeeeaeia c iaiaoiaeiith no?oeoo?ith a eeoiio noaii
iaa?oioiao? iaiaoiaeiinoue iiaeaeueoeo aeineiaeaeaiue i ?ic?iaee
aoaeoeaieo a?aoioecoth/eo iiaeeoieaoi?ia aeey /aaoio c eoeynoei
a?aoioii.

Oeieue ?iaioe. Iniiaia iaoa ?iaioe:

-aeineiaeaeaiiy caeiiiii?iinoae eiiaoeee a?aoioecaoei? /aaoio c
eoeynoei a?aoioii i?e ioieiaeaeaiii a ?iaeeiio, oaa?aei-?iaeeiio i
oaa?aeiio noaii i?e aaaaeaii o neeaae iiaeeoieaoi?a ?icieo aeoeaieo
aeaiaioia -a?aoioecaoi?ia:

— ia iniiai aeineiaeaeaiue ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieiai/iee i?ioean i
neeaae a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aeeeaeia c /aaoio
c eoeynoei a?aoioii aeey aeaooiaacia/ieo aeaeo?iaeaeaoiia aeey
ai?ie/ioaooiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, yeee caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy aeeeaeia aac
aiaeaieo c iaiaoiaeieie iaoaii/ieie aeanoeainoyie.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa aeinyaa?oueny ae?ioaiiyi ne?aeoth/eo caaea/:

— aecia/aiiy aieeao neeaaeo a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a ia
no?oeoo?o i aeanoeainoi /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii;

-anoaiiaeaiiy aca?iica’yceia iiae no?oeoo?ii/ooeeaeie aeanoeainoyie i
noaiii aoaeaoeth a /aaoii c eoeynoei a?aoioii;

— iioeiicaoeiy neeaaeo a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a aeey /aaoio c
eoeynoei a?aoioii.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia.

Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoeiao iiaecio,
iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio:

— anoaiiaeaia caeaaeiinoue aiae aieeao a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a ia
eiiaoeeo a?aoioecaoe?? /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii a ?iaeeiio,
oaa?aei-?iaeeiio i oaa?aeiio noaii;

-aeyaeaii aieea neeaaeo a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a ia eiiaoeeo
?iciaaeo ea?aiaeia a /aaoii c eoeynoei a?aoioii;

-anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy o neeaae caeici-e?aiii?aiai nieaao
aeoeaieo aeaiaioia-a?aoioecaoi?ia ciiith? oaeaeeinoue ?ic/eiaiiy
oa?inieaao;

— aeyaeaia cia/ia ?icieoey, o neeaaei oa?inieioeiy ia?ee ON75,
aeieaaeaiiai ia ?icieo oa?inieaaieo caaiaeao;

— anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiiioeiai aeaiaioe o neeaaei oa?inieioeiy ia?ee
ON75 cia/ii aieeaathoue ia nooiiiue a?aoioecaoei? /aaoio c eoeynoei
a?aoioii;

— aecia/aii iioeiaeueiee neeaae a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a aeey
/aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii ia iniiai caeici-e?aiii?aiai nieaao oa
?aoeiiiaeueii oiiae a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy /aaoio c eoeynoei
a?aoioii, yeee caaacia/o? iaiaoiaeii aeanoeainoi a oiieinoiiieo
aeeeaeao aeey aeaooiaacia/ieo aeaeo?iaeaeaoiia, aac aenieioaiia?aoo?ii?
noaaei? oa?ii/ii? ia?iaee.

Aaoi? aeiineoue ia caoeno:

— ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaiue aieeao a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy ia
eiiaoeeo a?aoioecaoei? /aaoio a ?iaeeiio, oaa?aei-?iaeeiio i oaa?aeiio
noaii;

— ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo aeineiaeaeaiue neeaaeo i?iieneiaiai
oa?inieioeiy ia?ee ON75 i aieea niaaeeiaeo aeanoeainoae ia aoaeoeaiinoue
a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii;

— ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy ia
eiiaoeeo ?iciaaeaiiy ea?aiaeia a /aaoii c eoeynoei a?aoioii i?e
icioa?ii/iie aeo?eioei;

— ?ic?iaeaiee neeaae a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a i
oaoiieiai/iee i?ioean iaea?aeaiiy oiieinoiiieo aeeeaeia aac aiaeaieo
c aenieeie ieanoe/ieie aeanoeainoyie ic /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii aac
aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? noaaei? oa?ii/ii? ia?iaee.

I?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue i ?aaeicaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia ?iaioe.

?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii a ae?iaieoeoai a /aaoiieeaa?iiio oeaoo
Iiaieaoianueeiai aeaeo?iiaoeiiaoaeiaiiio caaiae? II «Iiaaeaiaeaeo?iiao»
neeaae a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a i oaoiieiai/iee i?ioean
a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy aeey /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii, ye?
caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy aeeeaeia aac aiaeaieo, aeniei iaoaii/ii
aeanoeainoi a eeoiio noaii, oi?ioo ia?iaethaaiinoue aeeeaeia,
iaeii?iaeii iieacieee oaa?aeinoi a ?iciioiaueiieo ?ic?icao aeeeaeia.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? oaoiieia?? aeicaieeei aeeeth/eoe
aenieioaiia?aoo?io noaaeith oa?ii/ii? ia?iaee aeeeaeia i a oeieiio
nei?ioeoe o?eaaeinoue oa?ii/ii? ia?iaee aeeeaeia ia 40%.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe i ioaeieaoei?. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy i ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe aeiiiaiaeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo::»Iaea?aeaiiy iiaeo iiaeeoieaoi?ia,
eaaoth/eo, ooaiieaaeeo, aa?aceaieo oa iioeo niaoeiaeueieo iaoa?iaeia oa
?o aeei?enoaiiy a i?iieneiainoi“ /*aeyaiinuee,1983/, “Oeyoe iiaeaeuaiiy
oi/iinoi eeoeo aeaoaeae oa aeiiiiiy iaoaeia a eeaa?iiio ae?iaieoeoai
“./Iaica,1983/, “Iiai aenieii?iaeoeoeaii oaoiieiai/ii i?ioeane, iaoeie,
iaeaaeiaiiy a eeaa?iiio ae?iaieoeoai“ /Iaeana,1983 ? 1995/, “ Oeyoe
?ioaineoieaoei? oaoiieiai/iiai ia?aica?i?iiy eeaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa i
cieaeaiiy iaoaei?ieinoi” /Oaoeaio,1984/, “Aeei?enoaiiy AII aeey ?ic?iaee
oaoiieiai/ieo i?ioeania eeooy “/ss?ineaaeue,1987/, “ Iaiaoaeaai
aeeth/aiiy i aace a eeaa?ieo nieaaao” /Caii?iaeaey,1988 ? 1996/.

Ioaeieaoei?. Ca iaoa?iaeaie aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii 14
ae?oeiaaieo ?iaio, io?eiaii aaoi?nueea iina?ae/aiiy ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ic
anooio, i’yoe ?icaeieia, nieneo eioa?aoo?e ?c 156 iaca oa 3
aeiaeaoe?a. Aeeeaaeaia ia 186 noi?iieao, iinoeoue 42 ?enoiea, 33
oaaeeoe?.

CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooii iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeueiinoue aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe,
coi?ioeueiaaii ?? oeieue oa caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiue, iaaaaeaii iniiaii
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

A ia?oiio ?icaeiei c?iaeaii iaeyae aio/eciyii? oa ca?oaiaeii?
eioa?aoo?e ii oaii aeena?oaoei?. ?icaeyiooi ia?niaeoeae aeei?enoaiiy
iicaii/ii? ia?iaee i, cie?aia, iiaeeoieoaaiiy aeey iie?auaiiy yeinoi
aeeeaeia a eeoiio noaii i cieaeaiiy ?o niaiaa?oinoi. I?iaiaeiciaaii
iniiaii oai?aoe/ii iieiaeaiiy a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy /aaoio.
Iieacaii, ui aei oeueiai /ano iaia? ?aeeieo iiaeyaeia ia i?ioeane,
ui i?ioieathoue i?e iiaeeoieoaaiii. Aiaeii/a?oueny aaaeeeaa ?ieue
iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue — noeueoiaeia, ea?aiiio?iaeia, neeieaoia i
cia/iee aieea aeoeaieo aeaiaioia o neeaaei oa?inieaaia ia
e?enoaeicaoeith /aaoio, ui iia’ycaii c ?iceei iiaeaeuaiiyi aeoeaiinoi
aoaeaoeth a eieaeueieo ciiao ?icieaao, aea iaeii/anii i?ioiaeeoue
ooai?aiiy aeenia?nieo iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue a ?acoeueoaoi aca?iiaei?
oiii/ii aeoeaieo aeaiaioia c aoaeaoeai, eeniai, acioii, ni?eith.
I?ioieath/i i?ioeane iiaeooue i?enei?eoe aeeiaiieo aeoeaaoei? ?inoo
oeaio?ia e?enoaeicaoei?.

Iiaeaeueoe aoaeoeaiinoue iiaeeoieoaaiiy iiaeia ca ?aooiie
oaeineiiaeaiiy caniaia aaiaeo ? iiaeai?o neeaaeo a?aoioecoth/eo
iiaeeoieaoi?ia. Iaoaiici aieeao aeaiaioia, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo
iiaeeoieaoi?ia, aiae?iciy?oueny, oiio eiiieaeniee iiaeeoieaoi? aoaea
aieueo aoaeoeaiee, iiae iiaeeoieaoi? ia aaci iaeiiai aeaiaioa. Aeeiiaiee
aiaeic ii neeaaeo ?iciiiaiioieo iiaeeoieaoi?ia iieacaa, ui iaiiaeeeai
caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaia iiaeeoieoaaiiy aac aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo aeaiaioia
ye eaeueoeie, aa?ie, no?iioeie, aethiiiie, oeoai, a?aoio.

