Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Oea/aiei Ieany A?oae??aia

OAeE 947.083(477):364.4

I?aei?e?iieoeueea oa iaoeaiaonueea ae?yeuei?noue

?iaeeie Oa?auaie?a a Oe?a?i? ( 1861 — 1917 ?.?.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
a?o?aiciaanoaa ? niaoe?aeueieo aaeocae ?noi?e/ii? iaoee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea Ua?aae Ieeiea A?eai?iae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ioo?i Ieaen?e ?aaiiae/,
caa?aeoth/eeeaoaae?ith e?a?iiciaanoaa Neia(yinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, Nooiae Oaae?? sseiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
nioe?ieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.Aiaiiieueoey

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “11” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. i 10 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 01.01.38 o Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ( 252017, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “8” aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio I.I.Aii/a?ia

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??

Anooi. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea?aeaaioai?/? i?ioeane a
iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? i?aai?/ii iia’ycai? c noni?eueieie a?aeiineiaie, ui
aeieeaee ia ceaiieo aoaiao ?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Ca
iiaeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oiia, ui neeaeeny ia ?oaaae? 1980-90-o ?ie?a
?noi?e/ia iaoea, a?aeiiaeaoenue a?ae canoa??eeo aeiai aaaea aeoeaiee
iaoeiaee iiooe ?noi?e/ii? i?aaaee. Aeey oiai, uia a?i iaa aoaeoeaiee
oa?aeoa?, iio??ai? ?noi??ia?ao?/i? i?aoe?, ye? iieeeeai? aeaanoe
?noi?e/io aeoieo ia iiaee ??aaiue ocaaaeueiaiue. Naia ?noi??ia?ao?y
iiaeiia ni?eyoe iiaeeaeaiith oai?aoe/iiai ??aiy oai?/i? i?aoe?
?noi?ee?a, i?aeaeuoaaoe ye?noue oa ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo ?ica?aeie.

Naeyinueea ieoaiiy, a naia caiey a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?, oa a ??
aa?o?niiio ae?ac?, a?aeiioaiiy aei ia? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieea ( aoea oei ia’?eoii, ui aeeeeeaa iai?oao oa nioe?aeuei? aeaooe
a noni?euenoa?. A oiiaao no/anii? Oe?a?ie, ye ? 80 e?o oiio, aa?a?ia
i?iaeaia i?iaeiaaeo? noiyoe ia ii?yaeeo aeaiiiio ia ciaoiaey/e
iaeaaeiiai oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy. C iaeyaeo ia oea, aeey
a?o/eciyii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee cia/io aeooaeuei?noue noaiiaeoue
a?aenoaaeaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aaaaoi??/iiai aeina?aeo aea/aiiy
ia??aeieo ieoaiue oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??.

Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue aeine?aeiee?a nueiaiaei? ? ia?ainieneaiiy
?ie? naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ?aaiethoe??, ia’?eoeaia
a?aeoai?aiiy oiia ca yeeo cae?enithaaeiny aea/aiiy i?iaeaie c 1917 ?ieo
aei no/aniiai ia??iaeo. Aecia/aiiy oaeoi??a, ye? iaaaoeaii aieeaaee ye
ia ?noi?e/io iaoeo a oe?eiio, oae ? ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? oaie
cie?aia. Noai no/anii? ?ic?iaee ieoaiiy aeiaaa? a?ae a/aieo noai?aiiy
niaoe?aeueiiai ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a yeiio aoei a
cae?eniaii aiae?c iaoeiai? niaaeueie, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii noia?i?
aeinyaiaiiy ??cieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo oe?e oa iai?yie?a c aeaii? i?iaeaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia a ?aieao i?aeaioiaee niaoe?aeueiiai eo?no
“Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue 1917-1921 ?ieao o ca?oa?aei?e oa
a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao??”, yeee ?ic?iaey?oueny ia ?noi?e/iiio
oaeoeueoao? *a?eanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai.

Ia’?eoii aiae?co aenooiathoue iaoeia? i?aoe? ?noi?ee?a, iie?oieia?a,
aeiiii?no?a c aa?a?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee, ai?ioueae iae/enaeuei?oi? aa?noae
iaoe?? ca caieth iaia?aaeiaei? ? a ?iee oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??, ca
aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ? Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae aaoueiaia
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/ieo
ciaiue c naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy, noaio aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, i?e/ei
naeyinueeeo ?oo?a, ?o ni?yiiaaiino? a 1917- 1918 ??., aeyaeaiiy iiaiioe
aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo i?iaeai o i?aoeyo iioae?eiaaieo a 1920-90-o ??.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Neeaaei?noue ? aino?ioa i?iaeaie
iaoiiaeee oaaao a/aieo aei ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aa?a?ia oaiaoeea a oe?eiio
oa ie?ai? ?? aniaeoe aoee i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy iaoeiaoe?a. I?ioa
ocaaaeueithth/i? ?noi??ia?ao?/ii? ?iaioe aei iei? ia noai?aii. A
i?aoeyo, ye i?aaeei, aeae?eyeeny anooii? ?icae?ee, ui i?enay/oaaeeny
?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie. A ieo aeaaaany aiae?c aeine?aeaeaiue
iiia?aaeiee?a, ?iaeeeny a?aeiia?aei? aeniiaee noiniaii ieoaiue, ye?
iio?aaoaaee a?eueoi? oaaae.

