IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AEIIII?EE I?IIENEIAINO?

OAeE
620.91+622.3+628.54

Iiaiee Noai?neaa Ieeieaeiae/

I?AeAEUAIIss

AOAEOEAIINO? ?IAIOE AIA?AAOE*IEO I?AeI?E?INOA CA ?AOOIIE AEEI?ENOAIIss
A?AeOIAe?A AOAEACAAAA*OAAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.01 — Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaoeuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Aeiiaoeuee), eaoaae?a aaie?anueei?
ni?aae.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oieeaoea?
Aeieo?i sseiae/, Aeiiaoeueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith aaie?anueei? oa
a??aeaai? ni?aae

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?oai Aai?ai?i
Iaoiiae/, Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? e?aa?iaoeee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe Eaaaiia Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/, I?iaoaeai?ii
Oe?a?ie, canooiiee ia/aeueieea aieiaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aae?iiy

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?-i?iiao?ianuee), eaoaae?a
iaiaaeaeiaioo

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “2”aeiaoiy 1998 ?. i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.151.01 ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 340048, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 77.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 340048, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 77.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “21” na?iiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Iieeiinueeee O.TH.

__________________________________________________________

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 17.08.98. Oi?iao 6090/16. Iai?? ae?oe. ? 3. Ion.
ae?oe.

Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ?
Aaceiooiaii.

340048, Aeiiaoeuee, Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 77.

?ioai?eio ?AI IAI Oe?a?ie.

24

utilization of coal washery wastes at thermal power-statious is
confirmed. The basic results of the word have been considered in
foundation of UKRPROMVNECHRESURSY Concern Share Holding Company of
Closed Nype.

Key words: coal washery wastes, efficiency, power-generating plants,
economic evaluation.

1

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?aae?caoe?y ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i a
Oe?a?i? aena?oeea aaaaoi iaaaoeaieo aniaeo?a a ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa
aoaeue-yeiai i?ecia/aiiy ? aoaeue-yei? oi?ie aeaniino?, aea iaeaieiai?oa
aiia iieacaea iaoi?iiy aeoeaii ai?ioeny ca cieaeaiiy aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa
? caaaeyee oeueiio iieaaoeoe aeo?ae nai?? i?iaeoeoe?? ia aioo??oi?e ?
ciai?oi?e ?eiee, ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith eiieo?aioi-ni?iiiaeiino? oiaa??a
aeaniiai aeaioiaeaiiy.

Iai/iei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi aeuacaaaeaiiai ? ?icaae iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai
eiiieaeno (IAE) e?a?ie ?, ia?aaeon?i, eiai aoa?eueii? neeaaeiai?.
Aeinoaoiuei a?aecia/eoe, ui ca inoaii? n?i ?ie?a ae?iaieoeoai
aeaeo?iaia?a?? nei?ioeeiny i?eaeecii a 1.8 ?ace, a aeaeiaooie aoa?eey —
a 2.5 ?ace. ??cei iia??oeeeny i?aeoe/ii an? iieacieee
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno ? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?.

Ca?aene noa? c?icoi?eith iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ieaiii??ii? ?iaioe c
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ae?th/eo i?aei?e?inoa, ?aae?caoe??
eiiieaeno caoiae?a, na?aae yeeo iaeaaaeeea?oa i?noea iaeaaeeoue ??oaiith
i?iaeai ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy. I?i aaaeeea?noue inoaiiueiai na?ae/eoue ia
o?eueee aeina?ae ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ? aeinyaioo? a oeueiio ieai?
?acoeueoaoe a ?icaeiaieo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao, aea ? eiai iaae/a?iiee
iioaioe?ae, ui aeicaieeoue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia aeoaea ?noioi? i?eaooee a
iaeaooiueiio. Aeey i?eeeaaeo aeaaeaii, ui a Niieo/aieo Ooaoao Aia?eee,
aea ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny ia o?eueee ia neiaao, a
iani?aaae? aaea i?ioyaii aeae?eueeio aeanyoe?a ?ie?a, i?ia?aiith
iai?/aieo i?? ia?aaeaa/aii cieceoe aia?ai?ie?noue noni?eueiiai aaeiaiai
i?iaeoeoo aei 2000 ?ieo ia 12% ? aei 2010 ?ieo — ia 20% ? io?eiaoe
aeiiii?th aia?a?? (a iaooiaiio aea?aaeaio?), a?aeiia?aeii, a e?eueeino?
320 ? 750 iei. oiii.

Iaeiei c i?iya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? ooai?aiiy a?aeoiae?a, ui a ??ciiiai?oieo
aaeocyo ?noioii ??ciyoueny ye ca ianyaaie, oae ? ca nooiaiai aieeao ia
iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua, ca ooee?caoe??th aoi?eiii? oe?iiino?. Ia ?
aeiyoeii a oeueiio ieai? ? aoa?eueia i?iieneia?noue, aea aaee/acia
e?euee?noue a?aeoiae?a

2

aoaeaaeaeiaooeo ? aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy, a ca’yceo c /ei oey i?iaeaia
nueiaiaei? cia/ii ia?a?inea ?aiee ie?aii? oaooe aai caaaa/oaaeueii?
oaa?eee ? ia? aea?aeaaia cia/aiiy. Naia oiio aiia ? i?aaeiaoii
?aoaeueiiai aea/aiiy oe?ieiai eiea iaoeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e (?inoeooo
aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie, Aeiiaoeueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
aoa?eueiee ?inoeooo ? Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
aoa?eueiiai caaaa/oaaiiy I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie, Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a
aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie oa ?i.), i?ia?aeieo
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo.

?acii c oei aei oaia??oiueiai /ano caeeoa?oueny ia?ica’ycaiith aaeeea
e?euee?noue ieoaiue, ye?, ia?aaeon?i, iia’ycai? c ioe?ieith
aeiiii?/iino? ?ano?nii? aace a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ?
aeioe?euei?noth ?oiueiai a?aei?aoethaaiiy c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy a yeino?
iaeeaa aeey iio?aa aia?aaoe/ieo i?aei?e?inoa. Iniaeeao aaaeeea?noue oey
i?iaeaia iaaoaa? a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, eiee
caaaeueia aeiiii?/ia e?eca coiiaeea iecueeo iaae?ei?noue iinoa/aiue
iaeeaa oaieiaei aeaeo?inoaioe?yi, ui iino?eii noaaeoue ?o ia a?aiue
aeaeeaaiiy ? caaaeyee oeueiio coiiaeth? aenieee nooi?iue aeooaeueiino?
oaie oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?th
aeeiiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/ieo ieai?a Aeiiaoeueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo aoa?eueiiai caaaa/oaaiiy
(Oe?IAe?aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy) I?i?noa?noaa aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie
(i. Eoaainuee) ia 1996-1998 ??.:

oaia: “I?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo,
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, aeai?eoi ? i?ia?aie aei eiiieaeno caaea/
ieaioaaiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo oe?i ia aoa?eueio
i?iaeoeoe?th”;

oaia 2419603050I: “Ecaea/aiea ai?th/ae iannu ec iooiaeia oaeouaai
i?iecaiaenoaa. ?ac?aaioaoue caaeaiea ia i?iaeoe?iaaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo
eiiieaenia”;

oaia 2419718000: “I?iaanoe ianeaaeiaaiea oeaii-iaeiieoaeae e
ionoieieeia oaeaiaiaaoeoaeueiuo oaa?ee,

23

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea iiiaioaeoi?iiai yenia?eiaioa e ia a? i?eioeeiao
onoaiiaeaiu noaoenoe/aneea nayce iaaeaeo noiia?iui eiee/anoaii iooiaeia
e eo eiee/anoaii ii a?oiiaie cieueiinoe, iieo/aii o?aaiaiea eeiaeiie
?aa?annee, eioi?ia oaycuaaao cia/aiey oa?eoa ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth n
iyoueth oaeoi?aie, aeeythueie ia iaai. Aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ioiineoaeueii nicaeaiey yeiiiieei-oicyenoaaiiuo no?oeoo? iiaiai oeia.
Iiaeoaa?aeaeaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue ?ac?aaioee e eniieueciaaiey iooiaeia
oaeaiaiaauaiey ia oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeeyo. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou
eniieueciaaiu i?e nicaeaiee aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa cae?uoiai oeia
“Eiioea?i Oe?i?iiaiao?ano?nu”.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iooiaeu oaeaiaiaauaiey, yooaeoeaiinoue, yia?aaoe/aneea
i?aaei?eyoey, yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea.

