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Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??

EAAANI? AAAeAEUe-?AOIAI EAIAE

(Ei?aeai?y)

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 621.346.003.13

I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iia?eueieo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo nenoai
oeea?eueii? aa?aoe?? ia iniia? iie?auaiiy yeino? aeaiiaeoeyoi??a
oe?ieinioaiaeo neaiae?a

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.22.13 – Iaa?aaoe?y ? ea?oaaiiy iia?o?yiei ?ooii.

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Ee?anueeiio i?aeia?iaeiiio oi?aa?neoao? oeea?eueii?
aa?aoe??.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: – eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaoe Na?a?e Ieoaeeiae/,

EIOOeA, i?ioani?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieoaei/eei Ieeiea Aiae??eiae/,

Oe?einiin

– eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe

*oi??i Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/,

IAe?ANA, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – IAI “Eaaio-iaa?aaoe?y”,

i. Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “_24_” _/a?aiy_ 1999 ?. i _15_
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.062.03 i?e
Ee?anueeiio i?aeia?iaeiiio oi?aa?neoao? oeea?eueii? aa?aoe?? ca
aae?anith: 252058, i. Ee?a, i?. Einiiiaaoa Eiia?iaa, 1, EIOOeA.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_24_” _o?aaiy_ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee I.?. Caii?iaeaoeue

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Ianeoaiaoaaiiy iia?o?yiiai ?ooo (II?) a
oeea?eueii? aa?aoe?? (OeA) caaacia/o?oueny neeaaeieie eiiieaenaie
aa?aoe?eieo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo nenoai, ?aae?iiaa?aaoe?? ?
niinoa?aaeaiiy. A inoaii? ?iee ?ioaineaii noai?th?oueny ?
ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny aeiaaeueia ? ?ioaa?iaaia nenoaia aa?iiaa?aaoe??,
ca’yceo, niinoa?aaeaiiy ? II? (CNS/ATN). Aiane?aeie i?ioean?a
aaoiiaoecaoe?? ? ?ioaa?aoe?? oaoi?/ieo cania?a ? iineoa ii II?,
eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ana
a?eueoa iaaaioaaeaiiy eyaa? ia oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? nenoaie.
A?aeie?aiethaaeueiith iniaeea?noth ?icaeoeo iaeano? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?? ?
o?eaea aeeiai?/ia c?inoaiiy nenoai iia?eueiiai ?aae?ica’yceo (I?C).

Iia?eueiee ?aae?ica’ycie a oeea?eueii? aa?aoe?? a?a? iaeaaaeeea?oo
?ieue a caaacia/aii? ianeoaiaoaaiiy, ?aaoey?iino? ? aaciaee iia?o?yiiai
?ooo, a caaacia/aii? oaoiieia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aa?ai?aei?e?inoa, a
aaoiiaoecaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ? ea?oth/eo nenoai OeA. Aieiaia
oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeoeo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e a i?iieneiai ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao
iieyaa? a noai?aii? ?ioaa?iaaieo ia?aae ? nenoai aeaeo?ica’yceo. Aeey
OeA eiioeaioe?y ia?niaeoeaii? oeeo?iai? ?ioaa?aeueii? ia?aae?
aa?aoe?eiiai aeaeo?ica’yceo (ATN) ?ic?iaeaia a ICAO a?oiith aenia?o?a
SIGASP. Ia?aaea ATN caaacia/o? aca?iiae?th aa?aoe?eieo iacaiieo
i?aeia?aae ia?aaea/? aeaieo, i?aeia?aae ia?aaea/? aeaieo ai?oiaiai
iaeaaeiaiiy iia?o?yieo noae (IN) ? i?aeia?aae ia?aaea/? aeaieo
‘Iia?o?y-Caiey’ (IC).

Iiaoaeiaa ia?aae? ATN coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
?aae?ieaiae?a ‘Iia?o?y-Caiey’ i?e caaeaieo aeiiaao ii iia?aoeaiino?
ca’yceo ? yeino? ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??. Iaeiei c ia?niaeoeaieo oeyo?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aae?ieaiae?a IC ? canoinoaaiiy oe?ieinioaiaeo
nenoai ca’yceo (ONNC), ui caaacia/othoue iiaeeea?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iia?oi?o oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. ONNC a?ae??ciythoueny
iniaeeaeie aeanoeainoyie. Aiie aieiae?thoue aenieith caaaaeino?ee?noueth
i?e /eiiino? cina?aaeaeaieo ? ioeueo?ieeeaoeaiuo caaaae, aeicaieythoue
?aae?coaaoe eiaeiaee ?iciiae?e aaiiaio?a i?e ?iaio? a caaaeuei?e nioc?
/anoio, caaacia/othoue aenieo a??ia?aei?noue i?eeiio ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
oi/i?noue aei??o ia?aiao??a ?ooo ia’?eo?a.

Aeeeaaeaia aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe, ui i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iia?eueieo
ONNC ? aeooaeueiei aeey aaaaoueio iaeanoae canoinoaaiiy I?C, a oiio
/ene? ? aeey OeA.

