IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

N?AeAEIA Aeieo?i A?eoi?iae/

OAeE 621.86.065.3:539.46

I?AeAEUAIIss AA?AAAOII? I?OeIINO? NOAEUeIEO EAIAO?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.05.05 — i?aei?iaeueii-o?ainii?oi? iaoeie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

IAeANA — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi.iaoe, i?io. *athi ?aai Ieoaeeiae/,

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e AeII
? II.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi.iaoe, i?io.Eieia?o?i TH??e ?aaiiae/.
Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio ia?aeiaiiy “Oe?iaoec”,eaiae.oaoi.iaoe, aeioeaio
Ooia Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio eaoaae?e IO?I.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee oi?aa?neoao.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 8 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.052.05 i?e Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (270044. Iaeana-44, i?iniaeo Oaa/aiea, 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 6 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oao. iaoe, i?ioani?. ?.I. A?eieii?a.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Noaeuei? eaiaoe a i?aeeiiii-o?ainii?oieo iaoeiao
a?aeiinyoueny aei aeaoaeae, ye? oaeaeei ni?aoeueiaothoueny. C oi/ee ci?o
aeiiii?/iino? iaiao?aeii uia ?o i?oei?niee ?ic?aooiie aacoaaany ia
yeiiiaa oi/i?o?e ?ic?aooieia?e noai? ? iaeii/anii aoa i?inoei,
caiaey/enue aei aeai?o eaiaoa ?c eaoaeiaa ca a?aeiia?aeieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. ?aaeaiaioiaaiee iaoiae, caoaa?aeaeaiee
Aea?aeiaaioi?iio?oaea Oe?a?ie, a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai c?o/ii? i?inoioe.
Iaeiae aaco?oueny ia aaeueie a?oa?e ?ic?aooieia?e noai?, ui aeei?enoiao?
iaeio ?aeeio i?oei?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo, eio?a iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiao?
a?aei?ii?noue a iaaaioaaeaiiyo eaiao?a, ?o eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino? oa
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ae?ioo. Ca?aeii c oeei iaoiaeii i?oei?nio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ia/eneththoue iiiaeaiiyi noia?iiai ?ic?eaiiai coneeey
ae?ioei eaiaoa ia eiao?oe??io 0.83. A?aei?ii?noue a iaaaioaaeaiiyo
a?aoiaothoue eiao?oe??ioii caiana i?oeiino?. Inue /iio ?ioa?aae oaeeo
eiao?oe??io?a aeoaea oe?ieee, a?ae 2.5 aei 9. Oaeee iaoiae ?iaeoue
?ic?aooiie oiiaiei, cae?eaa? naio i?iaeaio i?aeaeuaiiy i?oei?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee eaiao?a.

Iioeiaeueiee aea?? eaiaoa, i?aeaeuaiiy eiai i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
ia?oey? cia/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo, oae ye aeicaieeoue i?e caaacia/aii?
i?oeiino? aeei?enoiaoaaoe eaiao ? aa?aaai iaioiai ae?aiao?a, a cia/eoue
noaia iiaeeeaei ciaioeoe aaaa?eoe i?aei?iaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, cieceoe
eiai aaao ? a e?ioeaaiio ?ic?aooieo aa?o?noue. Oea aaaeeeai aeey
i?aeoeee aenieoaoaoe?? oa i?iaeooaaiiy i?aeeiiii-o?ainii?oiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy a ia?oo /a?ao a a??ie/iaeiaoaieo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
eaiao?a, ?o ?ic?aooiie ? iiaeaeueoa aeei?enoaiiy i?e aenieoaoaoe?? oa
i?iaeooaaii? i?aeeiiii-o?ainii?oieo iaoei. Oea iio?aao? aiae?co aieiaieo
oaeoi??a, aieeaath/eo ia i?oei?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee; ooi/iaiiy ?
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo noai, aeicaieyth/eo a?aoiaoaaoe on?
aieeaia? oaeoi?e; i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ye ii aecia/aiith aeo?aeieo
ia?aiao??a iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ae?ioo, oae ? ii ia?aa??oe?
?ic?iaeaieo ?ic?aooieiaeo noai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa
i?iaaaeaii iiaiee aiae?c i?e/ei, aieeaath/eo ia i?oei?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee
eaiao?a; ia i?aenoaa? caaaeueii? ?aea? aoae?aaeueii? iaoai?ee ?ic?iaeaii
e?iaiaoe/iee iaoiae ia/eneaiiy ?ic?eaiiai coneeey (iano/i? caeaoiino?)
eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc? ? e?o/aii?, aeicaieyth/ee a?aoiaoaaoe on? oaeoi?e
eiino?oeoeaiiai, oaoiieia?/iiai ? aenieoaoaoe?eiiai iai?yie?a;
aeine?aeaeaii aieea iniiaieo oaeoi??a ia eiao?oe??ioe iano/i? caeaoiino?
eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc? a iai?yiieo oa a?eueii i?aea?oaiei aaioaaeai; aia?oa
?ic?iaeaia oai??y, ui iieno? iai?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai oa caeeoeia?
coneeey a eaiaoao, iia’ycai? c? caeaaeueiei iaoyae?iiyi aeaiaio?a, ? ia
oe?e iniia? noi?ioeueiaaii aiae?oe/io oiiao ciaioaiiy (?aaoethaaiiy)
oeeo coneeue; iioe?aii ?icaeoie oaoiieia?/ieo niinia?a i?aeaeuaiiy
i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee eaiao?a; aia?oa noi?ioeueiaaii oiiao noaoe/ii?
??aiii?oeiino? eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc? oa aeeiiai? ?ic?aooiee i?oei?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ia ?? iniia?; aecia/aii iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??io?a iano/i? caeaoiino? eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc? a iai?yiieo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

— e?iaiaoe/iee iaoiae ia/eneaiiy ?ic?eaiiai coneeey eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc?
oa ?icoyc? c e?o/aiiyi;

— iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ??cieo oaeoi??a ia eiao?oe??ioe
iano/i? caeaoiino? eaiao?a i?e aeacaieo noaiao iaaaioaaeaiiy;

— ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a iano/i? caeaoiino? eaiao?a ??cieo
eiino?oeoe?e;

— iaoiaeeea aeei?enoaiiy iie?aiiaeueii? noaiaoecaoe?? ae?aa?ai ?icoyao
ae?ioo i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy eaiao?a;

— ?acoeueoaoe e?eoe/iiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aecia/aiiy coneeue
a aeaiaioao eaiaoa, ui ?ice?ea iiieeeia?noue iaoiae?a ? i?eeaae?a, a
yeeo aei?? coneeue a aeaiaioao aeeiio?oueny i?e ci?iaieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo ?o aei?noeinoae;

eiino?oeoe?y oi?aa?naeueiiai i?eno?ith, ui caaacia/o? iaeii/anii
i?aoi?iaoe?th aeaiaio?a ? ae??aithaaiiy ?o iaoyae?iiy a i?ioean? caeaee;

i?eioeei eiino?othaaiiy noaoe/ii ??aiii?oeiiai eaiaoa i?e ?icoyc?.

Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a caaacaa/oaaeanue aeei?enoaiiyi
no/anieo iaoiae?a ia?iaee aeine?ae?a; ioe?ieith /ooeeaino? ?ic?aooieiaeo
noai aei aeo?aeieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ia?aiao??a; c?noaaeaiiyi
oai?aoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo aeaiia iaoiaeaie, c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Cae?eniaiiy oe?eae aeena?oaoe?? ia?
oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue. A oai?aoe/iiio ieai? oe?ii?noue
iieyaa? a ia?oo /a?ao a ?ic?iaeaiiio e?iaiaoe/iiio iaoiae? ia/eneaiiy
?ic?eaieo coneeue eaiao?a. Iaoiae ? ooiaeaiaioaeueiei, a oiio a?aee?eaa?
ia?niaeoeao iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc? i?oeiino? oa
?aoe?iiaeueiiai eiino?othaaiiy eaiao?a ? acaaae? aeoeo ae?ioyieo
aeaoaeae. Ia iniia? noi?ioeueiaaii? ? oai?aoe/ii ?aae?ciaaii? oiiae
noaoe/ii? ??aiii?oeiino? anoaiiaeaia aa?oiy iaaea eiao?oe??ioa iano/i?
caeaoiino? eaiaoa, aecia/aii i?i?iaeueii iaieio/o ao?aoo noia?iiai
?ic?eaiiai coneeey eiai ae?ioei.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iieyaa? a o?i, ui iaea?aeai? eiao?oe??ioe iano/i?
caeaoiino? eaiao?a iniiaieo oei?a oa cai?iiiiiaaia caaaeueia iaoiaeeea
?o ia/eneaiiy aeey aoaeue-yeeo eiino?oeoe?e eaiao?a, eaaae?a,
iaoaeio?in?a coa/aoeo ian?a ? o.i. aeaoaeae. ?ic?iaeaii ? caiaoaioiaaii
oi?aa?naeueiee i?eno??e, ui ae??oo? aea? oaoiieia?/i? caaea/?:
i?aoi?iaoe?th noaeie ? ae??aithaaiiy (?aaoethaaiiy) ?o iaoyae?iiy i?e
caeaoe?. Aaaeooueny ia?aaiai?e i?i i?iaeaae e?oeaic?? iaei?e
aa?iainuee?e o??i?.

?ic?iaeaiiy aeacaiiai iaoiaea ia/eneaiiy ?ic?eaieo coneeue eaiao?a,
eiino?oeoe?? i?eno?ith, oiiae noaoe/ii? ??aiii?oeiino? aeeiiai? o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c i?ioani?aie Na?a??aei N.O. ? *athiii ?.I.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aoee iia?aeiieai?,
iaaiai?ai? oa noaaeai? ia oaeeo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao: ?in?enueeiio
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? c i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth «I?iaeaiu
iaaeaaeiinoe e aaciianiie yenieoaoaoeee e?aiiauo iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee e
noaeueiuo eaiaoia» (Iiai/a?eanuee, 1992); iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia??
«Aaoiiaoecaoeey iaoiaeia ia?ac?ooathuaai eiio?iey ea/anoaa» (Neaanueea,
Aeiiaoeueei? iae. 1994); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoaieea e iiaua
oaoiieiaee» (Naaanoiiieue, 1995); ?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
«Aeeiai?ea, i?oei?noue iaoei oa ii?? iaoa??ae?a» Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Iaeana, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, iioae?eiaai?
a 8 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo caeiaoaa/a. C ieo 6 noaoae ? 2 iaoaioa ia
aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a caaaeueiei ianyaii 149 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, 21 ?ethno?aoe??, 20 oaaeeoeue, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (95
iaca).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ? ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie
aeena?oaoe??, i?eaaaeaii e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae a iaeano? oai?aoe/iiai oa
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
eaiao?a. A?aeiinii aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a eiinoaoo?oueny
iiieeeia?noue oeo aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo aei?? coneeue a aeaiaioao
aeeiioaaany i?e ci?iaieo ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo ?o aei?noeinoae. I?e/eia
iiieeie iieyaa? a o?i, ui ia a?aoiaaia iniaeea?noue eaiao?a ye noaoe/ii
iaaecia/oaaieo eiino?oeoe?e, a eio?eo ?iciiae?e coneeue caeaaeeoue a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aei?noeinoae aeaiaio?a.

Aeae? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c a?aeiieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy i?oei?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc? oa ?icoyc? c e?o/aiiyi, noi?ioeueiaaii
oe?eue ? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aiie i?aeii?yaeeiaai? aieiaiiio
aeniiaeo: on? i?oei?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee eaiao?a c?o/ii ia?aoiaoaaoe ca
oaeith oi?ioeith

_ EMBED Equation.2 ___, (1)

aea _ EMBED Equation.2 ___ — eiao?oe??io iano/i? caeaoiino? eaiaoa,
caeaaeiee a?ae oeio eiino?oeoe?? oa noaie iaaaioaaeaiiy, eio?ee iiaeiai
ooi/ieoe (cai?ieoe) aaee/eio 0.83, cai?iiiiiaaio ?nioth/eie I?aaeeaie;

_ EMBED Equation.2 ___ — noia?ia ?ic?eaia coneeey ae?ioei eaiaoa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «?ic?eaia coneeey eaiao?a oa eiao?oe??io iano/i?
caeaoiino? i?e ?icoyc? a iai?yiieo» i?iaiae?ciaaii oaeoi?e, ui
aieeaathoue ia ?ic?eaia coneeey eaiao?a, ooi/iaii i?yiee oa ?ic?iaeaii
e?iaiaoe/iee iaoiae ia/eneaiiy _ EMBED Equation.3 ___, a /a?ac iueiai ?
eiao?oe??ioa _ EMBED Equation.2 ___. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia iiaoaeiaaia ia
ianooiieo aeo?aeieo ia?aaeoiiaao:

1. Ca e??oa??e ae/a?iaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? eaiaoa i?eeiyoi oaeee eiai
a?aie/iee noai, ca yeei ae?ioeie iaeiiai aai aeae?eueeio aeaiaio?a
aeinyaathoue ??aiii??ii? a?aie/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, n=1, 2, …, s, (2)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___- iaiao?aeia aeaoi?iaoe?y n-ai aeaiaioa;

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___- ??aiii??ia a?aie/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y ae?ioo oeueiai
aeaiaioa;

s- e?euee?noue aeaiaio?a eaiaoa.

2. I?ae aeaiaioii eaiaoa ?icoi??ii a?oie ae?ioei, ui iathoue
aaiiao?e/io, o?ce/io oa neeiao neiao??th a eiai iiia?a/iiio ia?a??c?.
Acaaae? aeaiaioii iiaea aooe eiaeia ie?aia ae?ioeia eaiaoa.