Summary

Povny S.N. Improvement of power-generating enterprises efficiency due to
coal washery wastes utilization.- Manuscript.

The thesis on scientific degree of candidate of economy, speciality
08.06.01 — Economy of enterprises and production organization.-
Institute of Industrial Economy NASci of Ukraine, Donectsk, 1998.

The thesis deals with the problems, associated with coal washery wastes
utilization as a factor of efficiency increase of enterprises, mainly
power-generating. Methodological and methodical features are discovered
to economic evaluation resource basis of coal washery wastes, legal and
cadaster aspects of the problems. Methods for multy-factor experiment
are developed based on which principles the statistic relations between
total amount of wastes and their amounts according to ash content groops
are determined. The linear regression equation is proposed to explain
the relation between electricity tariff and the fine factor influcucing
its tate. recommendations are given related to new type economy
structures arrangement. Expediency of working and

22

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeaiai, ye? iia’ycai? c ooee?caoe??th
a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ye /eiieea i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ia?o ca ana aia?aaoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy.
Aeyaeaii iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? iniaeeaino? aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee
?ano?nii? aace a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy, i?aaia? ? eaaeano?ia?
aniaeoe i?iaeai. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aaaaoi/eiieeiaiai aenia?eiaioo oa
ia eiai canaaeao anoaiiaeaii noaoenoe/i? ca’ycee i?ae noia?iith
e?euee?noth a?aeoiae?a oa ?o e?euee?noth ca a?oiaie cieueiino?, io?eiaii
??aiyiiy e?i?eii? ?aa?an??, yea iia’yco? cia/aiiy oa?eoo ia
aeaeo?iaia?a?th c i’youeiia /eiieeaie, ui aieeaathoue ia iueiai. Aeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei noai?aiiy aeiiii?ei-ainiiaea?/eo no?oeoo? iiaiai
oeio. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeioe?euei?noue ?ic?iaee oa aeei?enoaiiy
a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ia oaieiaeo aeaeo?inoaioe?yo. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? aeei?enoaii i?e noai?aii? aeoe?iiiaaiiai oiaa?enoaa
cae?eoiai oeio “Eiioea?i Oe?i?iiaiao?ano?nu”.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?aeoiaee aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy, aoaeoeai?noue, aia?aaoe/i?
i?aei?e?inoaa, aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea.

Aiiioaoeey

Iiaiue N. I. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou yia?aaoe/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee
ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey iooiaeia oaeaiaiaauaiey- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.01 — Yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa. — Einoeooo yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe IAI Oe?aeiu,
Aeiiaoee, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai, naycaiiui n ooeeecaoeeae iooiaeia
oaeaiaiaauaiey eae oaeoi?ii iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaeaea anaai yia?aaoe/aneiai iacia/aiey. Auyaeaiu
iaoiaeieiae/aneea e iaoiaee/aneea iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee
?ano?niie aacu iooiaeia oaeaiaiaauaiey, i?aaiaua e eaaeano?iaua aniaeou
i?iaeai.

3

ii?aaeaeeoue ?ano?nu aoi?e/iiai oiieeaa aeey eo ianii?oecaoeee e
i?iiuoeaiiiai eniieueciaaiey”;

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? aoaeoeaiino? ? iiaeeeaeo
ianooaa?a aeei?enoaiiy a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy a yeino? oaa?aeiai
iaeeaa aeey oaieiaeo aeaeo?inoaioe?e Oe?a?ie.

Iniiaia ?aeay ?iaioe aeoiaeeoue c aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy aeey iio?aa aia?aaoe/ieo i?aei?e?inoa c o?aooaaiiyi
iia?/iiai aeieia?/iiai aoaeoo ? iiaeeeaino? iie?eooy aeao?oeeoo a
oaa?aeiio iaeea? a ia??iae iano?eei? ?iaioe aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ? ?aae?caoe?y cai?iiiiiaaii? ?aea? coiiaeee
??oaiiy ?yaeo iniiaieo caaea/, ui aeeth/athoue:

nenoaiiee aiae?c i?iaeai ?ano?ni- ? aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue ? ?oiueiai aieeao ia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy a yeino? ?aca?ao oaa?aeiai iaeeaa aeey
aia?aaoe/ieo i?aei?e?inoa;

aeyaeaiiy eia?ee aaeoc?, a i?a?iaaoeao yei? aoiaeyoue an? aeaee
ae?yeueiino? c ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy;

iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee ?ano?nii? aace
a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ? aeioe?eueiino? ?oiueiai a?aei?aoethaaiiy,
ui aeeth/athoue aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae i?aaiaeo ? eaaeano?iaeo i?iaeai
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy a Oe?a?i?;

anoaiiaeaiiy e?eoa???a, ui caaacia/othoue ia’?eoeai?noue ? iaae?ei?noue
?acoeueoao?a o?iainiaiai aiae?co i?iaeo?a a?aei?aoethaaiiy a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy;

?ic?iaeo iaoiaeeee aaaaoi/eiieeiaiai aenia?eiaioo;

cao?oiaoaaiiy i?noeue iaeiie/oaaiiy a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy
aia?aaoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy c iiceoe?e aeioe?eueiino? ?oiueiai
aeei?enoaiiy a yeino? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa aeey aia?aaoe/ieo i?aei?e?inoa;

ooai?aiiy iiaeo ?eieiaeo no?oeoo? aeey iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe??
?aea? aeei?enoaiiy a?aeoiae?a aoaea-caaaa/oaaiiy ye ?aca?aiiai iaeeaa
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo noaioe?e (IAN) a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei.

4

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ieoaiiy oai???, iaoiaee/i? ? i?aeoe/i?
aniaeoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa aia?aaoe/ii? aaeoc?
ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy a yeino? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaieia? aeaeo?inoaioe??, noiaeua a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ? i?aei?e?inoaa ?o ia?a?iaee.

Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaee/iith iniiaith i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei i?ioean?a ? ia’?eo?a, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny,
oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy eeanee?a aeiiii?/ii? iaoee ? i?aoe? no/anieo
o/aieo-aeiiii?no?a, iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy ? aeina?ae ?o canoinoaaiiy a
/anoei? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe aia?aaoe/ieo i?aei?e?inoa ?
ooi/iaiiy aeieia?/ieo ianoaaei a i?noeyo ?icoaooaaiiy a?aeoiae?a ?
ia’?eo?a, i?aaia? ? ?io? ii?iaoeai? aeoe c i?iaeaie ?ano?ni- ?
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii caaaeueiiiaoeia? caniae i?ciaiiy: aiae?c ?
neioac; iaoeiao aano?aeoe?th; oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee ? eia?/iee aiae?c;
caniae aenia?eiaioo ? ?io?. Aeaea?aeii ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? aeai?
aea?aeaaii? ? ?aa?iiaeueii? noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?, iaoa??aee ia?aeiiiai
o?aooaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa aoa?eueii? ? aia?aaoe/ii? i?iieneiaino?, a
oaeiae aeani? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?a ??ciiiai?oieo noi??i aeaii?
i?iaeaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca i?aenoieaie i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiaii ?yae iieiaeaiue, ui a?ae??ciythoueny iaoeiaith
iiaeciith. Iniiai? c ieo oae?:

1. Ia canaae? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo iaa?oioiaaii iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i? ? ?io? /eiieee, ui ae?thoue a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo
aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, coiiaeththoue ia’?eoeaio caoe?eaaeai?noue
ie?aieo ae?iaiee?a, i?aei?e?inoa aoaeue-yei? oi?ie aeaniino?, ?aa?ii?a ?
aea?aeaae a i?iaaaeaii? ?ano?ni- ? aia?aicaa??aath/i? iie?oeee.
Iniiaieie iioeaaie oaei? caoe?eaaeaiino? o ae?iaiee?a ? i?aei?e?inoa ?
i?aaiaiiy aei io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai i?eaooeo (i?eioeei iaeneiaeueiiai
aoaeoo) aai aei aeiiii?? cania?a (i?eioeei i?i?i?caoe?? aeo?ao), a o
?aa?ii?a ? aea?aeaae — aei caa?aaeaiiy no?aoaa?/ieo ?ano?n?a,
noai?aiiy iiaeo

21

no?oeoo?e. Iniiaiith ?enith oaeiai eiiieaeno neoaeeoue i???ioaoe?y an?o
o/aniee?a ia aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ca e?ioeaaei
i?iaeoeoii — aia?aaoeeith (aeaeo?iaia?a?y, oaieiaa aia?a?y), a oaeiae
iaoaeo?a??th.

Aeaye? iiiaioe no?oeoo?e i?aeaaeocaaiai oeio, ui i?iiiio?oueny, oni?oii
?aae?ciaaii a i?iieneiaino?.

9. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
?, ioaea, aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue noai?aiiy aeiiii?ei-ainiiaea?nueeeo
no?oeoo? iiaiai oeio.

Nienie

iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Iiaiue N.I. Ooeeecaoeey iooiaeia oaeaiaiaauaiey: eiaeea io?anee.-
Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu, 1997.- 23 n.

2. Iiaiue N.I. I?iaeaiu eniieueciaaiey iooiaeia oaeaiaiaauaiey//
Eiaanoeoeee: ?ano?nu, iaoaieciu noeioee-?iaaiey.- Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI
Oe?aeiu, 1997.- N. 180-189.

3. Iiaiue N.I. Oaoiiaaiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey auniei-cieueiuo oaeae:
ioeaiea oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea.- Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI
Oe?aeiu, 1998.- 22 n.

4. Iiaiue N.I. Iaae?aeiinoue yeaeo?iyia?aaoeee e ?aaeiiaeueiua
iaaeio?aneaaua no?oeoo?u, ooeeece?othuea iooiaeu oaeaiaiaauaiey// A?niee
Oe?a?inueeiai Aoaeeieo aeiiii?/ieo oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ciaiue.- E.:
Oiaa?enoai “Ciaiey” Oe?a?ie, 1998.- ? 3.- N. 45-49.

Aiioaoe?y

Iiaiee N. I. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe aia?aaoe/ieo i?aei?e?inoa
ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06. 01 — Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa. — ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie,
Aeiiaoeuee, 1998.

20

2. Aeeiiaii oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoiaee/ieo iniia, ui ni?eythoue
oni?oi?e ?ano?nicaa??aath/?e ae?yeueiino?.

3. Ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy a?aeiieo cania?a ioe?iee aeiiii?/ii? oe?iiino?
aeaea?ae i?ia?aeueii? ne?iaeie cai?iiiiiaaii i?e aecia/aii? oe?iiino?
noiaeu ?iaeiaeu a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ei?enooaaoeny o?iainiaeie
e?eoa??yie, cie?aia, iioie?a, ui aeeneiiooaaeeny, aeo?ao ? i?eaooe?a,
aeanoeaeo eiie?aoiei i?iaeoai ooee?caoe?? aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey.

4. Aeey ioe?iee ianooaa?a ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a iai?yieo ooee?caoe??
a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy aeeiiaii oa?oiiaoaaiiy ie?aieo noiaeu,
i?enoiniaaieo aei oaa?ee I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie ?c canoinoaaiiyi
eeanoa?iiai aiae?co. A iaaeao a?oi noiaeu a?aeoiae?a caaaa/oaaiiy
aoa?eey ia?ie A-Ae ? AO-O (aia?aaoe/iiai i?ecia/aiiy) noi?iiaaii ii
i’youe eeanoa??a, ui a?aoiaothoue cieuei?noue iaeeaa ? eiai ci?no a
ia’?eoao.

5. C i?eoyaiaiiyi oai??? ?iia??iinoae ia aac? a?aea??eiaeo ianoaaeaiue
cieueiino? aoa?eey a noiaeuao a?aeoiae?a ia oeaio?aeueieo
caaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?eeao (OeCO) I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio
ioe?iee ?ano?n?a aenieicieueiiai iaeeaa a iaeeieoeyo oiiaiiai iaeeaa.

6. Caniaaie noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeinyaiaii? ??aiy
ia?a?iaee a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ii?yaeeo 1 iei. o o.i. ia ??e
ianooaae ae?yeueiino? iathoue aea?aeaaii-cia/ouee oa?aeoa?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ??aiy.

7. A ?acoeueoao? ?aae?caoe?? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ae?iaiaiai /eiieeiaiai
aenia?eiaioo i?e i’youeio /eiieeao anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue ?oiueiai
aieeao ia cia/aiiy oa?eoo, ui caaacia/o? aaccaeoeiao aenieoaoaoe?th
aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno. Iaea?eueoee aieea ia icia/aiee oa?eo
aeaeo?iaia?a?? aeyaeythoue oiiae ?iaanoeoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o (a?aenioie
noaaee aeeneiioo), oe?ia aoa?eueiiai iaeeaa ? ?aaeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy
OAOe.

8. Cai?iiiiiaaii noaio iiaoaeiae ?aa?iiaeueiiai i?ae-aaeocaaiai
eiiieaeno o aeaeyae? o?iainiai-i?iieneiai? a?oie, ui aeeth/a?
i?aaenoaaiee?a iaeeaii? aaeoc?, aia?aaoeee, iaoaeo?a??,
o?iainia? oa i?aei?e?iieoeuee?

5

?iai/eo i?noeue, iie?ioaiiy caaaeueii? aeieia?/ii? ianoaiiaee ? ni?eyiiy
c?inoaiith aeia?iaooo a?iiaaeyi.

2. Iieacaii, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? ??oaiiy i?iaeai ooee?caoe??
a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeie ? ia iiooe oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a ?ic?iaee noiaeu oeeo a?aeoiae?a ? i?ioeano ?oiueiai
niaethaaiiy, a ae??oaiiy aeiiii?/ieo caaea/ iioei?caoe?? i?iaeoieo
??oaiue a?ae noai?aiiy eaaeano?o aei ?aae?caoe?? ae?iaeaii? aia?a?? ia
oaieiaeaeo?ioeaio?ae? (OAOe), ui aeei?enoiaothoue oeaie a yeino?
oaa?aeiai iaeeaa.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeaaaeeea?oith i?iaeaiith i?aaiai? iniiae
ae?yeueiino? a noa?? ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa noathoue a?aeiineie aeaniino?, ?
a?ae ?o a??iiai ae??oaiiy aaaaoi a /iio caeaaeeoue iaeaooiy
aoaeoeai?noue aeaii? aaeoc? i?aei?e?inoaa.