Ia?oeie ?noi??ia?aoaie aa?a?iiai ?ooo 1917-1918 ??. aoee ae?y/?
oiai/anieo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, ye? i?aaioee oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe nai?
aa/aiiy aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie. Naia aiie a 1920-o ??. iieeaee ii/aoie
c’ynoaaiith ia?aaeoiia oa i?e/ei iaaaeiaieaiiy oe?ieeo aa?noa naeyinoaa
?nioth/eie aa?a?ieie a?aeiineiaie a Oe?a?i?.

O oie aea ia??iae c’yaeythoueny i?aoe?, aaoi?e yeeo iaiaaathoueny
i?iaiae?coaaoe noai aea/aiiy naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa a Oe?a?i?. Oe?
ieoaiiy noaee ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Caeoaeiiai, A. Ea/einueeiai, I.
Ao?aae/a. Ocaaaeueiai? noaoenoe/i? aeai? oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeniiaee, ui naia ?icoa?oaaiiy naeyinoaa, yea
neeaaeaei a Oe?a?i? 85% anueiai ianaeaiiy aeiaaaei ?ica’ycaiiy aa?a?iiai
ieoaiiy a ?ioa?anao i?aoethth/eo ian.

C ii/aoeii ianeeueieoeueei? eieaeoea?caoe??, ? ia aeiaa? aeanyoee?ooy
i?ney ia?, i?iaeaia naeyinueeiai ?ooo acaaae? aoea i?ae ?aeaieia?/iith
caai?iiith. Aeiyoie noaiiaeee iiiaeeiie? ia?ene oa noaoo? a iaoeiaeo
ca??ieeao oa aeaaeai?/ieo aeioneao c a?aenooi?ie aai eooeeie
?noi??ia?ao?/ieie ?aia?eaie o aeo?eiaiiio ?aeaieia?/iiio aeon?.

Iaaia iiaeaaaeaiiy a aeine?aeaeaii? naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy a 1917-1918
?ieao niinoa??aaeiny a /ane o?ouianueei? “a?aeeeae”. Iii?oiee iiooiao
oeueiio aeaea iiyaa iiiia?ao?/ii? ?iaioe a?aeiiiai ?noi?eea-aa?a?ieea I.
?oaa/a, a ye?e ciaoiaeeii aaoi?nueea aa/aiiy noaio aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie eiai iiia?aaeieeaie.

A 1960-o ?ieao aeeoea ?noi??ia?ao?/ia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
TH.Aai?aoeueeiai. Oi/a aiia noinoaaeany ia??iaeo a oe?eiio, ? aeeiiaia
aeeeth/ii a aeon? iaioth/i? eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??, oa ana ae iaeei ?c
?icae?e?a aeeth/aa eiie?aoi? aniaeoe aea/aiiy naeyinueeiai ?ooo 1917 —
ii/aoie 1918 ?ie?a.

?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie ?icaeyaeaeany a ?icae?eao iiiia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?.Eyoa, I.Oaea/oea, A.*oi?eie, A.*ieae, ?. Oi?ey. Ca?nii,
aaoi?e ia aeoiaeeee ca ?aiee ?nioth/eo noa?aioei?a, iaeiae i?iaaaeai?
?noi??ia?ao?/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy ni?eyee a?eueo a?oioiaiiio ?icaeyaeo
i?iaeaie naeyinoaa a 1917-1918 ??.

Iaaenieo aeoeai?noue a aeine?aeaeaii? naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy o 1917-1918
?ieao i?iyaeee ?noi?eee oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e, a a?eueo-iaio cia/ei?
?iaioe ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai oa?aeoa?o a ieo acaaae? a?aenooi?. Aei aeayei?
i??e, aeeeth/aiiyi iiaea aooe i?aoey Ae.Ae?nueeiai. Aaoi? cina?aaeeany
ia ?icaeyae? ?ie? naeyinoaa a i?aoeyo iie?oe/ieo e?aea??a, a ca oei
a?aeiieo aeine?aeiee?a, ui noiyee ia ??cieo iiceoe?yo: A.Aeiie/aiea,
A.Aiae???anueeiai, I.Oaiiaaea, I.O?enothea, Ae.Aei?ioaiea oa ?i.

