14

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AOAe?AIEOeOAA OA A?O?OAEOO?E

AeIAAAEUe A?EOI? IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE 699.81:614.84:536.21

I?AeAEUAIIss AIAIANO?EEINO? AeA?AAssIEO AOAe?AAEUeIEO

EIINO?OEOe?E CA ?AOOIIE CANOINOAAIIss AIAIACAOENIEO EIIIICEOe?E IA
INIIA? A?AeOIAe?A AE?IAIEOeOAA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.26.03 — iiaeaaeia aaciaea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?eaei?i?ianuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa
oa a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe A?E?EIA Aiaoie?e Na?aoeiiae/, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e aaciaee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? I?eaei?i?ianueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e,

i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe :

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe OII?I Noai?neaa Eaii?aeiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
cae?ciaaoiiieo oa eai’yieo eiino?oeoe?e Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e;

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe ?EUe*AIEI Ieeiea A?eai?iae/, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a I?eaei?i?ianueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e,

i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo iiaeaaeii? aaciaee IAN Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 20 ” aeiaoiy 1999?. i “ 13-00_ ” aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.056.01 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, ca aae?anith: 310002, i.Oa?e?a, aoe.
Noinueea,40.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
aae?anith: 310002, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Noinueea,40.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 16 ” aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eooiaee A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. An? e?a?ie na?oo eiaeiiai ?ieo ianooue cia/i?
ao?aoe a?ae iiaeaae. A inoaii?e /an a?eueo oe?ieee ?icaeoie io?eio?
aeei?enoaiiy aea?aa’yieo ? iaoaeaaeo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Iaoaeaa? eiino?oeoe?? iathoue aeoaea iaeee ??aaiue aiaiano?eeino?, a
aea?aa’yi? aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? ia o?eueee ca?eueoothoue iaaaciaeo
aeieeiaiiy , ?icaeoeo iiaeaae, aea ? oneeaaeiththoue, a a ie?aieo
aeiaaeeao ?iaeyoue iaiiaeeeaei aoaeoeaia aan?iiy iiaeaae, aaaeoaoe?th,
a?yooaaiiy ethaeae ? iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae. O?eueee a Oe?a?i? ca
inoaii? o?e ?iee aeieeei aeecueei 150 oen. iiaeaae, caaeioei 4382
ethaeeie, cieuaii 2127 iaeeieoeue aaoio?ainii?oo, iioeiaeaeaii ? cieuaii
11,8 oen. aoae?aaeue. Noaoenoeea ca 1998 ??e na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
e?euee?noue iiaeaae ciaioeeanue a ii??aiyii? c 1997 ?ieii ia 2,9
a?aenioea, aea caeeoa?oueny cia/iith — 41924 iiaeaae?, e?euee?noue
caaeaeeo noaiiaeoue 2202 ethaeeie, a oiio /ene? 139 ae?oae.

Iaeiei ?c i?ei??oaoieo iai?yie?a ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ? i?eeeaaeieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e .
Ca?eueoaiiy iaae? aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e
aeinyaa?oueny canoinoaaiiyi niaoe?aeueieo cania?a aiaiacaoenoo —
i?iieoeith aioeie?aiaie, iaoooeaoo?thaaiiyi, iaeeoethaaiiyi iaai?th/eie
aoae?aaeueieie iaoa??aeaie, aeei?enoaiiyi aiaiacaoenieo iie?eoo?a
(niieoe, eiiiiceoe?e).

A inoaii?e /an a aoae?aieoeoa? ia noaae?? aoae?aieoeoaa, aenieoaoaoe??
oa ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae canoiniaothoueny aiaiacaoeni?
iie?eooy. Aoaeoeai?noue caoenoo i/aaeaeia, oiio ui oae? iie?eooy
aeicaieythoue ia?aaanoe aea?aa’yi? ai?th/? eiino?oeoe?? a ?ic?yae
aaaeeiai?th/eo ? nooo?ai iiaeneoe iiaeaaeio aaciaeo. Iaeiae, aei
oaia??oiueiai /ano iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii aea/aia ieoaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?iaioe a oiiaao iiaeaae? oaeeo iie?eoo?a, ?o aieeao ia aiaiano?ee?noue
aea?aa’yieo iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui
cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee aei?iaoaaiue ? ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a, ye? iathoue
oe?eee ?yae iieaciee?a, iathoue oaeiae nooo?aee iaaeie?e. Aiie ia
aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino?
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Aaaaoi aiaiacaoenieo iie?eoo?a ia ciaoiaeyoue oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy a
aoae?aieoeoa? ca aaeeeith o?oaei?ie?noth, aei?iaiaeciith ?
aeao?oeeoi?noth eiiiiiaio?a. Aiae?c ?ia?o iieacaa, ui iaia? aoaeoeaieo
aiaiacaoenieo iie?eoo?a, aea cia/io /anoeio neeaaeathoue a?aeoiaee
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Oiio iaa?oioiaaiei ? iai?yiie i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ca ?aooiie ?ic?iaee iiaeo eiiiiceoe?e c
aeei?enoaiiyi a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa , ui iiia?aaeaeo? ?icaeoie
iiaeaae, aeicaiey? aeeiioaaoe aaaeoaoe?th ethaeae ? caa?aaoe
iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino?.

