iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

Eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a oe?a?ie

Oaiae?in Ieoaeei sseiae/

OAeE 631.372: 631.306

I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?thaaiiy iia?eueiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aa?aaaoo oeyoii iie?ioaiiy eiai aeeiai?/ieo
ia?aiao??a

05.20.01 – Iaoai?caoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? Eaa?iaoo
I?ii?no??a Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? O?e?iiia Aiaoie?e
Caoa?iae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
o?aeoi??a ? aaoiiia?e?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeaieaeei Ieoaeei
Iiaeyiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aenieoaoaoe?? IOI;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ao?/aiei Ieaenaiae? Iao?iae/,
?inoeooo iaoai?caoe?? oa aeaeo?eo?eaoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,
noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo iaoai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa
ei?aiaaoeueaiieiae?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aenieoaoaoe?? IOI, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 17 ethoiai 2000 ?. i 16 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.06 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 03041, i. Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 15,
iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: i. Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie,
11, .iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 15 n?/iy 2000 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aieothe Ae.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
?oo aa?aaao?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eieeaaiiyie ciai?oiueiai
iaaaioaaeaiaiiy, ?o iinooiaeueii? oaeaeeino? oa eooiai? oaeaeeino?
aeaeaoia, ye? aeeeeeathoueny ia??aiinoyie iiaa?oi? iiey, ci?iieie
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie a?oioo ? ?ineei oa ianoaa?euei?noth
?ioeo oaeoi??a. Iane?aeeii eieeaaiue iaaaioaaeaiiy ? cieaeaiiy na?aaei?o
cia/aiue aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeaoia ii??aiyii ?c a?aeiia?aeieie
aeaieie oaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa cieaeaiiy oaeoe/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
anueiai aa?aaaoo ii??aiyii ?c ?ic?aooieiaith.

Ia aia?aii?noeeo oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?yo cieaeaiiy iiooaeiino? nyaa? 10
15%, a ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aeo?aoe iaeeaa 10%, i?e iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao
30% ? 16% a?aeiia?aeii. Iaiao?aei?noue iaeo?ae?caoe?? ? i?aaeeueiiai
a?aooaaiiy iaaaoeaiiai aieeao onoaeaieo eieeaaiue ciai?oiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? ?iaioe.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa i?aeaeuaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a
? i?iaeoeoeaiino? iia?eueiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aa?aaaoo i?e
onoaeaieo eieeaaiiyo ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy oeyoii ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeai?o eiai aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a .

Caaea/?:

1. Noaoenoe/iee aiae?c iniaeeainoae eieeaaiue aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a
iia?eueieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aa?aaao?a a onoaeaieo aeeiai?/ieo
?aaeeiao ?iaioe.

2. ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ooieoe?iioaaiiy iia?eueieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aa?aaao?a i?e ci?iiiio onoaeaiiio
iaaaioaaeaii?.

3. Aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae aeeiai?/ieie
ia?aiao?aie, ye? caaacia/othoue iie?ioaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a
aa?aaaoo a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao.

4. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?iaeaia?iiai ?ic?aooieo aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a
aa?aaaoo i?e ci?iiiio onoaeaiiio iaaaioaaeaii?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oyaiaee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee aa?aaao c
aei?noeei aai i?oaeiei c/aiii i?e aeeiiaii? i?yiie?i?eieo ?iai/eo
oiae?a, a i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?yiie?i?eiee ia??aiii??iee ?oo
aa?aaaoo i?ae ae??th ci?iiiai onoaeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoaie aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ia?ai? o?ainii?oiee
aa?aaao c aei?noeei oa i?oaeiei c/aiii, i?iee aa?aaao c i?e/aiiei ieoaii
oa neeinicae?aeueiee aa?aaao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iathoue oae? aeaiaioe
iiaecie.

1. Iaea?aeai? aeiaeaoeia? aeai? i?i niaeo?aeuei? u?eueiino? oa
noaoenoe/i? iiiaioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee eieeaaiue aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a
o?ainii?oiiai aa?aaaoo c aei?noeei oa i?oaeiei c/aiaie, i?iiai oa
neeinicae?aeueiiai aa?aaao?a ia ??cieo ?iai/eo oaeaeeinoyo. Aeey
niaeo?aeueieo u?eueiinoae io?eiai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace.

2. C ??aiyiue neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a ?c caaaeueii i?eeiyoei ??aiai
oi?iae?caoe??, canoiniaaieo a i?ea?iaeuei?e eiia?iaoe??, io?eiaii iia?
iae?i?ei? ??aiyiiy aeecaeueiiai aeaeaoia i?e ?iaio? ?c ci?iiei onoaeaiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi, oa a’yceei aeaiioa?ii, i?yiie?i?eiiai ?ooo aa?aaaoo c
aei?noeei oa i?oaeiei c/aiii.

3. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee aa??aio iaoiaeo aea?aaeaioii? e?iaa??caoe??
aeeooa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue ?ooo, yeee a?aoiao? ianeiao?e/iee, iae?i?eiee
oa?aeoa? noaoe/ii? oaeaee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?aaaoo i?e ?iaio?
aeecaey ia ?aaoeyoi?? oa iaaa?iii?/iee ? iaaaoniaee oa?aeoa? eieeaaiue
eooiai? oaeaeeino? inoaiiueiai ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iia?aoe?yo.

4. Aaaaeaii aeaa iiaeo e?eoa??aeueieo aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao?e aeaeaoia.
Aecia/aii iaeanoue cia/aiue oeeo ia?aiao??a, a iaaeao yei?
caaacia/o?oueny a?aenooi?noue ?aciiainieo eieeaaiue eooiai? oaeaeeino?
aeecaey ca aoaeue-yei? oi?ie niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino? eieeaaiue
ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (ciio ?iaa??aioiino? aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie
aeecaey aei ?aciiain?a).

5. Cae?eniaii aiae?c ? i?ea?iaeueio eeaneo?eaoe?th ao?ao iiooaeiino? ia
o?e ye?nieo neeaaeia?: ao?aoe, aeeeeeai? iae?i?eiith oi?iith noaoe/ii?
?aaoeyoi?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeecaey, ao?aoe, aeeeeeai? ?ia?oe?ei?noth
?iai/iai i?ioeano, ao?aoe, iaoiiaeai? aeieeiaiiyi ia?aceoii?
iiooaeiino?.

6. Aeaaaeaii i?ea?iaeueio aeaiia?aiao?iao oi?ioeo aoenoaaiiy, yea ia ia?
aeaaa?a?/ieo iniaeeainoae ? ae?enia ia an?e iaeano? iiaeeeaeo cia/aiue
aoenoaaiiy.

7. ?ic?iaeai? i?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeeea ?iaeaia?iiai ?ic?aooieo
aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a aa?aaaoo oa eiai /anoei. ?ic?aooiie aaco?oueny
ia eiii’thoa?i?e oaoiieia?? ? a?aoiao? iniaeeaino? /anoioiiai niaeo?o
ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, noaoe/ieo oa aiie?ooaeii-/anoioieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aa?aaaoo ? aeecaeueiiai aeaeaoia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeeiiaii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aiia ?icoe?th? iaae? ?nioth/eo oyaeaiue i?i aeeiai?eo iia?eueiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aa?aaaoo ? iaoai?ci aieeao ci?iiiai
onoaeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eiai aia?aaoe/i? iieacieee. ?ic?iaeai?
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee, ??aiyiiy oa aeai?eoie iathoue aeinoaoiuei
oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa? ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a ianooiieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeeiai?ee ??cieo oei?a iia?eueieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aa?aaao?a oa o?aeoi??a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe oaeiae aeieeaa? c iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a, ??aiyiue oa eiii’thoa?ieo
i?ia?ai i?e oyaiaeo ?ic?aooieao iia?eueieo aa?aaao?a, a oaeiae i?e
i?iaeooaaii? o?aeoi??a ? aeecae?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?ecia/aiiy. Aeaye? c ?ic?iaeaieo a aeai?e aeena?oaoe?? eiii’thoa?ieo
i?ia?ai aei oeueiai /ano aaea aoee aeei?enoai? aaaaoueia ?ioeie
aeine?aeieeaie i?e aeeiai?/ieo ?ic?aooieao oa ia?iaoe?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. I?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iieaaoo?oueny aaeeeith e?euee?noth oaaeeoeue noaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo
ia?aiao??a aa?aaao?a, eiao?oe??io?a oi?ioee aoenoaaiiy ia ??cieo oiiao
oa ?i.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii
io?eiai? naiino?eii. I?e oi?ioethaaii? caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai?
?aea? e. o. i. A. I. O???oiaa oa ae. o. i. A. A. ?aoaiea.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ?
aoee noaaeai? ia oaeeo nai?ia?ao, can?aeaiiyo oa eiioa?aioe?yo:

?anioae?eainueea eiioa?aioe?y “Iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu i?iaiice?iaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa” (Ee?a, 1970);

?anioae?eainueea eiioa?aioe?y “Oaoie/aneee i?ia?an e ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey eiiieaeniie iaoaiecaoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa” (Ee?a, 1970);