Na?aae /eneaiieo ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo aeine?aeaeaiiyi ONNC, iiaeia
a?aecia/eoe ?iaioe E. ?. Aa?aeeia, ?. I. Ai?aioiaa, A. A. Cthei, TH. A.
Ieoi?aa, E. A. sseiaeaaa, I. O. Iao?iae/a, I. E. ?aciaoi?ia, A. A.
Eioaiai, A. ?. Oociaa, ?. I. Ieoe?ia, I. N. ss?eeeiaa, N. A. Aoi?ia, A.
I. ?aiaoiaa, TH. A. A?iiaeiaa, ?. E. Aeeeniia, O. O. Eoi, E. E.
Eeaei?iea ? ?ioeo aaoi??a. A oeeo ?iaioao ?icaeyaeathoueny
ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iieiaeaiiy, ca’ycai? c iioaioe?eieie iiaeeeainoyie ONNC
i?e aieea? ??ciiiai?oiiai aeaeyaeo caaaae ? c iniaeeainoyie ?aae?caoe??
i?eeaae?a oi?ioaaiiy ? ia?iaee ooiiiiae?aieo neaiae?a. Caaea/?, ca’ycai?
c aiae?cii caaaaeino?eeino? aeiiiaeoeyoi??a ONN c aaaaoiiiceoe?eiii?
/anoioii? iai?ioeyoe??e (A*I) ? c ?EI-A*I c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
/anoioii-/aniaeo iaaecia/aiinoae ? ia?aeaaeueiino? ?aae?caoe??
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a ia caaaaeino?ee?noue aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN c A*I,
c iioei?caoe??th aoaeoeaiino? ONNC aeine?aeaeai? a cia/ii iaioiio
nooiai?. Oe? caaea/? aeoaea aeooaeuei? ? aeiaaathoue niaoe?aeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? aeaiiaeoeyoi??a
aeene?aoieo oe?ieinioaiaeo neaiae?a ? aoaeoeaiino? iia?eueieo
oe?ieinioaiaeo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo nenoai.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy icia/aii? iaoe a ?iaio? ae??oai? ianooii? caaea/?:

1. Aiae?c caaaaeino?eeino? ? aoaeoeaiino? iaeiaa?aioiiai i?eeiio
neaiae?a c E*I ? A*I i?e ii?ooaii? i?oiaiiaeueiino? nenoaie neaiae?a c
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao /anoioii-/aniaeo iaaecia/aiinoae ? ia?aeaaeueiino?
?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a aeaiiaeoeyoi?a.

2. Aiae?c caaaaeino?ee?no? eaiaeo neio?ii?caoe?? aeonoiaeaeo?iiiiai
oo?ue? i?ioeani?a AAOI aeaiiaeoeyoi?a ONN c A*I.

3. Aiae?c caaaaeino?ee?noe aeaiiaeoeyoi?a ONN c ?EI – A*I.

4. Iioei?caoe?y: no?oeoo?e nenoaie ONN c A*I ii e?eoa??th iaeneioio
eiaeiaiai aeoaa?oo; aeaiiaeoeyoi?a ONN c ?EI-A*I ii e?eoa??th iaeneioio
caaaaeino?ee?no?; oe?ieinioaiai? nenoaie aa?aoe?eiiai ?aae?ica’yceo ii
e?eoa??th iaeneioio aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?.

5. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo caaaaeino?ee?no? ?aaeueieo
aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN c A*I.

6. ?ic?iaea iaeaoo i?ia?ai ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo
aoce?a oo?ue?-i?ioeani?a aeey ONN A*I.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. I?e ??oaii? caaea/, ye? iinoaaeaii a ?iaio?,
aoee aeei?enoai? caniae oai??? ?iia??iinoae, oai??? caaaaeino?ee?noe,
oai??? nenoai ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy oai??? oaeao?ao?eo, iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaeiea ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

1. Io?eiaia aiae?oe/ia ae?aaeaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii?
i?eoiaaiino? ONNC, ioe?ith?oueny ?iia??i?noth aeyaeaiiy
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yeee a?ae??ciy?oueny oei, ui a?aoiao? aaco neaiaeo ?
aeiionoeia cia/aiiy ?iia??iino? iai?aaaeeai? o?eaiae.

2. Aia?oa io?eiai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey ?ic?aooieo caaaaeino?ee?noe:

– iaeiaa?aioiiai aeaiiaeoeyoi?a oe?ieinioaiaeo neaiae?a c
aaaaoiiiceoe?eiith /anoioiie iai?ioeyoe??th, ui a?aoiaothoue
/anoioii-/ania? iaaecia/aiino? (?ica?aeeino? ii /anoio? ?
?anneio?ii?caoe?? ii /ano) ? ia?aeaaeuei?noue ?aae?caoe??
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a;

– oe?ieinioaiaiai eaiaeo neio?ii?caoe?? aeonoiaeaeo?iiiiai (AA)
Oo?ue?-i?ioeani?a (OI) aeey ia?iaee ONN c A*I;

– aeaiiaeoeyoi?a oe?ieinioaiaeo neaiae?a ?EI-A*I, ui a?aoiaothoue
ii?ooaiiy i?oiaiiaeueiino? ONN c A*I.

3. Aia?oa io?eiai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey ?ic?aooieo aoaeoeaiino?
canoinoaaiiy aaaaoiiiceoe?eiiiai eiaeoaaiiy o ii??aiyii? c a?ia?ieie a
nenoaiao iine?aeiaieo ? ia?aeaeueieo ONN c A*I, ui a?aoiaothoue
ii?ooaiiy i?oiaiiaeueiino? nenoaie neaiae?a.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaii oi?ioee, ui aeicaieythoue ioe?ithaaoe aieea iioeaie E*I
ia?aoai?aiue ia ye?noue oo?ue?-i?ioeani?a aeey ONN c A*I.

5. ?ic?iaeaii aiae?oe/io iiaeaeue ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
nioae /anoio ? iiooaeiino? aaaaoiiiceoe?eiieo ONNC, yea a?ae??ciy?oueny
oei, ui a?aoiao? nooi?iue ii?ooaiiy i?oiaiiaeueiino? oe?ieinioaiaeo
neaiae?a.

6. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee ? ae??oaii caaea/? iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e
nenoaie ONN c A*I ii e?eoa??th iaeneioio eiaeiaiai aeoaa?oo;
aeaiiaeoeyoi?a ONN c ?EI-A*I ii e?eoa??th iaeneioio caaaaeino?ee?no?;
ONNC aa?aoe?eiiai ?aae?ica’yceo ii e?eoa??th iaeneioio aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

1. ?ic?iaeaii iaeao i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai, ui aeicaieythoue iiaeaethaaoe:

aieea aaoniaeo ooi?a ? ?iioeueniuo caaaae ia aeaiiaeoeyoi? ONN c A*I ?
OI; eaiae neio?ii?caoe?? AAOI, a yeiio aeei?enoaiee neaiae Aa?ea?a;
?ioi?iaoe?eiee eaiae ONNC c A*I; aieea ia caaaaeino?ee?noue ONNC c A*I
/anoioii-/aniaeo iaaecia/aiinoae ? ia?aeaaeuei?noue E*I – ia?aoai?aiiy;
?ic?aoiaoaaoe ? aoaeoaaoe ooieoe?th iaaecia/aiiino? c o?aooaaiiyi
/anoioii-/aniaeo ?ica?aeiinoae.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo aeiionoeieo cia/aiue ??ai?a
ia?ao?aeieo caaaae, ye? coiiaeaieo ii?ooaiiyi i?oiaiiaeueiino? ONN, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae caaeaieo cia/aiue a?aeiioaiiy neaiae/caaaaea ?
?iia??i?no? caith neaiaeo.

3. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ia
oaeoeueoao? A?AI EIOOeA, a oaeiae a aea?aeaaiiio i?aei?e?inoa? II?
‘Oe?aa?i?oo’.

Iniaenoee Aeeaae ni?aooea/a. A iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? ui
ioae?eoaaeeny ni?eueii c ni?aaaoi?aie, iniaenoi ni?aooea/ai io?eiaii
aiae?oe/i? iiaeae? ? oi?ioee, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo c?iaeaii ?ic?aooiee,
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ie?aia a ?iaio? [5] iiooea/aa?
iaeaaeeoue aiae?oe/iee ae?ac aeey ?ic?aooieo ? aie?c caaaaeino?eeino?
ONNC c A*I; a ?iaio? [6] iiooea/aau iaeaaeeoue iiaeaeue iioei?caoe??
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iaaaaeoaaeaiiy ia ONNC; a ?iaio? [7] iiooe/aa?
iaeaaeeoue aiae?c iniiaieo iai?yie?a?icaeoeo AAC;

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iaaiai?thaaeeny ia ianooiieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: XVI ca?oi?e IOE EIOOeA (Ee?a, EIOOeA,
1995a.); Ana?in?enuee?e IE nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a ‘Iia? ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
oaoiieia??’ (Oaaai?ia,. OAe?O, 1995a.); XLIV nooaeaionuee?e IOE EIOOeA
(Ee?a, EIOOeA, 1996a.); i?aeia?iaei?e IOE’ I?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy
nenoai aa?iiaa?aaoe?eiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy ?ooiieie
ia’?eoaie.”Aa?iiaa?aaoe?y-96” (Ee?a, EIOOeA, 1996a.); i?aeia?iaei?e IOE
I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? nenoai caoenoo ?ioi?iaoe?? “Aa?iiaa?aaoe?y’-97”
(Ee?a, EIOOeA, 1997a.); i?aeia?iaeiee IOE”Aa?iiaa?aaoe?y ? aa?iieea-98”
(Ee?a, EIOOeA, 1998a.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iaoa??aee ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 7
iaoeiaeo ?iaioao: a o?ueio noaooyo, a oiio /ene? aeaio aac ni?aaaoi??a,
? iioe?ueio oacao aeiiia?aeae ia IIOE.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeaea?ae, ui aeei?enoaii ? aeaio
aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 150 noi??iie, a oiio
/ene? 100 noi??iie oaenoo, 60 iaethie?a, 25 oaaeeoeue, 95 iaeiaioaaiue
aeaea?ae, yea aeei?enoaeeny, a oaeiae 25 noi??iie aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

A anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeiaa iiaecia,
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii aeanoeaino? ONN ? io?eiaii
aiae?oe/iee ae?ac aeey aecia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? ne?eoiino? ONNC.
?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ? caniae iiaoaeiae nenoai ONN,
i?iaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th cania?a i?eeiio ONN, i?iaiae?ciaaii
iniaeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN.

Iieacaii, ui oiiaa i?oiaiiaeueiino? nenoaie ONN iaiaaeo? iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy iiaiiai eiaeo, cieaeoth/e /enei L0 c?ace?a, neaiae?a c
iiaiiai aeoaa?oo, ui aeei?enoathoueny. Ca?eueoeoe L0 aac ii?ooaiiy
i?oiaiiaeueiino? ONN iiaeia ca?eueoaiiyi aace neaiaeo A, aai i?e A=const
ca ?aooiie ii?ooaiiy i?oiaiiaeueiino? aei aeiionoeiiai ??aiy aca?iieo
caaaae. Iioeiaeueieie aaaaeathoueny nenoaie ONN, ui aeiioneathoue ia
a?eueo iaeiiai ca?ao aeaiaio?a neaiaeo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?eeaaee ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeaeo?ii?ee, a /anoeiaino?,
aeonoiaeaeo?ii?, ? ia?niaeoeaiith aeaiaioiith aacith aeey ?aae?caoe??
aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ? oo?ue?-i?ioeani??a ONN c A*I. Oe? i?eeaaee
aeicaieythoue noai?thaaoe iaeiaaaa?eoi? iuaaeeea? aeaiiaeoeyoi?e ?
oo?ue?-i?ioeani?e, ui caaacia/othoue ia?iaeo ONN c aaeeeeie aacaie a
?aaeueiiio ianooaa? /ano.I?iaiae?ciaaii: iieacieee yeino? ? e?eoa???
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oe?ieinioaiaeo nenoai aa?aoe?eiiai iia?eueiiai
?aae?ica’yceo; i?ia?aneai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? II? a OeA c ONNC;
iniiai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue ? oaiaeaioe??, ?icaeoeo iia?eueieo ONNC.
Aecia/ai? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith caaaaeino?eeino?
iaeiaa?aioieo aeaiiaeoeyoi??a oe?ieinioaiaeo neaiae?a c A*I.