?iai/a a?iioaca iieyaa? o aaeueioaaii? ? ci?i? aeeiai?ee i?ioeano
ai??iiy aea?aaeie ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aiaiacaoenieo
eiiiiceoe?e.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ca?aeii c
“Aea?aeaaiith i?ia?aiith caaacia/aiiy iiaeaaeii? aaciaee ia1995-2000
?iee”, caoaa?aeaeaiith Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 3 ea?oiy 1995
?., ?238.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ca
?aooiie ?ic?iaee iiaeo aiaiacaoenieo eiiiiceoe?e aeaioiaeaieo c
a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoa.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ne?aeoth/?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? caaea/?:

1. I?iaanoe aiae?c noaio ieoaiiy aiaiacaoenoo aea?aaeie oa ?ic?iaeoe
iiao iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ioe?iee i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino?
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e i?ae aiaiacaoeniei iie?eooyi.

2. Aeiaeoe aiaiacaoenio eiiiiceoe?th aeey aea?aaeie ia iniia? a?aeoiae?a
ae?iaieoeoa oa aeine?aeeoe ?? aoaeoeai?noue i?e canoinoaaii? aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

3. Aeine?aeeoe ci?ie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aiaiacaoenii?
eiiiiceoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo eiiiiiaio?a oa ?o aieea ia
aiaiacaoenio ni?iiiaei?noue iie?eooy.

4. Ai?iaaaeeoe ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia i?aei?e?inoaao oa ?ic?iaeoe
i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy ? iaianaiiy
aiaiacaoenieo eiiiiceoe?e.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — aiaiacaoenia eiiiiceoe?y c aeei?enoaiiyi
a?aeoiae?a i?iieneiaino?, yea a?aoiao? oaoiieia?th i?eaiooaaiiy ?
iaianaiiy a eiie?aoieo oiiaao.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ioeane ai??iiy aea?aaeie, caoeuaii?
aiaiacaoenieie eiiiiceoe?yie, a?aoiaoth/e ci?ie ?? aeanoeainoae.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ?iaio? aeei?enoai? noaiaea?oi? oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee ioe?iee ai?th/ino? ? aiaiano?eeino?
aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? eiino?oeoe?e ? iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii?
noaoenoeee ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ioe?iee aeinoia??iino?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeinyaiooeo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. ?ic?iaeaia iiaa aiaiacaoenia eiiiiceoe?y, yea ?noioii oiia?eueith? ia
o?eueee i?ioean ai??iiy aea?aaeie, a oaeiae — i?ioean iaaoaethaaiiy i?e
?? ai??ii?.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ioe?ioe? iaae? aiaiano?eeino? aea?aaeie i?ae
iie?eooyi ii e?eoe/iiio ia?aoei?, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ci?io i?oeiino?
aea?aaeie a?ae /ano ai??iiy ? oiaueie iie?eooy.

3. Io?eiai? iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino? aeicaieythoue cacaeaeaa?aeue
aecia/eoe ia o?eueee neeaae eiiiiceoe?? c caaeaiieie aiaiacaoenieie
aeanoeainoyie, aea ? a?aoiaoaaoe iaiao?aei? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e ??
i?eaiooaaiiy ? iaianaiiy ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue aeey aeai?o aoaeoeaieo
aiaiacaoenieo iie?eoo?a ? iaa?oioiaai? iieacieee ?o aiaiacaoenieo
aeanoeainoae, ye? aeicaieythoue aia?oa ioe?ieoe iaaeo aiaiano?eeino?
aea?aa’yieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ca?aeii cai?iiiiiaai?e
iaoiaeeoe?, iiaa ioe?iea i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo
eiino?oeoe?e aea? iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia
ne?eueee iaiao?aeii (caeaaeii a?ae aiaiaai? iaa?ocee) i?aeaeueoe iaaeo
aiaiano?eeino? aeey caaacia/aiiy iiaeaaeii? aaciaee ia’?eoa.

Aei?iaoaaiiy c?ace?a aea?aaeie c iaianaiith aiaiacaoeniith
eiiiiceoe??th, ?ic?iaeaiith a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue, ca?aeii AINO
16363-76 (NO NYA 4686-84) “N?aaenoaa caueou aeey ae?aaaneiu. Iaoiae
ii?aaeaeiey caueoiuo naienoa”, i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui aiaiacaoenia iie?eooy
iaeaaeeoue aei ? a?oie aiaiacaoenii? aoaeoeaiino? (caaacia/o? io?eiaiiy
aaaeeiai?th/i? aea?aaeie).

Aeey oe?ieiai i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeai? “?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
oaoiieiaee i?eaioiaeaiey e iaianaiey iaiacaueoiuo ninoaaia aeey
no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee”. A oaia??oi?e /an CAO “Iaaeia?aaeaoae” ia
o?eueee oe?iei ai?iaaaeaeo? ?ic?iaeai? aiaiacaoeni? iie?eooy, aea ?
aioiaeoue iioi/io e?i?th aeey ?o i?eaiooaaiiy. E??i oeueiai, ?ic?iaeai?
aiaiacaoeni? iie?eooy aeei?enoiaothoue aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino?
eiino?oeoe?e ia i?aei?e?inoaao Aei?i?iiao?ianueea. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean IAeAAA i?e aea/aii?
aeenoeeie?i “Ioi?iia i?aoe?” oa “Aaciaea aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?”.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aaoi? iniaenoi oi?ioaaa oe?eue, iaoeia?
iieiaeaiiy oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? caaea/?. Eiai iniaenoee aianie iieyaa?:

— a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue ii aeai?o aoaeoeaieo
aiaiacaoenieo iie?eoo?a;

— a i?iaaaeaii? iiaiiai eiiieaeno oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ii ?ic?iaoe? iiai? aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe??;

— a ?ic?iaoe? aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? ? anoaiiaeaii? caeaaeiinoae,
i?aaenoaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe??;

— a ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? o ai?iaaaeaeaii?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeieeaaeaeenue, aoee iaaiai?ai? oa noaaeai?: ia iaoeiaeo
nai?ia?ao “Iiaeaaeiee caoeno aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae ia noaae?? ?ic?iaee
i?iaeoii? aeieoiaioaoe?? a ia??iae aoae?aieoeoaa”.(Ee?a, 1995, IAN
Oe?a?ie), “Iaania/aiea iaianoieeinoe caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee i?e
i?eiaiaiee iiauo no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e eiino?oeoeee”, Iineaa,
1988a., IAAe NNN?; ia niaoe?ae?ciaaiiio nai?ia?? “Iaoiaee, oaeoe/i?
noaie, oaoi?/i? caniae, aiaiacaoeni? ?a/iaeie ? iiaeae? i?iaaaeaiiy
iiaeaaeii — ?yooaaeueieo ?ia?o”. Oa?e?a, 1994, OAII IAN Oe?a?ie; ia 1-io
I?aeia?iaeiiio oanoeaae? “Aeieia?y ? oai?/?noue”, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
24 aa?aniy 1994?; ia 1-e ?aa?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeieia?y ? aaciaea
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? — 96”, o?aaaiue 1996?., Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, IAeAAA; ia
2-e ?aa?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeieia?y ? aaciaea aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? —
96”, eenoiiaae 1996?.,Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, IAeAAA; ia nai?ia?? ii
i?iaeaiai “Aeieiaey e no?ieoaeueiay aeieiaey”, 27 aeiaoiy 1995?.,
Eaeioe?a, I?ia//eia, 5-e niaoe?ae?ciaaiee aoae?aaeueiee y?ia?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii ci?noo aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii aeaa’youe ?ia?o, c
ieo: o?e noaoo? a ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iaeia eieaa, aeaa iaoaioe
Oe?a?ie oa oace o?ueio aeiiia?aeae.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 129 iaeiaioaaiue ?
i?noeoue 213 noi??iie, a oiio /ene? 184 noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
18 ?ethno?aoe?e, 27 oaaeeoeue ? 19 aeiaeaoe?a ia 54 noi??ieao.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ca?aeii c iaoith ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie caaea/aie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
i?iaiae?ciaai? oa ocaaaeueiai? aeai? iaoiae?a ioe?iee ai?th/ino?
aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, ioe?iee aiaiano?eeino? ? i?aeaeuaiiy
aiaiano?eeino? aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ioe?iee i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy iie?eoo?a, oa?a, eiiiiceoe?e
iaaeineiiae? ? ?icoiaeyoueny c aeaieie i?aeoeee. ?icaeoie iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?acoeueoaoe ae?iaieoeoaa aeacothoue ia oa, ui
iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ? e?eoa??? ioe?iee i?aeaeuaiiy
aiaiano?eeino? eiino?oeoe?e. Aiae?c ?ia?o iieacaa, ui iaeaea a?aenooi?
aoaeoeai? aiaiacaoeni? iie?eooy, aea cia/io /anoeio neeaaeathoue
a?aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoa, ia iiai?noth aea/aia ieoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aieeao
oaeeo iie?eoo?a ia aiaiano?ee?noue aea?aa’yieo iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e.
I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee ia?aoe ? ocaaaeueieoe iniiai?
iieacieee, ye? aieeaathoue ia aeeiai?eo i?ioeano ai??iiy.

Ioe?iea aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e
i?iaiaeeoueny ii noia?i?e ao?ao? iane ? noia?i?e ao?ao? ieiu?
iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio c a?aooaaiiyi cai??ei? ? iaaoaeaii? /anoeie
aea?aaeie. E??i oiai, cai?iiiiiaaia ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? aiaiacaoenieo
iie?eoo?a ii oaiia?aoo?? noaiaea?oii? oaiia?aoo?ii? e?eai?. sseui
oaiia?aoo?a ia iiaa?oi? c?ace?a a?eueoa oaiia?aoo?e noaiaea?oii?
oaiia?aoo?ii? e?eai?, oi oea aiaiacaoenia iie?eooy ia ? aoaeoeaiei
caniaii aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? eiino?oeoe??. ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea ioe?iee ci?ie i?oeiino? aea?aaeie c?ace?a a i?ioean? ai??iiy,
yea a?aoiao? ci?ie ?o oi?ie oa ?aaeeio aei?iaoaaiue. Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aiaiacaoenieo
iie?eoo?a aeey aea?aa’yieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e c a?aooaaiiyi
aeinoia??iino? aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeinoaoiino? aeo?aeieo aeaieo.

Iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?yiiaai? ia aea?? eiiiiiaio?a aiaiacaoenii?
eiiiiceoe??.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue ciaeaeai? caeaaeiino? aieeao eiiiiiaio?a
aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? (i?e iino?ei?e oiauei? iie?eooy) ia ao?aoo
iane ca ?aooiie iiaiiai cai?aiiy ( m a ) ? iaaoaeaiiy ( m ia )
aea?aaeie.