4. Iieacaii, ui a aeieac? aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino? ?ic?iaee a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy cia/ia i?noea iaeaaeeoue a?aooaaiith aeiiii?/ieo
caeoe?a a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, yea a aeaiiio
eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo aenooia? a yeino? iiceoeaii? neeaaeiai? caaaeueiiai
aoaeoo. Iaaaaeaii eiie?aoi? oi?ioee c aecia/aiiy oe??? /anoeie aoaeoo,
ui aeicaieythoue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe noia?i? aeiiii?/i? caeoee a?ae
caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?e, aiaeiiai aanaeio ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue ye /eiiee?a iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia ae?yeuei?noue iaeaeeae/eo
i?aei?e?inoa ? onoaiia, a oaeiae caei?ia’y ethaeae, ui i?iaeeaathoue ?
i?aoeththoue a aeieia?/ii iaaacia/i?e cii?.

5. Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeyaeo noiaeu a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ye ia’?eo?a a?ciano ?, a?aeiia?aeii, cae?eniaiiy
?oiuei? aa?o?nii? ioe?iee. Cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??? o?iainiaiai aiae?co
i?iaeo?a aeioe?eueiino? a?aei?aoethaaiiy a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy.

6. Ia aac? ?acoeueoao?a noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiaii ??aiyiiy
e?i?eii? ?aa?an??, caeaaei?noue oa?eoo ia aeaeo?iaia?a?th, ui
anoaiiaeth?oueny ca oiiae aaccaeoeiaino?

6

aia?aieiiieaeno, ? oaeeie /eiieeaie aieeao, ye anoaiiaethaaia
iiooaei?noue oaieiai? aia?a??, aa?o?noue iaeeaa, noaaea aeeneiioo.

7. Cai?iiiiiaaii ? iaa?oioiaaii oi?ie ?eieiaeo no?oeoo? c ?aae?caoe??
a?aeoiae?a, ui anoaiiaeththoueny, ?ic?iaeaii iaiao?aei? noaoooi?
aeieoiaioe ? eiioeaioe?th no?aoaa?? ia?eaoeiao oeeo i?aei?e?inoa.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee i?aei?e?inoa
aoa?eueii? aaeoc?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? aace
i?aai?caoe?? i?aei?e?inoa, ye? i?ecia/ai? aeey ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ?aae?ciaaii a iaoiaee/ieo aeieoiaioao, ui
ia?aaeoiiaeththoue noai?aiiy iiaeo no?oeoo? c ?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe??
a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ? i?e iiaoaeia? eiie?aoii? ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?aeaaeocaai? ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? ? eiia?oe?eii? no?oeoo?e,
aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa cae?eoiai oeio «Eiioea?i «Oe?i?iiaiao?ano?nu».

Noia?iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo, yeee io?eiaii a ?acoeueoao? ae?yeueiino?
eiioea?io a 1997 ?ioe?, neeaa iiiaae 1 iei. a?i., a oiio /ene? /anoea
aaoi?a — 98 oen. a?i.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
nai?ia?ao Aeiiaoeueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie (i.
Aeiiaoeuee), Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), i?aeia?iaeiiio
iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? «?aa?iiaeuei? ?ano?ne caaacia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii?
aaciaee» (i. Eo?aoiaa, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a 4
naiino?eieo iaoeiaeo ?iaioao, a /ene? yeeo 2 a?ioo?e ? 2 noaoo?
caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,4 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, aeeeaaeaieo ia 183 noi??ieao

19

Oaaeeoey Aeiiii?/i? iieacieee

i?ioeano io?eiaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai eiioeaio?aoo c a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy

Iaeiaioaaiiy iieaciee?aIaeeieoey
aei??oIieacieeeCieuei?noue%18Aieia?noue-”-14?ic?aooieiaee ianya
ia?a?iaee a?aeoiae?ao/??e500000Aa?o?noue c o?aooaaiiyi aeinoaaee ii
cae?cie/?e eie??aeie. NOA/o10Aeo?ae i?iaeoeo?a caaaa/oaaiiy% (o)80
(400000)Nia?aa?o?noue eiioeaio?aoo c o?aooaaiiyi a?aeoiae?aaeie.
NOA/o19.5Aa?o?noue aia?aaoe/iiai eiioeaio?aoo CIF Eo?ao?anueea OANaeie.
NOA/o31*enoee i?eaaaeaiee i?eaooie aei aeieaoe i?euea (NPV)iei. aeie.
NOA43

Aeniiaee

Eiiieaen i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieea aeinyaoe iinoaaeaii? a
?iaio? iaoe: anoaiiaeaii aoaeoeai?noue ? iiaeeea? ianooaae aeei?enoaiiy
a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy a yeino? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa aeey oaieiaeo
aeaeo?inoaioe?e Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe oae?:

1. Iieacaii, ui ia aoai? ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a
Oe?a?i?, ?ano?nicaa??aath/a ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa aeoiaeeoue o
?ic?yae ia?oi/a?aiaeo ca aaaeeea?noth ? aeooaeuei?noth. Oea noino?oueny
? ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a caaaa/oaaiiy aoa?eey a nenoai? I?iaoaeai?iio
Oe?a?ie ? eienio?i?/ieo caaiae?a. No/aniee ?icaeoie oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??
a aaeoc? caaaa/oaaiiy aoa?eey ? niaethaaiiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa noai?th?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey oni?oiiai a?aei?aoethaaiiy noiaeu a?aeoiae?a oeioaoe??
ca ?ici??aie oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey.

18

anoaiiaeaia iiooaei?noue aeaeo?inoaioe?e ii i??? c?inoaiiy aeiaaa? aeey
caaacia/aiiy ii?iaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? ianoaiiaee a?eueo aenieeo oa?eo?a
ia aeaeo?iaia?a?th;

i?aeaeuaiiy e?eueeino? aiaeei ?iaioe noaioe?? ni?ey? c?inoaiith ??
aoaeoeaiino?;

ciae «i?ion» ia?aae /eiieeii O3 na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui i?e?iaeii, —
eiaaia?aoe?y oaieiai? ? aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a?? a?eueo aea?aeia, i?ae ?iaioa
OAN a eiiaeanaoe?eiiio ?aaeei? (aac a?aeionoee ?noioii? e?eueeino?
oaiea);

aa?o?noue iaeeaa (/eiiee O4) i?yii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaeaiiy aeaeo?iaia?a??. ? /ei aa?o?noue iaeeaa aeua, oei a?eueoa
aeiaaa?oueny i?aeeii oa?eo?a;

i’yoee /eiiee, i?e?iaeii /enoi o?iainiaiai oa?aeoa?o, iieaco?, ye
aieeaathoue oiiae ?ici?uaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e ia aoaeoeai?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aia?aieiiieaeno a oe?eiio, ca aanue ia??iae eiai
?nioaaiiy. ?c c?inoaiiyi aeeneiioo ?inoa ? iaiao?aeia cia/aiiy oa?eoo ia
a?aeiouaio aeaeo?iaia?a?th.

*eiieee ?aiaeothoueny a oaeiio ii?yaeeo ii i??? oaoaaiiy: 5, 2, 4, 3, 1
?, ioaea, oiiae o?iainoaaiiy i?iaeoo, noaaee aeeneiiooaaiiy — iaea?eueo
?noioiee /eiiee aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno.

Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea ?iaeiaeu iaiiaeeeaa aac ciaiiy i?e?iaee i?iaeoo, ui
?aae?coaaany ia iueiio, a cia/eoue, ? iie?oeee eiiiai??, ui noi?oue ca
i?iaeoii.

Ia?niaeoeai? ioe?iee oa?eoii? iie?oeee ia ?eieo aeaeo?iaia?a?? a Oe?a?i?
(a?ey 5 oeaio?a NOA/eAoa) noaaethoue i?ae noii?a aeioe?euei?noue
iiaoaeiae OAOe a i?noeyo eiiiaeoiiai ?ici?uaiiy a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy.