A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y iioae?eiaai? iiiia?ao?? A.Aa?nothea, A.Ia?i/ea,
I.Caoa?/aiea, a yeeo aaoi?e, aiae?coth/e oaio naeyinoaa, coieieeenue ia
?noi??ia?ao?/ieo iiiaioao i?iaeaie. ?yae aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaii a eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?yo, iaoeiaeo noaooyo.

E?euee?nia c?inoaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??
ni?e/eieee oaaao a/aieo aei ?o ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aiae?co. Ie?aieo
aniaeo?a, ui o??th /e ?ioith i??ith noinothoueny i?iaeaie naeyinoaa
iiina?aaeeiaaii oi?eathoueny ?iaioe A.Nieaeaoaiei oa E.?aae/aiei.
A.Nieaeaoaiei iniiaio oaaao neiioeaio?oaaa ia eiioeaiooaeueiiio aiae?c?
iniiaieo i?aoeue ?aeaieia?a oiai/aniiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo, aeieoiaio?a
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? i?aai?caoe?e.

Icia/ai? ?noi??ia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eyee iiaeeaeaiith aea/aiiy
ci?noo, nooiino? oa i?e/ei caaino?aiiy caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy a ia??iae
1917-1918??. Ao?i aaoi?aie ia noaaeeiny caaaeaiiy i?iaiae?coaaoe anth
?noi?e/io niaaeueio c i?iaeai naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy o aeacaiee ia??iae.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae ii/aoeo 20-o
?ie?a aei na?aaeeie 90-o ?ie?a XX noie?ooy. O oeae /an ?noi?e/ia iaoea
i?ieoea caeaenoee oeyo iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy, ia?ainieneaiiy ciaiue ? oyaeaiue
i?i iiae?? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??. ?icia?ooy iiaeyae?a ia naeyinueea
ieoaiiy a ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? 1920-o ( ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a ci?ieeiny
a?aeaa?oith ca?aeaieia?ciaai?noth oa caaiaaaeiaai?noth aeine?aeaeaiue
?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a ae?oai? iieiaeie 1930-o ( e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a.
Aeaa’yiino? ?iee iieeaee ii/aoie ye?nii iiaiio aoaio ?icaeoeo
?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie ia Oe?a?i?.

Ca?oa?aeia ?noi??ia?ao?y, oe?a?inueea cie?aia, i?ioyaii anueiai
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo a?aecia/a?oueny aaaaoiieaiia?noth,
??ciiiai?oi?noth iie?oe/ieo i???ioe??a ? oiiaeiaaiue.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?c neeaaeiiu?a ?
noia?a/iinoae ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/ieo ciaiue c aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy oa ni?iaai
eiai ?ica’ycaiiy o ia?o? ?iee oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??. Iaiao?aeii
c’ynoaaoe e?eoa??? iaoeiai? ioe?iee, ni?iaoaaoe aecia/eoe
eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee, ciaeoe ni?eueia ? a?aei?iia o iiaeyaeao
a/aieo e ca oeeie iciaeaie aecia/eoe ?o noaaeaiiy aei aa?a?ii? i?iaeaie
? iaeaaei?noue aei a?aeiia?aeiiai iai?yieo ?noi??ia?ao??.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

a?aeiia?aeii c no/anieie aeiiaaie ?noi?e/ii? iaoee aecia/eoe
ia??iaeecaoe?th oa i?inoaaeeoe iniaeeaino? ?noi??ia?ao?? naeyinueeiai
ieoaiiy a Oe?a?i? (1917-1918??.);

c’ynoaaoe noai aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei oa nioe?aeueii?
no?oeoo?e naeyinoaa iaia?aaeiaei? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??, iiaeaio
e?oa?aoo?ith ??cieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo iai?yi?a;

a?aenoaaeeoe nooi?iue aea/aiiy, oaiaeaioe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy naeyinueeiai
ieoaiiy oa oeyo?a eiai ?ica’ycaiiy a ?noi??ia?ao??;

aecia/eoe ni?eueia oa a?aei?iia o iiaeyaeao ?noi?ee?a ia ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a o aaeoc? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei;

i?iaanoe aiae?c iaoeiai?, iaioa?ii? e?oa?aoo?e, i?ane oa a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a aeey anoaiiaeaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o
/eiiee?a, ui i?eaaee aei aeieeiaiiy oa ?icai?oaiiy naeyinueeiai ?ooo a
1917-1918??.a Oe?a?i?;

aeneiaeoe aeani? i??eoaaiiy oa ie?aneeoe eiei ieoaiue aeey iiaeaeueoi?
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeuei? i?eioeeie
iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy: ia’?eoeai?noue, ?aei?noue ?noi?e/iiai oa eia?/iiai.
Aeey aiae?co aeaea?ae c iaoith neioaco oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?oi?o aeaieo
aaoi?ii canoiniaaii iaoiaee: ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee,
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, oeiieia?/iee oa nenoaiii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? ony noeoii?noue ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo
aeaea?ae. A iniiai?e nai?e ian? oea iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee
??ciiaeai?iaiai oa?aeoa?o, ii/eiath/e a?ae ioae?oeenoeee ? cae?i/oth/e
?iaioaie oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai ieaio.