I?iaaaeaia ?iaioa aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe, ui aiaiano?ee?noue ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aoae?aaeueieo aea?aa’yieo eiino?oeoe?e c
aiaiacaoeniei iie?eooyi ne?ae aecia/aoe ii noia?i?e ao?ao? ieiu?
iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio ( S) ? noia?i?e ao?ao? iane aea?aaeie ( m).

I?e noai?aii? aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? aoei aea/aii aieea eiaeiiai
eiiiiiaioa ia i?ioean ai??iiy ? ?ic?iaeai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?.
Cai?iiiiiaai? iiaeae? aeicaieythoue (c a?aooaaiiyi aieeao eiaeiiai
eiiiiiaioa) ia o?eueee io?eiaoe niieoeo c aenieeie aiaiacaoenieie
aeanoeainoyie, aea ? a?aooaaoe oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e (ci?ia a’yceino? ?
/an caouaiiy). Ia i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? nooo?ai aieeaa? ? oiaueia
aiaiacaoeniiai iie?eooy. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee
anoaiiaeoe caeaaeiino? aeey ioe?iee ci?ie oaeaeeino? ao?aoe noia?ii?
iane ? noia?ii? ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio aea?aaeie a i?ioean? ai??iiy
a?ae oiaueie aiaiacaoeniiai iie?eooy.

A i?ioean? ?iaioe aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aiaiacaoeni? iie?eooy
cai?iiiiiaaii? aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? ia cieaeothoue i?oei?noue
“na?aei?” (caeeoeo ia aeioi?eaii? aiaiai ? iaaoaeaiiyi) aea?aaeie .

Aea/aia iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy aoiinoa?ino?eeino? aiaiacaoenii?
eiiiiceoe?? ca ?aooiie iaianaiiy aoiinoa?ino?eeiai iie?eooy.

I?iaaaeai? ?iaioe aeicaieeee cai?iiiioaaoe aiaiacaoenio eiiiiceoe?th ia
iniia? ia aeao?oeeoieo eiiiiiaio?a (a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa) ? i?iaanoe
aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo eiiiiceoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aiaiacaoeniiai iie?eooy ia i?ioean ai??iiy
i?iaiaeeeinue ia eiiiiceoe?yo o?ueio neeaae?a (oaae.1):

1 — 28 : 4 : 0,4 : 67,6

2 — 25 : 5 : 0,5 : 69.5

3 — 32 : 3 : 0,3 : 64,7

Oaaeeoey 1

Neeaae eiiiiiaio?a aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe??

Iaeiaioaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a

aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe??

% ii ian?Ai??ea ii?iaea25 — 32Ciea oiin3 — 5Ieanoeo?eaoi? aaeeieiiai
— eoaeiee (IAE-1)0,3 — 0,5??aeea neei64,7 — 69,5

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui a i?ioean? ai??iiy oaiia?aoo?i?
e?ea? neeaae?a 1, 2, 3 (?en.1) ciaoiaeyoueny cia/ii ieae/a i?ae
noaiaea?oia oaiia?aoo?ia e?eaa. Ioaea, cai?iiiiiaai? aiaiacaoeni?
eiiiiceoe?? a?aeiia?aeathoue iie?eooyi aeniei? aoaeoeaiino?.

Na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue i?aeeiio oaiia?aoo?e iaia?iaeaieo c?ace?a
aei??aith? 5,8 i N/n, ia?iaeaieo — 0,96 i N/n (oiaoi, a 6 ?ac?a
iaioa).

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue ciaeaeai? caeaaeiino? aieeao eiiiiiaio?a
aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? (i?e oiauei? iie?eooy 1 0,2 ii) ia ao?aoo
iane aea?aaeie ca ?aooiie iiaiiai cai?aiiy:

m a = 1,72 + 2,12 ( 1 )

? ao?aoo iane ca ?aooiie iaaoaeaiiy:

m ia =
picscalex100010009000003210100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02200420081200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffb0ffffffe0070000d00300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000d00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
030240000500000013020302c10717000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000
320a7001a703010000003100c00009000000320a90036000010000003000c0000a000000
320a90038201020000003233c000c00009000000320a90037504010000003000c0000a00
0000320a90037105020000003139c000c00009000000320a90031701010000002c006000
09000000320a90032c05010000002c00600010000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000
00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320a
90034003010000002d00d30010000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100000200020010
53796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320a9003d8060100
00007400a9000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0214000900
00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f001
0100030000000000450000000000 ( 2 )

aea m a , m ia — ao?aoa iane ca ?aooiie, a?aeiia?aeii,
iiaiiai cai?aiiy ? iaaoaeaiiy, % ;

— /an ai??iiy, oa.

Aeey ioe?iee aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e
iaiao?aeii aoei ioe?ieoe, ye i?ioiaeeoue aeai?aiiy ieiu? iiia?a/iiai
ia?aoeio o c?ace?a, iie?eoeo aiaiacaoenieie eiiiiceoe?yie.

A ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaio?a aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae /anii ai??iiy ?
ci?iith ieaeiueiai ia?aoeio ca ?aooiie iiaiiai cai?aiiy ? iaaoaeaiiy
aea?aaeie niinoa??aa?oueny caeaaei?noue:

S i =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( 3 )

aea S i — ieiua ieaeiueiai ia?aoeio, % ;

— /an ai??iiy. oa.

t , 0C
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140201012600050000000102ffffff000400000002010100050000001302fe0023000500
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230005000000140201012600050000001302fe002900050000001402d900580009000000
fa02050000000000000000002200040000002d01090004000000f0010800050000000102
00ffff000400000002010200070000001b04de005d00d600550009000000fa0200000100
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00000102ffffff000400000002010100050000001302d6005500050000001402d9005800
050000001302dc005b00050000001402d9005800050000001302dc005500050000001402
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000000002200040000002d01090004000000f001080005000000010200ffff0004000000
02010200070000001b04b6008f00ae00870009000000fa0200000100000000ffff002200
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0400000002010100050000001302ae008700050000001402b1008a00050000001302b400
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1b049000c1008800b90009000000fa0200000100000000ffff002200040000002d010800
04000000f00109000500000014028b00bc00050000000102ffffff000400000002010100
0500000013028800b9000500000014028b00bc000500000013028e00bf00050000001402
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000014027a00ee0009000000fa02050000000000000000002200040000002d0109000400
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0500000014027a00ee00050000000102ffffff0004000000020101000500000013027700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, oa

?en.1 Ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e ia iiaa?oi? aea?aa’yieo c?ace?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae neeaaeo aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe??

C oi?ioee aeo?ea?, ui i?e ioe?ioe? iaae? aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia o?eueee noia?io
ao?aoo iane, aea e noia?io ao?aoo ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio.

Iaei??th ?c iniiaieo caaea/ i?e noai?aii? aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? ?
aea/aiiy aca?iiaieeao eiaeiiai eiiiiiaioa ia ?? iniiai? aeanoeaino?. A
?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue aoea aeaaaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ioe?iee
oaeaeeino? ao?aoe noia?ii? iane aea?aaeie a i?ioean? ai??iiy a?ae
eiiiiiaioiiai neeaaeo aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? i?e oiauei? iie?eooy 1
0,2ii:

V m = 0,87O1 + 3,2O2 — 32,74
( 4 )

aea V m — na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue noia?ii? ao?aoe iane, % /oa;

O 1 — ai?no ai??ei? ii?iaee o aiaiacaoeni?e eiiiiceoe??, % (iane);

O 2 — ai?no ciee oiin o aiaiacaoeni?e eiiiiceoe??, %(iane).

Ci?ia ai?noo ieanoeo?eaoi?a IAE -1 O 3 /a?ac ia?aiao? O2 :

O 3 = 0,01 O 2 .

Ae?oaa iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeicaieeea ioe?ieoe ci?io na?aaeiuei?
oaeaeeino? ao?aoe noia?ii? ieiu? ia?aoeio aea?aaeie a i?ioean? ai??iiy
a?ae eiiiiiaioiiai neeaaeo aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe??:

Vs = 1,25 X 1 + 4,75 X 2 — 50,8
( 5 )

aea Vs — na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue noia?ii? ao?aoe ieiu?
ia?aoeio, %/oa.

Oe? aea? iiaeae? ( 4 ) — ( 5 ) aeicaieythoue ia o?eueee
ioe?ieoe aieea eiiiiiaio?a ia aiaiacaoeni? aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe??, aea
e a?aooaaoe oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? i?eaiooaaiiy ? iaianaiiy niieoee.
Oae? eiiiiiaioe, ye ciea oiin ? ieanoeo?eaoi? ? aeia?eie ?aaoeyoi?aie
oaeeo oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae, ye a’yce?noue ? /an caouaiiiy
i?eaioiaeaii? aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe??.

Ci?ithth/e ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a o aiaiacaoeni?e
eiiiiceoe??, i?e iaei?e oiauei? iie?eooy, aeinyaathoue iaeneiaeueiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? a i?ioean? ai??iiy. Oaeiae ia caoeni?
aeanoeaino? nooo?ai aieeaa? ? oiaueia iie?eooy.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?ae ?ioaineai?noth ai??iiy
? iaaoaeaiiy aea?aaeie oa oiaueiith oa?o iie?eooy, niinoa??aa?oueny
aeoaea o?niee ca’ycie (?en.2), a?aeiia?aeii:

S,%; m,%

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00002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100050000000102ffffff00050000000902
000000000700000016047c018b0200000000040000002701ffff050000000c027c018b02
030000001e00050000000102ffffff0005000000090200000000040000002701ffff0500
00000b0200000000030000001e00050000000102ffffff00050000000902000000000400
00002701ffff030000000000000000000000

, ii.

1 —
picscalex1000100090000035b0100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02e004a0070e00000026060f001200ffffffff00000800
0000c0ffbeff60079e040b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000000108000000
fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0100000500000014026c021501050000001302
6c02700617000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e2043797200ee02040000002d01010009000000320ac001190101000000
5300f60009000000320ac001a404010000005300f60017000000fb0240ff000000000000
9001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200000004000000
2d01020004000000f001010009000000320a3002230201000000cd00900009000000320a
3002ae0501000000c200600010000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000000200020010
53796d626f6c0000040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320ac00157030100
00002b00f60009000000320ae0012f0001000000e600a80009000000320a13042f000100
0000e800a80009000000320a13032f0001000000e700a80009000000320ae0017b060100
0000f600a80009000000320a13047b0601000000f800a80009000000320a13037b060100
0000f700a80017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d657320
4e657720526f6d616e20437972000000040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000
320a38045203010000003200e0000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001000
0000fb021000080000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d0005040000002d01
010004000000f00102000300000000002f12dd26971d00000000ffffca0019052f120127
971d000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000; 2 — Si ;
3 — m

?en.2 Aieea oiaueie iie?eooy ia ci?io iane aea?aaeie

oa ieiu? ia?aoeio.