Aeaiiaeoeyoi? iioeiaeueiiai iaeiaa?aioiiai i?eeia/a ONN c A*I a
caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? ia? no?oeoo?o, ui i?noeoue m ?aeaioe/ieo
ia?aeaeueieo noaeaiae?a ca e?euee?noth /anoioieo iiceoe?e ? eaiae
neio?ii?caoe??. Eiaeiee noaeaiae i?noeoue iioeiaeueiee iiaiaeaeaiee c
aeaiaioii ONN o?eueo? (IO), oue ? i?aeneethaaeuei? eaneaaee, aeaoaeoi?
ia?aath/i? (AeI). Aeoiaee noaeaiae?a i?aeeeth/ai? aei ae??oaeueiiai
i?eno?ith (AI), aeai?eoi ?iaioe yeiai iieyaa? a aeai?? noaeaiaea c
iaea?eueoei cia/aiiyi neaiaeo ia aeoiae? aeaoaeoi?a a iiiaio a?aee?ea.
I?e aeei?enoaii? oaoiieia?? E*I – ia?aoai?aiiy aeaiiaeoeyoi?ii ?
oo?ue?-i?ioeani?, ui iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaiee ia aeenia?n?eieo e?i?yo
cao?eiee (AeEC) c IAO.

Iioeiaeueia iaeiaa?aioia ia?iaea ONN c A*I caaacia/o? iioaioe?eio
caaaaeino?ee?noue Pm(?) a aeiaaeeo ?aeaaeueiino? aeeiiaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a aeaiiaeoeyoi?a, a?aenooiino? /anoioii-/aniaeo
iaaecia/aiinoae ? i?e i?oiaiiaeueiino? ONN c A*I. Iaeiae, a ?aaeueieo
oiiaao aiane?aeie iayaiino? /anoioieo ?ica?aeiinoae ? /aniai?
?icneio?ii?caoe??, iioeaie a ?aae?caoe?? aoce?a aeaiiaeoeyoi?a, a oaeiae
aiane?aeie aeai?o nenoaie ONN, ui aeiionea? ca?a iaeiiai aai aeae?eueeio
aeaiaio?a, i?oiaiiaeuei?noue neaiae?a /anoioieo iiceoe?e aeyaey?oueny
ii?ooaith?. A ?acoeueoao? caaaaeino?ee?noue i?eeiio iia??oo?oueny ?
cia/aiiy ?iia??iino? caith ca?eueoo?oueny o ii??aiyii? c Pm(?)aei
?aaeueiiai cia/aiiy Pm(?).

A?aeiioaiiy

(1)

oa?aeoa?eco? iia??oaiiy caaaaeino?ee?no? ?aaeueiiai aeaiiaeoeyoi?a
aaaaoiiiceoe?eieo ONN o ii??aiyii? c Pm(?)a caeaaeiino? a?ae /enea
iiceoe?e A*I neaiaeo m, a?aeiioaiiy hm2 aia?a?? neaiaeo aei
niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino? caaaae ? ii?iiaaiiai ??aiy k aca?iieo caaaae.

A nenoai? ONN aaee/eia k aecia/a?oueny iaeneiaeueiei cia/aiiyi Rmax
aca?iiei?aeyoe?eii? ooieoe?? (AEO). ??aaiue aca?iieo caaaae kRmax iiaeia
cieceoe ca?eueoaiiyi aace A ONN (ca?eueoaiiyi /enea N aeaiaioa?ieo
neaiae?a ONN). Aiae?c iieacaa, ui aeey a?eueoino? ONN, ye? ciaeoee
i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy, ia? i?noea ia??aiino?
Aeey io?eiaiiy k0.1 I-iine?aeiaiino?, naaiaioi? iine?aeiaiino?,
aaaaoioaci? neaiaee iiaeii? iaoe N1024. Eiiiiceoe?ei? A*I ONN
i?eioneathoue /enei ca?a?a aei r=3; i?e oeueiio k0.2. sse ie?aii acyoee
/eiiee iai?oiaiiaeuei?noue nenoaie ONN i?e Rmax=0,10.2 i?aeoe/i? ia
aieeaa? ia caaaaeino?ee?noue iaeiaa?aioiiai aeaiiaeoeyoi?a. Aea ni?eueii
c ?ioeie /eiieeaie oeae aieea iiaea aeyaeoeny a?eueo neeueii ? iiaea
aooe ciaioaiee ca?eueoaiiyi N.

?iia??i?noue iiieeee ?a?no?aoe?? neaiaeo aeaieo iaeiaa?aioi?i
aeaiiaeoeyoi?ii ONN i?e ?icneio?ii?caoe?? aei??aith?

(2)

aea I0(x) – ooieoe?y Aannaey ioeueiaiai ii?yaeeo.

Aeey aeiaaee?a k>10-2.
I?e hm2>>1420 cia/aiiy qm(P) =2040, a m.>>10-5 10-3.