Caaaeii aiie eeaneo?eothoueny ia aeae?eueea a?oi. Ianaiia?aae–oea
niaoe?aeuei? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? oa eieaeoeai? i?aoe? ??cii??aeiiai
iie?oe/iiai niaeo?o, ui noaaeee ca iaoo aena?oeeoe i?iaeaio a oe?eiio,
aea iaiaaeoaaeeny oaiaoe/ii ? o?iiieia?/ii. A ieo c?a?aii ? ocaaaeueiaii
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, yeee a?aeoai?th? no?oeoo?o n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy,
eiai aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th ca nioe?aeueiith iciaeith, iieacaii i?ioean
caaino?aiiy caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy, a?aenoaaeaii aeeiai?eo ia?inoaiiy
naeyinueeiai ?ooo, ?ice?eoi eiai niaoeeo?eo a ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie,
ni?yiiaai?noue oa iania?noue, i?e/eie niaaeo /e i?aeianaiiy ia oiio /e
?ioiio aoai?. Aeaye? ?iaioe aeathoue oyaeaiiy e i?i i?ia?aie iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e, ?oith oaeoeeo oa caniae ao?eaiiy i?ia?aiieo iieiaeaiue o noa??
caiaeueieo a?aeiinei.

Aei eiea aiae?ciaaieo iio?aieee e iaaaeee? ca ianyaii i?aoe?,
ye? a o?e /e ?io?e i??? caoi?eothoue ie?ai? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie. Eaeaoueny i?i a?ioo?e, ioae?eaoe?? a iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao,
/aniienao, aacaoi? noaoo?.

Iniaeeao a?oio aeaea?ae noaiiaeyoue ?iaioe i?ia?aeiee?a oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe?? oa oeo, ooi i/iethaaa iie?oe/io ? ca?ieio iiiceoe?th, ui
ia?aaoaaea c i?ioeeaaeiiai aieo ?aaiethoe?eieo aa?eeaae. ?oiy oai?/a
niaaeueia aaaaoa i?aoeyie ??ciiiai?oieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeai??a, cia/ia
i?noea na?aae yeeo caeiathoue iaioa?e. I?e oeueiio aeaye? aaoi?e
aeoiaeeee ca iaae? iniaenoeo niiaaae?a oa ia?aaeeaaiue, caeo/aee
aeieoiaioaeuei?, i?ania? iaoa??aee, nenoaiaoecoaaee ? ocaaaeueithaaee
oaeoe, iiae??, noaoenoeeo, oiaoi i?iaiaeeee ni?aaaeith aeine?aeieoeueeo
?iaioo, ni?yiiaaio ia aea/aiiy oe?ieiai eiea ieoaiue. C /enea inoaii?o
aeine?aeieoeueei-aiae?oe/iei oa?aeoa?ii aeae?eythoueny i?aoey A.
Eeieinueeiai oa iaeia c /eneaiieo ?ia?o I.Oaiiaaea.

Ii?yae c iaoeiaeie i?aoeyie aeei?enoaia aaeeea e?euee?noue iioae?eiaaieo
aeieoiaio?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo ia?aa??aii aeinoia??i?noue aeniiae?a
aeine?aeiee?a. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui iaeaea an? ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a
aeaeaaaeeny ca /an?a ?aaeyinueei? aeiae ? ianooue a nia? ?aeaieia?/io
caaeai?noue, ?oi? aeei?enoaiiy a ?noi??ia?ao?/i?e i?aoe? iio?aao?
iaoeiai caaaeaieo, e?eoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a.

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie aeaea?aeueia aaca iiiiaieeany iiaeie aeaeaiiyie
aeieoiaioaeueieo ca??iee?a, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iiaeeaeoe aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie a oe?eiio, ?ice?eoe ?? aaaeeea? aniaeoe, i?ine?aeeoaaoe
ae?yeuei?noue Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee o ae??oaii? ceiaiaeaiieo caiaeueieo
i?iaeai, c’ynoaaoe, /iio ?? ?aoi?ie a oe?e aaeoc? ia iiaee
caaeiaieueieoe naeyinoai ?, iaaiaee, aeeeeeaee ai?ioueao iaaieo aa?noa
i?ioe ia?.

Aacia?a/io ?noi??ia?ao?/io oe?ii?noue ia? ia??iaee/ia i?ana. Naia aiia
a?aeaeca?eaethaaea iie?oe/ia aeeooy a e?a?i?, ioae?eoaaea o?yaeia?
iinoaiiae oa ??oaiiy. Na?aae ieo aacaoe “Iiaa ?aaea”, “A?niee
Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa??aoo Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee”,
“Aea?aeaaiee a?niee”, “Ai?ioueaa” oa ?io?.