Aiaeii/a?oueny, ui iiyaa aaeeei? eieueeinoi iaei iaa?oioiaaieo i /anoi
noia?a/ieo aiiioac aeey iiyniaiiy oaeeo aaaeeeaeo oaoiieiai/ieo
i?ioeania ye iiaeeoieoaaiiy oa a?aoioiooai?aiiy iia’ycaii c
aiaenooiinoth iaaeieii? aenia?eiaioaeueii? iioi?iaoei? i?i aeanoeaino?
?icieaaia caeica, ui i?eaaei aei iaaeiioeiiee ?iei ?icieaaeaiiai
noaio a i?ioeanao oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e aeeeaeia. Aeey aecia/aiiy noaio
?icieaaeaiiai /aaoio iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaeia c 50
no?oeoo?ii-/ooeeaeo aeanoeainoae, oa iaeaieueo iioi?iaoeaiith ?
aonoeia, oae ye oey oa?aeoa?enoeea aieueo oinii iia’ycaia ?c
no?oeoo?ith ?icieaao.

A ?acoeueoaoi aiaeico eioa?aoo?ieo aeaieo c?iaeaii aeniiaee i?i
aeioeieueiinoue aeiaeaoeiaiai aea/aiiy i?ioeania, yei aiaeaoaathoueny
i?e a?aoioecoth/ie ia?iaoei /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii a ?iaeeiio,
oaa?aei-?iaeeiio noaii, c aeei?enoaiiyi aeey oeueiai
no?oeoo?ii-/ooeeaeo aeanoeainoae ?icieaao, a oaeiae oaeineiiaeaiiy
oaoiieiai/iiai i?ioeano a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy i iioeiicaoei?
neeaaeo a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a.

A ae?oaiio ?icaeiei iienaii aeei?enoaii iaoa?iaee i ia’?eoe
aeineiaeaeaiue.

sse iaoa?iae aeey aeineiaeaeaiiy aea?aii /aaoi c eoeynoei a?aoioii,
io?eiaiee ia?iaeith iieaeue-iaaii?aith eiaaoo?ith i eiiieaeniei
iiaeeoieaoi?ii AEEIE5?, a oaeiae a?aoioecoth/ee iiaeeoieaoi? ON75 oa
caeici-e?aiii?aee nieaa ia eiai iniiai c aeiiioeaie eaeueoeith, aa?ith,
aethiiiith, oeoaio.

I?e aeineiaeaeaiii aieeao neeaaeo a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy ia
e?enoaeicaoeith /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii aeei?enoaia iaoiaeeea
aecia/aiiy oaeeo no?oeoo?ii-/ooeeaeo aeanoeainoae ye aonoeia oa
iiaa?oiaaee iaoya a iioa?aaei oaiia?aoo? 293-1923 E. Aeii?thaaiiy
aonoeie /aaoio i?iaiaeeeenue a ?iaeeiio, oaa?aei-?iaeeiio i oaa?aeiio
noaii ?aaeiiicioiiiei iaoiaeii a aoiinoa?i iaeo?aeueiiai aaco.

Iioeaea iaoiaeo aecia/aiiy aonoeie aeey oaa?aeiai oa ?iaeeiai noaio
noaiiaeoue ia aieueoa 0,1%, aeey oaa?aei-?iaeeiai — 0,5%.

Aeey aeii?thaaiiy oaeaeeinoi ?iciaaeo oeaiaioeoo a aiaeaieaieo /aaoiao
c eoeynoei a?aoioii aoa aeei?enoaiee aeeoa?aioeieiee iioe/iee
aeeeaoiiao? c eiaoioei?ioii caieueoaiiy 5000-6000. Aeii?e
caeienithaaeenue i?e icioa?ii/iie aeo?eioei i?e oaiia?aoo?i 1193 E, aeey
iiia?aaeaeaiiy ciaaoaeaoethaaiiy c?acee o?iioaaee. Iioeaea aeii?ia ia
ia?aaeuoaaea 1,5%.

Aeii?e iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao i?iaiaeeeenue iaoiaeii eaaea/i? e?aiei
ia iiaeeiaeoei c niaeo?aeueii /enoiai a?aoeoo a na?aaeiaeui iia?oiiai
aaco i?e oaiia?aoo?i 1473 E ia niaoeiaeueiiio iaeaaeiaiii.
Iie?i?aioaaiianueeee yeiniee i eieueeiniee aiaeice i?iaiaeeeenue ia
iie?iaiaeicaoi?i «Cameka». Iioeiicaoeith neeaaeo a?aoioecoth/iai
iiaeeoieaoi?a aeey /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoiaeia iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo, cie?aia, iaoiaeo
e?ooiai coiaeaeaiiy. Aeey aecia/aiiy iaeanoi iioeioio aeiaoaeiaoaaee
ieai ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo, iioeiicaoeiy i?iaiaeeeanue ii aeeaeii
aiaeaieo a eeeiiaie i?iai. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea aeaieo aeoeaiiai i
ianeaiiai aeineiaeo i?iaiaeeeanue c caeo/aiiyi aiaeiieo noaoenoe/ieo
iaoiaeia, ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeeenue ia AII. Ioeiiea iae?i- i
iie?ino?oeoo?e i?iaiaeeeanue ca aeiiiiiaith iioe/iiai iie?ineiio
IEI-8, iiae?aooiie aiaeiinii? aeiei a?aoioo oa ?iciiaeie aeeth/aiue
a?aoioo caeienithaaeenue ia eieueeiniiio oaeaaicieiiio iie?ineiii
«Eaaioeiao 720».

Iaoaii/ii aeanoeainoi /aaoio a oaoiieiai/iie i?iai aecia/aee caiaeii
AINO 1497-84 i AINO 9454-78 ia c?aceao a eeoiio noaii i iiney
oa?ii/ii? ia?iaee. Aecia/aiiy iaaei oei/aniaiai iii?o ia ?ic?ea, iaaei
oaeo/inoi, aiaeiiniiai iiaeiaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia aei?iaoaaeueiie
iaoeii ?5. Oaea?io a’yceinoue aecia/aee ia eii?i IE-30. aeii?e
oaa?aeinoi i?iaiaeeeenue ia OO-7?.

Aecia/aiiy oiii/iiai neeaaeo aeineiaeaeoaaieo /aaoiia i
oa?inieaaia i?iaiaeeeenue niaeo?aeueii-eieueeiniei iaoiaeii ca
aeiiiiiaith oioiiao?e/ii? nenoaie ION-8, ea?iaaii? AII. oa ii
noaiaea?oiei iaoiaeeeai eeane/ii? «iie?i?» oiii?. Iioeaee aeii?ia i?e
i?iaaaeaiii iaoaii/ieo aei?iaoaaiue, oiii/iiai aiaeico caaeiaieueiyee
aeiiaai aiaeiiaiaeieo noaiaea?oia.

O?aoie ?icaeie i?enay/aiee aea/aiith aieeao a?aoioecoth/eo
iiaeeoieaoi?ia ia e?enoaeicaoeith /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii.
A?aoiaoth/e, ui iaeaieueo aeoeaieie o neeaaei a?aoioecoth/iai
iiaeeoieaoi?a ? eaeueoeie, aa?ie, aethiiiie, oeoai, aeineiaeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeee ia iiaeeoieaoi?ao, ui aiiuoaaee iaeei c aeacaieo aeaiaioia,
aeieaaeaieo ia iniiai caeici-e?aiii?aiai nieaao. Aeey aeeeth/aiiy
aieeao iioeo oaeoi?ia aeey aeaioiaeaiiy iiaeeoieaoi?ia
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oiii/ii /enoi iaoa?iaee.

A?aoioecoth/a iiaeeoieoaaiiy aaaaoi a /iio aecia/a? eiioeaao
no?oeoo?o ia?iaethaaieo nieaaia, aiaeii/an ci oaeaeeinoth
ioieiaeaeaiiy oa oiii/iei neeaaeii. ?iaeeee /aaoi i?e oaiia?aoo?i
eeaa?ieo i?ioeania yaey? niaith neeaaeio eiei?aeii-aeenia?nio c
aaeeeeie iiaa?oiyie ?icaeieo, iie?iiaiaeii?iaeio, oa?iiaeeiaii/ii
ianoieeo nenoaio, a yeie i?enooii iaiaoaeaa? aeeth/aiiy, ea?aiaee,
a?aoio, aacia? aoeueaaoee, ae?ieneae e?aii?th . ?iaeeee noai a cia/iie
ii?i aecia/a? noeeueiinoue aei e?enoaeicaoei? /aaoio ii oie /e iioie
noaii— noaaieueiie /e iaoanoaaieueiie. I/aaeaeii, ui iiaeeoieoaaiiy
ciiith? oaeee noai, oei naiei aieeaath/e ia e?enoaeicaoeith /aaoio.
Aeineiaeaeaiiy aieeao iiaeeoieoaaiiy ia i?ioean a?aoioiooai?aiiy a
?iaeeiio i oaa?aei-?iaeeiio noaii iaoiaeieiai/ii ? neeaaeiith
i?iaeaiith. Aeineiaeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii-/ooeeaeo aeanoeainoae, cie?aia,
aonoeie /aaoio, aeicaiey? aeineoue iiaii ioeiieoe i?ioeane, ui
i?ioieathoue i?e ia?iaoei nieaaia iiaeeoieaoi?aie a ?iaeeiio ?
oaaaei-??aeeiio noaii.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy aieeao iiaeeoieoaaiiy ia i?ioean a?aoioecaoei? /aaoio
aoee i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioe ii aea/aiith ciii aonoeie iaai??aiai
/aaoio aac a?aoioecoth/i? ia?iaee i iiney a?aoioecoth/i? ia?iaee
aea?aieie nieaaaie. Aonoeia iaoae?a oa nieaa?a caeaaeeoue a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e — c i?aeaeuaiiyi cieaeo?oueny ? iaaiaee. Oae? yaeua
iia’ycai? ?c ci?iith i?aeaoiiii? a?aenoai?. Ia ?en. 1 iaaaaeai?
iie?oa?ie aonoeie a?eiai oa iaai??aiai /aaoi?a, ia ?en. 2- i?ney
a?ao?oecoth/i? ia?iaee. Aonoeia ?icieaaia aiae oaiia?aoo?e eieaiaeon aei
oaiia?aoo?e ia?aa?iao, ye i?e iaa?iaaiii oae i i?e ioieiaeaeaiii,
ciiith?oueny ii eiiieiiio caeiio:

G = L b t G — t L
(1)

aea G- aonoeia ia?aa?ioiai ?icieaao i?e oaiia?aoo?i aeua
eiii?eieaiaeon, a/ni3;

L, G- aonoeia /aaoio i?e oaiia?aoo?i eieaiaeon i iaaa?iao /aaoio, a/ni3
;

t G- oaiia?aoo?e ia?aa?iao;

b — eiinoaioa ciiie aonoeie, a/ni3 a?aae.

I?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeua 1923 E niinoa?iaaeinue aiaeoeeaiiy
iieioa?ie aonoeie ?iaeeiai /aaoio aiae iaea?aeaii? caeaaeiinoi a aie
ciaioaiiy uieueiinoi, ui iia’ycaia ?c ciiiith no?oeoo?e aeeaeiueiai
ii?yaeeo a ?iaeeiio /aaoii i eiai nieaaia c aoaeaoeai. Neee ca’yceo
iiae aoaeaoeai oa caeicii neaaoathoue, o ca’yceo c /ei
ciiith?oueny eieueeinoue, oi?ia i oa?aeoa? ?iciiaeieaiiy a?aoioo.
Ia?aoiae ia iieioa?ii aonoeie aiae aeieyiee. ui aiaeiiaiaea?
?icieaao aei aeieyiee aiaeiiaiaeii? aonoeie oaa?aei-?iaeei? oace, ia?
ia?aaei, ui aeaco? ia iiyao iiai? oace, yea ia? cia/ii aieueoo
aonoeio. Ae?oaa aeieyiea oa?aeoa?eco? i?ioean ciiie aonoeie aeaio
oac — e?enoaeicoth/iai aonoaiioo oa aonoeie ?iaeei? oace. Ciiie
iieacieeia aonoeie ia oeie aeieyioei iia’ycaii ic ciiiith oaiia?aoo?e,
aa?aaaoiiai noaio oa oiii/iiai neeaaeo oaa?aei? i ?iaeei? oac. Oeae
aiae?icie iieioa?ie aonoeie aeecueeee aei i?yii? i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iiiioiiiei caieueoaiiyi aon-oeie /aaoio aae aei oaiia?aoo?e
aaoaeoe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy. Eoo iaoeeo iieioa?i aonoeie iiaea
ciiithaaoeny caeaaeii aiae oaeaeeinoi ioieiaeaeaiiy /aaoio. Oea
iia’ycaii c oei, ui i?e iaa?iaiiaaaeaieo oiiaao, eiee aianeiaeie
aaeeeeo oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeaiiy aeeoocieii i?ioeane ia caaacia/othoue
ae?iaithaaiiy eiioeaio?aoei? aoaeaoeth aei a?iaiiaaaeaii?, noai?thth/e
oiiae aeey e?enoaeicaoei? c ?icieaao iaeii/anii c aonoaiioii i
oeaiaioeoo, oiaoi a a?aie/iiio i?ioa?eo neeaaeathoueny oiiae aeey
e?enoae?caoe?? ii nenoaii caaaoaeoe/ieo /aaoiia.

Aeieyiee iieioa?i aonoeie, ui aiaeiiaiaeathoue ioieiaeaeaiith /aaoio a
oaa?aeiio noaii, iathoue eiiieiee oa?aeoa? i iienothoueny caeaaei?noth
(1), eoo iaoeeo e?eaeo aonoeia-oaiia?aoo?a iinoieiee.

Oaiia?aoo?ii caeaaeiinoi aonoeie aieiai /aaoio i?aeoe/ii
niiaiaaeathoue i?e iaa?iaaiii oa ioieiaeaeaiii. Aeeeth/aiiyi ?
a?noa?acen u?eueiino? i?e iaa??aaii? oa ioieiaeaeaii? a iaeanoi
aaoaeoe/ii? oaiia?aoo?e. Oei aiaeoeeaiiy iia’ycaii ci cieaeaiiyi aonoeie
aieiai /aaoio i?e iaa?iaaiii a ?acoeueoaoi i?ioeano a?aoioecaoei?, oiaoi
?iceeaaeo oeaiaioeoo i?e oaiia?aoo?i aiey 1275 E. No?oeoo?a ye
ii/aoeiaiai oae i ia?aieaaeaiiai /aaoio i ioieiaeaeaiiai ic
oaeae-einoth 0,6 a?aae/cae, ia?iaeaiiai iieaeue-iaaii?aith eiaaoo?ith,
oa iaiiaee-oieiaaieo aieeo /aaoiia yaey? niaith ia?eio, oeaiaioeo i
eaaeaao?eo. Aoaeaoeue a oaeeo /aaoiao ciaoiaeeoueny a ca’caiiio noaii.

*aaoie, ia?iaeaii a?aoioecoth/ei iiaeeoieaoi?ii, iathoue aieueo
iecueeo aonoeio a iioa?aaei oaiia?aoo? aiae 1723 E i ieae/a oa aieueo
oe?ieee iioa?aae e?enoaeicaoei?. A?aoioecoth/a iiaeeoieoaiiy /aaoio c
eoeynoei a?aoioii ciaioo? aonoeio oa iiioeith? i?ioean a?aoioiooai?aiiy
a iaeanoi aieueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?. A?aoioecoth/a ia?iaea /aaoio
aeeeeea? «caiooiaiiy» nieaao iie?iooai?aiiyie a?aoioo, oeaio?aie
e?enoaeicaoei? yeeo neoaeaoue i?iaeoeoe aca?iiaei? eiiiiiaioia
iiaeeoieaoi?a i ?icieaao, ui i ni?e/eith? cieaeaiiy aonoeie /aaoio,
aaee/eia yeiai ia aiaeiiaiaea? caeiio aaeeoeaiiai neeaaeaiiy, ui
naiae/eoue i?i aieea iiaeeoieoaaiiy ia no?oeoo?io aoaeiao ?iaeeiai
/aaoio. Ic c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e i?e iayaiinoi a nieaai e?aiiith
niinoa?iaa?oueny aieueo niiaieueiaia

i?e iayaiinoi a nieaai e?aiiith niinoa?iaa?oueny aieueo niiaieueiaia
iiaeaeuaiiy aonoeie ?iaeei? oace, oae ye e?aiiie, ai?iaaaeaeoth/enue
a ?aoioeo caeica, iiiioii cieaeo? ?ic/eiiinoue aoaeaoeth, Oiio
i?e iaa?iaaiii niinoa?iaa?oueny aieueo iioaineaia cieaeaiiy aonoeie, a
i?e ioieiaeaeaiii, iiney iiaeeoieoaaiiy, iaio iioaineaia c?inoaiiy
aonoeie ca ?aooiie aeaeieaiiy oa ooai?aiiy a?aoioiaeo eiiieaenia.
Cieaeaiiy aonoeie /aaoio i?e oaiiaaoo?? 1593E i?e aaiaei /enoiai
caeici-e?aiii?aiai iiaeeoieaoi?a aoei iaeiaioei i neeaaeaei
0,010…0,015 a/ci3, iaeaieueoa — i?e aaiaei
caeici-e?aiiie-eaeueoei?aiai iiaeeoieaoi?a- 0,035 a/ni3 , o?ioe iaioa
i?e ia?iaoei caeicie?aiii?aei nieaaii c aa?i?i — 0,030 a/ni3 .
I?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaa cieaeaiiy i?e aeei?enoaiii caeici-e?aiii?aeo
iiaeeoieaoi?ia c oeoaiii oa aethiiii?i -0,020…0,025 a/ni3.