3. Aaaaea?ii, ui ae?ioeie ciaoiaeyoueny a i?e?iaeii iaiai?oaeaiiio
noai?.

4. ?icaeyaeath/e iaoai?eo aeaoi?ioaaiiy ae?ioei aeaiaio?a,
aeei?enoiao?ii a?iioaco ieineeo ia?a??c?a ? i?e ia/eneaii? ?o iniaenoi?
iano/i? caeaoiino? i?eeia?ii aei oaaae o?eueee aeaoi?iaoe?th ?icoyao
ae?ioei aai ?icoyao c e?o/aiiyi.

5. Noaiaoecaoe?th ae?aa?ai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ae?ioei aeaiaio?a i?eeia?ii ca
oeiii i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiai o?ea c e?i?eiei aai iie?aiiaeueiei
ci?oeiaiiyi.

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy a?aie/iiai noaio eaiaoa aeine?aeaeo?oueny eiai
i?oaeii-ieanoe/ia aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Oeae i?ioean iiae?ey?oueny ia
?ioa?aaee. Eiaeai ?ioa?aae, e??i inoaiiueiai, yaey? aeaoi?ioaaiiy eaiaoa
i?ae a?aie/ieie i?oaeieie noaiaie aeaio non?aei?o aeaiaio?a. E?ioeaaa
oi?ioea i?yiiai iaaeiaeo ca aeaeyaeii caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiith

_ EMBED Equation.2 ___, (3)

Ooo _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ oa _ EMBED Equation.3 ___, _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___ — a a?aeiiniiio aei??? ii?iaeueia neea a ia?a??cao
aeaiaio?a oa ?o eooe caeaee c o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie a a?aie/iiio noai?
eaiaoa

_ EMBED Equation.2 ___ (4)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — aeaoi?iaoe?y ?icoyao ae?ioei aeaiaioa ca
on? t ?ioa?aae?a aeaoi?ioaaiiy eaiaoa.

Aeey aeaiaio?a, eio?ei aeaiee ?ioa?aae ? inoaii?i i?oaeiei

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___. (5)

Ca?eueoaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e inoaii?o aeaiaio?a

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, (6)

aea _ EMBED Equation.2 ___; _ EMBED Equation.2 ___;_ EMBED Equation.2
___;_ EMBED Equation.2 ___; _ EMBED Equation.2 ___;_ EMBED Equation.2
___- eiao?oe??ioe aeaoi?iaoe?? aeaiaio?a ca ?iaioaie I.O.Aeooei oa
?.I.*athia;

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.2 ___ ? o.ae. aeaaa?a?/i?
aeiiiaiaiiy iao?eoe? aei?noeino? (24) eaiaoa.

sseui, iai?eeeaae ?c-ca k-ai aeaiaioa, inoaii?e m-ee ?ioa?aae aoaea
iaiiaiee, oi

_ EMBED Equation.2 ___. (7)

sseui ia inoaiiueiio (s+1)-io ?ioa?aae? on? aeaiaioe aeaoi?iothoueny c
iiaeoeai ci?oeiaiiy _ EMBED Equation.3 ___

_ EMBED Equation.2 ___. (8)

aea _ EMBED Equation.2 ___; _ EMBED Equation.2 ___ — ??aiii??ia
a?aie/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y ae?ioei a?aeiia?aeieo aeaiaio?a.

Eiao?oe??io iano/i? caeaoiino? eaiao?a, yeee aoaea iaeiaeiaei aeey
iaeiiai eiino?oeoeaiiai oeio,

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___. (9)

Iaea?aeaia oaeiae i?eaeecia oi?ioea

_ EMBED Equation.2 ___, (10)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — ??aiii??ia a?aie/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y ae?ioei
k-ai aeaiaioa, yeee ?c-ca iaaeeiiaiiy oiiae (2) coiiaeth? a?aie/iee noai
eaiaoa; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ oa _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — aeo?aei?
eooe caeaee, aac o?aooaaiiy ?o ci?ie.

A ?icaeyiooiio i?yiiio iaoiae? iaoai?ea i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?io-aaiiy eaiaoa ? ia/eneaiiy eiai iano/i? caeaoiino? iaiia ae
a?aee?eo? aeey iaeyaeo iine?aeiai?noth oi?ioe (5), (6), (7) aai (8),
(4), (3). I?e oeueiio ?ao?aiee aaciina?aaeiuei nai iiaeiai aiae?coaaoe
e??oa??e (2) ? aeyaeyoe aeaiaio, coiiaethth/ee a?aie/iee noai eaiaoa.

A oaia? ?icaeyiaii e?iaiaoe/iee iaoiae. Eiai ?aeay iieyaa? a o?i, ui
?ieue aeaiaioa, coiiaethth/iai a?aie/iee noai eaiaoa, ye ae iaine?i
iine?aeiaii aea?oueny on?i aeaiaioai. Ae?eniei a?aie/iei noaiii aoaea
oie, yeiio a?aeiia?aea? i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___. (11)

Ooo _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — ca?eueoaiiy ?icoyaoth/iai coneeey ca n-ee
?ioa?aae aeaoi?ioaaiiy eaiaoa

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, (12)

aea U=1; 1.25; 1.5; 2.0; …; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — a?aieoe?
ae?eueieoeue iie?aiiaeueii? noaiaoecaoe?? ae?aa?ai ?icoyao ae?ioei
aeaiaio?a;

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — ?ioaineai?noue aeaoi?iaoe?e aeaiaioa,
coiiaethth/iai cae?i/aiiy n-ai ?ioa?aaeo aeaoi?ioaaiiy eaiaoa _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___-
aecia/iee iao?eoe? aei?noeino? (24) eaiaoa .

Eiao?oe??io iano/i? caeaoiino?, eio?ee ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia on?
eaiaoe iaeiiai eiino?oeoeaiiai oeio,

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___. (13)

Aeaoi?iaoe?? eaiaoa ca iaeei ?ioa?aae: _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «?ic?eaia coneeey eaiao?a oa eiao?oe??io iano/i?
caeaoiino? i?e ?icoyc? a?eueii i?aea?oaiei aaioaaeai» nii/aoeo
iaa?oioiao?oueny ?ic?aooieiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ae?ioei ye ?icoya c
e?o/aiiyi. Ii?iaeueia neea a ia?a??cao aeaiaio?a a a?aie/iiio noai?
eaiaoa

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___. (14)

Ooo _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ ? _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — ca?eueoaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?e ?icoyao i?e i?oaeiiio aeaoi?ioaaii? aeaiaioa:

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___ ; (15)

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___; (16)

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___; (17)

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___. (18)

Neeaaeiaa ii?iaeueii? neee i?e i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiio aeaoi?ioaaii?
ae?ioeie aeaiaioa

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___ , (19)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — iicaeiaaeia aei?noe?noue ae?ioeie

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___. (20)

Ia i?aenoaa? (19) i?ney ?ioaa?oaaiiy oa ia?aoai?thaaiiy (?en.1)

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___. (21)

A i?yiiio iaoiae? i?ney aecia/aiiy ii?iaeueieo nee a ia?a??cao on?o
aeaiaio?a ?ic?eaia coneeey eaiaoa ia/eneth?oueny ca oi?ioeith (3).