?iaioa iaae ?noi??ia?ao?/iith oaiaoeeith coiiaeea aeei?enoaiiy a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a. Aeoaea aaaaoei ? aeieoiaioaeueiee ianea Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI
Oe?a?ie), cie?aia iaaeaaii ?icnae?a/ai? oiiaee eaioeaey??? Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee (O.1115) ? Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa??aoo (O.1063). Aaaeeeao
?ioi?iaoe?th i?noyoue oiiaee I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa (O.1216) oa
I?i?noa?noaa ?iicaiieo ni?aa Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae, ye? aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe ca ?icai?oaiiyi aa?a?iiai ?ooo ia caieyo, ui
i?aeeyaaee th?enaeeeoe?? aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae. Na?aae aeieoiaio?a
oiiaeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e (O.4659) ciaoiaeeii iio??ai? a?aeiiino? i?i
iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? i???ioe?e /eai?a ia?o?e, ?oi?o e?aea??a, ui
eyaee a iniiao ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?ia?aeii? aaeoc? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee,
aeoyae c iaoa??ae?a ia?o?eieo oi?oi?a, ye? ?noioii i?e?iuothoue
?ioi?iaoe?th ia iaiao?aeio aeine?aeieeo oaiaoeeo.

Nie?ath/enue ia ieo, aaeaeiny ooi/ieoe noii?ai? noaoenoe/i? aeai? oa
a?aeiiino?, ui noinoaaeeny noaio n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
iaia?aaeiaei? ? a oiae? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??, c’ynoaaoe e?euee?ni?
iieacieee naeyinueeeo aenooi?a, i?inoaaeeoe a oe?eiio ca ?iciaoii
naeyinueei-iianoainueei? ai?ioueae i?ioyaii 1917-1918 ?ie?a.

Caaaeii aeaea?aeueia aaca (?noi?e/ia oa ?noi??ia?ao?/ia) aeicaiey?
a?aenoaaeeoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe??, iniaeeaino?, i?iaeaie oa
caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy o ia??iae 1917-1918 ?ie?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e a?aeiia?aeii c
aeiiaaie no/anii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee cae?eniaii aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao?? naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy ca aeiae oe?a?inueeeo
o?yae?a 1917-1918??. Iiaeaia iiaa, a ii??aiyii? c ?nioth/ith aei
iaaeaaiueiai /ano ?noi??ia?ao?/ia ioe?iea ?ai?oa iaienaieo ?ia?o,
iieacaia ?o i?eoeeuei?noue aei caaaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe??
1917-1921 ??. Aeyaeai? i?e/eie, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaaee ia ia’?eoeaia
aena?oeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie. Caaaeueiee aiae?c ii?aeioaaany c iaoeiaei
ii?aoethaaiiyi ?yaeo eiie?aoieo ieoaiue, ye? neeaaeathoue iniiaiee ci?no
i?iaeaie, ? ye i?aaeei, aeine?aeaeoaaeeny o?aaiaioa?ii.

C?iaeaii ni?iao eiiieaenii ?icaeyiooe iaaeaaiiy ye a?o/eciyii? oae ?
ca?oa?aeii? ?noi??ia?ao?? noiniaii naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy ia Oe?a?i? a
1917-1918 ?ie?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??,
aeniiaee, oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aea/aii?
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a?o/eciyii? ?noi??ia?ao??, oe?a?iiciaanoaa ye
eiiieaenii? aeenoeeie?ie, a oaeiae i?e iaienaii? ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, ?ic?iaoe? eaeoe?eieo oa
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie *a?eanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai. Aeaye?
iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie ?icaeyaeaeeny ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: 1995, 1996, 1997 ?ie?a, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny ?aa?iiaeueiei
oeaio?ii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue “?icaeoie I?eaei?i?ia’y c iaeaeaai?oeo
/an?a aei nueiaiaeaiiy”, ui ae?? ia aac? ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
*a?eanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai. Iniiaiee
ci?no aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaeoee a 4-o aaoi?nueeeo ioae?eaoe?yo caaaeueiei
ianyaii 4,6 ae?oe. a?e.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “Aa?a?i? a?aeiineie oa nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a
naeyinoaa iaia?aaeiaei? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??” aeeth/a? aiae?c noaio
caiaeueieo a?aeiinei iaia?aaeiaei? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? iiaeaiee
i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo oe?e.