Can?aeaiiy eiino?oeoi?nueei? naeoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oiaa?enoaa OOC
(Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy iia?eueieo n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeeo aa?aaao?a
ia AOeII. Oa?uee?a, 1971);

Ananithciay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay eiioa?aioeey “Eiaeaia?iua i?iaeaiu
eeaa?iaoeee a naeueneii oicyenoaa” (Eai?ia?aae, 1974);

Iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
oaeoeueoaoo iaoai?caoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa IAO (Ee?a, 1996 …
1999 ?iee);

Ae?oaee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee nai?ia? c iie?ioaiiy iieaciee?a oaieiaeo
aeaeaoi?a oa ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiith. (Iaeeoii?eue, 1996);

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a 12
ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao, cie?aia a 4-o a?ioo?ao oa 8-o iaoeiaeo noaooyo.
E??i oeueiai iioae?eiaai? oace o?ueio aeiiia?aeae c oeueiai ieoaiiy. C
?ioeo ieoaiue iioae?eiaai? aea? a?ioo?e, o?e iaoeiaeo noaoo? oa aeaa
aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e, yeee i?noeoue 222 iaeiaioaaiiy. Iae?/o? 313 noi??iie, 34
?enoiee, 37 oaaeeoeue, 311 ioia?iaaieo oi?ioe.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

1. Noai ieoaiiy ? i?ia?aia aeine?aeaeaiue. O oe?e aeaa? ooi/iaia
?nioth/a oa?i?iieia?y aecia/aia aaca aeey ii??aiyiiy iieaciee?a
?iaioe aa?aaaoo a noaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeeiao i?iaaaeaii
iaeyae ? e?eoe/iee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio aeine?aeaeaiue onoaeaieo
aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeei?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy iia?eueieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aa?aaao?a cae?eniaii aea?? iai?yie?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/

Onoaeaiei aeeiai?/iei ?aaeeiii ?iaioe aa?aaaoo aaaaea?oueny oaeee eiee
ciai?oi? iaaaioaaeaiiy eooiaa oaeaee?noue aeaeaoia oa ?io? iieacieee ?
noaoe?iia?ieie ooieoe?yie /ano oiaoi ca iaaiee ia??iae ?iaioe iathoue
noae? na?aaei? cia/aiiy oa aeenia?n?th Noaoe/iei ?aaeeiii aaaaea?oueny
oaeee eiee cacia/ai? iieacieee ia iaaiiio a?ae??ceo /ano
i?aeo?eiothoueny noaeeie Oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaoia io?eiai? a eaai?aoi?ieo
oiiaao, aaaaeathoueny noaoe/ieie Aeey eooiai? oaeaeeino? oa e?ooiiai
iiiaioo aeaeaoia iiiyooy noaeino? a?aeiineoueny aei ?o na?aaei?o
cia/aiue ca oeeee A aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao ?aaeei ?iaioe iia?eueiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aa?aaaoo ? aeeiai?/iei

A aeai?e ?iaio? ca aaco aeey ii??aiyiiy noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeei?a
i?eeiyoi na?aaei? cia/aiiy ci?iiiai onoaeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
Ii??aiththoueny iieacieee oaeeo aeeiai?/iiai oa noaoe/iiai ?aaeei?a aeey
yeeo na?aaei? cia/aiiy ci?iiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iaaia cia/aiiy noaeiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ca?aathoueny Iia??oaiiy iieaciee?a iia?eueiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aa?aaaoo a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao
ioe?ith?oueny a ii??aiyii? c a?aeiia?aeiei noaoe/iei ?aaeeiii

A aeaa? i?iaiae?ciaaii aianie a i?iaeaio iia??oaiiy iieaciee?a aeaeaoia
oa aa?aaaoo a oe?eiio oaeeo a/aieo ye A I Aieo?inueeee A E THeaeaoaa A A
Na??uaanueeee, A A ?aoaiei I A Aieueaa?e AI Eooueeia N A Aaa?a A I Eenia
oa ?i Iniaeeaino? ci?iiiai onoaeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aa?aaao?a aea/aeeny AI Aieo?inueeei AI
Aaneeaiei THE E??oaay AI ?ineyeiaei AA Eo?? II THoeiei A A ?aoaiei A A
Aieio?iei

2. Noaoenoe/iee aiae?c aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeei?a aa?aaaoo. Aiae?c ci?iieo
onoaeaieo aeeiai?/ieo iieaciee?a cae?enithaaany c aeiiiiiaith
iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo aeiaaeeiaeo noaoe?iia?ieo i?ioean?a.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? inoeeeia?aie aeey oyaiaiai coneeey, e?ooeeueiiai
iiiaioo ia aaaeo/eo eieanao, e?ooeeueiiai iiiaioo oa eooiai? oaeaeeino?
o?enoaaeeny /a?ac i?ii?aeee /ano 0.05 n aai 0.1 n ? o aeaeyae?
aeene?aoieo /eneiaeo iine?aeiaiinoae aaiaeeeeny a eiii’thoa?. Ca oeeie
iine?aeiaiinoyie aecia/aeeny na?aaei? cia/aiiy, aeenia?n?y, eiao?oe??io
aa??aoe??, aneiao??y, aenoean oa niaeo?aeueia u?euei?noue. Aneiao??y oa
aenoean neoaoaaee e?eoa??yie ii?iaeueiino? ?iciiae?eo aeine?aeaeoaaieo
ia?aiao??a.

Niaeo?aeueia u?eueiinoue iieacieea aecia/aeanue ca oi?ioeith

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aecia/ai? aeey ooieoe??, cao?eniaaii? /a?ac aeene?aoi? i?ii?aeee /ano ca
oi?ioeaie Aannaey; e?ie ca eooiaith /anoioith, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae
aeiaaeeie inoeeeia?aie a n, = 2/T.

Aca?iia niaeo?aeueia u?eueiinoue e?ooeeueiiai iiiaioo oa eooiai?
oaeaeeino? /a?ac eiao?oe??ioe Oo?’? oeeo iieaciee?a aecia/aeany ca
oi?ioeith

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u?eueiino? /anoi cono??/athoueny iaoi/iino?, aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue
ooi/ieoe ?? o?ce/iee ci?no a iaoai?/ieo nenoaiao. Niaeo?aeueia
u?euei?noue oaeaeeino? oea ?iciiae?e ci?iii? e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? ian
aa?aaaoo ca /anoioaie. Niaeo?aeueia u?eueiinoue e?ooeeueiiai iiiaioo
oea ?iciiae?e iioaioe?eii? aia?a?? aeaoi?iaoe?? aae?a ca /anoioaie.
Ae?enia /anoeia aca?iii? niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino? e?ooeeueiiai iiiaioo
oa eooiai? oaeaeeino? oea ?iciiae?e ci?iii? iiooaeiino? ii /anoioao.

I?e eieeaaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy onoaeaiiai ?ooo, ii??aiyii
?c noaoe/iei ?aaeeiii a aeeiai?/i?e nenoai? aa?aaaoo, iiaeii? aooe
caianai? aeiaeaoeia? ii?oe?? e?iaoe/ii? ? iinooiaeueii? aia?a??

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niiaeeaa?oueny oyaiaei iaaaioaaeaiiyi i?e e?i?ei?e caeaaeiino? oyaiaiai
iii?o a?ae oaeaeeino?, aea?oueny oi?ioeith

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???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@j ???&?
?MathType??`????u????????????-?????—?‹????—?¶???u@th??????
aea 0, 1 eiao?oe??ioe e?i?eii? caeaaeiino?; V0, wmetafile8?
??N???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@j ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????Aeo?aoe iiooaeiino? ia aeeiiaiiy
oaoiieia?/ii? iia?aoe?? i?e eieeaaiiyo a?eueoa ia aaee/eio 1,
wmetafile8? ??N????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@j ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????Ine?eueee a aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ?ioa?aae?
/anoio eieeaaiue ciai?oiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (0 … 20 n-1) niaeo?aeuei?
u?eueiino? ci?iieo iieaciee?a iathoue iaeei ?noioiee i?e, oi aeey ?o
aiae?oe/iiai iiaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaany ae?ac

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 ????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@O ???&? ?MathType?? ???uJy$????aea
b0, b1, b2 noae? eiao?oe??ioe, b1 ? b2 iathoue ?ici??i?noue /anoioe, a
b0 aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iieacieea.

Eiao?oe??ioe i?aeae?athoueny oaeei /eiii, uia o aiae?oe/iiai ae?aco (5)
oa ia/eneaii? ca aenia?eiaioaeueiith inoeeeia?aiith niaeo?aeueii?
u?eueiino? ca?aaeeny aeenia?n?y Dx oa aieiaiee iaeneioi Smax ia /anoio?
max. Aeaaa?a?/ii caaea/a iiooeo eiao?oe??io?a caiaeeoueny aei
?ica’ycaiiy eoa?/iiai ??aiyiiy a?aeiinii aaee/eie b2. Caaaeyee
aeei?enoaiith aiae?oe/iiai ae?aco aeey niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino?
aaea?oueny aeinyaoe cia/iiai nooiaiy cai?oaiiy oa eiioeaio?aoe??
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Cai?noue e?eueeanio i?aeeiao
niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino? aeey aiae?co aeinoaoiuei caa??aaoe o?e
eiao?oe??ioe.

3. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aa?aaaoo a onoaeaiiio ?on?. A oe?e aeaa?
iia?eueiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee aa?aaao (INA) ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
aeeiai?/ia nenoaia, oa?aeoa? ?ooo yei? aecia/a?oueny aca?iiae??th
aeaeaoia, o?aini?n??, oiaeiai? /anoeie oa ?iai/eo i?aai?a, ian i?ae
niaith oa ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia aa?aaaoo iiaeaia
ia ?en. 1.

?en. 1. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia iia?eueiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
aa?aaaoo: 1 inoia o?aeoi?a; 2 ?aia ?iai/i? iaoeie; 3 aaaeai? eieana; 4
aaaeo/? eieana o?aeoi?a; 5 iaoiaee aeaeaoia; 6,7 iaoia? iane
o?aini?n??; 8 aei?noeee c/ai; 9 eie?niee o?ae iaoeie; 10 ?iai/?
i?aaie.

Io?eiai? ia noaiae? noaoe/i? oaeaee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaoia
iienoaaeeny oaeeie ae?acaie:

wmetafile8? ??o???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`a???&??yyyy?????Ay«y   ???&? ?MathType?? ???u—y ????aea
0, 1, 0, 1, 2 noae? eiao?oe??ioe; eooiaa oaeaee?noue.

Eiao?oe??ioe c oi?ioee (6) aecia/aeeny iaoiaeii ia?aieo oi/ie aai
iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a. Iae?aeeny oi/ee, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
iaeneiaeueiiio iiiaioo, iii?iaeueiiio iiiaioo oa oieinoiio oiaeo.
Ia/eneai? eiao?oe??ioe aeey 25 ia?ie aeecae?a, ?acoeueoaoe oeeo
ia/eneaiue caaaeai? a oaaeeoeth, c yei? aeaeii, ui aei?noe?noue
?aaoeyoi?ii? a?eee noaoe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey o?aeoi?ieo aeecae?a
ci?ith?oueny o iaaeao a?ae 6.19 (Ae-21A) aei 124.23 (aeecaeue Ae-130),
aeaeaoi Ae-240 ia? wmetafile8? ??B???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 @???&??yyyy?????Ay3/4y?^ ???&?
?MathType??p????u????????????-?????B?H????VH????B?h???
Vh???u@th??????Noaoe/i? ?aaoeyoi?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeecae?a ?noioii
iae?i?ei?. A?aooaaiiy oe??? iae?i?eiino? aeicaiey? iiynieoe cia/io
/anoeio ao?ao iiooaeiino? ? cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? aa?aaaoo, aea
iaeii/anii iaoyaeo? ?ic?aooiee. Oiio oeth iae?i?ei?noue iaiao?aeii
e?iaa?ecoaaoe, aea oaeei /eiii, uia caa?aaeeny iniiai? aeine?aeaeoaai?
aoaeoe. Ine?eueee noaiaea?oi? iaoiaee e?iaa?ecaoe?? a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo
aeyaeeeny iai?eaeaoieie, aoei ?ic?iaeaii iiao iiaeeo?eaoe?th iaoiaeo
aea?aaeaioii? e?iaa?ecaoe??, yeee canoiniaothoue a oai??? iae?i?eieo
eieeaaiue. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeei iaoiaeii iae?i?eio caeaaei?noue F()
canooia? e?i?eia L()=q0 + q1, yea ia iaaiiio ?ioa?aae? ci?ie eooiai?
oaeaeeino? ia? iaeiaeia? c F() na?aaei?e e?ooeeueiee iiiaio ? na?aaeith
aei?noe?noue. Ca oaeeo oiia eiao?oe??ioe q0 oa q1 aecia/athoueny
oi?ioeaie:

wmetafile8? ??6???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`?/???&??yyyy?????Ay?y@/ ???&?
?MathType???????u????????????-?????Le???L????c6???
cd???u—y ????wmetafile8? ??d???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a?3???&??yyyy??[email protected]? ???&?
?MathType??????u????????????-?????l„???lA???AY???
AO???u—y ???? wmetafile8?
??O??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a@#???&??yyyy?????Ay»y?#› ???&?
?MathType??????u????????????-?????1/2y???1/2???u—y
????aea wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ay3/4y?

 ???&?
?MathType??`????u????????????-???????@??????n???u@th??????
Aeoiaey/e c a?aeiieo ??aiyiue ?ooo eie?i/anoiai aaeo aeaeaoia ye
oaa?aeiai ?ioi?a, caeaaeiino? i?ae noaoe/iei oa aeeiai?/iei iiiaioii
aeaeaoia i?e eieeaaiiyo iaaaioaaeaiiy oa ??aiyiiy a?aeoeaio?iaiai
?aaoeyoi?a, ye neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a, aoei io?eiaia iiaa ??aiyiiy
aeaeaoia i?e ?iaio? c? ci?iiei onoaeaiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Oea ??aiyiiy
ia? aeaeyae

wmetafile8? ??i???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a`4???&??yyyy?????Ay¬y 4? ???&?
?MathType??a????u????????????-?????¬D???¬i???u—y
????aea I caaaeaiee iiiaio ?ia?oe?? ?ooiieo ian aeaeaoia; , noae?
/ano (?ia?oe?eiino?) ?aaoeyoi?a ? ?iai/iai i?ioeano; Mc iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aaeo aeaeaoia.

Ia iniia? aiae?co oa iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee aeaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
aoea neeaaeaia oaaeeoey cia/aiue ia?aiao??a I, , aeey 13-oe ia?ie
o?aeoi?ieo aeecae?a. Ca?aeii aeaieo oaaeeoe? iiiaio ?ia?oe?? aeaeaoia
eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao a?ae 1.2 (Ae-37 A) aei 5.2 eai2 (ssIC-238 IA),
aaee/eie o iaaeao 0.031 (NIAe-60) 0.111 c (Ae-65 A), o iaaeao 0.094
(Ae-240) 0.148 n (Ae-35).

Cai?ia iae?i?eii? ooieoe?iiaeueii? caeaaeiino? F() aea?aaeaioiith
e?i?eiith L() aeicaiey? cai?noue iae?i?eiiai aeeoa?aioe?eiiai ??aiyiiy
(9) io?eiaoe a?aeiia?aeia e?i?eia. Ca e?i?eiei aeeoa?aioe?eiei ??aiyiiyi
aecia/a?oueny eaaae?ao iiaeoey /anoioii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaoia

wmetafile8? ??$???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
?»???&??yyyy?????Ay1/2yA!Y ???&? ?MathType??I?ney aeaaa?a?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue ?aoe?iiaeueia ooieoe?y (10) iaaoaa? aeaeyaeo

wmetafile8? ??/???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aa???&??yyyy?????Ay?y ? ???&? ?MathType?????u—y ????aea
wmetafile8? ??u????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ay3/4ya^ ???&?
?MathType??p????u????????????-?????B? ???V
???B?????V????u@th??????Ooo n aeania /anoioa aeaeaoia; f
aac?ici??ia /anoioa eieeaaiue; (f) eiao?oe??io aeeiai?/iino? aeaeaoia;
1 ? 2 aac?ici??i? ia?aiao?e aeeiai?/iiai ?aaeeio. Aeey ?nioth/eo
aeecae?a 1 = 0.5 1.8, 2 = 0.9 3.1 ? i?e oeueiio iaia’yceiai 2 > 1.

Aeenia?n?y eooiai? oaeaeeino? aeaeaoia aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith

wmetafile8?
??„??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????Ay§y`§ ???&? ?MathType??
???u—y ????aea SM() niaeo?aeueia u?eueiinoue ciai?oiueiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy; m iaaea ?iai/iai ae?aiaciio /anoio.

Aeey iia?eueieo n.-a. aa?aaao?a aaee/eia m ia ia?aaeuo? 30 n-1.

Na?aaeia eaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy eooiai? oaeaeeino? ? aeeiai?/iei
e?eoa???i ?iaioe aa?aaaoo ? eiai aeaeaoia i?e ci?iiiio onoaeaiiio
iaaaioaaeaii?. *ei iaioa oey aaee/eia, oei e?aua ca iaeiaeiaeo ?ioeo
oiia i?aoeth? aeeiai?/ia nenoaia. Oi?ioea (12) aea? i?aeo?ae aei aeai?o
aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a aa?aaaoo. Ine?eueee ooieoe?y SM() a oiiaao aeaii?
caaea/? ? a?aeiiith, oi aeey aecia/aiiy aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a
aeei?enoiaoaaeany oiiaa

wmetafile8? ??e???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a????&??yyyy?????Ay3/4y@? ???&? ?MathType???????u—y
????Aeeiiaiiy oiiae (13) aeey aeaeaoi?a 1 ? 2 o anueoio ?iai/iio
ae?aiacii? /anoio aa?aioo?, ui wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????Ay3/4y?

 ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????Aiae?c aeeiai?/iiai eiao?oe??ioa
iieacaa, ui a?ao?ee ooieoe?e (f) a caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
ia?aiao??a 1 ? 2 iiaeooue aooe 3-o oei?a: iiiioiiii niaaeath/a ooieoe?y,
ui ia? iaeneioi, ??aiee 1, a oi/oe? f = 0; ooieoe?y, ui ia? i?i?ioi,
??aiee 1, o oi/oe? f = 0 ? iaeneioi ia /anoio? f = 0.4 … 1.0;
ooieoe?y, ui ia? i?i?ioi (0) = 1, a aeae? iine?aeiaii i?i?ioi ? iaeneioi
a ?ioa?aae? /anoio 0.8 … 2.4. Eiao?oe??ioe aeeiai?/iino? no/anieo
o?aeoi?ieo aeecae?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy a?aeiinyoueny
aei ae?oaiai oeio; a cii? /anoio 0.2 … 1.4 aeeiai?/iee eiao?oe??io
aeey ieo a e?eueea ?ac?a a?eueoee 1, ui aeeeeea? ca?eueoaiiy na?aaeiuei?
aiie?ooaee eieeaaiue eooiai? oaeaeeino?. Aeey ciaioaiiy ao?ao
iiooaeiino? a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao, aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e 1 oa 2 o?aaa
aeae?aoe oae, uia e?ea? (f) a?aeiineeeny aei ia?oiai aai o?aoueiai oeio,
i?e/iio ae?oaee iaeneioi e?eai? o?aoueiai oeio iiaeiai aooe iaioei 1.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oi?ioeith (11) ? ?ic?iaeaiei eiii’thoa?iei
aeai?eoiii aoea aecia/aia iaeanoue cia/aiue ia?aiao??a 1 ? 2, a ye?e
aaee/eia 2 1. Oey iaeanoue ia ?en. 2 iiaeaia oo?eooaaiiyi. Aeeiai?/i?
ia?aiao?e aeecaey iaiao?aeii iae?aoe a iaaeao oe??? iaeano?. Ine?eueee
iacaeaaeieo aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a I, , , q /ioe?e, a e?eoa??aeueieo
aac?ici??ieo ia?aiao??a o?eueee aeaa, oi oiiae aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo
aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeei?a ?iaioe aeecaey iaeeaaeathoue iaiaaeaiiy ia ia nai?
cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a, a o?eueee ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie.

?en. 2. Iaeanoue cia/aiue aac?ici??ieo aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeecaey:
1 a?aieoe? eiiieaenieo ei?ai?a oa?aeoa?enoe/iiai ??aiyiiy; 2 ? 3
a?aieoe? a?ae’?iieo ei?ai?a; 4 a?aieoey no?eeino? aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie.

Aoaeoeaiei ei?aaoth/ei caniaii, yeee iaeo?ae?co? eieeaaiiy ciai?oiueiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ? a’yceee aeaiioa?. I?eioeei ae?? aeaiioa?a a?oioo?oueny
ia aca?iiae?? eie?i/anoiai aaea c aeiaeaoeiaei iaoiaeeii /a?ac oa?
a’ycei? ??aeeie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeeoa?aioe?eiei ??aiyiiyi

wmetafile8? ??I???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????AyYy % ???&?
?MathType???????u????????????-?????l???lw???u—y
????aea d, Id, 1 eooiaa oaeaee?noue, iiiaio ?ia?oe?? oa caaaeaia
a’yce?noue aeaiioa?a. Oea ??aiyiiy aiae?coaaeiny ni?eueii c ??aiyiiyie
(9) ? (11), a ?acoeueoao? /iai aoee io?eiai? aeeoa?aioe?eia ??aiyiiy oa
/anoioia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaeaoia c aeaiioa?ii. *anoioia oa?aeoa?enoeea
aeaeaoia c aeaiioa?ii aecia/a?oueny 6-ia aeeiai?/ieie ia?aiao?aie , , 1,
q, I, Id.

A?aeii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aeaiioa?a a?oioothoueny ia oiio, ui
inoaii?e iiaeiai aaneoe eieeaaiiy iaaii? /anoioe. Niaoeeo?/ia ?iaioa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aa?aaao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui oeae
aeaiioa? iiaeiai

aaneoe on? eieeaaiiy a ?iai/iio ae?aiacii? /anoio. Aiae?c /anoioii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaoia c aeaiioa?ii iieacaa, ui ca ?ic?aooieiao /anoioo
iiaeia i?eeiyoe aeanio /anoioo aeaeaoia. I?e oeueiio oiiaa (13)
aeeiio?oueny ia anueiio ?iai/iio ae?aiacii? /anoio. Aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e
aeaiioa?a aecia/athoueny ca oi?ioeaie:

wmetafile8? ??#???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ay?ya ???&? ?MathType??
???u????????????-?????›/???›E???u?th??????aea j
ia?aiao? /anoioii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaoia c aeaiioa?ii (iae?a?oueny
??aiei 30 Hin). Eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e aeaiioa?a ca’ycai? c
aeeiai?/ieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie:

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 `???&??yyyy?????Ay±y Q ???&?
?MathType??0???u????????????-?????Ith???I???IP???
I-???u@th??????aea , aeeiai?/ia a’yce?noue ??aeeie aeaiioa?a [Hc
i-2] oa aonoeia iaoa??aeo iaoiaeea [eai-3]; L, R1, R2 oe?eia oa
?aae?one ciai?oiuei? ? aioo??oiuei? oeee?iae?e/ieo iiaa?oiiue iaoiaeea
[i]; h caci? i?ae iaoiaeeii oa ei?ionii [i].

I?e ci?iiiio iaaaioaaeaii? a aaeain? iiooaeiinoae aeaeaoia ii??aiyii ?c
noaoe/iei ?aaeeiii c’yaeythoueny aeiaeaoeia? neeaaeia?. Na?aaeiy
aoaeoeaia iiooaeiinoue, ?icaeiooa aeaeaoiii

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????AyyAm ???&?
?MathType???????u????????????-?????[?@????[?„???[?]
???[?! ???[?·???[?u???u@th??????aea N0 noaoe/ia
iiooaeiinoue; N ao?aoa iiooaeiino? a ca’yceo c iae?i?ei?noth noaoe/ii?
?aaoeyoi?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee; NM ao?aoe iiooaeiino? a ca’yceo ?c
cai?ciaiiyi c?inoaiiy aeeiai?/iiai iiiaioo i?e ca?eueoaii? oeeeeiai?
iiaea/? iaeeaa; Np ia?aceoia iiooaeiinoue.

Iaoai?ci cieaeaiiy iiooaeiino? aeaeaoia ?c-ca iae?i?eiino? noaoe/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iieacaiee ia ?en. 3.

Ciaioaiiy aeeiai?/iiai iiiaioo aeaeaoia ii??aiyii ?c noaoe/iei a ca’yceo
?c cai?ciaiiyi aecia/athoueny oi?ioeith

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???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A???&??yyyy?????Ay¦y?¦ ???&?
?MathType??@???u????????????-?????i???¶???  
??? c???u@th??????aea wmetafile8? ??E????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????OeOep ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????

?en. 3. Iaoai?ci ciaioaiiy eooiai? oaeaeeino? ? iiooaeiino? aeecaey i?e
eieeaaiiyo ciai?oiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy: a) ?aaoeyoi?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea, 1
aea?aaeaioia e?i?eia oa?aeoa?enoeea; a) ci?iia ciai?oi? iaaaioaaeaiiy;
a) oa?aeoa? ci?iaiiy eooiai? oaeaeeino?, 2 i?e ?iaio? ia ?aaoeyoi?i?e
a?eoe? oa?aeoa?enoeee, 3 i?e ?iaio? ia ei?aeoi?i?e a?eoe?.

Aaee/eia wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????%Ep ???&?
?MathType??`????u????????????-???????h??????1???u@th??????
wmetafile8? ??I???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
AA/???&??yyyy?????AyYy?/e ???&? ?MathType?? ???u—y
????Ia?aceoia iiooaeiinoue aeieea? ?c-ca iaocaiaeaeaiino? ii oac?
eieeaaiue iaaaioaaeaiiy oa eooiai? oaeaeeino?, aiia aaia?o?oueny
aeaeaoiii aea ia iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia ia ei?enio ?iaioo. Aaee/eia ??
ia /anoio? aecia/a?oueny oi?ioeith

wmetafile8? ??G???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A
???&??yyyy?????Ay§yag ???&?
?MathType???????u????????????-??????‰?????·???¬|???
¬ae???u—y ????Na?aaei? cia/aiiy ia?aceoii? iiooaeiino? ii an?o
/anoioao aaee/eia a?ae’?iia. ?c-ca ia?aaeo?aoe iaeeaa ia noai?aiiy
na?aaeiueiai e?ooeeueiiai iiiaioo oa aeeaeaiiy ia?aceoii? iiooaeiino?
ieoiia aeo?aoa iaeeaa a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao ii??aiyii ?c noaoe/ieie
?aaeeiaie ca?eueoo?oueny.