A e?iaiaoe/iiio iaoiae? e?ioeaaa oi?ioea (11) oaeiae caaaeueia, a aeey _
EMBED Equation.3 ___ iaea?aeaii oaeee ae?ac

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, (22)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — ?ioaineai?noue aeaoi?iaoe?e aeaiaioa, yeee
iaoiiaeth? cae?i/aiiy n-ai ?ioa?aaeo aeaoi?ioaaiiy eaiaoa

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___

Aeaoi?iaoe?? eaiaoa a a?aieoeyo ?ioa?aaeo:

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___ (23)

_Aeine?aeaeai? aei?noeino? eaiaoa c ia??aiii??iei caeaaeueiei iaoyaii
aeaiaio?a i?e i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiio aeaoi?ioaaii? ia i?aenoaa?
iie?aiiaeueii? noaiaoecaoe?? ae?aa?ai ?icoyao ae?ioo. I?e oeueiio ca
iniiao acyoa iao?eoey aei?noeino? eaiaoa, iaea?aeaia ?.I.*athiii

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, (24)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3
___; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — iicaeiaaeiy, e?ooeeueia oa caeii?
aei?noeino?; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ ? o.ae. —
aei?noeino? aieeao.

Eiaeia ?c aei?noeinoae

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, k=j=1, 2, 3, 4, (25)

aea U — ieoiia iioaioe?eia aia?a?y aeaoi?iaoe?? eaiaoa; _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; _
EMBED Equation.3 ___.

Ae?ace aei?noeinoae, iai?eeeaae:

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___; (26)

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, (27)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; m — e?euee?noue ae?ioei a iaeiiio aeaiaio?.

Ooo ia a?aei?io a?ae ?iaioe ?.I.*athia i?e aecia/aii? aei?noeinoae _
EMBED Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ oa _ EMBED Equation.3
___ ae?ioei a noaae?? i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy aeei?enoaia
iie?aiiaeueia oa nooiai/aoa noaiaoecaoe?y. Iie?aiiaeueia caeeaaeaeany
ae?aa?aiith aeaoi?ioaaiiy ae?ioo, a nooue nooiai/aoi? aeaeii ?c ?en.2.
I?e oeueiio eiaeia ?c aei?noeinoae iao?eoe? (24) aecia/a?oueny noiith
o?ueio aeiaeaoe?a

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, (28)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — /enei aeaiaio?a, ui aeaoi?iothoueny
i?oaeii-ieanoe/ii i?e a?aeiia?aeieo aei?noeinoyo _ EMBED Equation.3 ___
, _ EMBED Equation.3 ___, _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; _ EMBED Equation.3
___ — /enei aeaiaio?a, ye? aeaoi?iothoueny a cii? ci?oeiaiiy i?e
a?aeiinieo aei?noeinoyo _ EMBED Equation.3 ___.

Aeei?enoaiiy aeacaii? noaiaoecaoe?? i?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieiai?
noaie i?e ?icoyc? eaiaoa a?eueii i?aea?oaiei aaioaaeai ia 10…15%

_A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy» i?eaaaeai?
?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee e?i?eii? ia iie?aiiaeueii? noaiaoecaoe?? ae?aa?ai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy ae?ioo.

Iienai? iniaeeaino? eiino?oeoe?? oa oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy noaeie ?
eaiao?a aeey aeine?aeieo c?ace?a c aa?aioiaaiei ??aii-i??iei iaoyaii
aea-iaio?a oa c na?aeiii a?ae-i?iiei iaoyaii. Aein-e?aei? noaeee 1+6+12
caeaaeenue ?c ae?ioo ae?aiao?ii 1 ii c a?a-ieoeyie i?oeiino? 1400, 1800
Iia ? ??aiii??-iith a?aie/iith aeaoi?-iaoe??th _ EMBED Equation.3 ___
a?aeiia?aeii 0.024; 0.015. Aa??thaai-iyi ae?ioo c oaeeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie a oa?ao oa eooaie caeaee aioo??oiueiai oa?o _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___ (a ciai?oiueiio oa?? _ EMBED Equation.3 ___)
caaacia/aii 8 aeae?a c?ace?a. Ua aeey aeaio c?ace?a aoee caeo? noaeee c
yeiiiaa iecueeei ??aiai iaoyae?iiy o?ueio ae?ioei a ciai?oiueiio oa??, a
inoaii? 9 c iaoyae?iiyi aeecueeei aei a?aie/ii iiaeeeaiai. ?c noaeie c
??aiii??iei iaoyae?iiyi ae?ioei aoee caeo? eaiaoe 6(19(1+6+12)+i.n. Aiie
i?oee ia aeaioiaeaiiy 8 c?ace?a eaiao?a c ??aiii??iei iaoyae?iiyi noaeie
oa 3 c?ace?a c iaeiith i?ineaaeaiith noaeeith.

Eiaeai c?acie iaa aeo?aeio aeiaaeeio 1.8 i. Iaeio /anoeio c?acea
aeiaaeeiith 1 i ?icie?oaee ia neeaaeia? ae?ioeie ? oeyoii ?o ?ic?eao
aecia/aee noia?ia ?ic?eaia coneeey on?o ae?ioei eiie?aoiiai c?acea
eaiaoa. Ca ae?oaith /anoeiith c?acea aeiaaeeiith 0.8 i aecia/aee
?ic?eaia coneeey eaiaoa ia iaoei? OAEI-50. Aoei i?aeaioiaeaii ?
a?i?iaoaaii ii 6 c?ace?a eiaeiiai aeaeo eaiao?a. ?ica?aei?noue
?ic?aooieiaeo oa aeine?aeieo cia/aiue ?ic?eaieo coneeue (eiao?oe??io?a
iano/i? caeaoiino?) neeaaeaee: aeey noaeie c ??aiii??iei iaoyaii ae?ioei
i?e ?ic?aooieao ca oi/ieie oi?ioeaie (9), (13) aei 4%, ca i?eaeeciith
(10) ia a?eueoa 6.3%; aeey noaeie c ia??aiii??iei iaoyae?iiyi i?e
?ic?aooieao ca oi?ioeith (13) 5.9…6.1%; aeey eaiao?a c ??aiii??iei
iaoyae?iiyi noaeie iaeneiaeueia ?ica?aei?noue aei 9% ye i?e ?ic?aooieao
ca oi/iith, oae ? ca i?eaeeciith oi?ioeaie; aeey eaiao?a c ia??aiii??iei
iaoyae?iiyi noaeie aei 11%.

C?noaaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aeine?aeieo aeaieo ?ic?eaieo coneeue
aaaaoioa?iaeo eaiao?a iiaea?eii? caeaee iieacaii ia ?en.3. Ooo
?ica?aei?noue ia ia?aaeuo? 5%.