Ia?oeie aeine?aeieeaie ii?iaeaeaieo oea?eciii aa?a?ieo i?iaeai ia
na?oaieo oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? noaee e?aea?e ??cieo ?? aoai?a:
I.A?ooaanueeee, A.Aeiie/aiei, I.Nei?iiaaenueeee. Eiaeai ?c ieo iaa naith
oi/eo ci?o ia noai aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?, oa aeani? i?aeoiaee
uiaei eiai iie?ioaiiy. sseui I.A?ooaanueeee aa/ea ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie o
nioe?aeueiiio aecaieaii? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, oi I.Nei?iiaaenueeee
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaa ae??oaiiy caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy ia o?eueee
aioo??oiueiaeiiii?/iei, a e iie?oe/iei /eiieeai.

Nie?ath/enue ia aiae?c caiaeueieo a?aeiinei oa ?nioth/a nioe?aeueia
?icoa?oaaiiy ianaeaiiy, aiioeaiaoaaee nain ?aoi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aaeoc? ia nioe?ae?noe/ieo canaaeao oae?
aeine?aeieee ye I.Uaaeeeia, ?.Oauaiei-*ii?anueeee, I. Ieoethe.

Ii?yae c ?aaiethoe?eiei iaoinii oa iaeneiae?ciii, oiai/ania
?noi??ia?ao?y ianea ia nia? e oyaa? ?aoi?iaoi?nueeeo i?i?aooie?a. Aaeaea
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a oe??? aeiae aoea aiaeii/an ua e
ooiaeaoi?aie iiai? aeiiii?ee ia aac? nioe?ae?noe/ieo ae?iaie/eo
a?aeiinei oa eieaeoeaieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

O aeiai?iiee ia??iae eeoa e?eueea ?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a aeine?aeaeoaaee
noai ? aeeiai?eo aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? iaia?aaeiaei? aeiaoiaaiai
ia?aai?ioo. A.Caeoaeiee a?aecia/aa aeecuee?noue o?oaeiaeo ian ye aei
eo?eoeuenueeeo aa?noa, oae ? aei iacaiiaeieo naeyi.

A.Ea/einueeee aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui aieiaiei aeaea?aeii
caaaa/aiiy oa i?e?iuaiiy caiaeueieo ieiu caiiaei?oei naeyinoaii noaei ia
iaeii, ?aiaiaio oa caie? ?ici?aieo iaeiinaeue/ai, a eoi?aey
iii?ueoeueeeo caiaeue ca aeani? caiuaaeaeaiiy, i?e aeiiiiic?
Naeyinueeiai aaieo oa e?aaeeo?a ?ioeo aaie?a. A oe?a?inuee?e
?aaeyinuee?e ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? I.Aa?iaeca iaeei c ia?oeo iaa?oiooaaa
aeioe?euei?noue iiae?eo naeyinoaa ia a?oie ca e?euee?noth caie?.
Uii?aaaea oeeo?iaa eaiaa cia/iith i??ith caiice/aia iei o I. Ii?oa oa I.
O?enothea.

Iaeaea /a?ac aeaa aeanyoee?ooy aeine?aeiee I.A. ?oaa/ iiaa?ioany aei
ni?iae c’ynoaaoe aeoiee iaaaeiaieaiiy oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa noaiii
aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, ui neeaeeny iaia?aaeiaei? nioe?aeueieo iio?yn?iue
1917 ?ieo, i?iaiae?coaaoe eiai ?icoa?oaaiiy ca nioe?aeueiith iciaeith,
aecia/eoe ieoiio aaao naeyinueeiai oa iii?ueoeueeiai ainiiaea?noa o
caiea?ianuee?e nenoai? Oe?a?ie.

O 1947 ?ioe? nioe?aeueio no?oeoo?o naeyinoaa ia?aae?aaiethoe?eiee
ia??iae ?aeiino?othaaa a/aiee ?.Ai?iaeaoeueeee. Aiae?coth/e i?e/eie
nioe?aeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, aaoi? noeey?oueny aei aeoiee, ui
c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? eo?eoe?a a?aeaoaaeiny ca ?aooiie iiiiaiaiiy oe???
a?oie ?c na?aaeiyoeueeeo i?ioa?e?a.

Nai???aei? aei??e nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa
aeaiiino?o? no/aniee aeine?aeiee noaio aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?
iaia?aaeiaei? ?aaiethoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue 1917 ?ieo ?.A. Oi?eue. A?i
?iciaaeiao? naeyinoai ca i?eioeeiii I.A. ?oaa/a ia o?e iniiai?
a?oie, aea oeeo?iao eaiao ieiueiieo aei???a i?iiiio? aeanio.

C?iaeai? iaie ocaaaeueiaiiy oa i?iaaaeai? a?eoiaoe/i? iia?aoe?? ia iaee
ia iao? c’ynoaaiiy oi/iiai a?aeiioaiiy caiaeueieo ieiu, ui ia?aaoaaee o
?icii?yaeaeaii? a?aeiia?aeieo eaoaai??e naeyinoaa (aeey oeueiai ia ia?ii
aeinoaoi?o noaoenoe/ieo oa aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a), a eeoa
iinoaiiai/ii icia/o?ii i?iaeaio, yeo ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? , iii?e
aaaeaiiy, ?ica’ycaoe ia aaeaeiny.