A oeueiio ca’yceo a ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii noaio iiaoaeiae ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?aeaaeocaai? ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? ? eiia?oe?eii? no?oeoo?e,
ae?yeuei?noue yei? iia’ycaia c ia?a?iaeith a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy.
Aeiiii?/i? iieacieee ?iaioe eiiieaeno i?iaeaiiino?iaaii o oaae.

7

oaenoo, i?noeoue o nia? 17 oaaeeoeue, 15 ?enoie?a, nienie aeaea?ae c 87
iaeiaioaaiue ? 7 aeiaeaoe?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

?icae?e 1. “Ooee?caoe?y a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ye /eiiee
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aia?aaoe/ieo i?aei?e?inoa
a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. E?eca oe?a?inueei? aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? coiiaeea e?eco iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno e?a?ie,
aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio ? cioneea ooeaoe iao?ea?aeuei? oeyoe cieaeaiiy
aino?ioe aeao?oeeoo aoa?eey. A ?ioa?anao aia?aaoeee ? iaoaeo?a??
aeioe?eueii caa?iooeny aei iiaa?iaiiy a iaeeaio aaco caaaeainiaiai
iaeeaa — a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy, iaeiie/aieo o aaeee?e e?eueeino?
i?ioyaii aeanyoe?a ?ie?a a oeaiiaeo a?aenoieieeao ? ioeiiaeiie/oaa/ao
caaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?ee. Oea ?aaeueiee aia?aaoe/iee ?ano?n, iaeiae
iecueea ye?noue, ianoaa?euei?noue oa?aeoa?enoee, iaiaeiicia/i?noue
ooee?caoe?eieo aa??aio?a ? oiia eieae?caoe?? aoaeaai?uoth/eo a?aeoiae?a,
iacaaaeath/e ia caaaeueio i?eaaaeea?noue ?aea?, ciooothoue aooe
no?eiaieie a ioe?ieao. Cie?aia, iio??aai aia?ao aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? i?iaeo?a ?ic?iaee noiaeu oaino?a oeioaoe??, ui iia’yco?
i?ae/an noia?a/eea? /eiieee oaoiieia?/iiai ? ?eieiaiai ieai?a.

Ine?eueee ?eieiaee i?aeo?ae ca nai?th noooth ? o??iaiei (o a?aeciaeo
a?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, a iniia? yei? ciaoiaeeoueny
aaeocaaa i?aei?e?inoai), oi ? no?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy ?ic?iaee
oeioinoiaeu aeioe?eueii aoaeoaaoe noiniaii aei ?ioa?an?a aeayei?
a?iioaoe/ii? o??ie, ae?th/i? ia oe?e iea?. Nei?enoo?iinue aeey oeueiai
aeaiaioaie eeane/ieo noai oi?ioaaiiy eia?ee aaeoc?, i?ae yeith nii/aoeo
?icoi??oueny ia no?oeoo?a iiaoaeiae oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth, a aaeocue
ae?yeueiino?. A iaoiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo, aeoiaey/e c niaoeeo?ee
ieoaiiy, a yeino? aaeoc? iiaeia aecia/eoe aeania aeaeiaooie oa
i?aeaioiaeo aei iaiao?aeieo eiiaeeoe?e oeai?a aei iinoa/aiiy ?o ia OAN
aai ia eienio?i?/i? caaiaee. sse aaeocue oaeiae, iiaeia
?icoi?oe

8

aia?aaoeeo iaei? ? na?aaeiuei? iiooaeiino?, aea oeaie ?aeooue a iaeeai,
i?iaeoeoaie ae ae?yeueiino? aenooiathoue aeaeo?iaia?a?y ? oaiei. sseui
oea oae, oi iio??aii aeey ii/aoeo ia?aeiiaoeny a iiieo? ia iiae?aiee
??ae ae?yeueiino? ?, ioaea, i?iaiae?coaaoe no?oeoo?o iio?aae a oaa?aeiio
iaeea?.

Ca ia??iae c 1990 ii 1997 ??e aeaeiaooie aoa?eey a Oe?a?i? nei?ioeany
a?ae 165 iei. oiii aei 75 iei., a /anoea aoa?eey a aaeain? oaieiaeo
aeaeo?inoaioe?e, a neeo eii’thieoo?e iaeeainiiaeeaaiiy, ca?eueoeeany c
33.6% aei 50.2%, oi/a aaniethoi? ianyae eiai niiaeeaaiiy ciaioeeeny c
25.9 aei 18.8 iei. oiii. Aeaeiaooie eien?aiiai aoa?eey cieceany c 78.4
aei 29.5 iei. oiii, aai ia 62%, i?e ciaioaii? aioo??oiueiai ianyao
niiaeeaaiiy ia 68%. sseui a?aooaaoe, ui ca ioe?ieith ?in?enueeiai
?inoeoooo eii’thieoo?e ?eieo aoa?eey (?IE?A) a ?aieao I?aeaea?aeaaiiai
?a?iac?aonueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy aoa?eey ? iaoaeo (I?AIAI) a Oe?a?i? aei
2000 ?ieo iiieo ia eien iacia/ii c?inoa, a ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia ca?eueoaiiy
aoaeaaeaeiaooeo oaooaie aaeoc? ia iio??aii, iiaeia c iaai?noth
i?eionoeoe c?inoaiiy aeao?oeeoo ? aia?aaoe/iiai, ? eien?aiiai aoa?eey,
ui noeioeth? iiieo ia aoaeaai?uoth/? a?aeoiaee aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy.

Oni?oo ia ?eieo a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy oaeiae ni?eythoue: iecueea
oe?ia; a?aeiinia aeinooii?noue ? aeaoaaecia aeoyao; iiaeeea?noue
iie?ioaiiy yeino? oeyoii ia?acaaaa/oaaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c i?aeneo?aioii? ii?ie cieueiino? ? aieiae aeey oeai?a an?o
ia?ie, a?aeiia?aeii 39.2 ? 17.3%, ? iioiai? oe?ie aeey ieo ii?yaeeo 15.3
a?i., i?e iinoa/aii? caaaeainiaeo oeai?a i?aeaeuaii? cieueiino? iiaeiia
canoiniaoaaoeny oeaea cieaeaiiy oe?ie — o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ae?th/ei
iieiaeaiiyi 2.5% ca eiaeiee ia?aaeuaiee a?aenioie, aeiiiaiaia
i?ia?aneaiei oo?aoiei eiao?oe??ioii, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae cieaeaiiy
eiao?oe??ioo ei?enii? ae?? (EEAe) eioeiaa?aaao?a aeaeo?inoaioe?e ?
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaeaoe?a ia ia?aaacaiiy, ?icaaioaaeaiiy, aeinooeo, ?iciie
? ?io. Ca aenia?oieie ioe?ieaie oe?ia iinoa/aiiy ia IAN oeai?a
cieuei?noth 45-50% neeaaea? 11-13 a?i./o. I?e i?aai?caoe?? i?aenooee
oeai?a aei

17

caeaaei?noue i?ae noia?iith e?euee?noth a?aeoiae?a ? noia?iith
e?euee?noth, yea a?aeiineoueny aei o?aouei? a?oie ii cieueiino? (ii
eiaeiiio eeanoa?o ? ii a?oi? a oe?eiio). A aeey ae?oai? a?oie oaa?ee
oae? caeaaeiino? cia/ou? ia o?eueee aeey a?aeoiae?a o?aouei? a?oie
cieueiino?, aea ? ae?oai?.