Ia?aiao? k0 aieeaa? ia qm(P) aeae?eueea neeuei?oa, i?ae ia?aiao? d. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa , ui ii?ooaiiy i?oiaiiaeueiino? nenoaie ONN ?c-ca
ia?aeaaeueiino? aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a aeaiiaeoeyoi?a
neeuei?oa a?aeaeaa?oueny ia cieaeai? Pm(?), i?ae aieea /anoioii-/aniaeo
ianoaa?eueiinoae f ? t oiai aea ii?yaeeo.

A oe?eiio iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui yeui aeiionoei? cia/aiiy qm(P)50, oi
aeiionoei? cia/aiiy k0 0.2, a 0.4. Oea aeicaiey? i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
aieeao ia caaaaeino?ee?noue ia?aeaaeueiinoae ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a
aeaiiaeoeyoi?a ONN ca’ycaoe ia?aiao?e aeaiiaeoeyoi??a, ui
aeine?aeaeothoueny c ia?aiao?aie k0 ? , a /a?ac ieo aaea aaciina?aaeiuei
c qm(P).

?en. 1 A?ao?ee caeaaeiinoae qm(P) =f (h2m)) ? m= (h2m)

A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii aieea ianooiieo iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ui
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ii?ooaiiy i?oiaiiaeueiino? ONN ? cieaeaiiy Pm(?):

– e?ioeaaa cia/aiiy aeia?ioiino? IO, ui ?ioaa?othoue ? iaoi/i?noue
ii/aoeiai? iano?ieee ?aaeueiiai ?ioaa?aoi?a (??) ia /anoioo
/anoioii-/aniaiai aeaiaioo ONN;

– ia?aeaaeuei?noue ?ic?yaeiiai eeth/a, eiioooth/iai ?? a e?ioe? eiaeii?
iineeee;

– ia?aeaioe/i?noue eiao?oe??io?a ia?aaea/? /anoioieo noaeaiae?a c?
aoiaeo ?? ia ao?ae ae??oaeueiiai i?eno?ith (AI);

– ia?aeaaeuei?noue aeae?eaiiy ia?aath/i? neaiaeo a aeaoaeoi?? ia?aath/i?
(AeI);

– ia?aeaaeuei?noue AI, ui aeyaey?oueny a e?ioeaaiio ii?ic? /oeiino? ?
e?ioeaa?e ni?iiiaeiino?, ui aeicaiey?.

Aeey eiaeiiai c a?aei?/aieo /eiiee?a io?eiaii aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey
q(P)m, ui aeicaieythoue aecia/aoe P(P)m c o?aooaaiiyi ia?aeaaeueiino?
?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a aeaiiaeoeyoi?a.

Aeine?aeaeaii caaaaeino?ee?noue aeaiiaeoeyoi?a oe?ieinioaiaeo neaiae?a
c ?EI-A*I. A?aeiioaiiy neaiae/caaaaea ia aeoiae? aeaiiaeoeyoi?a neeaaea?

(5)

Ia i?aenoaa? (5) i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c nenoai ?EI-A*I ?
a?ia?ii? ?EI. Aiae?c iieacaa, ui canoinoaaiiy aaaaoiiiceoe?eieo *I
neaiae?a o ii??aiyii? c a?ia?ieie aea? cia/iee aea?ao ii iiooaeiino?.
Oae, i?e hm2=16, m=32 ? k=0 cia/aiiy q?EI=190. I?e k=0, 1 cia/aiiy q?EI
cieaeo?oueny aei 53.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aieeao iioeaie E*I – ia?aoai?aiue a aeonoiaeaeo?iiiiio
oo?ue?-i?ioeani?? (AAOI), iiaoaeiaaiiio ia aeenia?n?ei?e e?i?? cao?eiee
(AeEC) c iiaa?oiaaueith aeonoe/iith oaeeath (IAO). Cai?iiiiiaaii
iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy neaiaeo ia aeoiae? iiaiaeaeaiiai o?eueo?o i?e
aieea? ia E*I-neaiae caoaeaeaiueaiciouaiee ii oac? (t), /anoio? (t) ?
oaeaeeino? ci?ie /anoioe (t), a oaeiae ca iayaiino? iioeaie i?e
onoaiiaoe? e?ooeci? *I, ??ciiiai?oieo aee?eaeaiiyo caeiio ci?ie /anoioe
a i?ioean? iiaeaethaaiiy E*I neaiaeo.

Io?eiai? a ?icae?e? aiae?oe/i? oi?ioee ? ae?ace, ui ca’ycothoue
ia?aiao?e ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ? AAOI c ye?noth
?oiuei? ?iaioe, iathoue i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?e eiino?othaaii?
iaeiaa?aioieo aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN c A*I.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? noi?ioeueiaaii ? ae??oaii caaea/?: ii??aiyeueiiai
aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? ONNC c iine?aeiaieie ? ia?aeaeueieie A*I neaiaeaie;
ioe?iee / aoaeoeaiino? ONNC c A*I c o?aooaaiiyi ii?ooaiiy
i?oiaiiaeueiino? nenoaie neaiae?a; iioei?caoe?? ? no?oeoo?e nenoaie ONN
c A*I ii e?eoa??th iaeneioio eiaeiaiai aeoaa?oo; iioei?caoe??
aeaiiaeoeyoi?a ONN c ?EI-A*I ii e?eoa??th iaeneioio caaaaeino?eeino?;
iioei?caoe?? oe?ieinioaiai? nenoaie aa?aoe?eiiai ?aae?ica’yceo ii
e?eoa??th iaeneioio aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?.