Iieiaea a?o/eciyia ?noi??ia?ao?y ua ia anoeaea ia?aeeth/eoeny ia
i?iaeaiaoeeo aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ia?aae?aaiethoe?eii? aeiae, oi/a ia?o?
iani?eea? e?iee ia oeueiio oeyoo c?iaeai?. Aeei?enoaiiy noaoenoe/ieo
aeaieo oa aeieoiaio?a aeicaieeei aeine?aeieeai c?iaeoe ni?eea? aeniiaee
a?aeiinii oeyo?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy caiaeueieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?
1917-1921??.

Oaeei /eiii, iaeyae ??ciiiai?oieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo oe?e aeyaea aeeaie?
?ica?aeiino?, ye? ?nioaaee ia o?eueee i?ae ieie. ?aeeiith iiceoe??th, ia
ye?e c?eoeeny aaoue on? aeine?aeieee aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei iaia?aaeiaei?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe??, noaea eiinoaoaoe?y oaeoo
aaccaiaeey a oe?a?inueeiio nae?. Iaeiae i?e/eie yaeua, e?euee?noue
aaccaiaeueieo, ?ici??e caiaeueieo ieiu, iaiao?aeieo aeey caaeiaieaiiy
caiaeueiiai aieiaeo, oa ?io? e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? ia?aiao?e i?iaeaie
caeeoeeeny iacaaaeaee a?aiith oai?aoe/ieo aaoae?e.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Naeyinueea ieoaiiy a i?ia?aiao
iaoe?iiaeueieo ia?o?e oa a i?aeoeoe? oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a” ?icaeyiooi
iaoeia? i?aoe? a yeeo a?aeia?aaeai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i?
ae?? iniiaieo iie?oe/ieo nee, ui ai?ieenue ca aeaaeo ia Oe?a?i? ii
a?aeiioaiith aei naeyi oa ?o ?ioa?an?a .I?iaiae?ciaaii noaoenoe/i? oa
aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee a yeeo eaeaoueny i?i e?euee?niee oa ye?niee
neeaae iie?oe/ieo nee , ye? i?aoaiaeoaaee ia ea??aieoeoai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiei i?ioeanii a Oe?a?i?.

Ia ii/aoeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue a iie?oe/iiio i?inoi?? Oe?a?ie cia/iee
aieea iaee ia?o?? nioe?ae?noe/ii? i???ioaoe??. Oiio e ia’?aeioaaeiny
naeyinoai iaaeiei oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?o?e. Aei ieo,
ianaiia?aae, iaeaaeaee OIN?, ONAe?I, Oe?a?inuee?
nioe?ae?noe-oaaea?ae?noe, nioe?ae?noe-naiino?eieee, oe?ai?iae-aeaiie?aoe
oa ?io?.

Ii/eiath/e c 1930-o ?ie?a, a aeine?aeaeaiiyo aiae? e ooeaoe aiaeae
iaoyee ia ?nioaaiiy i?ia?aiiaeo aeieoiaio?a oe?a?inueeeo iiiceoe?eieo
ia?o?e. Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ?ia?o ? ?oiy ?aeaieia?/ia
caaiaaaeiaai?noue, iiia?aaeiy caaeai?noue aeniiae?a oa ocaaaeueiaiue.
A?eueoiaeoeueea ?aeaieia?/ia iaoeia iaiaaaeanue cieueoe aoaeue-ye?
a?aeiiino? i?i nai oaeo ?nioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? iiiceoe??.

Eeoa o 1960(1970-o ?ieao ?icii/aany i?ioean a?aenoaaeaiiy
“eiio??aaiethoe?eii?” ae?yeueiino? ao?aeoacieo ? ae??aiiao?aeoacieo
ia?o?e, ui ae?yee a ?in?? i?ioyaii 1917–1921 ?ie?a .

I?ci?oa, a 1980-o ?ieao c’yaeeeny aeeao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiiia?ao?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o. A ieo ?icaeyaeaeany oaeoeea a?eueoiaee?a a?aeiinii
iaoe?iiaeueieo ia?o?e, i?aee?anethaaeany iai?eie?ai?noue ?o ?aeaeieo
noia?a/iinoae.

A e?oa?aoo?? cao?aeii? ae?anii?e, oaeiae ia a?aenoaaeaiee ??aaiue
a?aooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy aaaaoi/enaeueieie
oe?a?inueeeie ia?o?yie. Iiiaeeiie? aaoi?e, ?icaeyaeath/e ci?no ia?o?eieo
i?ia?ai, a?aeaiaeeee iaaia i?noea aiae?co ?o aa?a?ii? /anoeie, ? iaeaea
an? iaeiinoaeii a?aecia/aee ?? neaaeo ?ic?iaeai?noue, iaaieiooaaee ia
a?aenooiino? i?aaiaiiy i?ia?aeieie ae?y/aie oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? aei
?aoi?ioaaiiy caiaeueieo a?aeiinei, ui iaee i?noea a Oe?a?i? a
1917-1921??..