Aeey aeeiai?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a a ?iaio? canoiniao?oueny i?ea?iaeueia
oi?ioea aoenoaaiiy

wmetafile8? ??z???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aA???&??yyyy?????Ay3/4y?? ???&?
?MathType?????u????????????-?????LU???L§
???LO???L%???u@th??????aea r1, r2 eiao?oe??ioe, ui
aecia/athoueny ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie; = Pk/Gc; Pk ?oo?eia
neea o?aeoi?a; Gc c/?iia aaaa.

Oey oi?ioea ia ia? aeaaa?a?/ieo iniaeeainoae ? ni?aaaaeeeaa ia an?e
iaeano? iiaeeeaeo cia/aiue aoenoaaiiy. Ia?aiao?e r1 ? r2 aeecuee? i?ae
niaith ca aaee/eiith, aea caaaeaee r2 > r1. Aaee/eia r1 ci?ith?oueny o
iaaeao 0.24 … 2.61, a r2 o iaaeao 0.24 … 2.67. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
u?eueiino? a?oioiaiai oiio oa c/?iii? aaae r1 oa r2 ciaioothoueny, aeey
aonaie/ieo o?aeoi??a aiie iaioa ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith, i?ae aeey
eie?nieo. A ?iaio? iaaaaeaia oaaeeoey eiao?oe??io?a r1 ? r2 aeey
o?aeoi??a O-25, O-40AI, IOC-50, IOC-80, O-150E, O-150, E-700 oa ?i. ia
??cieo aa?ioaoi?/ieo oiiao.

Ia iniia? ??aiyiiue (6), (7), (9), (21) o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
?ic?aooieiaith noaiith (?en.1) aoei io?eiaii aeeoa?aioe?ei? ??aiyiiy
onoaeaiiai ?ooo o?aeoi?a oa aa?aaaoo:

wmetafile8? ??i???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aA*???&??yyyy?????Ay§y?*‡ ???&?
?MathType??a????u????????????-?????¬`???¬p???u—y ????
wmetafile8?
??©??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ay»yA ???&?
?MathType???????u—y ????wmetafile8? ??l???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aa)???&??yyyy?????Ay§y )‡ ???&? ?MathType??a????u—y ????
wmetafile8? ??c???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a !???&??yyyy?????Ay§y`!‡ ???&?
?MathType??a????u????????????-?????¬ ???¬8???u—y ????
wmetafile8? ??N???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @
???&??yyyy?????AyFya a ???&? ?MathType?????u—y ????
wmetafile8? ??d???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @@
???&??yyyy?????Ay?y? e ???&?
?MathType?????u????????????-?????¬e???¬y???u@th??????
aea m1, m2 iinooiaeuei? iane o?aeoi?a oa ?iai/eo iaoei; mt caaaeaia
iana o?aeoi?a; eiao?oe??io caaaeaiiy iaa?oaeueieo ian o?aini?n?? oa
?oo??a aei inoiaa o?aeoi?a; P, Pf oyaiaa coneeey oa ii??
ia?aei/oaaiith o?aeoi?a; V iinooiaeueia oaeaee?noue; Q0, Q1
eiao?oe??ioe noaoe/ii? oaeaee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aeoi?a; aoenoaaiiy
?oo??a o?aeoi?a; rk ?aae?on aaaeo/eo eie?n aai ii/aoeiaiai eiea
aaaeo/o? c??i/ee; im, m ia?aaeaoi/ia /enei oa eiao?oe??io ei?enii? ae??
o?aini?n??; R oyaiaee ii?? ?iai/eo iaoei.

O a?aeoeeaiiyo ci?iieo V ? P a?ae nai?o na?aaei?o cia/aiue ??aiyiiy
o?aeoi?a ia? oaeee aeaeyae

wmetafile8? ??O???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
 .???&??yyyy?????Ay¦y`.AE ???&?
?MathType??????u????????????-?????2???*??????
E???a???O??????©???ss

????»???a&???°)???N%???NB ???uJy$????aea 1, 2
— aac?ici??i? aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e o?aeoi?a; r aac?ici??iee /an; n
aeania /anoioa, Q = -Q1.

A ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iai/eo /anoio o?aini?n?y aa?aaaoo
aaaaeaeany aei?noeith. Oaea a?iioaca a?aeiia?aea? ae?eniino?, ine?eueee
e?ooeeuei? eieeaaiiy aae?a a?aeaoaathoueny a a?eueo aenieiio ae?aiacii?
/anoio. Oiio aeey aeai?o aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a o?aeoi?a oa aa?aaaoo
iiaeia canoinoaaoe oie aea naiee iaoiae, ui ? aeey ie?aiiai aeaeaoia o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ae?aa?aiith ia ?en.2.

Aeey iieaaoaiiy ianooiieo aeeiai?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a aa?aaao?a a aeai?e
?iaio? aoee neeaaeai? oaaeeoe? aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeey 10-oe ia?ie
o?aeoi??a c aenieoaoaoe?eieie ianaie a?ae 1.23 aei 12 o, ia i’yoe
?iai/eo ia?aaea/ao. C oaaeeoeue aeaeii, ui caaaeaia iana o?aeoi??a
ci?ith?oueny a?ae 2.6 o (O-25 A) aei 867 o (E-700). Iniiaio /anoeio
caaaeaii? iane aonaie/ieo o?aeoi??a neeaaea? iana ?ooiieo aeaoaeae
aeaeaoia. Ia ia?aaea/ao, aea ?aae?co?oueny oyaiaee eean o?aeoi?a, oey
aeiey neeaaea? 80% … 90%, a ia o?ainii?oieo ia?aaea/ao ia iaioa 55%.
Aeey eie?nieo o?aeoi??a ia iecueeeo ia?aaea/ao aeiey aeaeaoia 80 … 85%
caaaeueii? iane, aea ia aenieeo o?ainii?oieo ia?aaea/ao aieiaio ?ieue
a?ae?a?a? iinooiaeueia iana, ieoiia aaaa yei? nyaa? 80%. AEi?noe?noue
oaeaee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aeoi??a a ?iai/iio ae?aiacii? ia?aaea/
ci?ith?oueny o iaaeao a?ae 7.4 aei 650 In/i.

AEi?noe?noue oaeaee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aeoi??a a ?iai/iio ae?aiacii?
ia?aaea/ ci?ith?oueny o iaaeao a?ae 6.4 aei 1400 In/i, aeani? /anoioe
o?aeoi??a eaaeaoue a iaaeao a?ae 1.4 aei 10.1 n-1, aeeiai?/iee
eiao?oe??io 1 ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao a?ae 0.007 aei 0.56, 2 a?ae 0.16 aei
1.53. A aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao, ia caaaeath/e ia oa, ui no?ee?noue ?iaioe
aa?aaaoo caaacia/o?oueny, ia?e cia/aiue (1, 2) aeoiaeyoue ca iaae?
aeiionoeii? iaeano? (?en. 2), ? aeieea? iaaaciaea ciaioaiiy iiooaeiino?
? ia?aaeo?aoe iaeeaa. Uia iicaooeny oeueiai iaaaoeaiiai yaeua, o?aaa
ca?eueooaaoe iiiaio ?ia?oe?? aeaeaoia, ciaiooaaoe ?ia?oe?ei?noue
?aaoeyoi?a aai canoiniaoaaoe a’yceee iecueei/anoioiee aeaiioa?.

A ?iaio? oaeiae aea/aany aieea ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe iia?eueiiai
aa?aaaoo oaeiai ei?aaoth/iai i?eno?ith ye i?oaeiee c/ai. Aecia/aeeny
oiiae, eiee i?e ci?iiiio onoaeaiiio iaaaioaaeaii? i?oaeiee c/ai aea?
aa?aioiaaiee iiceoeaiee aoaeo. ?iaioa i?oaeiiai c/aio aea/aeany c
aeiiiiiaith aeeoa?aioe?eiiai ??aiyiiy

wmetafile8? ??!???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a ‘???&??yyyy?????Ay±y`’‘ ???&?
?MathType??a????u????????????-?????¬???¬x???¬.
???¬« ???¬O???¬????¬p???¬i???¬v

???¬%!???u@th??????
wmetafile8? ??e???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a`???&??yyyy?????Ay§y ‡ ???&?
?MathType??a????u????????????-?????¬p???¬????¬???
¬@???¬????¬Ae???u@th?????? wmetafile8?
??u??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????   &???&??yyyy????? ?1/2y)&] ???&?
?MathType??p????u—y ???? wmetafile8? ??E???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
?,???&??yyyy?????Ay1/2y@,Y ???&? ?MathType?????u—y ????A
oeueiio ??aiyii? V1, R a?aeoeeaiiy na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino? o?aeoi?a oa
oyaiaiai iii?o iaoei a?ae nai?o na?aaei?o cia/aiue, C aei?noe?noue
i?oaeiiai c/aio [I/i], H eiao?oe??io aeaiio??oaaiiy [In/i]. Aa?aaao c
i?oaeiei c/aiii ia? n?i iacaeaaeieo aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a mt, m2, C, ,
, H, Q.