_I?iaaaeai? aei?iaoaaiiy ia aeo?eaae?noue iieacaee, ui ye noaeee, oae ?
eaiaoe caeo? c? cia/iith ia??aiii??i?noth iaoyae?iiy iathoue ia 15…20%
cieaeai? iieacieee oeeee?/ii? i?oeiino?.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iienaii oaeiae aeiaeaeaiee i?eno??e aeey
iaeii/aniiai ae??aithaaiiy iaoyae?iiy ? i?aoi?iaoe?? noaeie i?e caeaoe?
eaiao?a. I?eno??e ?ioaa?o? a nia? i?eioeei cae/aeii? i?aoi?ioth/i?
aieiaee oa aaae?eueii-i?oaeeiiiai iaoai?cia aeey i?eoeneoaaiiy noaeie,
ui caaacia/o? ?aaoethaaiiy ?o iaoyae?iiy. Aaciina?aaeiuei oea
aeeiiothoue i?io?euei? ?ieeee.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? «Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo oaeoi??a, aieeaath/eo ia
?ic?eaia coneeey oa iai?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai eaiao?a» ?acoeueoaoe
iaea?aeai? aieiaiei /eiii /enaeueiei oeyoii ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeaieo
iaoiae?a, ye? iienai? o 2 ? 3 ?icae?eao. Nii/aoeo /enaeueiith
ia?aa??eith anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ic?aooieiaa noaia iaoiae?a iaei /ooeeaa aei
ci?ie (oi/iino? aecia/aiiy) aeo?aeieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo:
ia?aiao??a ae?aa?ai ?icoyao ae?ioo (iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? E = (1.7…2.1)
( 105 IIa, a?aeiinia a?aieoey oaeo/ino? _ EMBED Equation.3 ___);
eiao?oe??io?a, iia’ycaieo c? caeiiith aei?noe?noth noaeie oa iiia?a/iei
caoaeaiiyi.

Aieea ??aiii??ii? a?aie/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ae?ioo a ?ioa?aae? _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___ ia ci?io eiao?oe??ioa iano/i? caeaoiino? eaiaoa i?e
?icoyc? a iai?yiieo ia ia?aaeuo? 1%, yeui _ EMBED Equation.3 ___. I?e
a?eueiiio ?icoyc? aieea cia/i?oee. Eiai ?ioaineai?noue i?aeaeuo?oueny c?
ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy iaa??aiiaaaeaiino? eaiaoa ca e?o/aiiyi. Aeey
iiai?noth iaa??aiiaaaeaieo i?e ciaioaii? _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ a?ae
0.025 aei 0.015 _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ ciaioo?oueny ia 20%.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui aeei?enoaiiyi iie?aiiaeueii? noaiaoecaoe?? ae?aa?ai
?icoyao ae?ioo cai?noue e?i?eii?, cia/ii ia 17…19%, i?aeaeuo?oueny
oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieo _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ i?e a?eueiiio ?icoyc?. A
i?e ?icoyc? a iai?yiieo o?eueee aei 2%.

Ci?ia eiao?oe??ioa caeiii? aei?noeino? noaeie a ?ioa?aae? eiai iiaeeeaeo
cia/aiue ci?ith? eiao?oe??io iano/i? caeaoiino? eaiao?a i?e a?eueiiio
?icoyc? onueiai ia 3…4%. Oaeee aea ni?eyoeeaee ?acoeueoao ? a?ae
aa??thaaiiy iiia?a/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, o oiio /ene? aeey eaiao?a
iiaea?eii? caeaee c i?aai?/iei ina?aeyi.

Aia?oa, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii aieea caeaaeueiiai iaoyao aeaiaio?a ia
aeaoi?iiaaiee noai oa caeeoeia? coneeey a eaiaoao. Caeeoeia? iicaeiaaei?
coneeey a ae?ioeiao, iia’ycai? c oeei oaeoi?ii

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, (29)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ oa _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — iaoyae?iiy oa
iicaeiaaeiy aei?noe?noue ae?ioei; m ? k — e?euee?noue oa??a ? ae?ioei a
oa??.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e (29), caeeoeia? neeia? oaeoi?e, oiaoi e?ooy/ee _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___ oa caeiath/? iiiaioe _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ ? _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___ a ia?a??c? eaiaoa, aecia/athoueny ca oi?ioeaie
I.O.Aeooei. Aiae?c iieaco?, ui oe? oaeoi?e iiaeooue aei??aithaaoe ioeth
a oaeeo aeiaaeeao: a on?o ae?ioeiao _ EMBED Equation.3 ___; caeeoeia?
coneeey _ EMBED Equation.3 ___, aea ia?oueny oaea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
coneeue, i?e yeiio caaacia/o?oueny ioeueia? cia/aiiy oaeoi??a; _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___ iiaea aei??aithaaoe ioeth i?e aecia/aiiio niieo/aii?
iai?yie?a caeaee ae?ioei a noaeeao.

Canoinoaaiiy ia?oi? oiiae aei ae?aco (29) iieaco?, ui iaeiaeia?
iaoyae?iiy ae?ioei _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ ia caaacia/othoue a ieo
ioeueia? caeeoeia? coneeey. O?eueee a ie?aiiio aeiaaeeo, eiee EF oa _
EMBED Equation.3 ___ i?e iino?eiiio iaoyae?ii? aoaeooue a?aenooi?ie
caeeoeia? coneeey. Iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? aeicaieythoue aecia/aoe
iaoyae?iiy ae?ioei, ca yeeie aoaeooue aeiionoei? cia/aiiy caeeoeiaeo
oaeoi??a, iai?eeeaae, c oi/ee ci?o caa?aaeaiiy i?yiie?i?eiino?
a?ae??ce?a eaiaoa.

Ia??aiii??i?noue caeaaeueiiai iaoyae?iiy aeaiaio?a ?iaeoue ?acoya eaiaoa
iaoeaio?aeueiei. *a?ac oea c’yaeythony aeaoi?iaoe?? caeio _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___ oa _ EMBED Equation.3 ___, ye? aeiaeathoue
ia??aiii??i?noue aeaoi?iaoe?e ?icoyao ae?ioei a eaiao?. A oea, a ?ac?
iaiaaeaiino? ??aiii??ii? a?aie/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ae?ioo _ EMBED
Equation.3 ___, aaaea aei aeiaeaoeiaiai ciaioaiiy ?ic?eaiiai coneeey
eaiaoa.

Aieea ia??aiii??iino? caeaaeueiiai iaoyae?iiy ia iai?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiee
noai ? iia’ycaio c iei oeeee?/io i?oei?noue eaiao?a ? ua a?eueo caoaiei,
oiio ui a?ae/oaa?oueny i?e cia/ii iaiueoiio ??ai? ia??aiii??iino?
iaoyae?iiy. Oae, aeey noaeee 1+6+12 c o?ueiia i?ineaaeaieie ae?ioeiaie a
ciai?oiueiio oa?? ? aeey eaiaoa 6(19+i.n. c iaeiith i?ineaaeaiith
noaeeith i?e oiiaiiio caian? i?oeiino? 9, ae?eniee caian i?oeiino?,
ia/eneaiee ye a?aeiioaiiy a?aieoe? i?oeiino? ae?ioo aei iaeneiaeueiiai
aea?aaeaioiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a iueiio ciaoiaeeoueny a oaeeo ?ioa?aaeao:
i?e ?icoyc? a iai?yiieo 8.2…3.9; i?e ?icoyc? a?eueiiio 3.6…1.15. Oe?
cia/aiiy ae?acii iieacothoue, yeo ia??aiii??i?noue iai?oaeaiiai noaio
ii?iaeaeo? ia??aiii??i?noue caeaaeueiiai iaoyae?iiy aeaiaio?a. Oea a
naith /a?ao cieaeo? oeeee?/io i?oei?noue eaiao?a ? yaey?oueny iaei??th c
i?e/ei, ui ciooo? iacia/aoe aaeee? oiiai? caiane i?oeiino? aeey eaiao?a.