Ii e?eoa??th oaeaeeino? ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?iaaaeaia ii??aiyiiy
aeaio aa??aio?a aeei?enoaiiy m /anoioieo iiceoe?e a ONNC c A*I. A
ia?oiio oi?io?oueny iine?aeiaiee neaiae c A*I, eiee a oa/?? oaeoiaiai
?ioa?aaeo ? aeei?enoiao?oueny iaeia c m /anoio. A ?ioiio – m /anoio
?icaeo? ia g a?oi ii m1 /anoio a eiaei?e ? ia eiaeiiio oaeoiaiio
?ioa?aae? A aeei?enoiao?oueny ii iaei?e c m1=m/g /anoio. I?e A= ?
oaeaee?noue ia?aaea/? RA a?eueoa, i?ae RM a QR ?ac?a:

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
@a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ??/?????&??MathType????
???u?????????”????-??????3/4????I????v???…L
???u?th??????

?iia??iino? caith aeaiaioo neaiaeo aeaieo a?aeiinyoueny, ye

wmetafile8? ??U???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
[email protected]???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyy????????&??MathType???
???u?????????”????-?????`????`????`?
???`c???`a???`u???jaea

wmetafile8? ??oe???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
@????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyyA??/?????&?
?MathType???????utha?????

Aaee/eia =12 ? caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia oacoaaiiy aiaeii/an A*I neaiae?a, ui
aaia?othoueny. Iieacaii, ui aeey =1 ? 3g >>1

wmetafile8? ??C???????????
???????????yyy????.????1??????????????
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??(?????&??MathType???????utha?????

Aiae?c iieacaaoe, ui ca aea?ao QR=23 c c?inoaiiyi g iio??aii
?iciea/oaaoeny cieaeaiiyi caaaaeino?eeino? a 210 ?ac.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy oiiae ?A=?I iaiao?aeii ca?eueoaiiy iiooaeiino? a nenoai?
c ia?aeaeueieie neaiaeaie A*I a a?aeiia?aeiino? c (9). Aeioe?eueieie ?
cia/aiiy g=(0.250.5)m.

I?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy nioae /anoio eaiaeo ?
iiooaeiino? neaiaeo a ONNC c aeiiiiiaith a?aeiieo eiao?oe??io?a
wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
?a???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy ??A?????&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????

?en. 2 Aoaeoeai?noue i?oiaiiaeueieo ONNC:

k= 0; k=0.05;
k=0. 1.

A yeino? e?eoa??th ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? O ?iaioe ONNC i?eeiyoi
??cieoeth i?ae i?eaooeaie D a?ae ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy iioieo
IN ? caeoe?a U1 a?ae i?inoith ?aae?ieaiae?a ? U2 a?ae cao?eiee
iia?aeiieaiue ia /an, ui ia?aaeuo? aeiionoeia cia/aiiy:

O=D-U1-U2.
(10)

A aeiaaeeo noaoe?iia?iiai iioieo IN e?eoa??e (10) aeey ONNC oeio I/I/1
iiaeia oyaeoe a oaeiio aeaeyae?:

wmetafile8? ??C???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ????????&??MathType??A?
???u?????????”????-??????K????t???u?th??????

wmetafile8? ??’???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
@????&[email protected]??a?????&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????

aea: – ?ioaineai?noue ?ooo IN; d – i?eaooie a?ae ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy iaeiiai IN; s – aa?o?noue iaei??? aiaeeie ?iaioe eaiaeo
ONNC; A – aaca ONNC; P(t0>tg) – ?iia??i?noue oiai, ui /an i/?eoaaiiy t0
ia?aaeuo? aeiionoeia cia/aiiy tg; V – oo?ao ca cao?eieo iia?aeiieaiiy;
t3 – na?aaei?e aiaeeio cao?eiee iia?aeiieaiiy; Ma – na?aaeiy e?euee?noue
naain?a ca’yceo IN ca /an eiai ia?aaoaaiiy a cii? OI?; t – na?aaeiy
o?eaae?noue iaeiiai naaino ca’yceo.

Aeey nenoaie I/I/1 (y

? ??„??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? ?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy ??'?????&? ?MathType??0???utha?????aea ?iia??i?noue i/?eoaaiiy P (t0>0)
aecia/a?oueny ae?oaith oi?ioeith A?eaiaa:

Na?aaei?e /an cao?eiee iia?aeiieaiiy

t3=t/(1-y/B).
(14)

I?e ?ic?aooieao cia/aiiy tg cae/aeii ii?iothoue ii t, o. ?. tg/=K aai
tg=K

Ca oiiae E=0 ??aiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy iaeneioia aoaeoeaiino? ONNC:

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ????????&??MathType??
???u?????????”????-??????L????$???u?th??????

Oaeei *eiii, iaeneioi aoaeoeaiino? ONNC Omax i?yii i?iii?oe?eii
caeaaeeoue a?ae aace A.

Ia i?aenoaa? oi?ioe (10)(15) aeey cia/aiue V=50 (oi. iae.
aa?o?noue/aiaeeia), d0=200 o.i.//, s=10 o.i.//; o?ueio cia/aiue
A=20;50;100 ? E=0;1;2 ?ic?aoiaaii a?ao?ee caeaaeiino? O=f(y), ye?
iaaaaeaii ia ?en.3 Aiae?c oeeo a?ao?e?a ? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee.

?en.3 A?ao?ee caeaaeiinoae j (y).

A nenoaiao OAN OeA aeniea aoaeoeai?noue ONNC aeinyaa?oueny ca oiiae
aeniei? ?ioaineaiino? o?ao?ea iia?aeiieaiue, ui iiaeiai neeaaeaoe
(0.30.5)A i?e K=0. ?iaioa ONNC i?e y/A > 0,5 aeeeeea? ??cea ciaioaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? O (((i?aaa a?ae iaeneioio a?eea ooieoe?? O=f (y)).