Ia?aiao?e i?oaeiiai c/aio iiaeii? aooe i?ae?a?ai? oae uia aeeiioaaeany
oiiaa aeioe?eueiino?, eiee ia anueiio ?iai/iio ae?aiacii? /anoio
ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeoeue /anoioii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?aaaoo c
i?oaeiei c/aiii wmetafile8? ??R???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a
???&??yyyy?????Ay3/4ya? ???&? ?MathType???????u—y ????I?e
oaeiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a aieea i?oaeiiai c/aio
aecia/a?oueny e?eoa??aeueieie ia?aiao?aie 0, oa aac?ici??iith /anoioith
f:

wmetafile8? ??.???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a????&??yyyy?????Ay»y@› ???&?
?MathType?????u????????????-?????LZ???L????NAE
???°???u??
??????????-????????NV???-?????N^????E????E???
?S???L? ???L]???LU???L0???u@th??????Ia?aiao?e
i?oaeiiai c/aio iiaeii? aooe i?ae?a?ai? oae, uia = 2.5, a aeania
/anoioa c/aio 0 aoea a 1.5 … 2 ?ace iaioa a?ae aeanii? /anoioe
o?aeoi?a n ia iaeieae/?e ?iai/?e ia?aaea/?. Ciaioaiiy ?ia?oe?eiino?
?aaoeyoi?a oa ?iai/iai i?ioeano aeaeaoia aeicaieeoue ?icoe?eoe a?aieoe?
aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy i?oaeiiai c/aio.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy. A aeaa? iiaeaia i?ia?aia oa
iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoiaeeea aeeiai?/ieo
?ic?aooie?a oa ?o eiii’thoa?ia caaacia/aiiy, iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaii aiae?c aieeao aeeiai?/ieo
iieaciee?a aeaeaoia ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe aa?aaaoo.

Uia aeine?aeeoe aieea ??cieo iiaeeeaeo oei?a ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy,
aoee aeei?enoai? oae? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ia’?eoe: o?ainii?oiee aa?aaao
o neeaae? o?aeoi?a IOC-50IE c aeaiia i?e/aiaie 2-ION-4, i?iee aa?aaao
o neeaae? o?aeoi?a O-74 c ieoaii I-5-35 “O?oaeaiee”, o?aeoi? O-150E c
neeinicae?aeueiei eiiaaeiii EN-2.6A, a oaeiae niaoe?aeueii aeaioiaeaiee
i?oaeiee c/ai aeey o?ainii?oiiai aa?aaaoo.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiue o?ainii?oiiai aa?aaaoo ci?iieie ea?iaaieie
oaeoi?aie aoee iana aaioaaeo a i?e/aiao ? ia?aaeaoi/i? /enea o?aini?n??;
aeey i?iiai aa?aaaoo ia?aaeaoi/i? /enea o?aini?n?? oa ?iai/a oe?eia
caoaaoo (e?euee?noue ei?ion?a); aeey neeinicae?aeueiiai aa?aaaoo
ia?aaeaoi/i? /enea. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue o?ainii?oiiai aa?aaaoo ia
inoeeeia?aiao o?enoaaeeny oyaiaa coneeey oa e?ooeeuei? iiiaioe ia
aaaeo/eo eieanao o?aeoi?a, i?iiai oyaiaa coneeey, e?ooeeueiee iiiaio ?
eooiaa oaeaee?noue aeaeaoia, neeinicae?aeueiiai e?ooeeuei? iiiaioe ia
aaeo a?aeai?o iiooaeiino? oa aaaeo/eo eieanao, ye? i?eaiaeeeeny aei aaeo
aeaeaoia.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a i?aaenoaaeai? o aeaeyae? oaaeeoeue. O
oaaeeoeyo i?noyoueny iiia? aeine?aeo, e?euee?noue oi/ie (cai???a),
ciyoeo c inoeeeia?aie, na?aaei? cia/aiiy iieacieea, aneiao??y, aenoean,
/eneia? cia/aiiy e?eoa???a ii?iaeueiino?. E??i oiai, a oaaeeoeyo
iaaiaeyoueny aeenia?n?y, ia?aiao?e i?ea niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino?,
oaeaeeino? ?ooo c i?oaeiei oa aei?noeei c/aiii, aoaeoeaia iiooaei?noue,
aiaeeiia aeo?aoa iaeeaa oa ?i.

Aenia?eiaioe iieacaee, ui a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?iciiae?e cia/aiue
oyaiaiai coneeey, e?ooeeueieo iiiaio?a ia eieanao oa eooiai? oaeaeeino?
aeaeaoia ia iiaea aaaaeaoeny ii?iaeueiei (aaoniaei). Ia o?ainii?oieo
?iaioao /anoioe, ia ye? i?eiaee iaeneioie niaeo?aeueieo u?eueiinoae
oyaiaiai iii?o, ci?iththoueny a iaaeao 0.1 … 23 n-1, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
oaeaeeino? ?ooo aa?aaaoo niaeo?e iii?oii ci?uothoueny o a?e a?eueo
aenieeo /anoio. Iaea?eueoa iaae?iiy iiooaeiino? ii??aiyii ?c noaoe/iei
?aaeeiii neeaaeaei 30%. A aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeeiao na?aaeiy eooiaa
oaeaee?noue aeaeaoia Ae-48IE, aoea ia 20 … 35 n-1 ieae/a ca noaoe/io,
oiaoi i?e ci?iiiio onoaeaiiio iaaaioaaeaii? ia? i?noea oa naia yaeua,
yea iii?oea A. I. Aieo?inueeee i?e ?icaii? aeecaey Ae-35, eiee
iaaaioaaeaiiy oaae ci?iia, aea iaonoaeaia. Aei?iaoaaiiy i?oaeiiai c/aio
iieacaee, ui a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a a?i aea? iaaaee/ea ca?eueoaiiy
oaeaee?no? ?ooo ia 2 … 5%. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui
caaaeueia aeenia?n?y oyaiaiai coneeey ciaioo?oueny a e?eueea ?ac?a, ana
ae oaee ia? i?noea iaaaeeea iaae?iiy oaeaeeino? ?ooo. Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny
oiae?, eiee iaeneioi niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy ca /anoiooth
aeecueeee aei iaeneioio aiie?ooaeii-/anoioii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?aaaoo.

Ia i?aioe? aeeiai?/i? ?aaeeie o?eaathoue a ieae/iio ae?aiacii? /anoio,
i?ae ia o?ainii?o?; /anoioa i?eo niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino? e?ooeeueiiai
iiiaioo ia ia?aaeuoaaea 3.3 n-1, a eooiai? oaeaee?no? 5.12 n-1. Ao?aoe
iiooaeiino? ii??aiyii ?c noaoe/iei ?aaeeiii neeaaeathoue a na?aaeiueiio
4%. Iacia/ia iaae?iiy iiooaeiino? iiynith?oueny oei, ui na?aaeiy
aaee/eia eiao?oe??ioa aa??aoe?? neeaaeaea eeoa 14% ? aoaeo iaae?iiy
iiooaeiino? ?c-ca iae?i?eiino? ?aaoeyoi?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aoa iaeei.
Neio?iiiee caien e?ooeeueiiai iiiaioo oa eooiai? oaeaeeino? aeicaieea
aeyaeoe aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aceoio iiooaeiinoue. Aiia aoea caaaeaee
a?ae’?iia, iaaaeeea ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith, aea i?enooiy o an?o naie
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeao.

Aeey aeaeaoia neeinicae?aeueiiai aa?aaaoo /anoioe i?eo niaeo?aeueii?
u?eueiino? e?ooeeueiiai iiiaioo ci?ithaaeeny o iaaeao 1.5 … 3.2 n-1,
?noioi? eieeaaiiy a?aeaoaaeeny a ae?aiacii? 0 … 12 n-1, iaea?eueoa
iaae?iiy iiooaeiino? noaiiaeea 11%. Aenia?eiaioaeueiee aeaeaoi NIAe-62 a
cii? iii?iaeo iaa noiaeeieo noaei? iiooaeiino?, ui iaaiei /eiii
a?aeaeeiny ia ?acoeueoaoao.

Aeey ia?aa??ee i?aaeeueiino? ? oi?aa?naeueiino? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee
aecia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeaoia i?e ci?iiiio iaaaioaaeaii?
aoee ia/eneai? iaae?iiy /anoioe iaa?oaiiy oa aoaeoeaii? iiooaeiino?
aeaeaoia Ae-35 a?aeiia?aeii aei aenia?eiaio?a A. I. Aieo?inueeiai.
Oi/i?noue ?ic?aooie?a aoea aeua ca oo, yeo aeathoue ?ic?aooiee, c?iaeai?
ca niaoe?aeueii i?ae?a?aieie aeey oeueiai aeaeaoia aii??e/ieie
oi?ioeaie.

AENIIAEE

C iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe aeieeaathoue oae? aeniiaee.

1. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao ao?aoe aoaeoeaii?
iiooaeiino? aeecaey ii??aiyii ?c a?aeiia?aeiei noaoe/iei ?aaeeiii
neeaaeathoue 10 … 15%, a i?e iani?eyoeeaiio ca?aia? ae?th/eo oaeoi??a
aei 30%. A ?ic?aooieao i?iaeoeoeaiino? aa?aaao?a ? oaoi?/i?e
aeieoiaioaoe?? ia aeaeaoie oe? ao?aoe iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe.

2. A ??aiyiiyo ?ooo aa?aaaoo a?aoiao?oueny o?noue aeeiai?/ieo
ia?aiao??a, ye? i?e aiae?c? iiaeooue aooe cai?iai? aeaiia eiiieaenieie
aac?ici??ieie ia?aiao?aie 1 oa 2. Oe? ia?aiao?e aeey iaeo?ae?caoe??
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao eieeaaiue iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeii? ciaoiaeeoenue o oaeeo
iaaeao: 1 a?ae 0 aei 0.17, 2 a?ae 0 aei 0.5. I?e oeueiio iaia’yceiai 2
> 1.

3. ?ic?iaeaii oi?aa?naeueiee iaoiae ?iaeaia?iiai ?ic?aooieo aia?aaoe/ieo
iieaciee?a aa?aaaoo oa aeai?o eiai aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a. ?ic?aooiee,
aeeiiai? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeei iaoiaeii iieacaee, ui aeey iiiaioa
?ia?oe?? aeaeaoia I = 2 eai2, ca ?ioeo iaeiaeiaeo oiia, ciaioaiiy
?ia?oe?eiino? ?aaoeyoi?a o o?e ?ace caaacia/o? cieaeaiiy ao?ao
iiooaeiino? ia 30 … 40%. Ca iaeeo cia/aiue iiiaioa ?ia?oe?? aieea
?ia?oe?eiino? ?aaoeyoi?a ?noioi?oee, i?ae ca aaeeeeo. Ca?eueoaiiy
iiiaioa ?ia?oe?? o i’youe ?ac?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ao?ao o 3 4
?ace.

4. sse?nii cieaeaiiy ei?enii? iiooaeiino? ? ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aeo?aoe
iaeeaa aeaeaoiii a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao iiynith?oueny iae?i?eiei
oa?aeoa?ii oaeaee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ciaioaiiyi na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy
aeeiai?/iiai iiiaioa ii??aiyii ?c noaoe/iei oa aeieeiaiiyi ia?aceoii?
iiooaeiino?, ui ca nai?th i?e?iaeith aeecueea aei ?aaeoeaii? iiooaeiino?
a aeaeo?e/ieo eieao ci?iiiai no?oio.

5. Aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe iia?eueiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aa?aaaoo
iiaea aooe i?aeaeuaia oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy ia aeaeaoi a’yceiai aeaiioa?a
? canoinoaaiiy i?oaeiiai c/aio. ?ic?aooieiaith /anoioith aeey aecia/aiiy
iiiaioa ?ia?oe?? ? caaaeaii? a’yceino? aeaiioa?a iiaeiia neoaeeoe aeania
/anoioa aeaeaoia a iecueei/anoioiiio aeeaiacii?. Aoaeoeai?noue i?oaeiiai
c/aio caeaaeeoue a?ae niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy. Ca
aoaeue-yeeo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiia i?oaeiee c/ai aea? aa?aioiaaiee
iiceoeaiee aoaeo, yeui caaaeaia iana o?aeoi?a uiiaeiaioa a 20 ?ac?a
a?eueoa iane ?iai/eo iaoei ? aei?noe?noue oaeaee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
o?aeoi?a ?noioii a?eueoa ca aei?noe?noue i?oaeiiai c/aio.

6. Aeey ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeaoi?a ?
o?aeoi??a, i?ecia/aieo aeey ?iaioe a oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, aei?iaoaaeuei? noaiaee oa aeeiaiiiao?e/i? eaai?aoi???
aaaeaii iaeaaeiaoe ?i?oaoi?aie eieeaaiue iaaaioaaeaiiy a ae?aiacii? 2
… 12 n-1.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo i?aoeyo:

1. Iaoiaeeea iaoaiaoe/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey yenia?eiaioia a enneaaeiaaieyo
i?ioeannia naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa /Oa?aoia A. I., Iaai?iay
A. E., Oaeaineay AE. A., Aanoi N. ?., Oaiae?in I. ss. E.: Ieinaeueoic
ONN?, 1968. n. 86. (?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeey aecia/aiiy
iioeiaeueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae oaeaee?noth ? oe?eiith caoaaoo
o?aeoi?ieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aa?aaao?a).

2. Oaiae?in I. ss. Iaoiaeu noaoenoe/aneie ia?aaioee ?acoeueoaoia
enneaaeiaaiee a naeueneii oicyenoaa. //I?eiaiaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoiaeia a enneaaeiaaieyo i?ioeannia naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. E.: OIEEIYNO, 1970. n. 8 56.

3. Oaiae?in I. ss., O?e?iiia A.C., Aieothe N. Ae. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia iiooaei?noue o?aeoi?iiai aeaeaoia i?e ci?iiiio
onoaeaiiio iaaaioaaeaii? //Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. E.: 1998. Aei. 9. n. 322 330. (Aeaaaeaia aeeoa?aioe?eia
??aiyiiy onoaeaieo eieeaaiue eooiai? oaeaeeino? o?aeoi?iiai aeaeaoia
i?ae aieeaii ci?iiiai ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy).

4. Oa?aoia A. I., Oaiae?in I. ss. Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea
aeeiaie/aneeo ?aaeeiia iaoeiii-o?aeoi?iuo aa?aaaoia. //Iaoaiecaoeey e
yeaeo?eoeeaoeey nioeeaeenoe/aneiai naeueneiai oicyenoaa. 1969. ? 5.
n. 45 49. (?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeaeaoia oa noaoe?iia?ieo
aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue aa?aaaoo).

5. Oaiae?in I. ss. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee iaoeiii-o?aeoi?iiai aa?aaaoo
iaoiaeii niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co //Canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo neeaaeieo i?ioean?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. E.: O?iaeae, 1972. n. 17 25.

6. Oaiae?in I. ss. Aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ci?iiiai ciai?oiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia iieacieee ?iaioe aa?aaaoo //Iaoai?caoe?y ?
aeaeo?eo?eaoe?y n?eueneiai ainiiaea?noaa, ? 29. E. O?iaeae 1974. Aei.
27. n. 48 54.

7. Eoaeeiia I. A., Oaiae?in I. ss. Ieaie?iaaiea yenia?eiaioia a
enneaaeiaaieyo iiaeeueiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aa?aaaoia //Iao/iua
o?oaeu ONOA / E.: ONOA, 1975. Aui. 87. O. II. n. 11 16. (Aecia/aii
aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa oyaiaiai e.e.ae. o?aeoi?a
O-150E a?ae oyaiaiai iii?o oa iinooiaeueii? oaeaeeino?).

8. Oaiae?in I. ss. Auai? aeanoeinoe oi?oaiai noeaia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aa?aaaoia //Iaoaiecaoeey e aeaeo?eoeeaoeey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, ? 38. E. O?iaeae 1977. n. 83 87.

9. Eino?oeoeey: Ia?aaioea ?acoeueoaoia iiiaioaeoi?iuo yenia?eiaioia e
ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo cia/aiee oaeoi?ia ia YAI AN-1020 /Oaiae?in I.
ss., Eiceoeeee E. I., Einoeia O. A., AEa?iiaie E.I., Oeeeiiiaa ?. I.
E.: AIEEaeeaiao, 1979. n. 13. (?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeey
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue oaeoi??a a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo n.-a. iaoei ? aa?aaao?a).

10. AEa?iiaie E. I., Oaiae?in I. ss. Aeai?eoi e i?ia?aiia iioeiecaoeee
eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoei //Enneaaeiaaiea e
eiino?oe?iaaiea iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey aeey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. O?oaeu III
AIEEaeeaiao, E.: 1989. Aui. 14. n. 126 130. (Aeai?eoi iioei?caoe??
eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei).

11. Oaiae?in I. ss. Aieea aeaiio??oaaiiy ia iieacieee aeecaey i?e
eieeaaiiyo iaaaioaaeaiiy // Iaoa?eaeu aoi?iai ?anioaeeeaineiai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai naieia?a ii oeo/oaieth iieacaoaeae oaieiauo
aeaeaaoaeae e ?ano?nicaa?aaeaieth. Iaeeoiiieue: OAOA, 1996. n. 21 22.

12. Oaiae?in I. ss. E aii?ino noaoenoe/aneiai i?iaiice?iaaiey
yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aa?aaaoia //
Iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu i?iaiice?iaaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. E.: Oe?IEEIOE, 1970. Aui. 3. n. 84 87.

13. Oaiae?in I. ss. Iaoiae iiaeaee?iaaiey iiaeeueiuo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aa?aaaoia ia YOeAI // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
?anioaeeeaineie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “Oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann e
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey eiiieaeniie iaoaiecaoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa”.
E.: OIEEIANO, 1970. n. 40.