A?aeiinii aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeo?aeiiai iai?oaeiiai noaio ae?ioei
anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaei ? i?neycaeaaeueiee noai. A naiei
ni?eyoeeaei ye aeey noaoe/ii?, oae ? oeeee?/ii? i?oeiino? ? i?e?iaeii
iaiai?oaeaiee noai. Ae/a?ii? aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai oaeoi?a yaeythoue
niaith aaeueie ia’?iio caaea/o a?aeio ie?aii? naiino?eii? ?iaioe.
Iaea?eueo iaaeeaea? i?neycaeaaeueiee iai?oaeaiee noai aei i?e?iaeii
iaiai?oaeaiiai i?aoi?iaoe?y aeaiaio?a eaiaoa. Naia oe?e iao? ? neoaeeoue
?ic?iaeaiee iaie i?eno??e.

O?aooaaiiy ci?ie eoo?a oa ?aae?on?a caeaee ia ?ic?eaia coneeey eaiao?a
aeeiiaii oaeiae /enaeueiei oeyoii. Nai? ci?ie eoo?a cia/i? o?eueee i?e
?icoyc? eaiao?a a?eueii i?aea?oaiei aaioaaeai. I?e o?aooaaii? ?o
oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?ic?eaiiai coneeey eaiao?a ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e
ca?eueoo?oueny ia 0.4…6.7%. I?ioa oea ca?eueoaiiy ia ia? aoaeue-yei?
no?iai? caeiiii??iino?.

Ia cae?i/aiiy 5-ai ?icae?eo i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy a iaeano?
noaoe/ii? ??aiii?oeiino? eaiaoa, ca yeo ?icoi??ii iaeii/ania ae/a?iaiiy
iano/i? caeaoiino? on?o eiai aeaiaio?a. Aeey noaie ?icoyao a iai?yiieo
iaea?aeaii oiiao eiino?othaaiiy ??aiii?oeiiai eaiaoa ca oaeei e?eoa???i.
Oey oiiaa c’?aeio? eooe caeaee eaiaoa oa iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
ae?ioei oaeei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi

_ EMBED Equation.3 ___, (30)

aea _ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — ??aiii??ia a?aie/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y ae?ioei;
_ EMBED Equation.3 ___ — eooe caeaee i-ai aeaiaioa a eiai j-io ii?yaeeo
caeaee; n=1, 2, 3 — iiia? ii?yaeea caeaee.

I?e aeeiiaii? oe??? oiiae aeinyaa?oueny iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa cia/aiiy
?ic?eaiiai coneeey eaiaoa eiie?aoiiai eiino?oeoeaiiai oeio. Ca?eueoaiiy
?ic?eaiiai coneeey aeey ??cieo oei?a eaiao?a i?e aeiaea?aeaii? oiiae
(30) aeinyaa? 1.3…4.7%. Ia i?aenoaa? oiiae (30) neeaaeaia cayaea ia
aeiao?ae, ? iaea?aeaii iaoaio Oe?a?ie.

AENIIAEE ? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

1. Noaeuei? eaiaoe a i?aeeiiii-o?ainii?oieo iaoeiao caciathoue ??ci?
iaaaioaaeaiiy, io?eioth/e aeaoi?iaoe?? ?icoyao, e?o/aiiy, caeio, a
oaeiae iiia?a/i? aeaoi?iaoe??, a oiio /ene? a cii? eiioaeoa c aeieaie oa
aa?aaaiaie. Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, ?ic?aooiie ia noaoe/io i?oei?noue,
?aaeaiaioiaaiee I?aaeeaie Aea?aeiaaioi?iio?oaea aeeiio?oueny ca iaeiith
?aeeiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith, aecia/aiith o?eueee aeaoi?iaoe??th ?icoyao
eaiaoa. Aei oiai ae oaeo oa?aeoa?enoeeo ia/eneththoue aac iaeaaeiiai
o?aooaaiiy eiino?oeoe?? eaiaoa oa iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eiai ae?ioo.
?? i?eeiathoue ??aiith 0.83 a?ae noia?iiai ?ic?eaiiai coneeey ae?ioei
eaiaoa.

2. Aiae?c oai???, ui iieno? iai?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai eaiao?a,
iieaco? ca iiaeeeaa ?ic?iaeo iaae?eieo iaoiae?a ia/eneaiiy ?o i?oei?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee c o?aooaaiiyi oaeoi??a eiino?oeoe??, oaoiieia??, a oaeiae
ia?aiao??a iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ae?ioo. Iayai?noue oaeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee a eaoaeiaao oa na?oeo?eaoao caeeoeoue ?nioth/o c?o/io
i?inoioo ?ic?aooie?a eaiao?a ia i?oei?noue, ? iaeii/anii ?noioii
i?aeaeueoue oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieiai? noaie, caaacia/eaoe iia’ycaiee c
oeei iiceoeaiee aoaeo.

3. Aiae?c ?nioth/eo ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aecia/aiiy coneeeue
a aeaiaioao eaiao?a aeaa iiaeeea?noue iii?oeoe iiieeeia?noue oeo
iaoiae?a ? i?eeaae?a, a yeeo aei??thaaiiy coneeue aeeiio?oueny i?e
ci?iaieo ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo aei?noeinoae aeaiaio?a. I?e/eia iieyaa? a o?i,
ui eaiao ? noaoe/ii iaaecia/oaaiith noa?aeiaaith nenoaiith ? oiio
?iciiae?e coneeue i?ae aeaiaioaie caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?o
aei?noeinoae.

4. Ia iniia? caaaeueii? ?aea? aoae?aaeueii? iaoai?ee ?ic?iaeaii ?
?aae?ciaaii ia AII e?iaiaoe/iee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo ?ic?eaieo coneeue
eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc? ? ?icoyc? c e?o/aiiyi, yeee ia a?aei?io a?ae
a?aeiiiai i?yiiai iaoiaeo aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe on? eiino?oeoeai?
iniaeeaino? eaiao?a oa ?o ci?ithaaiiy a i?ioean? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ?aaeueii
?nioth/o ia??aiii??i?noue caeaaeueiiai iaoyae?iiy aeaiaio?a ? ae?oa?
oaeoi?e aneiao???, a oaeiae ia?aiao?e ae?aa?ai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ae?ioo.