A?oia??aiyiiy ?aa?an??r2Q3sum=-1.608+0.854 Qsum0.973Q2sum=0.194+0.309
Qsum0.933Q3sum=0.275+0.627 Qsum0.97

Anoaiiaeai? noaoenoe/i? ca’ycee aaaeeea?, ai aeicaieythoue a
iiaeaeueoiio i?eioneaoe ii a?aeii?e caaaeuei?e e?eueeino? a?aeoiae?a
caaaa/oaaiiy e?euee?noue a?aeoiae?a iaaii? cieueiino? a i?noeyo
neeaaeoaaiiy, a cia/eoue, a?eueo oi/ii aecia/aoe no?aoaa?/i? caiane
oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu a c?noaaeaii? c oiiaiei iaeeaii.

Iai?eeeaae, ?ic?aooiee, ye? aeeiiaii ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith,
aeicaieeee c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui c ?iia??i?noth 50% ?ano?ne
aenieicieueiiai iaeeaa a ioeiiaeiie/oaa/ao ae?oai? a?oie ia?aaeuothoue
??aaiue 9,5 iei. o o.i.

Noaoenoe/i? ? o?iainia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee io?eiaoe ianooiia
??aiyiiy e?i?eii? ?aa?an??, cia/aiiy ooieoe??, ui ca’yco? a?aeaoe
(oa?eoo ia aeaeo?iaia?a?th ca oiiaith aaccaeoeiaino? aia?aieiiieaeno,
oeaio?a NOA/eAoa) ? /eiiee?a aieeao (-1 oi 1):

W=6.019+0.359X1-1.169X2-0.869X3+0.881X4+1.401X5,

aea O1 — anoaiiaeaia iiooaei?noue OAN;

O2 — e?euee?noue aiaeei ?iaioe OAOe ii aeaeiaooeo aeaeo?iaia?a??;

O3 — a?aeione oaieiai? aia?a??;

O4 — aa?o?noue iaeeaa;

O5 — noaaea aeeneiioo.

Io?eiaio caeaaei?noue iiaeia ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ne?aeoth/ei /eiii:

16

Anoaiiaeaiiy oe?iiino? i?iaeoo o?nii ca’ycaii c iaaieie e?eoa??yie, ui
yaeythoue niaith aaaaoi/eiieeia? caeaaeiino?. Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy aeaeyaeo
iiaeae? a aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii caniae ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo, ui
aeaaeooue aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaia ??oaiiy i?e a?aeiini?e i?inoio?
iinoaiiaee.

?icae?e 3. “Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy a yeino? aia?aaoe/iiai iaeeaa”. Oa?aeoa?enoeee iayaieo
oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu iaaeoi ??ciyoueny ye e?euee?nii, oae ? ca ye?noth
aeania aoaeaai?uoth/eo iaoa??ae?a. I?iaeoi? ?inoeoooe I?iaoaeai?iio
Oe?a?ie ? ?inoeooo Oe?IAe?aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy iia?othoue ??ciiiai?oieie
aeaieie, a aeaoaeuei? ianoaaeaiiy ia’?eo?a, ia aeaeue, ia i?iaiaeeeeny.
Oiio aeiionoeii aiai?eoe i?i e?euee?noue ii?yaeeo 200 iei. oiii
aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey.

Aeiaeaoeiai aei oeueiai aeey ianooiiiai aiae?co a ?iaio? c?iaeaii
ia?i/iee ?iciiae?e iaeeaa ca ia’?eoaie, aeey /iai aaaaeaii
eeaneo?eaoe?th aoa?eey: a?oia 1 a?aeiineoueny aei a?aeoiae?a
caaaa/oaaiiy eien?aiiai i?ecia/aiiy; 2 — a?oia A-Ae (ia?ee A, AeA, AAE,
Ae, AAEI); 3 — a?oia AO-O.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy nooo?aino? yaeua aeioe?eueii iia?oaaoe ia iaeeie/iei
ia’?eoii — ie?aiei oaoiiaaiiei ?iaeiaeuai, a ?oiueith
i?aaenoaaieoeueeith a?oiith. A yeino? oaeeo aeioe?eueii aeei?enoaoe
eeanoa?e — noaoenoe/i? iaeii??aei? oa?oiiaoaaiiy ia’?eo?a. Nie?ath/enue
ia iayai? aeai? ?ici?uaiiy caaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?ee a Aeiiaoeuee?e ?
Eoaainuee?e iaeanoyo, caniae iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee, aeeiiaii
oi?ioaaiiy eeanoa??a, aiae?c yeeo, a?aoiaoth/e ia?i/io niaoeeo?eo
aoa?eey, c?iaeaii ie?aii aeey a?oie 2 ? a?oie 3, ui neeaaeathoue aaco
aia?aaoe/iiai iaeeaa.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a oe?eiio a?oia 2 iae?/o? ii?yaeeo 53 iei. oiii
a?aeoiae?a caaaa/oaaiiy, a a?oia 3 — a?ey 15 iei. oiii.

I?e oeueiio ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c aeicaiey? c iaai?noth aiai?eoe i?i
a?aenooi?noue cia/ouiai e?i?eiiai ca’yceo i?ae noia?iith e?euee?noth
a?aeoiae?a caaaa/oaaiiy ia oaa?eeao ? neeaaeiaeie /anoeiaie
??ciiiai?oii? cieueiino?. ?acii c oei aeey oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu
ae?oai? a?oie ?nio? noaoenoe/ia

9

aieiaino? 8-10% oe?ia oeai?a ca?eueoo?oueny ia 12-15%, oiaoi aei 13-15
a?i., ui caaacia/o? ?aioaaaeuei?noue ii?yaeeo 12-30%.

Aeciath/e aeiiii?/io aea?aei?noue ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy, aeioe?eueii a?eueo aeaoaeueii coieieoeny ia iaeaooi?e
no?oeoo?? aaeoc?, aeeth/ath/e ye iinoa/aeueiee?a, oae ? niiaeeaa/?a.

Iinoa/aeueieee. A ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny o?eueee oainoinoiaeua, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny o aaaeaii? i?aei?e?inoa I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie.

A nenoai? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? e?a?ie i?aoeththoue 64 caaaa/oaaeuei?
oaa?eee caaaeueiith ae?iaie/ith iiooaei?noth 145.7 iei. oiii ia ??e c
ia?a?iaee ?yaeiaiai aoa?eey, c yeeo 20 caeiathoueny ia?a?iaeith
eien?aiiai aoa?eey, 44 — aia?aaoe/iiai, a /ene? inoaii?o — 23, ui
caaaa/othoue aio?aoeeo. I?e oeueiio, ca aeaieie I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie, a
oeaiia?aeno?eieeao ? ioeiiaeiie/oaa/ao ?ici?uaii ii?yaeeo 115.9 iei.
oiii oeaiiaeo i?iaeoeo?a. C ieo o?eueee 2% a?ae caaaeueii? iane oeai?a
iathoue cieuei?noue aei 45% (iaaaaaoi a?eueoa, i?ae 2 iei. oiii), ?io? —
caaaeainia? oeaie, ui aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny ca cieuei?noth ia a?oio a?ae
45 aei 60% (40 iei. oiii) ? iiiaae 60% — a?ey 74 iei. oiii.

Noa’?eoe i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, a?aei?ii? a?ae ooaoieo
iinoa/aeueiee?a — caaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?ee, ye? i?aoeththoue c a?aeoiaeaie
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy, eeoa iauiaeaaii c’yaeeeny ia aeai?e iea? ? o?eueee
inaiththoue ??, uii?aaaea, aeineoue aeoeaii. A?eueo?noue c ieo i?aoeth?
c iioi/ieie iioieaie ? ia i?aaia aeiee inaithaaoe iieeaaee a?aeoiae?a
caaaa/oaaiiy, ui iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe a yeino? oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu
aoa?eey.