I?e ia?iaoei /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii a?aoioecoth/eie
iiaeeoieaoi?aie ia iniiai caeici-e?aiii?aiai nieaao c aeoeaieie
aeiiioeaie eieueeinoue oeaio?ia e?enoaeicaoei? iiiioii
caieueoo?oueny, iniaeeai oea oa?aeoa?ii aeey nieaaia c aa?i?i.
Ia?iaea /aaoio iiaeeoieaoi?ii, ui iinoeoue eaeueoe?e, caaacia/o?
caieueoaiiy eieueeinoi aeeth/aiue a?aoioo oa ?o ?icii?e, oiaoi
aeinyaa?oueny iaeaieueoa nooiiiue a?aoioecaoei? o ii?iaiyiii c iioeie
iiaeeoieaoi?aie. Oea ae iieacothoue aeineiaeaeaiiy aonoeie /aaoio.
Iaeaieueo iiiioia ?icieoey a oa?aeoa?i e?eaeo iieioa?i aonoeie aeey
aeineiaeaeoaaieo /aaoiia iiney ia?iaee a?aoioecoth/eie iiaeeoieaoi?aie
niinoa?iaa?oueny a iaeanoi oaiia?aoo? aaoaeoe/ii? e?enoaeicaoei?. I?e
ia?iaoei /aaoio caeici-e?aiii?aei nieaaii oiae iieioa?i aonoeie
o ii?iaiyiii c aiaeiai/iith aeey /enoi iaaii?aiai /aaoio ciiith?oueny,
ui i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyaei ieiuaaeee i iacia/iiai cieaeaiiy aonoeie-ia
0,024a/ni3. Aieueo iiiioia cieaeaiiy aonoeie i?e ia?iaoei /aaoio
caeici-e?aiii?aeie nieaaaie c aethiiii?i aai oeoaiii ia- 0.15a/ni3,
iaeneiaeueia cieaeaiiy aonoeie niinoa?iaa?oueny i?e ia?iaoei
iiaeeoieaoi?aie, ui aiiuothoue eaeueoeie i aa?ie -0.2…0.25a/ci3.

Aonoeia /aaoio aecia/a?oueny o?i?/iei neeaaeii, no?oeoo?ith oa
noaiii aoaeaoeth. I?e iino?eiiio o?i?/iiio neeaae?, oiiaao i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue oa a?aeii?e aonoei? iiaeeeai aecia/eoe e?euee?noue
aoaeaoeth a /aaoi?, yeee aeae?eeany o aeaeyae? a?ao?oo ?c
ni?aa?aeiioaiiue:

aeey ii?iaeueieo oaiia?aoo? C a?=305/ — 38.8 ;

i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeua e?i?? nie?aeon N a? =613/ — 84 .

?c iaaaaeaieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue ne?aeo?. ui e?enoae?caoe?y 1% aoaeaoeth o
aeaeyae? a?ao?oo aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy aonoeie ia 0.1 a/ni3. E?euee??noue
aoaeaoeth, ui aeae?ey?oueny o aeaeyae? a?ao?oa i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1593E
i?ney ia?iaee nieaaaie neeaaea?: aeey FeSi- 0.1%, FeSiAi- 0.28%,
FeSiTi- 0.25%, FeSiCa- 0.35% FeSiBa- 0.30% , ? ,a?aeiia?aeii ,i?e
oaiia?aoo?? aaoaeoe/ii? e?enoae?caoe?? 0,24; 1,5; 1,5; 2,5 oa 2,0%

Aeey aeyaeaiiy aieeao a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy
caeici-e?aii?aeie i?enaaeeaie ia iiaa?oiaaee iaoya iaaii?aiai /aaoio
aoee aeeiiaii aiaeiiaiaeii aeineiaeaeaiiy iaoiaeii eaaea/i? e?aiei.
Iaeii/anii oienoaaee o?eaaeinoue ?ic/eiaiiy a?aoioecoth/iai
iiaeeoieaoi?a c iiiaioo iiaiiai ?icieaaeaiiy /aaoio. I?enaaeea a /aaoi
aeineiaeaeoaaieo nieaaia aeaui ciaioo? iiaa?oiaaee iaoya iaaii?aiai
/aaoio. Aieueo iiiioii oea aeey nieaaia, yei aiiuothoue eaeueoeie oa
aa?ie- 20…250, aeaui iaioa -aeey nieaaia c aethiiii?i i oeoaiii-
10…150. Oienaoeiy /ano ?ic/eiaiiy iieacaea, ui oaeaeoa ?ic/eith?oueny
nieaa, ui aiiuo? aa?ie- o?eaae?noue neeaaea? 0.85, iaeaeiaoee oeae
i?ioean aeey nieaao c eaeueoei?i- 1.25, i?iiiaeii cia/aiiy /ano aeey
nieaaia c aethiiii?i i oeoaiii- 0.9 oa 1.15 a?ae o?eaaeino? ?ic/eiaiiy
cae?ci-e?aii??aiai nieaao aac aeii?oie.

I?ioean a?aoioiooai?aiiy ia? aeineoue neeaaeiee oa?aeoa? i, ia
aiaeeeaeath/e cia/aiiy oiia cii/oaaiiy, oeaio?ia a?aoioiooai?aiiy.
neiae i?eionoeoe aieea iioeo oaeoi?ia ia oeae i?ioean. Oae,
i?iaaaeaii aeineiaee ?iciiaeieaiiy aeaiaioia, yei aea/aeenue, a
iao?eoei oa a?aoioi ca aeiiiiiaith iie?iaiaeicaoi?a iieacaee, ui
eiioeaio?aoeiy aethiiiiy,aa??th ? eaeueoeith aeua a a?aoioi, iiae a
iao?eoei.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui iayaiinoue a
caeici-e?aiii?aiio nieaai aeoeaieo aeaiaioia iiaeaeuo? eiai
a?aoioecoth/ee iioaioeiae, /enoee caeici-e?aiii?aee nieaa a/eith?
iacia/iee ?iieoethth/ee aieea.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icaeiei aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue
a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii
oa?inieioei?i ON75 ?icieo oa?inieaaieo caaiaeia. Ia oeae /an
oa?inieioeie ON75, yeee iae/anoioa aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy /aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii a Oe?a?ii,
ae?iaey?oueny Noaoaiianueeei oa?inieaaiei caaiaeii (NOC). E?ii
oa?inieioeiy oeueiai iiaei?e?inoaa aeei?enoiao?oueny ON75 *aeyaiinueeiai
(*AIE), Iiaieociaoeueeiai (IOC) oa ??iaeianueeiai (?OC) oa?inieaaieo
caaiaeia. A i?aeoeoei eeaa?ieo oeaoia aoei iiii/aii, ui a?aoioecoth/ee
aoaeo i?e aeei?enoaiii ON75, ae?iaeaiiai ?icieie oa?inieaaieie
caaiaeaie, iaiaeiaeiaee, ui iia’yco?oueny c ?iciei aiinoii aeayeeo
aeaiaioia a oeeo oa?inieaaao. Iayaiinoue o neeaaei ON75 oaeeo
aeaiaioia, ye eaeueoeie, aethiiiie, oeoai oa iioeo iiaea cia/ii
aieeaaoe ia a?aoioecoth/ee iioaioeiae oeueiai oa?inieaao. Aeey
oaeoe/iiai aecia/aiiy aiinoo aeaiaioia a ON75 aoea aeeiiaia noaoenoe/ia
ia?iaea aeaieo iioi/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ii aiinoo iniiaieo aeaiaioia, a
oaeiae aecia/aii oiii/iee neeaae oa?inieaao eiaeiiai iiaei?e?inoaa.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiino e?aiiith i?aeoe/ii aeeaaea?oueny a iaaei,
iaoiiaeaii AINO 415-78. Oa?inieioeie IOC a aeayeeo i?iaao aiiuoaaa
e?aiiith aieueoa 80% ? ?OC ieae/a iio?iaii? iaaei, ui iiaeia iiynieoe
eieaaoei?th i iaaeinoaoiueith iaeii?iaeiinoth i?ia. Iaeaieueoee
na?aaeiie aiino e?aiiith ia? oa?inieioeie *AIE i NOC. Aeineoue aaeeeei
?icaiaii aiinoo e?aiiith aiae?iciy?oueny oa?inieioeie ae?iaieoeoaa ?OC
i IOC. Na?aaeiie aiino aethiiiith a oa?inieioei? aeey anio oa?inieaaieo
caaiaeia i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee i ciiith?oueny aiae 1,32% *AIE aei
1,75% NOC. Aeey oeeo iiaei?e?inoa iaeaieueo iecueeee iieaciee
aeenia?ni?. Iaeneiaeueiee aiino aethiiiith aeey anio iiaei?e?inoa ia
aeoiaeeoue ca iaaei iaoiiaeaii AINO i ciiiththoueny o aocueeeo iaaeao
aiae 2,1 aei 2,4%. Na?aaeiie aiino eaeueoeith aeey oa?inieioeith oeeo
caaiaeia aiae?iciy?oueny a aieueoie ii?i. Iiiiiaeueiee iieaciee
na?aaeiueiai aiinoo eaeueoeith ia? oa?inieioeie NOC -0,21% i?e
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiio aiaeoeeaiii 0,08% i iaeneiaeueiee -1,1% i?e
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiio aiaeoeeaiii 0,13% — oa?inieioeie *AIE.
Oa?inieioeie IOC a na?aaeiueiio aiiuo? eaeueoeiy 0,43%,
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia aiaeoeeaiiy 0,02. Iaiaoiaeii aiaecia/eoe aeineoue
aenieo noaaieueiinoue oiii/iiai neeaaeo oa?inieioeiy NOC.