— noia?ia ao?aoa iane

m =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 ;
( 6 )

— ao?aoa ieiu? ieaeiueiai ia?aoeio

S i = 30,0 + 15,3 ;
( 7 )

— ao?aoa ieiu? na?aaeiueiai ia?aoeio

S n? = 58,5 + 8,36 ,
( 8 )

aea — oiaueia aiaiacaoeniiai iie?eooy, ii

?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? aeicaieythoue c a?aooaaiiyi ai?noo eiiiiiaio?a,
oiaueie aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? ia o?eueee ioe?ieoe aiaiano?ee?noue
eiino?oeoe?e, aea e i?aeaeueoe iaaeo aiaiano?eeino? aoae?aaeueieo
aea?aa’yieo eiino?oeoe?e, aei a?aeiia?aeieo ii?iaoeaieo cia/aiue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui ao?aoa i?oeiino? aea?aaeie aac
aiaiacaoeniiai iie?eooy i?ioiaeeoue eaaeiiiiae?aii Ca 90 naeoiae ao?aoa
i?oeiino? c?ace?a aeinyaea 50 %, a /a?ac 168 naeoiae i?oei?noue aoea
ao?a/aia ia 100 %., o aea?aaeie, iie?eoith aiaiacaoeniith eiiiiceoe??th
c oiaueiith oa?o 1 ii, a i?ioean? ai??iiy ao?aoa i?oeiino? ia noeniaiiy
acaeiaae aieieii i?ioiaeeoue ?c na?aaeiueith oaeaee?noth 0,026 IIa /n, a
ia noaoe/iee caei — 0,04 IIa /n. Oaeaee?noue ao?aoe i?oeiino?
iaia?iaeaii? aea?aaeie, a?aeiia?aeii, neeaaea? 0,52 IIa /n oa 0,29 IIa
/n. I?e ca?eueoaii? oiaueie iie?eooy c 1 ii aei 2,79 ii ao?aoa
i?oeiino? ia noene acaeiaae aieieii i?e ae?? aiaith i?ioyaii 10 oa.
neeaea 28 %, a i?e noaoe/iiio caei? — 22,6 % .

Cai?iiiiiaai? aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??ai? caoiaee uiaei iiaeeeaino?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoiinoa?ino?eeino? aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? ca ?aooiie
iaianaiiy aoiinoa?ino?eeiai iie?eooy. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea aaaaoioa?iaiai
aiaiacaoeniiai iie?eooy (aiaiacaoenia iie?eooy — aoiinoa?ino?eea
iie?eooy) ia aiaiacaoeni? aeanoeaino? aea?aaeie.

?ic?iaeai? “?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oaoiieiaee i?eaioiaeaiey e
iaianaiey iaiacaueoiuo ninoaaia aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee”,
caoaa?aeaeai? Oe?IAe?IA IAN Oe?a?ie, ia?aaeai? CAO “Iaaeia?aaeaoae” aeey
oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaie/i? iioi/ii? e?i??.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue aeey aeai?o aoaeoeaieo
aiaiacaoenieo iie?eoo?a oa ioe?iee aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo
eiino?oeoe?e.

2. ?ic?iaeaia iiaa aiaiacaoenia eiiiiceoe?y ia iniia? a?aeoiae?a
ae?iaieoeoa aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e.

3. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea neeaaeo eiiiiiaio?a ia aiaiacaoeni? oa
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe??.

4. Io?eiaii iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino?, ui iienothoue ci?ie iane ? ieiu?
iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio aea?aaeie a i?ioean? ai??iiy a?ae ai?noo
eiiiiiaio?a, ye? aeicaieythoue iaeoe aoaeoeaiee neeaae aiaiacaoenii?
eiiiiceoe??.

5. Anoaiiaeaii aieea oiaueie iie?eooy aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? ia
ci?io i?oeiino? aea?aaeie ? ia i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e.

6. Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? ?
ai?iaaaeaeai? «?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oaoiieiaee i?eaioiaeaiey e iaianaiey
iaiacaueoiuo ninoaaia aeey no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee».

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia ia’?eoao CAO
«Iaaeia?aaeaoae» aiaiacaoenii? eiiiiceoe?? neeaea 3922,83 a?i..

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii:

1. Aaeeeia A. N., E?eeoiia A. I., Aeiaaaeue A. I., Oaeiiia A. A.
Caaeneiinoue iaianoieeinoe no?ieoaeueiuo aea?aayiiuo eiino?oeoeee io
oieueiu iaiacaueoiiai iie?uoey// Na. iao/i. o?. I?eaeiai?ianeie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u. Iniiaaiey e
ooiaeaiaiou. No?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey.- Aeiai?iiao?iane.:
IAANA.- 1997.- Aui.2,- /.1.- N.52-55.