Niiaeeaa/?. A. Caaaeainia? oeaie ?c ci?noii ciee aei 40% (a?aie/ia aei
42% ia nooo iano), i?aenooai? aei eiiaeeoe?e 17.3% (a?aie/i? 18… 20%),
iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a cae/aeiiio ii?yaeeo ia oaieiaeo
aeaeo?inoaioe?yo, ia?aaeon?i ia Eo?ao?anuee?e OAN — aoa?euei? ?
Noa?iaaoaanuee?e — aio?aoeeoia?.

A. Caaaeainia? aoa?euei? oeaie ?c cieuei?noth 45 … 48%, aea
i?aenooai? aei ci?noo aieiae 8 … 10%, iiaeooue (ca

10

iiaiaeaeaiiyi) aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ia oaieiaeo aeaeo?inoaioe?yo ca oiiae
?icae?eueiiai neeaaeoaaiiy aeey i?aeoeooiaee, a oaeiae ca iayaiino? ia
neeaae? aenieieaei??eiiai iaeeaa, ui caaacia/o? niaethaaiiy ci?oaii?
aoa?eueii? iane aac iacooiiai i?aenay/oaaiiy.

A. Aoae?aieoeoai OAOe ia aac? eioe?a c oiieaie eeiey/iai oa?o, ui
oee?eoeth?, caaacia/o? niaethaaiiy aenieicieueiiai iaeeaa aac eiai
aeiaeaoeiaiai caaaa/oaaiiy. C aeina?aeo ?iaioe aeaeo?inoaioe?e eiiiai??
“Oa?aiiaae aea O?ain” aeiionoeia aeei?enoaiiy aoaeaai?uoth/eo iaoa??ae?a
cieuei?noth 55% ? aeua. Ca ioe?ieaie, aeeiiaieie oao?aoeyie ?inoeooo?a
Aeiiaoa?, Aei?i?ia?i?ioaoo ? Aei?i?iI?I?-aia?aii?ii, iiaeia
cai?iiiioaaoe aoae?aieoeoai a Oe?a?i? i???ioiaii 10-15 OAOe noia?iith
iiooaei?noth 1000-1300 IAo. Aoae?aieoeoai ia?oeo OAOe c noia?iith
iiooaei?noth 1000 IAo aeicaieeoue caeiiiieoe a?eueoa 1.5 iei. o o.i.
aoa?eey, ui aeo?a/o?oueny a oaooieo eioaeueieo, ? ?noioii cieceoe
aeo?aoe ia caeoieo aeaeo?iaia?a??. I?e oeueiio ?niothoue ia?aaeoiiae
aeey aeinyaiaiiy noaa?e?caoe?? aia?aicaaacia/aiiy oaooiiai oiiaeo
I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie ? iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/ii? ianoaiiaee a oaooa?nueeeo
?aa?iiao.

A. Ia?acaaaa/aiee eiioeaio?ao oeai?a eien?aiiai aoa?eey — i?iaeoeo,
niiaeeaa/aie yeiai ? eienio?i?/i? caaiaee.

Oe?ii?noue oiai aai ?ioiai noiaeua a?aeoiae?a caeaaeeoue a?ae yeino?
aeania aoaeaai?uoth/eo iaoa??ae?a ? a?ae eiai iieiaeaiiy a ciai?oiueiio
na?aaeiaeu?. Ia aeaeue, nueiaiaei?oi?e ??aaiue ianoaaeaiue eiie?aoieo
noiaeu a?aeoiae?a i?e caaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?eeao ia aea? oi/ii? ioe?iee
yeino? aoa?eey. Oiio, a?aoiaoth/e aaaaoinoaae?ei?noue i?ioeano noai?aiiy
eaaeano??a aoaeaai?uoth/eo a?aeoiae?a, ? iio?aaa a ?ic?iaoe? ia?a?nii?,
iaoae aeinoaoiuei a?oai?, nenoaie aaeueii? ioe?iee yeino?, ui a?aoiao? ?
niaoe?ae?caoe?th i?ecia/aiiy (eien oa ?i.). Ii?yae c ioe?ieith
aia?aaoeei-ia?i/ieo yeinoae a?aeoiae?a ne?ae aaanoe a eaaeano? ioe?iee
oaoiieia?/iiai aaeineiiaeaiiy a?aeaae?a — a?aenoaiue aei oa?i?iae?a
iia?ocee aei cae?cie/ieo aaaii?a, ?icoaooaaiiy ii a?aeiioaiith aei
aoceiai? noaioe??, aioiai?noue aei a?aei?aoethaaiiy (i?aoethth/? ? ui
iathoue i?noe?noue

15

14

Aeeeaee oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie c aeaea?ae ?oiueiai ooai?aiiy

Eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie a iaaeieeo-iueiio na?aaeiaeu?

«Iaoo?aeuei? caeoee»

Aeiiii?/i? caeoee

?en. 1 Noaia

iine?aeiaiino? aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a

Iine?aeiai?noue aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a i?e ioe?ioe? iniiaieo
aeae?a ia’?eo?a ia?ooiiino?, ii/eiath/e a?ae iayaiino? eiioeaio?aoe??
caa?oaeithaa/a a iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?, i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. 2.

I?eaaoecaoe?y i?aei?e?inoa, ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee a?aee?eee aeey
a?o/eciyieo aiae?oee?a iia? caniae ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?iaeoieo
??oaiue. Ia ci?io o?aaeeoe?eiei aeey aeiiii?/ii? i?aeoeee
nioe?ae?noe/iiai aeaoooaaiiy ?ic?aooieai ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo ana /ano?oa i?eoiaeyoue nooi ia?eaioeeuei?
ooee?oa?i? ioe?iee o?iainiaiai aiae?co. Ine?eueee a?aeaoaa?oueny
?ioaa?aoe?y Oe?a?ie a na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai ? ana /ano?oa a?cian-ieaie,
ui i???iooaaeeny ia iioaioe?eieo ?iaanoi??a ?c-ca ?oaaaeo,
ioi?ieththoueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c cae/ieie aeey ieo aeiiii?/ieie ?
o?iainiaeie noaiaea?oaie, oe?eeii aei?aaaeaia canoinoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
?ic?aooieiaeo nenoai.

I?iaeoiee aiae?c yaey? niaith can?a, ui aeicaieeoue nenoaiii ioe?ithaaoe
o?iainia? ? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiino? i?iaeo?a. Iaia’ycie aiae?oeea iieyaa? a
e?euee?niiio ae?aaeaii? aai, i?eiaeii?, a ye?niiio a?aeaeaaii? anueiai
niaeo?o i?eaaoieo ? noni?eueieo aeo?ao (aeeth/ath/e aieea ia ?iciiae?e
i?eaooe?a) ? iaaeiiii?/iee aieea i?iaeoo aeey iiaeaiiy iniaai,
a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ca noaiiaeaiiy iie?oeee.