E?ii noaoenoe/iiai aiaeico aeai?eiaeo aeaieo oiii/iiai neeaaeo
oa?inieioeiy iioi/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoa aeeiiaiee oiii/iee aiaeic
oa?inieioeiy oeeo iiaei?e?inoa a eaai?aoi?i? iinoeoooo aaioiii? IAI
Oe?a?ie ii 32 aeaiaioai. ?acoeueoaoe aiaeico iieacothoue, ui
oa?inieioeie, aeieaaeaiee ia *AIE, aiae?iciy?oueny aieueoei aiinoii
eaeueoeith — 0,8%, iaaiith -0,1% oa iayaiinoth aa?ith — 0,4%. E?ii
oiai, a i?iaao aoei aeyaeaii iayaiinoue 0,1% no?iioeith. Iaiaoiaeii
aiaeiioeoe iiaeaeuaiee aiino aethiiiith a i?iaao NOC — 2% i ?OC
-1,8%, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie noaoenoe/iiai aiaeico. Aiino iioeo
aeaiaioia aeo?eio?oueny i?eaeecii a iaeiaeiaeo iaaeao i iiiioii ia
aiae?iciy?oueny iiae niaith. Aiaeicoth/e oiii/iee neeaae aea?aieo
oa?inieaaia iaiaoiaeii aiaeiioeoe aieueo aenieee noia?iee aiino
aethiiiith oa eaeueoeith a ON75 *AIE, ui neeaaea? 2,2%, aeey IOC — 1,9%,
NOC — 2,1% oa ?OC — 1,9%.

Iniiaiei aeaea?aeii aeiiioeiaeo aeaiaioia o oa?inieioei? ON75 ?
ii/aoeiaa ne?iaeia. I?e aeieaaoei iaeii/anii c e?aiii?i
aiaeiiaeththoueny e iioi aeaiaioe, yei iinooiathoue a oa?inieaa.
Aethiiiie, eaeueoeie, oeoai, oinoi?, iaaiie iiaeeoieaoi?a, cia/ii
nei?i/o?oueny i aiinyoueny eaa?oeeoii i cieith eieneea. Noaeaaa
no?oaeea, yeo aeei?enoiaothoue aeey oeooe i, /anoeiai, eiioaeoii uiee,
yei cae/aeii aiaeeeaathoue ic nieaaia ia iiaeiie iniiai, ?
iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie aianaiiy o?iio, ia?aaioeth, iiaei, eiaaeueoo,
no?ueie. Oaeei /eiii, aiino aeiiioie o oa?inieaaao caeaaeeoue aiae
oiii/iiai neeaaeo aeoiaeieo oeooiaeo iaoa?iaeia, oiaoi oa?inieaae,
aeieaaeaii ia ?icieo caaiaeao, yei aeei?enoiaothoue ne?iaeio ?icieo
?iaeiaeu, aoaeooue ?icieoeny ii nai?io neeaaeo. E?ii i?e?iaee ne?iaeiieo
iaoa?iaeia ia aiino aeiiioie aieeaathoue oaoiieiai/ii i?eeiie aeieaaee i
?aoiioaaiiy nieaao ia eiaeiiio ic aeacaieo iiaei?e?inoa.

Eiiieaenii aeineiaeaeaiiy aieeao a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy
oa?inieioei?i ON75 ia no?oeoo?o i aeanoeainoi /aaoio iieacaee, ui
i?ineiaeaeo?oueny noieea ei?aeyoeieia caeaaeiinoue oeeo iieacieeia
aiae aiinoo oaeeo aeaiaioia ye eaeueoeie, aa?ie, aethiiiie, oeoai o
neeaaei oa?inieaao. Aeey /aaoiia, ia?iaeaieo iieaeue-iaaii?aith
eiaaoo?ith, oey caeaaeiinoue aieueo iiiioia, iiae iiney ia?iaee
eiiieaeniei iiaeeoieaoi?ii AEEIE5?. Oa?ii/ia ia?iaea cia/ii iiaaeth?
cia/aiiy iieacieeia iaoaii/ieo aeanoeainoae.

A /aaoiao, ia?iaeaieo iieaeue-iaaii?aith eiaaoo?ith, iioeiaeueia
aeica a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a neeaaea? 0,7-0,8%, iiney
eiiieaeniiai iiaeeoieaoi?a — 0,3-0,5%. Caieueoaiiy aeo?ao oa?inieioeiy
aeua aeacaieo iaae i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ?iaiy iaoaii/ieo
aeanoeainoae, aieiaiei /eiii ca ?aooiie oi?ie oa eieueeinoi aeeth/aiue
eoeynoiai a?aoioo a no?oeoo?i iaoaeo.

Oa?inieioeie ?icieo iiaei?e?inoa-iinoa/aeueieeia i?e aeei?enoaiii
eiai ye a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a ii ?iciiio aieeaa? ia ?iaaiue
iaoaii/ieo aeanoeainoae i?e iioeo iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao. Aeineoue iecueeee
a?aoioecoth/ee iioaioeiae ia? ON75 ?OC oa IOC. Oa?inieioeie *AIE
iaeaieueo aoaeoeaiee i?e iiieoethaaiii /aaoio c eoeynoei
a?aoioii, caaacia/oth/e iaeneiaeueiee ?iaaiue iaoaii/ieo aeanoeainoae
i?e iaioeo aeo?aoao oa?inieaao.

Aeeeaoiiao?e/iee aiaeic caaa?oiaaieo ic ?iaeeiai noaio c?aceia
iieacaa, ui a?aoioecoth/a iiaeeoieoaaiiy a aeaeieueea ?acia nei?i/o?
o?eaaeinoue ?iciaaeo ea?aiaeia o aiaeaieaieo aenieiiioeieo /aaoiao (?en.
3 oa ?en. 4). I?e ia?iaoei /aaoio 0,2% ON75 *AIE iieoaaoeieiee
ia?iiae i?aeoe/ii aiaenooiie, oiaoi, i?ioiea? ?ino aaea iayaieo
a?aoioieo ca?iaeeia. O c?aceao, ia?iaeaieo 0,6% a?aoioecoth/iai
caaaeueia o?eaaeinoue oa?ii/ii? ia?iaee. ?icieoey, yea
niinoa?iaa?oueny o eiiaoeoei ?iciaaeo oeaiaioeoo, iia’ycaia c aieueoith
aoaeoeaiinoth a?aoioecoth/i? ia?iaee iiaeeoieaoi?aie, o yeeo aieueoee
aiino aethiiiith oa eaeueoeith. E?ii oiai, oa?inieioeie *AIE o
nai?io neeaaei aiiuo? aei 0,4% aa??th.

O i’yoiio ?icaeiei iieacaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeii-i?iieneiai?
ia?aai?ee aeyaeaieo caeiiiii?iinoae aieeao a?aoioecoth/iai
iiaeeoieoaaiiy ia no?oeoo?o ? aeanoeaino? /aaoio c eoeynoei a?ao?oii.

Ia iiaenoaai oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue
aieeao aeoeaieo a?aoioecoth/eo aeaiaioia o neeaaei caeici-e?aiii?aiai
nieaao ia oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e oa iaoaii/ii aeanoeainoi ia?iaeaiiai
/aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii cai?iiiiiaaii oaoiieiai/iee i?ioean i
neeaae a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a, yei caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy
aeeeaeia aac aiaeaieo a oiieeo ia?a?icao c aenieeie ieanoe/ieie
aeanoeainoyie aac aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? noaaei? oa?ii/ii? ia?iaee.
Cai?iiiiiaaia oaoiieiaiy aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe o?eaaeinoue oa?ii/ii?
ia?iaee, aeo?aoe aeaeo?iaia?ai?, cieceoe a?ae aiae ei?iaeaiiy oa
iaaiaeiiaiaeiinoi aaiiao?i?, a oaeiae eieueeinoue iiaoi?ieo oeeeeia
aiaeiaeo.

A i?iieneiaeo oiiaao aeeiiaii ooi/iaiiy neeaaeo a?aoioecoth/iai
iiaeeoieaoi?a c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeia iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy
aenia?eiaioia. ?ic?iaea neeaaeo a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a a
eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao aeeiioaaeanue ia /aaoii iiney ia?iaee
iieaeue-iaaii?aith eiaaoo?ith. A eeaa?iiio oeaoo /aaoi c eoeynoei
a?aoioii iaea?aeothoue ca ?aooiie ia?iaee eiiieaeniei iiaeeoieaoi?ii
AEEIE5?. Aeiaeaoeiai aeineiaeaeaiiy a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao
iiaeoaa?aeeee aieueo aenieo aoaeoeaiinoue eaeueoeith oa aa?ith a
ii?iaiyiii c oeoaiii, aethiiii?i oa ?CI, a oaeiae iaiaoiaeiinoue
cieaeaiiy aiinoo eaeueoeith ii?iaiyii c eaai?aoi?iei aa?iaioii. Oea
iia’ycaii c oei, ui eiiieaeniee iiaeeoieaoi?, yeee aeei?enoiaoaaany
aeey noa?i?aeecoth/i? ia?iaee /aaoio ia aenieiiioeiee, aiiuo? cia/io
eieueeinoue eaeueoeith. Iaea?aeaia ?iaiyiiy, ui iia’yco? neeaae
iiaeeoieaoi?a oa aeeaeio aiaeaieo o eeeiiaie i?iai, ia? neiaeoth/ee
aeaeyae:

I = 46,2 — 4,4O 1 -7,3O 2 — 10O 3 + 1,1O 1O 2 + 12O1 O3 — 2,8 O 2O3

aea: O 1- aiino eaeueoeith; O2 — aiino aa?ith; O3 — aeo?aoe
iiaeeoieaoi?a;

Iioeiaeueiee neeaae a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a neiaeoth/ee: 2,5% Na;
4,0% Aa; 56% Si; ?aooa caeici. *a?ac iaiiaeeeainoue aeieaaee
iiaeeoieaoi?a iio?iaiiai neeaaeo eaeueoeie i aa?ie aaiaeeee o
aeaeyaei noiioi nieieieaeueoeith i nieieiaa?ith c oa?inieioei?i.
Aeo?aoe iiaeeoieaoi?a neeaaeaee 0,35%. A?aoioecoth/ee iiaeeoieaoi?
aaiaeeee iiae no?oiiiue iaoaeo aai ia aeii ?iceeaiiai eiaoa. A oaaeeoei
iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe iaoaii/ieo aei?iaoaaiue aeeeaeia, iaea?aeaieo ii
cai?iiiiiaaiie oaoiieiai? oa ?acoeueoaoe na?ieieo ieaaie, i?iaaaeaieo
ii aaciaie oaoiieiai?.