5. Aeani? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeai?, acyo? ?c ?ia?o i?ioani?a I.O.Aeooei, aeithoue i?aenoaao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui cai?iiiiiaaiee e?iaiaoe/iee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo
?ic?eaiiai coneeey eaiao?a (?o iano/i? caeaoiino?) i?e ?icoyc? a
iai?yiieo oa a?eueii i?aea?oaiei aaioaaeai ? aeineoue oi/iei.
?ica?aei?noue i?ae oai?aoe/ieie ? aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie,
aecia/aieie aeey 40 ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e, neeaaea? 1…11%. I?e/iio
o?eueee o ainueie aeiaaeeao ?ica?aei?noue aei??aith? 6…11%, a a
inoaii?o ia ia?aaeuo? 5%.

6. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae aea?
noaa?euei? ?acoeueoaoe, aoaeo/e iaei /ooeeaei aei aeo?aeieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ye a?aeiinii eiino?oeoe?? eaiao?a (iiia?a/ia
caoaeaiiy, caeiia aei?noe?noue noaeie), oae ? a?aeiinii ia?aiao??a
ae?aa?ai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ae?ioo.

7. Aia?oa a i?aeoeoe? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
eaiao?a ? acaaae? aeoeo ae?ioyieo aeaoaeae ?ic?iaeaia ? aeei?enoaia
iaoiaeeea iie?aiiaeueii? noaiaoecaoe?? ae?aa?ai ?icoyao ae?ioo. A
ii??aiyii? c aeei?enoaiiyi aei oeueiai /ano e?i?eii? noaiaoecaoe??
iie?aiiaeueia i?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieiai? noaie i?e a?eueiiio
?icoyc? eaiao?a ia 10…15%.

8. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiae?ea ia/eneaiiy aeaoi?iaoeaiiai eiao?oe??ioa,
o?aoiaoth/iai oa?oy iii?ae ae?ioeiaie a noaeeao i?e ?o caei?, ia
i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo caeiii? aei?noeino? noaeie.
Ia/eneai? oae? eiao?oe??ioe aeey iniiaieo oei?a noaeie.

9. Iaea?aeaii oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aieeao caeaaeueiiai iaoyae?iiy
aeaiaio?a ia i?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai ? caeeoeia? coneeey a eaiaoao.
Iieacaii, ui caeaaeueia iaoyae?iiy oi?io? caeeoeia? coneeey a ae?ioeiao
? iia’ycai? c iei caeiath/? oa e?ooy/? iiiaioe a ia?a??cao eaiaoa, ye? ?
i?e/eiith ao?aoe i?yiie?i?eiino? o a?eueiiio noai?. Noi?ioeueiaai?
aiae?oe/i? oiiae, aeicaieythoue ciaiooaaoe (?aaoethaaoe) cacia/ai?
neeia? oaeoi?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae caeaaeueiiai iaoyae?iiy aeaiaio?a.

10. Eaiao, caeoee c ia??aiii??iei iaoyae?iiyi aeaiaio?a, cacia?
iaoeaio-?aeueiiai ?icoyao. A oaeiio noai? e??i iicaeiaaeiuei? oa
e?ooeeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a?i iaea?aeo? i?inoi?iaee caei. Ca?aene
aeiaeaoeia? iicaeiaaei? aeaoi?iaoe?? ae?ioei, a cia/eoue ca?eueoaiiy
nooiaiy ia??aiii??iino? ?o iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?e iaaeinoaoiino? ??aiii??ii?
a?aie/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ae?ioo oea i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
iano/i? caeaoiino? eaiaoa ia 10…20%. Oeae i?ioeaio ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe
ye iiaeeeaa ca?eueoaiiy ?ic?eaiiai coneeey eaiao?a ca ?aooiie
caaacia/aiiy ??aiii??iino? caeaaeueiiai iaoyae?iiy aeaiaio?a.

11. Iaiino?ei?noue caeaaeueiiai iaoyae?iiy ua a?eueo caoaii aieeaa? ia
oeeee?/io i?oei?noue (aeo?eaae?noue) eaiao?a, oiio ui i?aeaeuo?
ia??aiii??i?noue iai?oaeiiai noaio ae?ioei i?e cia/ii iaiueoiio ??ai?
iaiino?eiino? iaoyae?iiy aeaiaio?a. ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui
iaeneiaeueia aea?aaeaioia iai?oaeaiiy o ae?ioeiao c o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai
oaeoi?a i?e ?icoyc? a iai?yiieo a 1.5…2.5 ?ace ia?aaeuo? na?aaeia
iai?oaeaiiy, ia/eneaia ye a?aeiioaiiy ?icoyaoth/iai coneeey aei ieiu?
iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co on?o ae?ioei eaiaoa. I?e ?icoyc? a?eueii
i?aea?oaiei aaioaaeai cacia/aia ia?aaeuaiiy aeioiaeeoue aei 7.5. Oea
cia/eoue, ui iaeaea a no?eueee ?ac?a ae?eniee eiao?oe??io caiano
i?oeiino? aoaea iaioa, i?ae oiiaiee, i?eeiyoee ca I?aaeeaie
Aea?aeiaaioi?iio?oaea.

12. Aeey iniiaieo eiino?oeoe?e eaiao?a ia/eneai? eiao?oe??ioe ?o iano/i?
caeaoiino? i?e ?icoyc? a iai?yiieo ? ?icoyc? a?eueii i?aea?oaiei
aaioaaeai. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe ooi/iththoue eiao?oe??io 0.83, i?iiiiiaaiee
I?aaeeaie, ye a a?e ca?eueoaiiy, oae ? a a?e ciaioaiiy. A caeaaeiino?
a?ae eiino?oeoe?? oa noaie iaaaioaaeaiiy aiieaei??aiththoue 0.97…0.52.
Aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo eiao?oe??io?a i?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue ?ic?aooie?a,
cieaeo? nooi?iue ?o oiiaiino?.

13. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeei eiino?othaaiiy noaoe/ii ??aiii?oeiiai eaiaoa.
Ca oe??th ?ic?iaeith iaea?aeaii iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae. ?ic?aooiee
iieacothoue, ui ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeeia noaoe/ii? ??aiii?oeiino? aeicaiey?
i?aeaeueoe ?ic?eaia coneeey eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc? a iai?yiieo ia 1.5…6%,
aeiaiaey/e eiai aei iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiai cia/aiiy.

14. ?ic?iaeaii ? caiaoaioiaaii a Oe?a?i? oi?aa?naeueiee i?eno??e, ui
caaacia/o? iaeii/anio i?aoi?iaoe?th noaeie ? ae??aithaaiiy ?o iaoyae?iiy
i?e caeaoe?. Ui??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo ciaioaiiy aeo?ao ia aeaioiaeaiiy
eaiao?a c oi/a/iei eiioaeoii ae?ioei i?e aeei?enoaii? i?eno?ith
noaiiaeoue 1.6 i?eueeiia a?eaaiue. Aaaeooueny ia?aaiai?e i?i i?iaeaae
e?oeaic?? ia i?eno??e iaei?e aa?iainuee?e o??i?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a 8 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo:

1. Naaeaeia Ae.A., Na?aaaa N.O., *athi E.I. Oaeoi?u iioa?e ianouae
niiniaiinoe eaiaoia // O?. Iaean. iieeoaoi. oi-oa, 1996, Aui.1.-
N.26-27.