11

aeey o?eaaei? iiaeaeueoi? aenieoaoaoe?? noiaeua, iaaooue, iiaeii? iaoe
iaioo oe?ii?noue, i?ae cae?eo?).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeeiiaii a ?aieao ia?oiai ?icae?eo aeena?oaoe??,
aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

ooee?caoe?y a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa, cie?aia a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy, ? iaeaaaeeea?oith neeaaeiaith ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy,
aeeth/ath/iai ye aeiiii?/ia iiiyooy oe?ieee aniaeo i?iaeai;

ooee?caoe?y a?aeoiae?a caaaa/oaaiiy aoa?eey iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye
naiino?eia aaeocue ae?yeueiino? c? nai?th eia?eith ioe?iee /eiiee?a,
ni?eyoeeaeo ? iani?eyoeeaeo ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a ?
iinoa/aeueiee?a i?iaeoeoe??;

noiaeua a?aeoiae?a caaaa/oaaiiy aoa?eey yaeythoue niaith aeaea?aei
aeieia?/ii? iaaaciaee a oaooa?nueeeo ?aa?iiao. Oiio oe?ieiianooaaia
ooee?caoe?y a?aeoiae?a oeioaoe?? ia caaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?eeao
I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie oa eienio?i?/ieo caaiaeao coiiaeth? iiceoeaiee
aoaeo aeieia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;

no/aniee ?icaeoie oaoi?ee noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey aaaaoii?io?eueii?
ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a caaaa/oaaiiy aoa?eey: i?iaeoeoe
aoae?iaeono??ae?caoe??, iaeeai aeey aeaeo?inoaioe?e, ne?iaeia aeey
eienio?i??, cai?ithaa/ eieno a iaoaeo?a?ei?e i?iieneiaino?;

ia? i?noea i?aeaeuaia aeoeai?noue i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo? a
Aeiiaan?, yea iai?aaeaia ia ia?a?iaeo aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey,
?ici?uaiiai a noiaeuao a?aeoiae?a i?e caaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?eeao;

aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaa aaca i?iaeaie ooee?caoe?? a?aeoiae?a caaaa/oaaiiy
aoa?eey ia a?aeiia?aea? ?? aaaeeeaino?, aeiiii?ei-ainiiaea?nueeei ?
ae?iaie/ei ca’yceai noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, caaea/ai
noni?euenoaa a oi?aae?ii? i?ioeanaie aeaeiaooeo ?ano?n?a ? ?iciiae?eo
iaoa??aeueieo aeaa.

?icae?e 2. “Iaoiaeieia?y ? caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy ioe?iee ?ano?nii? aace
a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy ? aeioe?eueiino? ?? a?aei?aoethaaiiy”.
Eiiieaen i?iaeai, ui iia’ycai? c ia?a?iaeith a?aeoiae?a caaaa/oaaiiy,
ia ae/a?io?oueny o?eueee

12

oaoiieia?/ieie ? aeiiii?/ieie iieiaeaiiyie. A neeo nai?? nioe?aeueii? ?
aeieia?/ii? cia/ouino? eiei aeaieo ieoaiue, ui ioiieththoue i?iaeaio
iaaaaaoi oe?oa, i?ae cae/aeii, ? aeiaaa? noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ? i?aaiaiai iiey, a ?aieao yeiai iinoaaeaia caaea/a
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, ? cie?aia, aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, ae??ooaaeany a
iaee?auei /eiii.

Oaia aeei?enoaiiy a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/oaaiiy aoa?eey aeaeaei ia iiaa.

A aeiiii?/i?e ioe?ioe? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a /an?a eieeoiueiai
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco i?iaiaeeeany ye onoaiiaia ?aeay i?i oa, ui a oiiaao
nioe?ae?noe/ii? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy aeey eiaeiiai iaaiiai ia??iaeo
/ano ?niothoue noni?eueii aei?aaaeai? iaae? aeo?ao ia ca?eueoaiiy
?ano?n?a. Aaee/eia aeo?ao ia ?ano?ne ia iiaeiia c
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo iiceoe?e ia?aaeuoaaoe icia/aio iaaeo. I??ith
aeiiii?/ii? oe?iiino? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a neoaeeoue iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeaee aeiiii?/iee aea?ao a?ae ?oiuei? aenieoaoaoe?? i?e aeaiiio
??ai? i?aaeiaoieo aeo?ao ? iaiaaeaiiyo, ui iaeeaaeathoueny ?nioth/ith
oaoiieia??th, iio?aaaie noni?euenoaa oa ?i. Oea aoea i?eioeeiiaa
aeaeea?aoe?y iaoiaeieia?/ii? iiceoe??, ?ena inoaiiueiai ia??iaeo
nioe?ae?noe/iiai caniao ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ia ye?e aoei iiaoaeiaaii
oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee i?ia?aeueieo ?ano?n?a.

Iaeiae aaaaoi oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aeueieo ?ano?n?a ? ?oi?o ?iaeiaeu,
aaciaae?eii canoa??ee ? nueiaiaei? aeiaaathoue aeiii?aoethaaiiy, a oi ?
ia?ainieneaiiy.

Aieiaiee nain iiaeo i?aeoiae?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui ioe?ith?oueny ia
?iaeiaeua ye oaea, ia ?aca?aia ae?eueieoey c iaaaaeaieie aaieia?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, a i?iaeo aieeao ia eiie?aoia aeaea?aei i?ia?aeueieo
?ano?n?a c iiaiith aecia/ai?noth oiai, ui aoaea aeaeiaoaaoeny, ye ? aea
aoaea ia?a?iaeyoeny ? yeee aoaea a ?acoeueoao? aeiiii?/iee aoaeo.

13

Oiio a iei?oi?e /an a Oe?a?i? ana a?eueoa cai?iaaaeaeothoueny a i?aeoeeo
?ic?aooiee, ui aeei?enoiaothoue a yeino? e?eoa??th /enoee (iaaaaeaiee)
cene.

?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ye /eiiee aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee yaeua aeinoaoiuei iiaa
(oa?i?i “?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy” aoei aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee eaeneeii a
na?aaeei? 80-o ?ie?a) ? nueiaiaei? ua ia ia? cae?i/aii? iaoiaeieia?/ii?
aace.

A oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia ia?oee ieai aeno?oueny
aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea i?iaeo?a, iieeeeaia anoaiiaeoe iane?eueee aoaeoeaii
iiaeia ioe?ithaaoe aeieia?/i? iane?aeee a a?ioiaiio ae?aaeaii?, ? ye?
iaee?au? i?eeiie oaei? ioe?iee noiniaii aei ??ciiiai?oieo i?iaeo?a, a
yeui aeieia?/ia ioe?iea iaiiaeeeaa aai caiaaeoi iaoi/ia, ye? iaee?au?
i?aeoiaee aei c?noaaeaiiy aeieia?/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a.

Ine?eueee oeaiia? a?aeno?eieee ? ?noioiei aeaiaioii caa?oaeiaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, aiie aeiaaathoue iino?eiiai aeeaaeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo eai?oaeueieo caoiae?a aeey eieae?caoe?? ?oiueiai
oe?aeeeaiai aieeao ia i?e?iaeo ? ethaeeio. Aea naia a neeo oe???
aeanoeaino? ?ic?iaea ? iiaeaeueoa e?ea?aeaoe?y aeaiiai ia’?eoo
ae?yeueiino? ni?eythoue, e?iaoeue-e?ioeai, caaaeaiith aei i?i?ioio
aeo?ao ia iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/ii? ianoaiiaee ?, ioaea, i?aeaeuaiith
aeioe?eueiino? aeeth/aiiy eiai a ae?iaie/o noa?o. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e,
oeaiia? a?aeno?eieee ye ia’?eo ia?ooiiino? ? i?eaaaeeaeie ia o?eueee c
/enoi i?iieneiai? oi/ee ci?o, aea c iiceoe?e aeieia??, ui, i?e?iaeii,
iiaeiii ciaeoe aaeaeaaoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a no?oeoo?? ?oiuei? ?eieiai?
aa?oino?.

A ?iaio? c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy iiceoeaiiai aieeao aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a
ia aoaeoeai?noue a?aei?aoethaaiiy oeaiiaeo a?aeno?eiee?a aeaoaeueii
?icaeyiooi iniiai? aeaee caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ?
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai i?eaooeo, ui aeieea?
i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? oeeo aeaea?ae caa?oaeiaiiy.

Oyao i?i iine?aeiai?noue aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a i?e ioe?ioe?
?eieiai? aa?oino? ia’?eoa ia?ooiiino? aea? ianooiiee eaioethaeie
ca’yce?a (?en. 1).

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