Oaaeeoey

Iaoaii/ii aeanoeainoi aeeeaeia

Cia/aiiy iieacieeiaA, IIaO, IIa, ENU, Eaeae/i2IAAeineiaeii-i?iieneiaa
ia?oiyna?aaei?48533020.612.5164iiiiiaeueia
45029014.28.5149iaeneiaeueia50538023.014.1187Aeeeaee na?ieiiai
ae?iaieoeoaana?aaei?43628517.38160iiiiiaeueia
3652504.81.1149iaeneiaeueia50538026.414.3187

Aeeeaee aeineiaeii-i?iieneiai? ia?oi? iathoue aieueo ?iaiiii?ii
iieacieee iaoaii/ieo aeanoeainoae oa ?iciiaeieaiiy oaa?aeinoi a
ia?aoeiao aeeeaeia iacaeaaeii aiae oiaueie noiiie.

Iie?ino?oeoo?o iaoaeo aea/aee ia oeioao aeaioiaeaieo ic c?aceia aeey
iaoaii/ieo aei?iaoaaiue oa o?ea aeeeae?a. Aeeth/aiiy a?aoioo a
/aaoii aeineiaeii-i?iieneiaeo ieaaie iathoue iaioee aeiaiao? i aieueo
?iaiiii?ii ?iciiaeieaii ii ieiui oeioa, iiae a?aoio o /aaoii na?ieieo
ieaaie. *aaoi na?ieieo oa aeineiaeii-i?iieneiaeo ieaaie ia?
i?aeoe/ii iiaiinoth oa?eoio iaoaei/io iniiao, ui aiaeiiaiaea? aeiiaai
noaiaea?oo iiaei?e?inoaa.

CAAAEUeII AENIIAEE

1. Ia iniiai i?iaaaeaieo aeineiaeaeaiue oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoaoia aea/aiiy i?ioeano a?aoioecoth/i? ia?iaee iiaeeoieaoi?aie ia
aaci caeici-e?aiii?aiai nieaao c eaeueoei?i, aa?i?i, oeoaiii,
aethiiii?i, anoaiiaeaii iniiaii caeiiiii?iinoi eiiaoeee a?aoioecaoei?
/aaoio c eoeynoei a?aoioii i?e ioieiaeaeaiii a ?iaeeiio,
oaa?aei-?iaeeiio i oaa?aeiio noai?.*aaoie. ia?iaeai? a?ao?oecoth/ei
iiaeeo?eaoi?ii. iathoue a?eueo iecueeo aonoeio ia ae?eyioe? a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e i?ney aaiaeo iiaeeo?eaoi?a ? ieae/a. ui iia ycaii c
aeae?eaiiyi a?ao?oo ?c ?icieaao. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue aoaeaoeth. ui
e?enoae?co?oueny o aeaeyae? a?ao?oo. i?ney a?ao?oecoth/i? ia?iaee.
aeae?ey?oueny a iaeano? aaoaeoe/ii? oaiia?aoo?e.

2.?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee. ui a?eueo aoaeoeaeie
aeoeaieie aeii?oeaie ? eaeueoe?e oa aa??e. E?euee?noue a?ao?oo. ui
aeae?ey?oueny i?ney ia?iaee /aaoio cae?ci-e?aii??aei nieaaii c oeeie
aeaiaioaie o ??aeeiio noai? neeaea 0.3 oa 0.35%. i?ney ia?iaee nieaaaie
c oeoaiii oa aethi?i??i- 0.25 oa 0.28%, i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aaoaeoe/ii?
e?enoae?caoe?? oey e?euee?noue neeaea a?aeiia?aeii- 2.5; 2.0; 1.5 ?
1.5%. *enoee caeici-e?aiii?aee nieaa ye a?aoioecoth/ee iiaeeoieaoi? ia?
iacia/iee aieea ia i?ioean a?aoioiooai?aiiy i?e ioieiaeaeaiii /aaoio.

3. Ii a?aoioecoth/ie caeaoiinoi aeineiaeaeoaaii aeaiaioe o neeaaei
caeici-e?aiii?aiai nieaao a ii?yaeeo c?inoaiiy ?icoaoiaothoueny
neiaeoth/ei /eiii: oeoai, aethi?i?e. aa?ie, eaeueoeie. I?e oeueiio,
yeui oa?aeoa? oiaeo iieioa?i aonoeie aeey /aaoiia, ia?iaeaieo FeSiAl i
FeSiTi nieaaaie, ia? i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee oa?aeoa?, oi iieioa?ie
aonoeie aeey /aaoiia, ia?iaeaieo FeSiBa i FeSiCa nieaaaie, iathoue
cia/io ?icieoeth. Aeey /aaoiia, ia?iaeaieo nieaaii, yeee aiiuo?
eaeueoeie, oa?aeoa?ia iioaineai?oa niiaieueiaiiy caieueoaiiy aonoeie
i?e aieueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao ia aiaeiiio aiae /aaoiia,
ia?iaeaieo nieaaii c aa?i?i, aeey yeeo iaeaieueoa cieaeaiiy aonoeie
niinoa?iaa?oueny a iaeanoi oaiia?aoo? aaoaeoe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiiioeiai aeaiaioe o neeaaei i?iieneiaiai
oa?inieioeith ia?ee ON75 caeieniththoue cia/iee aieea ia a?aoioecoth/ee
iioaioeiae oeueiai oa??inieaao. Iieacaii, ui ON75, aeieaaeaiee ia
?icieo oa?inieaaieo caaiaeao aiae?iciy?oueny ii nai?io oiii/iiio
neeaaeo. Oa?inieioeie ON75 *AIE aiae?iciy?oueny aiae iioeo aiaeiai/ieo
oa?inieaaia iiaeaeuaiiei aiinoii eaeueoeith- 0,8%, iaaiith- 0,1%
oa iayaiinoth aa?ith- 0,4%. Oa?inieioeie NOC oa ?OC aiae?iciythoueny
iiaeaeuaiei aiinoii aethiiiith — 2,0% oa 1,8% aiaeiiaiaeii.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeneiaeueii iieacieee iioeiinoi oa ieanoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae aeinyaathoueny iiney ia?iaee /aaoio ON75 ae?iaieoeoaa
*AIE i?e aeo?aoao 0,5-0,6% a /aaoiao, ia?iaeaieo iieaeue-iaaii?aith
eiaaoo?ith, oa 0,4% — i?e aeei?enoaiii AEEIE5?. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oaeeo
aea iieacieeia i?e aeei?enoaiii ON75 iioeo oa?inieaaieo caaiaeia
aeo?aoe iaiaoiaeii caieueoeoe a 1,3…1,5 ?ace.

6. E?eai icioa?ii/iiai ?iciaaeo ea?aiaeia a /aaoi? c eoeynoei
a?aoioii, ia?iaeaiiai 0,2 % a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a, iathoue o?e
aeieyiee — iieoaaoeieiee, iioaineaiiai ?inoo, aei?inoaiiy aeeth/aiue.
I?e caieueoaiii aeo?ao a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieaoi?a o?eaaeinoue
?iciaaeo ea?aiaeia ciaioo?oueny. I?e aeo?aoao iiaeeoieaoi?a 0,6% ia
e?eaeo aiaenooiie iieoaaoeieiee ia?iiae, ui iia’ycaii c ?iceei
caieueoaiiyi eieueeinoi a?aoioieo aeeth/aiue a eeoiio noaii — a?ae 115
aei 240 aeeth/aiue ia ii2.

7. Iioei?caoe?y neeaaeo a?ao?oecoth/iai iiaeeo?eaoi?a c caeo/aiiyi
iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy aeine?ae?a. aeicaieeea iaea?aeaoe
??aiyiiy caeaaeiino? aeeaeie a?aea?eo a eeeiia?e i?ia? a?ae neeaaeo oa
aeo?ao iiaeeo?eaoi?a. Iioeiaeueiee ai?no a a?ao?oecoth/iio iiaeeo?eaoi??
aeey aenieii?oeiiai /aaoio. iaea?aeaiiai i?e ia?iaoe? NiMg-e?aaoo?ie:
eaeueoe?th- 4.3%, aa??th- 2.8%; i?e ia?iaoe? e?aaoo?ith AEEIE5?:
eaeueoe?th- 2.5%, aa??th- 4%

8. ?ic?iaeaiee oaoiieiai/iee i?ioean a?aoioecoth/iai iiaeeoieoaaiiy
aeicaieea iaea?aeoaaoe aeeeaee aeey aeaooiaacia/ieo aeaeo?iaeaeaoiia
c aenieeie ieanoe/ieie aeanoeainoyie aac aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? noaaei?
oa?ii/ii? ia?iaee. Aeiiiii/iee aoaeo aiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii?
oaoiieiai? i?e ianyaao ai?iaaaeaeaiiy 2500 oii i?eaeaoieo aeeeaeia ia
?ie neeaea 48954 e?a. a oeiiao aei 1991 ?ieo, aai a?eueoa 400 oen. a?i,
a oe?iao iioi/iiai ?ieo.

Iniiaie ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a ?iaioao

1. Eaa/aiei TH.I., A?aiaiei A.I. A?aoeoece?othuaa iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea
aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia oa??ineeeoeeai. // Eeoaeiia i?iecainoai,1987.
?6- N 15-16.