2. Aaeeeia A. N., E?eeoiia A. I., Aeiaaaeue A.I., Oeueia I. TH.
Eciaiaiea i?i/iinoe a i?ioeanna ai?aiey ae?aaaneiu iiae iaiacaueoiui
iie?uoeai// Na. iao/i. o?. I?eaeiai?ianeie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee
no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u. Iniiaaiey e ooiaeaiaiou. No?ieoaeueiua
iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey.- Aeiai?iiao?iane.: IAANA.- 1997.- Aui.2,- /.1.-
N.90-93.

3. Aaeeeia A. N., E?eeoiia A. I., Aeiaaaeue A.I. Iaania/aiea e auai?
?aoeeiiaeueiuo ninoaaia iaiacaueoiie eiiiiceoeee// Na. iao/i. o?.
I?eaeiai?ianeie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u.
Iniiaaiey e ooiaeaiaiou. No?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e
ecaeaeey.-Aeiai?iiao?iane.: IAANA.- 1998.- Aui.5,- /.2.- N.50-52.

4. Aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. A.I. E?eeoiia, A.N. Aaeeeia,
A.O. Caeoiei, A.I. Aeiaaaeue. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: OeI EIA — i?ann,1995.
-196 n.

5. Iao.15355A Oe?a?ie IIE 5 NI4 A14/22, NI4 A20/10, AI4 A1/94,
Aiaiacaoeniee neeaae/ A?e?eia A.N., E?eeoiia A.I., Aeiaaaeue A.I. oa ?i.
(Oe?a?ia).- ?95083930; Cayae. 28.08.95; Iioae. 1997, Athe. ?3.- 4n.

6. Iao.15356A Oe?a?ie IIE 5 NI4 A14/22, NI4 A20/10, AI4 A1/94,
Eiiiiceoe?y aeey iaea?aeaiiy aiaiacaoeniiai iie?eooy/ E?eeoiia A.I.,
A?e?eia A.N., Aeiaaaeue A.I. oa ?i. (Oe?a?ia).- ?95083929; Cayae.
28.08.95; Iioae. 1997, Athe. ?3.- 4n.

7. E?eeoiia A. I., Aaeeeia A. N., Aeiaaaeue A. I., Oeueia I. TH.
Aeeyiea iaiacaueoiie eiiiiceoeee ia nei?inoue iaoaeeaaiey e iieiiai
nai?aiey ae?aaaneiu. // Yeieiaey e aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. —
Nai?iee oacenia aeieeaaeia 1-e ?aaeiiaeueiie eiioa?aioeee YEI’96. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane. — 1996. — n.53 — 55.

8. E?eeoiia A. I., Aaeeeia A. N., Aeiaaaeue A. I., Oeueia I. TH.
Iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiua eniuoaiey iaiacaueoiuo ninoaaia. // Yeieiaey e
aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. — Nai?iee oacenia aeieeaaeia 1-e
?aaeiiaeueiie eiioa?aioeee YEI’96. — Aeiai?iiao?iane. -1996. — n.56 —
57.

9. Aaeeeia A.N., E?eeoiia A.I., Aeiaaaeue A.I., Oeueia I.TH. Iiauoaiea
aoiinoa?ionoie/eainoe iaiacaueoiie eiiiiceoeee. //Yeieiaey e
aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. — Nai?iee oacenia aeieeaaeia ia 2-e
?aaeiiaeueiie eiioa?aioeee YEI’96. — Aeiai?iiao?iane. — 1996. — n.43 —
44.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeiaaaeue A.I. I?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino? aea?aa’yieo
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy aiaiacaoenieo
eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.26.03 — iiaeaaeia aaciaea. — Oa?e?anueeee
Aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e, Oa?e?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiy aiaiano?eeino?
aea?aa’yieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ca ?aooiie ?ic?iaee aiaiacaoenii?
eiiiiceoe?? oa canoinoaaiiy aiaiacaoeniiai iie?eooy aea?aaeie.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iiao aiaiacaoenio eiiiiceoe?th ia iniia?
a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoa, yea aeicaiey? io?eiaoe aaaeeiai?th/o aea?aaeio.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? eiiiiceoe?? aaeueio? i?ioeane
ai??iiy ? iaaoaeaiiy aea?aaeie. Aeine?aeaeaii, ui ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino?
aiaiacaoeniiai iie?eooy ne?ae aeeiioaaoe ii noia?i?e ao?ao? iane
aea?aaeie ? noia?i?e ao?ao? ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio. Oaeineiiaeaii
iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey aeai?o aoaeoeaieo aiaiacaoenieo
iie?eoo?a, yea iieyaa? a ca?eueoaii? /ano aei?iaoaaiue ? aeiaeaoeiaiio
eiio?ieth oaiia?aoo?ieo iieaciee?a a ii??aiyii? c noaiaea?oiei iaoiaeii.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ciaeoee aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa : aiaiano?ee?noue aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e,
i?aeaeuaiiy

aiaiano?eeino?, aiaiacaoeni? iie?eooy, aiaiacaoeni? eiiiiceoe??.

ANNOTATION

Dovgal V.N. Increasing Of Fire-Resistance Of Wooden Building
Constructions By Means Of Using Of Fire-Protective Compositions based on
Of Production Wastes. — Manuscript.