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? a?aeaeo? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a oo?ue?-i?ioeani?a ? iaoiaeeea
?ic?aooieo caaaaeino?eeino? ?aaeueieo aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN. Aeey
iiaeaethaaiiy aoee ?ic?iaeai? i?eeeaaei? i?ia?aie. Aiie ioiieththoue
o?noue iniiaieo iiaeaeae: aieeao aaonniaeo ooi?a ? ?iioeuenieo caaaae ia
aeaiiaeoeyoi? ONN c A*I ? OI; eaiaeo neio?ii?caoe?? AAOI, a yeiio
aeei?enoaiee neaiae Aa?ea?a; ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai eaiaeo ONNC c A*I;
aieeao /anoioii-/aniaeo iaaecia/aiinoae ? ia?aeaaeueiino?
E*I-ia?aoai?aiiy ia caaaaeino?ee?noue ONNC c A*I; aieeao
/anoioii-/aniaeo ?ica?aeiinoae ia ooieoe?th iaaecia/aiino? ONN;
aoaeoeaiino? ONNC, ui a?aoiao? aieea ia?ao?aeieo caaaae.

Iniiaia oaaaa aoea i?eae?eaia aeine?aeaeaiith caaaaeino?eeino? eaiaeo
neio?ii?caoe?? c neaiaeii Aa?ea?a ? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai eaiaeo ONN c A*I.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy (?en. 4-6)
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, io?eiaieo a
?icae?eao 2 ? 3.

?en. 4 Iiaeaethaaiiy eaiaeo neio?ii?caoe?? aeey ONN Aa?ea?a.

?en. 5 Iiaeaethaaiiy AEOI eaiaeo neio?ii?caoe?? aeey ONN Aa?ea?a.

?en. 6 Iiaeaethaaiiy eaiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey ONN c A*I.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE

1. Aieiaia oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeoeo iia?eueieo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo nenoai a
OeA iieyaa? a noai?aii? ia?aae ATN ?ioaa?aeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
iia?o?yiiai ?ooo (CNS/ATM). Iiaoaeiaa ia?aae? ATN coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?aae?ieaiae?a ‘Iia?o?y-Caiey’
i?e caaeaieo aeiiaao ii iia?aoeaiino? ? yeino? ca’yceo. Iaei?i c
ia?niaeoeaieo oeyo?a ??oaiiy oe??? aeooaeueii? caaea/? ui caaacia/o?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iia?oi?o ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ? canoinoaaiiy
oe?ieinioaiaeo nenoai ca’yceo (ONNC).

2. Io?eiai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey ?ic?aooieo caaaaeino?eeino?

iaeiaa?aioieo aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN c A*I i?e ii?ooaii? i?oiaiiaeueiino?
nenoaie neaiae?a. C aeiiiiiaith oeeo ae?ac?a i?iaiae?ciaaiee e?euee?nii
aieea ia caaaaeino?ee?noue ianooiieo /eiiee?a: /anoioieo ?ica?aeiinoae,
a oiio /ene? aiane?aeie aoaeoo Aeiiiea?a; ?icneio?ii?caoe?? ii /ano;
ia?aeaaeueiino? iiaiaeaeaiiai o?eueo?o, ui ?ioaa?o?; ia?aeaaeueiino?
aeaoaeoi?a iaeaath/i?; ii?iao /oeiino? ? ae??oaeueii?; ia?aeaioe/iino?
eiao?oe??io?a ia?aaea/? noaeaiae?a /anoioieo iiceoe?e. I?e oeueiio
iieacaii, ui aca?ii? caaaaee c a?aeiiniei ??aiai k0.1 i?aeoe/i? ia
aieeaathoue ia cieaeaiiy caaaaeino?eeino? ?aaeueieo aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN
c A*I.

3. ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue ? ae??oaii caaea/o iioei?caoe?? ii e?eoa??th
iaeneioio caaaaeino?eeino? aeaiiaeoeyoi?a neaiae?a ?EI-A*I.

4. ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue ? ae??oaii caaea/o iioei?caoe?? oe?ieinioaiai?

nenoaie ?aae?ica’yceo oeaio?o OI? ii e?eoa??th iaeneioio aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino?.

5. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo caaaaeino?eeino? ?aaeueiiai
iaeiaa?aioiiai aeaiiaeoeyoi?a ONN c A*I.

6. ?ic?iaeaii i?eeeaaei? i?ia?aie, ui aeicaieythoue iiaeaethaaoe iniiai?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? aocee aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN, aeine?aeaeoaaoe
caaaaeino?ee?noue c o?aooaaiiyi /anoioii-/aniaeo iaaecia/aiinoae ?
ia?aeaaeueiino? ?aae?caoe??, ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ? aoaeoaaoe ooieoe??
iaaecia/aiino? ONN.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaiee a ?iaioao:

1. Eaaanie A.E. Aiaeec iiiaoionoie/eainoe nenoai nayce n iiiai/anoioiuie
neaiaeaie.// I?iaeaiu aaeiieee. – E.: EIOAA, 1997. – N.175-179.

2. Eaaanie A.E. N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec oeeo?iauo oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo
nenoai n iiiai/anoioiuie ninoaaiuie neaiaeaie.//I?iaeaiu aaeiieee. – E.:
EIOAA, 1997.- N.190-195.

3. Eaaanie A.E. Aeai?eoiu naiaiaeiiai aeinooia a nenoaiao iaiaia
aeaiiuie n iiaeaeaeiuie aaiiaioaie.// Ana?inneeneay IOE “Iiaua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee”: Oac.aeiee. – Oaaai?ia: OA?O, 1995. –
N.202-203.