2. Eaa/aiei TH.I., A?aiaiei A.I. A?aoeoec?othuaa iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea
aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia oa?ineeeoeeai ?acee/iuo caaiaeia-iinoaaueeia.//
I?ioeannu eeouey.-Eeaa: EIE,1992. ?3. — N 47-55.

3. Iiaeeaaoeaa O.A., Naoa?ia A.I., A?aiaiei A.I., Oaeaa I.E., Aeeaeaiei
E.A., E?eaoeia N.A. Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa ioeeaie ec aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia
i?e eiiaeie?iaaiiii iiaeeoeoee?iaaiee.// Na. Iaoaeeo?aey e ai?ii?oaeiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. -Aeiai?iiao?iane,1980. N 29-30.

4. Iiaeeaaoeaa I.A., Naoa?ia A.I., Oaeaa I.E., A?aiaiei A.I.
Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea /oaoia a?aioee?iaaiiui iaaieai a eeoaeiie oi?ia.//
Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai.1981. ?1 — N.32.

5. A?aiaiei A.I., Eaa/aiei TH.I. Iieiue oaeoi?iue yenia?eiaio i?e
auai?a ninoaaa a?aoeoece?othuaai iiaeeoeeaoi?a. // I?eiaiaiea YAI aeey
?ac?aaioee oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia a eeouea. Oacenu aeieeaaeia
IOE — ss?ineaaeue,1987 — N.87.

6. A?aiaiei A.I., Iiaeeaaoeaa I.A. A?aoeoece?othuaa
iiaeeoeoee-?iaaiea aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia aeey oiieinoaiiuo ioeeaie. //
Iaia-oaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo nieaaao. Oacenu aeieeaaeia
IOE — Caii?iaeuea,1988- N.228.

7.Eaa/aiei TH.I., A?aiaiei A.I. Enneaaeiaaiea ninoaaa oa??ineeeoeey
ON75, i?iecaiaeeiiai ia ?acee/iuo caaiaeao no?aiu. //Iieo/aiea iiauo
iiaeeoeeaoi?ia,eaae?othueo,ooaiieaaeeo,aa?aceaiuo e ae?oaeo
niaoeeaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e eo i?eiaiaiea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oacenu
aeieeaaeia IOE — *aeyaeine,1983. — N50-51.

8.Eaa/aiei TH.I. A?aiaiei.A.I., Oa?auaiei I.E., ?ya/eeia H.B..Aeeyiea
aa?ey ia a?aoeoece?othuee iioaioeeae oa??ineeeoeey i?e aoi?e/iii
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiee aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia. // Iieo/aiea iiauo
iiaeeoeeaoi?ia, eaae?othueo, ooaiieaaeeo, aa?aceaiuo e ae?oaeo
niaoeeaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e eo i?eiaiaiea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oacenu
aeieeaaeia IOE — *aeyaeine,1983- N.52.

9.Eaa/aiei TH.I., A?aiaiei A.I., Aii/a?aiei A.A. Aeeyiea aoi?e/iiai
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey ia eeiaoeeo ?aniaaea ea?aeaeia a ioaaeaiiuo
aunieii?i/iuo /oaoiao. // Iooe iiauoaiey oi/iinoe eeouo aeaoaeae e
yeiiiiee iaoaeea a eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa. Oacenu aeieeaaeia IOE —
Iaica,1983 -N 26-29.

10.Eaa/aiei TH.I., A?aiaiei A.I., Aii/a?aiei A.A., Oa?auaiei I.E.
A?aoeoece?othuaa iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia oa??ineeeoeeai
?acee/iuo caaiaeia-iinoaaueeia. // Iooe iiauoaiey oi/iinoe eeouo
aeaoaeae e yeiiiiee iaoaeea a eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa. Oacenu aeieeaaeia
IOE -Iaica,1983. -N 29-30.

11. Eaa/aiei TH.I., A?aiaiei A.I. Aeeyiea a?aoeoece?othuaai
ii-aeeoeoee?iaaiey oa??ineeeoeeai ?acee/iuo caaiaeia-iinoaaueeia ia
iaoaie-/aneea naienoaa aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia iinea oa?ie/aneie
ia?aaioee. // Iiaua aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiua oaoiieiae/aneea
i?ioeannu, iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea a eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa. Oacenu
aeieeaaeia IOE — Iaeanna,1983. -N 125 — 126.

12. A?aiaiei A.I., Eaa/aiei TH.I. Aeeyiea ianeaaenoaaiiux naienoa
oa??inieaaia ia yooaeoeaiinoue a?aoeoece?othuaai iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey
aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia. // Iooe eioaineoeeaoeee oaoiieiae/aneiai
ia?aaii?o-aeaiey eeoaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e caaea/e iiauoaiey ea/anoaa e
nieaeaiey ia-oaeeiaieinoe. Oacenu aeieeaaeia IOE — Oaoeaio,1984.- N
128-130.

13. Iiaeeaaoeaa I.A., A?aiaiei A.I. I?eiaiaiea iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa.
aeey iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey /oaoia. // Iooe iiauoaiey ea/anoaa e
yeiiiie/iinoe eeoaeiuo i?ioeannia. Oacenu aeieeaaeia IOE — Iaeanna
,1995 —N34.

14. Iiaeeaaoeaa I.A., A?aiaiei A.I. Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea /oaoia iooiaeaie
yeaeo?iaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. // Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a
eeoaeiuo nieaaao.Oacenu aeieeaaeia IOE-Caii?iaeuea, CAOO, 1996.—N67.

15. Aaoi?neia naeaeaoaeuenoai 1511289 NNN?. IEE N 22 n 35/100/ Cianue
aeey iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey na?iai e aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia / I.E. Oaeaa,
I.A. Iiaeeaaoeaa, A.I. A?aiaiei (NNN?) Cayaeaii 30.01.87; Iioaeeeiaaii
1.06.89. Atheeaoaiue ecia?aoaiee ?36.

A ?iaioao, ui iioae?eiaai? noi?nii, iiooea/o iaeaaeaoue iinoaiiaea
caaea/?, iniiai? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee oa aieiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue.

AIIOAOe??

.??aiaiei. A. I. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a?ao?oecoth/iai
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aenieii?oeiiai /aaoio . -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05 . 16. 04. — “Eeaa?ia ae?iaieoeoai“.
-Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “ Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo “, Ee?a, 1998. Caoeuathoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao
a?ao?oecoth/iai iiaeeo?eoaaiiy cae?ci-e?aii??aei nieaaii ia e?iaoeeo
a?ao?oecaoe?? aenieii?oeiiai /aaoio c eoeynoei a?ao?oii a ??aeeiio,
oaa?aei-??aeeiio oa oaa?aeiio noai?. Iieacaii, ui aeiaeaiiy o neeaae
iiaeeo?eaoi?a oeoaio, aethi?i?th, eaeueoe?th, aa??th — i?aeaeuo?
aoaeoeai?noue a?ao?oecoth/i? ia?iaee. Iayai?noue oeeo aea aeaiaio?a o
neeaae? i?iieneiaiai oa??inieaao ON75 ci?ith? eiai a?ao?oecoth/ee
iioaioe?ae. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy i?e
ae?iaieoeoa? aeeeae?a ?c aenieii?oeiiai /aaoio c aenieeie ieanoe/ieie
aeanoeainoyie.

.Eeth/ia? neiaa: aenieii?oeiee /aaoi, a?ao?oecoth/ee iiaeeo?eaoi?,
a?o?o, aonoeia, e?enoae?caoe?y, a?aea?e

A?aiaiei A.I. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe a?aoeoece?othuaai
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia. -?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.04. — “Eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai”.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu “Eeaaneee iieeoaoie/aneee
einoeooo”, Eeaa, 1999.

Caueuathony ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee aeeyiey a?aoeoece?othuaai
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey aeaeaci-e?aiienoui nieaaii ia eeiaoeeo a?aoeoecaoeee
aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia a aeeaeeii, oaa?aei-aeeaeeii e oaa?aeii ninoiyiee.

Aeey eco/aiey aeeyiey ninoaaa a?aoeoece?othuaai iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey ia
e?enoaeeecaoeeth e naienoaa aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia eniieueciaaeenue
iaoiaeeee ii?aaeaeaiey no?oeoo?ii /oanoaeoaeueiuo naienoa: ieioiinoe e
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey, aeey ii?aaeaeaiey nei?inoe ?aniaaea
ea?aeaeia- aeeeaoiiao?e/aneee aiaeec.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee e iaiauaiey iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo
eco/aiey i?ioeanna a?aoeoece?othuae ia?aaioee /oaoia iiaeeoeeaoi?aie ia
aaca aeaeaci-e?aiienoiai nieaaa n aethieieai, oeoaiii, eaeueoeeai,
aa?eai onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe eeiaoeee a?aoeoecaoeee
aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia i?e ioeaaeaeaiee a aeeaeeii, oaa?aei-aeeaeeii e
oaa?aeii ninoiyiee. *oaoiu, ia?aaioaiiua a?aoeoece?othuei iiaeeoeeaoi?ii
eiatho aieaa ieceoth ieioiinoue ia o/anoea io oaiia?aoo?u iinea aaiaea
iiaeeoeeaoi?a e iaiaa, /oi naycaii n auaeaeaieai a?aoeoa ec ?anieaaa.
Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai oaea?iaea, eioi?ia e?enoaeeecoaony a aeaea
a?aoeoa, iinea a?aoeoece?othuae ia?aaioee, auaeaeyaony a iaeanoe
yaoaeoe/aneie oaiia?aoo?u. Ii a?aoeoece?othuae niiniaiinoe a ninoaaa
aeaeaci-e?aiieaaiai nieaaa enneaaeoaiua yeaiaiou a ii?yaeea aic?anoaiey
?aniieaaathony neaaeothuei ia?acii: oeoai, aethieiee, aa?ee, eaeueoeee.
Aieaa yooaeoeaiuie aeoeaiuie aeiaaaeaie yaeythony aa?ee e eaeueoeee.
Eiee/anoai a?aoeoa, eioi?ia auaeaeyaony iinea ia?aaioee /oaoia
aeaeaci-e?aiienoui nieaaii n yoeie yeaiaioaie a aeeaeeii ninoiyiee
ninoaaeei 0.3 e 0.35%, iinea ia?aaioee nieaaaie n oeoaiii e aethieieai-
0.25 e 0.28%, i?e oaiia?aoo?ao yaoaeoe/aneie e?enoaeeecaoeee yoi
eiee/anoai ninoaaeei niioaaonoaaiii- 2.5; 2.0; 1.5 e 1.5%. *enoue
aeaeaci-e?aiienoue, eae a?aoeoece?othuee iiaeeoeeaoi?, ieacuaaao
iacia/eoaeueiia aeyiea ia i?ioeann a?aoeoiia?aciaaiey i?e ioeaaeaeaiee
/oaoia.