The thesis is presented for a technical candidate’s degree by
profession 05.26.03. fire-safety. Kharkov State Building and
Architecture University,1999.

The thesis deals with raising of wooden building construction
fire-resistance due

to elaborating of fire-protective composition and using of
fire-protective timber covering.

In the thesis a new fire-protective composition is worked out based on
the industrial wastes which allows to receive hard-burning timber. It
was proved that application of this composition brakes the timber
burning and charring processes. It was researched that the efficiency
estimate of fire-protecting covering should be done according to total
timber mass loss and total cross-section area loss. The methods of
investigating of efficient fire-protective coverings were improved which
increase research time and have additional temperature parameters
control as comparing with the standard method. The main results of this
work have experimental and industrial realization.

Key words: fire-resistance of wooden building constructions, rise of a
fire-resistance, fire-protective covering, fire-protective compositions.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeiaaaeue A.I. Iiauoaiea iaianoieeinoe aea?aayiiuo no?ieoaeueiuo
eiino?oeoeee ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey iaiacaueoiuo eiiiiceoeee ia iniiaa
iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.26.03. — iiaea?iay aaciianiinoue. —
Oa?ueeianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao no?ieoaeuenoaa e
a?oeoaeoo?u, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iiauoaiey iaianoieeinoe
aea?aayiiuo no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee ca n/ao ?ac?aaioee iaiacaueoiie
eiiiiceoeee n eniieueciaaieai iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoa e aa i?eiaiaiey a
ea/anoaa iaiacaueoiiai iie?uoey ae?aaaneiu.

A ?aaioa aeai aiaeec nouanoaothueo iaoiaeia e iaoiaeee ii?aaeaeaiey
iiaea?ii-oaoie/aneeo naienoa iaoa?eaeia. Iieacaii, /oi nouanoaothuea
iaoiaeu e e?eoa?ee ioeaiee ia iicaieytho iieo/eoue iauaeoeaiua aeaiiua
ioeaiee iaianoieeinoe e iiauoaiey iaianoieeinoe aea?aayiiuo
eiino?oeoeee. I?iaaaeai aiaeec aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey iaiacaueoiuo
eiiiiceoeee aeey caueou aea?aayiiuo no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee.
I?aaeeiaeaiu iniiaiua iieacaoaee ioeaiee iaiacaueoiuo naienoa iie?uoee e
ai?th/anoe no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee inouanoaeai auai? eiiiiiaioia e eco/aii eo aeeyiea ia
aeeiaieeo ai?aiey ae?aaaneiu iiae iie?uoeai.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaia iiaay iaiacaueoiay eiiiiceoeey n
eniieueciaaieai iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa aeey iieo/aiey o?oaeiiai?th/ae
ae?aaaneiu. Enneaaeiaaiu iniiaiua oeceei-iaoaie/aneea e iaiacaueoiua
naienoaa eiiiiceoeee. Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi i?eiaiaiea ?ac?aaioaiiie
iaiacaueoiie eiiiiceoeee oi?iiceo i?ioeannu ai?aiey e iaoaeeaaiey
ae?aaaneiu. Yoi iicaieeei onoaiiaeoue, /oi iaianoieeinoue e iiauoaiea
iaianoieeinoe aea?aayiiuo no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee n iaiacaueoiui
iie?uoeai neaaeoao ii?aaeaeyoue ii noiia?iie iioa?a ieiuaaee
iiia?a/iiai na/aiey e noiia?iie iioa?a iannu ae?aaaneiu.

A ?aaioa eco/aii aeeyiea eiiiiiaioia iaiacaueoiie eiiiiceoeee ia
i?ioeannu ai?aiey. I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoaiaoe/aneea caaeneiinoe, iicaieythuea
(n o/aoii aeeyiey eaaeaeiai eiiiiiaioa) iieo/eoue ninoaa n aunieeie
iaiacaueoiuie naienoaaie e n o/aoii oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia iiauoaiea iaianoieeinoe nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea
ieacuaaao oieueia iaiacaueoiiai iie?uoey. I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey
iicaieeee iieo/eoue caaeneiinoe nei?inoe iioa?e iannu e iiia?a/iiai
na/aiey ae?aaaneiu a i?ioeanna ai?aiey io oieueiu iaiacaueoiiai
iie?uoey.

A ?acoeueoaoa yenia?eiaioia onoaiiaeaii, /oi iiae iaiacaueoiui
iie?uoeai ia nieaeaaony i?i/iinoue “naaaeae” (inoaoea ia o?iiooiai iaiai
e iaoaeeaaieai) ae?aaaneiu.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiee ii auai?o yooaeoeaiuo
iaiacaueoiuo iie?uoee. Eco/aia aiciiaeiinoue iiauoaiey
aoiinoa?ionoie/eainoe iaiacaueoiie eiiiiceoeee.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee aiaae?aiu a CAI
“Iaaeia?aaeno?ie”. Aeey i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey iaiacaueoiie
eiiiiceoeee ?ac?aaioaiu e aiaae?aiu “?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oaoiieiaee
i?eaioiaeaiey e iaianaiey iaiacaueoiuo ninoaaia aeey no?ieoaeueiuo
eiino?oeoeee”.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaianoieeinoue no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee, iiauoaiea
iaianoieeinoe, iaiacaueoiua iie?uoey, iaiacaueoiua eiiiiceoeee.

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