2. *athi E.I., Naaeaeia Ae.A. Aeeyiea ia?aaiiia?iinoe iaoyaeaiey
i?iaieie i?e naeaea ia iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea eaiaoia e
a?iie a?ociianoueo eaaaeae // O?. Iaean. iieeoaoi. oi-oa, 1997, Aui.1.-
N.98-100.

3. Iaoaio ia aeiao?ae 15916 Oe?a?ia, 5D07B7/16. Oi?aa?naeueiee i?eno??e
aeey iaeii/aniiai ae??aithaaiiy iaoyao ? aeaoi?iaoe?? ianii i?e
ne?o/oaaii? eaiaoa / N?aeaeia Ae.A., N??a??a N.O., *athi ?.I. Aeaeaii
30.06.97 Athe.?3

4. Naaeaeia Ae.A., Na?aaaa N.O. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey
iiauoaiey aa?aaaoiie i?i/iinoe eaiaoia.- 15 n. Aeai. A Oe?EIOYE
25.08.94, ?1797-Oe94.

5.*athi E.I., Naaeaeia Ae.A. Iiauoaiea aa?aaaoiiai ?ac?uaiiai oneeey
eaiaoia i?e naiaiaeiii ?anoyaeaiee.- 35 n. Aeai. A Oe?EIOYE 31.03.93,
?750-Oe93.

6.*athi E.I., Naaeaeia Ae.A. Oai?aoe/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea ?ac?uaiiai
oneeey eaiaoia.- 34 n. Aeai. A Oe?EIOYE 15.08.94, ?1631-Oe94.

7. *athi E.I., Naaeaeia Ae.A. Iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa ?ac?uaiiai oneeey
eaiaoia. Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie ?105-94.- Iaeanna.: IAIIO e YE, 1994.- 3
n.

8. Iaoaio ia aeiao?ae 23712A Oe?a?ia, 6F1G9/00. Eaiao ??aiii?oeiee /
N?aeaeia Ae.A., *athi ?.I., Aeiioeia TH.A. Aeaeaii 16.06.98.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a i?aoeyo iioae?eaaaieo c ni?aaaoi?aie —
aia-e?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaienaiiy noaoae, ?ic?aooiee ia AII,
?ic?iaea nooo?aeo iciae aeiaoiae?a.

AIIOAOe?ss

N?aeaeia Ae.A. I?aeaeuaiiy aa?aaaoii? i?oeiino? noaeueieo eaiao?a.
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.05.05 — i?aei?iaeueii-o?ainii?oi? iaoeie.-
Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Iaeana, 1998.

Iiaeaia ?ic?iaea e?iaiaoe/iiai iaoiaeo ia/eneaiiy i?oei?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee noaeueieo eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc? oa e?o/aii? c o?aooaaiiyi
aieeao eiino?oeoeaieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, a oiio /ene?,
ia??aiii??iino? caeaaeueiiai iaoyae?iiy aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ae?ioo. Aeey iniiaieo oei?a eaiao?a iaea?aeai? eiao?oe??ioe
iano/i? caeaoiino?, ye? aeicaieythoue oi/ii ia/enethaaoe i?oei?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee eaiaoa ca noia?iei ?ic?eaiei coneeeyi eiai ae?ioo.
Iieacai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee noaoe/ii? ? oeeee?/ii?
i?oeiino? eaiao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia eiino?oeoe?y oi?aa?naeueiiai i?eno?ith,
yeee aeeiio? iaeii/ania ae??aithaaiiy iaoyae?iiy noaeie ? ?o
i?aoi?iaoe?th i?e caeaoe? eaiao?a, ui caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy
eiao?oe??io?a iano/i? caeaoiino?. Iaaaaeaii i?eioeei eiino?othaaiiy
noaoe/ii ??aiii?oeieo eaiao?a i?e ?icoyc?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eaiao noaeueiee, i?oei?noue, iano/a caeaoi?noue,
aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?oaeii-ieanoe/ia, aei?noe?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Naaeaeia Ae.A. Iiauoaiea aa?aaaoiie i?i/iinoe noaeueiuo eaiaoia.
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.05.05 — iiaeuaiii-o?ainii?oiua iaoeiu.- Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Iaeanna, 1998.

I?aaenoaaeaia ?ac?aaioea eeiaiaoe/aneiai iaoiaea au/eneaiey i?i/iinoiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee noaeueiuo eaiaoia i?e ?anoyaeaiee e e?o/aiee n o/aoii
aeeyiey eiino?oeoeaiuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia, a oii /enea,
ia?aaiiia?iinoe naeai/iiai iaoyaeaiey yeaiaioia, a oaeaea iaoaie/aneeo
naienoa i?iaieiee. Aeey iniiaiuo oeiia eaiaoia iieo/aiu eiyooeoeeaiou
ianouae niiniaiinoe, eioi?ua iicaieytho oi/ii au/eneyoue i?i/iinoiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee eaiaoa ii noiia?iiio ?ac?uaiiio oneeeth aai i?iaieiee.
Iieacaiu iooe iiauoaiey oa?aeoa?enoee noaoe/aneie e oeeeee/aneie
i?i/iinoe eaiaoia. I?aaeeiaeaia eiino?oeoeey oieaa?naeueiiai
i?eniiniaeaiey, eioi?ia auiieiyao iaeiia?aiaiiia ae?aaieaaiea iaoyaeaiey
i?yaeae e eo i?aoi?iaoeeth i?e naeaea eaiaoia, /oi iaania/eaaao
iiauoaiea eiyooeoeeaioia ianouae niiniaiinoe. I?eaaaeai i?eioeei
eiino?oe?iaaiey noaoe/anee ?aaiii?i/iuo eaiaoia i?e ?anoyaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eaiao noaeueiie, i?i/iinoue, ianouay niiniaiinoue,
aeaoi?ie?iaaiea oi?oai-ieanoe/aneia, aeinoeinoue.

SUMMARY

Sedakov D.V. Theincrease of assembly strength of steel ropes.
Manuscript.

Master’s thesis by speciality 05.05.05 — «Lifting and transport
mashines», Odessa State Polytechnical University, Odessa, 1998.

Proposed is the development of kinematical method of culculation of
steel rope strength properties under tension and twisting taking into
consideration the influence of structural and technological factors
including untvenness of twisting tension of elements as well as the
influence of mechanical properties of wire. Bearing strength
coefficients are found for basic rope types which afford to culculate
accurately rope strength properties according to the overall breaking
stress of the wire. Proposed are the methods of the increase of statical
and cyclical rope strength. Proposed is the construction of the
universal device for simultanuous levelling of strand tension and their
preformation by combining of ropes and thus, increasing the bearing
stress coefficient. gIven is the design concept of ropes having
statically equal strength under tension.

Key words: steel rope, strength, bearing stress, elastoplastic
deformation, rigidity.

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