14. Oaiae?in I. ss. Iaeeiaeiay aeeiaie/aneay iiaeaeue aeaeaeaiey
iiaeeueiiai n. o. aa?aaaoa // Ananithciay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
eiioa?aioeey “Eiaeaia?iua i?iaeaiu eeaa?iaoeee a naeueneii oicyenoaa”.
E.: ENOE, 1974. n. 127.

AIIOAOeI?

Oaiae?in I. ss. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?thaaiiy iia?eueiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aa?aaaoo oeyoii iie?ioaiiy eiai aeeiai?/ieo
ia?aiao??a. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.20.01 Iaoai?caoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeine?aeaeo?oueny iaaaoeaiee aieea onoaeaieo eieeaaiue ciai?oiueiai
caaaioaaeaiiy ia aia?aaoe/i? iieacieee oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue iia?eueiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aa?aaaoo. Iaea?aeaii aeiaeaoeia? aeai? i?i
niaeo?aeuei? u?eueiino? oa noaoe/i? iiiaioe eieeaaiue aia?aaoe/ieo
iieaciee?a o?ainii?oiiai, i?iiai oa neeicae?aeueiiai aa?aaao?a.
?ic?iaeaii i?ea?iaeuei? ??aiyiiy i?yiie?i?eiiai ia??aiii??iiai
onoaeaiiai ?ooo aa?aaaoo oa eiai neeaaeiaeo /anoei. A ??aiyiiyo
a?aoiaai? oae? aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e: ?ia?oe?eiino? ?iai/iai i?ioeano oa
?aaoeyoi?a ? caaaeaiee iiiaio ?ia?oe?? aeaeaoia, iinooiaeuei? iane
o?aeoi?a oa ?iai/eo iaoei, aei?noe?noue oaeaee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa
aei?noe?noue i?oaeiiai c/aio, iiiaio ?ia?oe?? a’yceiai aeaiioa?a oa ?i.

I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iiaaiiy aa?aaaoo a oaeeo oiiaao
aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o aeiionoeieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue
i?ae aeeiai?/ieie ia?aiao?aie, caaaeyee /iio ao?aoe ii??aiyii ?c
noaoe/ieie ?aaeeiaie ?ooo ciaioothoueny o 2 … 4 ?ace.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iia?eueiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee aa?aaao, eieeaaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiiy, cieaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee?a, aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e.

Oaiae?in I. ss. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiaeeueiiai
naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiiai aa?aaaoa iooai oeo/oaiey aai aeeiaie/aneeo
ia?aiao?ia. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.20.01 Iaoaiecaoeey naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaoeeiiaeueiue Aa?a?iue oi?aa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999 .

A yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo oneiaeyo aeaeaeaiea iiaeeueiiai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai aa?aaaoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony eieaaaieyie aiaoiae
iaa?ocee, iinooiaoaeueiie nei?inoe e ae?oaeo iieacaoaeae. Ec-ca yoeo
eieaaaiee i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea n?aaeieo cia/aiee yia?aaoe/aneeo
iieacaoaeae aeaeaaoaey ii n?aaiaieth n aeaiiuie oaoie/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee e niioaaonoaothuaa nieaeaiea oaeoe/aneie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe anaai aa?aaaoa. Ia yia?aiaieeo oaoiieiae/aneeo
iia?aoeeyo eiaao ianoi nieaeaiea yooaeoeaiie e oyaiaie iiuiinoe ia
10-15%, a oaaee/aiea ?anoiaea oiieeaa ia 10%, i?e iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
oneiaeyo nieaeaiea aeioiaeeo aei 30% e 16% niioaaonoaaiii.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaeo?aeecaoeee e i?aaeeueiiai o/?oa io?eoeaoaeueiiai
aeeyiey onoaiiaeaoeony eieaaaiee aiaoiae iaa?ocee ia yia?aaoe/aneea
iieacaoaee e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai aa?aaaoa
ii?aaeaeyao aeooaeueiinoue aeaiiie ?aaiou.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey a oai?aoe/aneii ieaia yaeyeny oyaiaue
naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiue aa?aaao n ae?noeei eee oi?oaei noeaiii,
aeaeaeaiea eioi?iai a i?ioeanna auiieiaiey ?aai/eo oiaeia yaeyaony
i?yiieeiaeiui, ia?aaiiia?iui, onoaiiaeaoeiny

Iauaeoaie yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey neoaeeee o?ainii?oiue
aa?aaao a ninoaaa o?aeoi?a IOC-50 IE n aeaoiy i?eoeaiaie 2-IN-4,
iaoioiue aa?aaao a ninoaaa o?aeoi?a O-74 n ieoaii I-5-35 “O?oaeaiee”,
o?aeoi? O-150E n neeinioai?i/iui eiiaaeiii EN-2.6 A, a oaeaea
niaoeeaeueii ecaioiaeaiiue yenia?eiaioaeueiue oi?oaee noeai aeey
o?ainii?oiiai aa?aaaoa.

A ?aaioa iieo/aiu aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaiiua i niaeo?aeueiuo ieioiinoyo e
noaoenoe/aneeo iiiaioiuo oa?aeoa?enoeeao yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aa?aaaoia ia
?acee/iuo ?aai/eo nei?inoyo.

Ii o?aaiaieyi niioaaonoaothueo yeaiaioia n iauai?eiyoui o?iaiai
oi?iaeecaoeee iieo/aiu iiaua iaeeiaeiua o?aaiaiey aeecaeueiiai
aeaeaaoaey e aa?aaaoia n ae?noeei e oi?oaei noeaiii. O?aaiaiey
o/eouaatho niaoeeoeeo aeaeaeaiey iiaeeueiiai naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiiai
aa?aaaoa i?e ia?aiaiiie onoaiiaeaoaeny iaa?ocea. Aeey iaeaa/aiey
eniieueciaaiey /anoioiuo iaoiaeia aiaeeca ?aaiou aeeiaie/aneie nenoaiu
aa?aaaoa ?ac?aaioai iiaue aa?eaio iaoiaea yeaeaaeaioiie eeiaa?ecaoeee
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ue o/eouaaao
ianeiiao?e/iue, iaeeiaeiue oa?aeoa? noaoe/aneie nei?inoiie
oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?aaaoa i?e ?aaioa aeecaey ia ?aaoeyoi?a, a oaeaea
iaaa?iiie/aneee e iaaaonia oa?aeoa? eieaaaiee oaeiaie nei?inoe
iineaaeiaai ia naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeeyo.

Aaaaeaii aeaa iiauo e?eoa?eaeueiuo aeeiaie/aneeo ia?aiao?a aeaeaaoaey e
aa?aaaoa. Ii?aaeaeaiu iaeanoue aeiionoeiuo cia/aiee yoeo ia?aiao?ia.
Inouanoae?i aiaeec e i?eaeiaeueiay eeanneoeeaoeey iioa?ue iiuiinoe:
iioa?e ec-ca iaeeiaeiinoe noaoe/aneie oa?aeoa?enoeee, iioa?e ec-ca
eia?oeeiiiinoe ?aai/aai i?ioeanna, iioa?e, iaoneiaeaiiua aicieeiiaaieai
ia?aceoiie iiuiinoe.

I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea auiieiaiiie ?aaiou ninoieo a oii, /oi iia a
ii?aaeae?iiie ia?a ?anoe?yao a?aieoeu nouanoaothueo i?aaenoaaeaiee i
aeeiaieea iiaeeueiiai naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiiai aa?aaaoa e iaoaiecia
aeeyiey onoaiiaeaoaeny ia?aiaiiie iaa?ocee ia aai yia?aaoe/aneea
iieacaoaee. ?ac?aaioaiiua iaoiaee/aneea iiaeoiaeu, o?aaiaiey e aeai?eoiu
eiatho aeinoaoi/ii oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa? e iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a
iineaaeothueo enneaaeiaaieyo e oyaiauo ?an/?oao ?acee/iuo oeiia
iiaeeueiuo naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiuo aa?aaaoia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiaeeueiue naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiue aa?aaao, eieaaaiey
iaa?ocee, nieaeaiea yia?aaoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae, aeeiaie/aneea ia?aiao?u.

Handros M. J. Increasing of efficiency work of the mobile farm machine
by the improving it’s dynamic parameters. Typescript.

Thesis on competition of the scientific degree of the candidate of
engineering scienees on a speciality 05.20.01. Farm mechanization.
National agricultural university of Ukrain, Kiev, 1999.

At tha dissertation there are researched dynamic phenomenons, which is
in the mobile farm machine and it’s engine under the influence of the
variable outward` steady loading and make worse the energetical indexes,
one of them losses of power within 10 15% on an averege, to 30%
maximum.

Increasing of efficiency work of a aggregate in such conditions attain
by the rule choice of dynamic parameters and using of the viscous damper
and elastic hitch. Thanles to these actions dynamic losses may be
decrease 3 4 times.

Key words: mobile farm machine, tractor diesel, engine, variable outward
steady loading, computer calculation.

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