Ieioiinoue ?anieaaa io oaiia?aoo?u eeeaeaeon aei oai?a?aoo?u ia?aa?aaa
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai e iaiiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai /oaoiia, eae i?e iaa?aaa oae
e i?e ioeaaeaeaiee, eciaiyaony ii eeiaeiiio caeiio G = L + b(tG — tL).
Eiinoaioa eciaiaiey ieioiinoe- b aeey aaeuo /oaoiia ?aaia 1,5110-6
a/ni3a?aae, aeey /oaoia, ia?aaioaiiiai a?aoeoece?othuei iiaeeoeeaoi?ii-
1,4310-6a/ni3a?aae. Oa?aeoa? oiaea iieeoa?i ieioiinoe /oaoia i?e
ioeaaeaeaiee iinea a?aoeoece?othuae ia?aaioee FeSiAl e FeSiTi-nieaaaie
eiaao i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiaue oa?aeoa?. Iieeoa?iu ieioiinoe aeey
/oaoiia, ia?aaioaiiuo FeSiBa e FeSiCa-nieaaaie, eiatho nouanoaaiioth
?acieoeo. Aeey /oaoiia ia?aaioaiiuo nieaaii, niaea?aeauei eaeueoeee
oa?aeoa?ii aieaa eioaineaiia caiaaeeaiea oaaee/aiea ieioiinoe i?e aieaa
aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao a ioee/aa io /oaoiia, ia?aaioaiiuo nieaaii n
aa?eai, aeey eioi?uo iaeaieueoaa nieaeaiea ieioiinoe iaaethaeaaony a
iaeanoe oaiia?aoo? yaoaeoe/aneiai i?aa?auaiey.

A?aoeoece?othuaa iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea iaaieaaiai /oaoia oiaiueoaao e?aaaie
oaie nia/eaaiey ia a?aieoea a?aoeo-iaoaeee/aneee ?anieaa. I?e ia?aaioea
/oaoia nieaaii, niaea?aeauei aa?ee, oaie nia/eaaiey oiaiueoeeny ia
20…25 , n eaeueoeeai ia 15…20 , n aethieieai e oeoaiii ia 10…15.
Aeiaaaea a aeaeaci-e?aiienoue nieaa eaeueoeey oaaee/eaaao a?aiy aai
?anoai?aiey a 1.25 ?aca, oeoaia- 1.15, aethieiey e aa?ey — oiaiueoaao
aei 0.9 e 0.85 io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?anoai?aiey aeaeaci-e?aiienoiai
nieaaa.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?eianiua yeaiaiou a ninoaaa i?iiuoeaiiiai
oa??ineeeoeey ia?ee ON75 ieacuaatho nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia
a?aoeoece?othuee iioaioeeae yoiai oa??inieaaa. Iieacaii, /oi ON75,
auieaaeaiiue ia ?acee/iuo oa??inieaaiuo yaaiaeao, ioee/aaony ii naiaio
oeie/aneiio ninoaao. Oa??ineeeoeee ON75 *YIE ioee/aaony io inoaeueiuo
aiaeiae/iuo oa??inieaaia iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai eaeueoeey- 0.8%,
iaaiey- 0.1% e iaee/eai aa?ey- 0.4%. Oa??ineeeoeee NOC e AOC ioee/athony
iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai aethieiey- 2.0 e 1.8% niioaaonoaaii.
Iaeneiaeueiua iieacaoaee i?i/iinoiuo e ieanoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee iinea
ia?aaioee /oaoia ON75 i?iecaiaenoaa *YIE aeinoeaathony i?e ?anoiaea
0.5-0.6% a /oaoiao, ia?aaioaiiuo ieeaeue-iaaieaaie eeaaoo?ie, e 0.4%-
i?e eniieueciaaiee AEEIE5?. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey oaeeo aea iieacaoaeae i?e
eniieueciaaiee ON75 ae?oaeo oa??inieaaiuo caaiaeia ?anoiae iaiaoiaeeii
oaaee/eoue a 1.3…1.5 ?aca.

Enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey a?aoeoece?othuaai iiaeeooee?iaaiey ia
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aniaaea yaoaeoe/aneeo ea?aeaeia a caeaeaiiuo ec
aeeaeeinoe ia?acoeia ec aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia n iiiiuueth iioe/aneiai
aeeeaoiiao?a iieacaee, /oi e?eaua ecioa?ie/aneiai ?aniaaea ea?aeaeia a
/oaoiao, ia?aaioaiiuo 0.2% a?aoeoece?othuaai iiaeeoeeaoi?a, eiatho o?e
o/anoea- eieoaaoeeiiiue, eioaineaiiai ?inoa e aei?anoaiey aeeth/aiee.
I?e oaaee/aiee ?anoiaea aei 0.6% ia e?eauo ionoonaoao eieoaaoeeiiiue
ia?eiae, /oi naycaii n ?aceei oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa aeeth/aiee a?aoeoa
a eeoii ninoiyiee io 116 aei 240 aeeth/aiee ia ii2.

Auiieiaiiay iioeiecaoeey ninoaaa a?aoeoece?othuaai iiaeeoeeaoi?a ia
iniiaa oa??ineeeoeey ON75 n aeiaaaeaie aeoeaiuo yeaiaioia-a?aoeoecaoi?ia
n i?eiaiaieai iaoiaeia iaoaiaoe/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey yenia?eiaioia,
iicaieeea iieo/eoue o?aaiaiea caaeneiinoe aeoaeiu ioaaea a eeeiiaie
i?iaa io ninoaaa e ?anoiaea iiaeeoeeaoi?a. Iioeiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea a
a?aoeoece?othuai iiaeeoeeaoi?a aeey aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia, iieo/aiiiai
i?e ia?aaioea NiMg-eeaaoo?ie: eaeueoeey- 4.3%; aa?ey- 2.8%, i?e
ia?aaioea eeaa-oo?ie AEEIE5?: eaeueoeey- 2.5%: aa?ey- 4%.

?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiie ?aaiou caeiaeaiu a oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann
a?aoeoece?othuaai iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia ia Iiai-
Eaoianeii ceaeo?iiaoeiino?ieoaeueiii caaiaea i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ioeeaie
ec aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia aeey ac?uaiaaciianiuo yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeae, /oi
iicaieeei nie?aoeoue a?aiy oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee ia 40%, ono?aieoue a?ae
ii no?oeoo?iie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe, onaaei/iui aeaoaeoai, ei?iaeaieth
ioeeaie e iieo/aoue ioeeaee n aunieeie ieanoe/aneeie naienoaaie-
oaeeeiaiea e oaea?iay ayceinoue ia iaiaa10% e 30Eaeae.i2 aac
aunieioaiia?aoo?iie noaaeee oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee. Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo
io aiaae?aiey ?ac?aaioaiiie oaoiieiaee i?e iauaia aiaae?aiey 2500 oiii
aiaeiuo ioeeaie a aiae ninoaaee 48954 ?oa a oeaiao aei 1991 aiaea eee
aieaa 400 oun a?i, a oeaiao oaeouaai aiaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aunieii?i/iue /oaoi, a?aoeoeceothuee iiaeeoeeaoi?,
a?aoeo, ieioiinoue, e?enoaeeecaoeey, oa??ineeeoeee, ioaae

Yeremenko A.P. Increase of Efficiency Graphitizing Inoculation of
High-Strength Cast-Iron. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of a Technical Sciences Candidate
by spesially 05.16.04 — foundry. — National Technical University of
Urraine «Kyjiv polytechnical Institute», Kyjiv, 1998.

Results of researches of influence grafitizing inocuiation by
ferrum-cremnium alloy on kinetics grafitization of hidh-strenght
cast-iron in a liquid, solid-liquid and solid condition are
protected. Is shown, that injection in structure of the modifier
titanium,aluminium,calcium.barium raises efficiency grafitizing of
treat-

ment. The presense of the same elements in industrial ferroalloy FS75
changes it graphitizing potencial. The basis results of have found
application by manyfacture of casting from high-strength cast iron
with high plastic properies.

Key words: high-strength cast iron, grafitizing inoculater, graphite,
density, crystallisation, ferrosilicium, formation of
cementite..

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