4. Eaaani? A.E. Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? oe?ieinioaiaeo nenoai ca’yceo
iia?eueieo aaiiaio?a. //Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay IOE “Ay?iiaaeaaoeey e
aaeiieea”: Iaoa?eaeu eiio. – E.: EIOAA, 1998. – N.39-40.

5. Iaoe N.I., Eaaani? A.E. Iioei?caoe?y iaaaioaaeaiiy oe?ieinioaiai?
nenoaie ca’yceo.//Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay IOE. Ay?iiaaeaaoeey e aaeiieea”:
Iaoa?eaeu eiio. – E.: EIOAA, 1998. – N.40.

6. Aaeyaaneee E.N., Iaoe N.I., Eaaanie A.E. Ia?niaeoeau i?eiaiaiey
oe?ieiiieiniuo neaiaeia a aaeaoeeiiiie iiaeeueiie
?aaeeinayce.//Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay IOE “Ay?iiaaeaaoeey-96”: Oac.aeiee. – E.:
EIOAA, 1996. – N.49.

7. Iaoe N.I., Eaaani? A.E. Aieea /anoioii-/aniaeo iaaecia/aiinoae ia
aoaeoeai?noue oe?ieinioaiaeo nenoai ca’yceo.// Aanoiee EIOAA
1.-EIOAA,1999th-n139-142.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia ni?aiiooe o/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii
niaoe?aeueiino? 05.22. 13 – Iaa?aaoe?y ? ea?oaaiiy iia?o?yiei ?ooii. –
Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?ena`y/aia i?aeaeuaiith yeino? aeaiiaeoeyoi??a
oe?ieinioaiaeo neaiae?a (ONN) ? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? iia?eueieo
oe?ieinioaiaeo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo nenoai a oeea?euei?e aa?aoe??.

A ?iaio? ae??oai? ianooii? caaea/?:

– i?iaaaeai? aiae?c caaaaeino?eeino?: iaeiaa?aioiiai aeaiiaeoeyoi?a
neaiae?a c aaaaoiiiceoe?eiith /anoioiith iai?ioeyoe??th (A*I) i?e
ii?ooaii? i?oiaiiaeueiino? nenoaie neaiae?a c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
/anoioii-oei/aniaeo iaaecia/aiinoae ? ia?aeaaeueiino? ?aae?caoe??
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a aeaiiaeoeyoi??a; eaiaeo neio?ii?caoe??
aeonoiaeaeo?iiiiai oo?ue?-i?ioeani?a aeey ONN c A*I; aeaiiaeoeyoi?a
neaiae?a c ?EI-A*I;

– ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue ? i?iaiae?ciaaii aoaeoeai?noue iaeiaa?aioieo

oe?ieinioaiaeo nenoai c A*I o ii??aiyii? c a?ia?ieie, a oaeiae
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy nioae /anoio ? iiooaeiino? nenoaiaie c
??ciiiai?oieie oeiaie ONN;

– aeeiiaia iioei?caoe?y: no?oeoo?e nenoaie ONN c A*I ii e?eoa??th
iaeneioio eiaeiaiai aeoaa?oo; aeaiiaeoeyoi?a ONN c ?EI-A*I ii e?eoa??th
iaeneioio caaaaeino?eeino?; oe?ieinioaiai? nenoaie aa?aoe?eiiai
?aae?ica’yceo ii e?eoa??th iaeneioio aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?;

– ?ic?iaeai?: iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo caaaaeino?eeino? ?aaeueieo
aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN c A*I; iaeao i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey ?i?oaoe?eiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a oo?ue?-i?ioeani?a.

Aeine?aeaeai? no?oeoo?a ? caniae iiaoaeiae nenoai oe?ieinioaiaeo
neaiae?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy ianyao iiaiiai eiaeo
nenoaie ONN aeiionea?oueny ca?a ia a?eueo, i?ae iaeiiai aeaiaioo ONN.
I?e Oeueiio aeey nenoai ONN, ye? ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy,
a?aeiiniee ??aaiue aca?iieo caaaae k cae/aeii eaaeeoue a
iaaeaowmetafile8? ??P???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????`
???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyya???????&??MathType??A?
???u?????????”????-?????[?i???©H?????I????z
???u?? ???????”????-?????z??? A???-????? E????’
????’ ????Ae???[?i???o???u?th?????? Cai?iiiiiaaii
ae?ac aeey aecia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? ne?eoiino? oe?ieinioaiai? nenoaie
ca’yceo, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae aace neaiae?a A, ia?aiao??a i?eeiaeueiiai
aeaoooaaiiy ? a?aeiioaiiy neaiae/caaaaea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
?iia??i?noue ayaeaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c iniaeeainoae ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a
aeaiiaeoeyoi??a ONN ia no/ani?e aeaiaioii? aac?. Iieacaia
ia?niaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy aeey oo?ue?-i?ioeani??a cania?a E*I –
ia?aoai?aiue ? aeonoiaeaeo?iieo i?eeaae?a ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeaeo?ii?ee.

Io?eiai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey ?ic?aooieo caaaaeino?eeino?
iaeiaa?aioieo ONNC c A*I, ui aeicaieythoue a?aooaaoe ii?ooaiiy
i?oiaiiaeueiino? nenoaie ONN ? i?iaiae?coaaoe aieea ia caaaaeino?ee?noue
/anoioieo ?ica?aeiinoae, ?icneio?ii?caoe?e ii /ano, ia?aeaaeueiino?
?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a aeaiiaeoeyoi?a, a oaeiae iioeaie
ia?aoai?aiue a aeonoiaeaeo?iiiio oo?ue?-i?ioeani??. Iieacaii, ui aca?ii?
caaaaee c a?aeiiniei ??aiai k

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