Iiaeyaee aaoi??a aa?a?ieo i?ia?ai, an?o oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e aei
?aoi?ioaaiiy caiaeueiiai naeoi?o ca nioe?ae?noe/ieie i?eioeeiaie, a
iniiaiiio ni?aiaaeaee. A ocaaaeueithth/iio aeaeyae? ?o iiaeia
noi?ioethaaoe ianooiiei /eiii: i?ae nioe?ae?caoe??th aaniethoia
a?eueo?noue ?icoi?ea ia?aaea/o caie? a ei?enooaaiiy caiea?ianueeeo
iauei, a i?ae iaoe?iiae?caoe??th – o aeani?noue aea?aeaae.

Caaaeii, aa?a?ia i?iaeaiaoeea a ia??iae oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??
i?aaenoaaeaia iaaaaaoith iaoeiaith e?oa?aoo?ith. Ua i?ca?i?oa ??
e?euee?noue i?enay/aia ni?iaai oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaee, ??
o?yae?a ?aoi?ioaaoe caiaeuei? a?aeiineie, ui aaeueioaaee ?icaeoie
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ? ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei o i?ia?aei?e aaeoc?
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee.

Ioe?ieo Oe?a?inueei? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ca ae?yeuei?noue o noa??
?aoi?ioaaiiy aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ia nae? iaioa?i? oa ?noi??ia?ao?/i?
aeaea?aea aeathoue ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ooaaeaieo i?aaenoaaieoeueeei
i?aaiii aeaio i?aaiaeo aeo?a. Eaeaoueny i?i aa?a?i? iieiaeaiiy ???
Oi?aa?naeo oa Caiaeueiee caeii a?ae 18 n?/iy 1918 ?ieo.

Iiyaa aa?a?iiai iai?oanoo aeeeeeaea aaee/acia caaioaaeaiiy na?aae on?o
aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa, i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiai ie
cono??/a?ii a i?aoeyo N. Aie?ia, I. Noaoaeueiiai, Ae. Eiaaey oa ?ioeo.

No/ania a?o/eciyia ?noi?e/ia iaoea a?aeiia?aeiiai iai?yieo cina?aaeeea
oaaao ia c’ynoaaii? iniiaieo canaae aa?a?ii? ia?aaoaeiae Oe?a?ie.
Iniaeeai ci?noiaeie noaee aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Nieaeaoaiea,
I.Ai?iiyinueeiai, ?.Aa?oieyea oa ?io?.

A.Nieaeaoaiei aeia?a, ui e?aea?e oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? o nai?io
aa/aii? aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue nie?aeeny ia cacaeaeaa?aeue ?ic?iaeaio
i?ia?aio ae?e, oiaoi iaee nai? eiioeaioe??.

Ia iieioee iaoeiaoe? oaaaith e caiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee. Eiai aeaoaeueii i?i?aoa?oaaa i?aaiciaaaoeue I.Ie?iiaiei,
th?eaee/iee aniaeo caiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ii?aoeueiaoaaee e ?io?
aaoi?e.

Ie?aeia ?iaioa aaaeaoueny ii aea/aiith caiaeueieo a?aeiinei ca aeiae
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae aaoueiaia I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai. Aea ooo iinooi
?aea cia/ii iia?euei?oa.

Ni?eueiith ?enith aeey an??? ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? oa e
i?eoeeueiee?a oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?o?e aoei ?aii?oaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ca aeiae Aaoueiaiaoo, iiaea/a iaoa??aeo
aeeeth/ii i?ae eooii ci?o iio?aa ieoiaoe?eii? aaei?i?no?aoe??.
Aaaaeaeiny, ui oe?a?inueea aeaaea aoea nooi ia??iiaoeiaith, a any
aioo??oiy iie?oeea, o oiio /ene? e caiaeueia, cae?enithaaeany c ?aeeiith
iaoith—?anoaa?oaaoe a iiaiiio ianyc? ao?aeoacii-iii?ueoeuee? ii?yaeee.

Caaaeii, ?noi??ia?ao?y eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eea ia oi?eioeany naiiai oiaeo
?aoi?ie ia i?noeyo, ia c’ynoaaea, ?aaeoe?? naeyinueei? aeeaeiee.
Aeaea?aea iaiaaeoaaeeny caeaa?eueo ia?ae?eii aeaeaieo aaoueiainueeei
o?yaeii caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a ii caiaeueiiio ieoaiith, ?aoa?oaaee ci?no oa
oa?aeoa?ecoaaee o?yaeia? caoiaee ii ioi?ii? caiaeueii? aeaniino?
iii?uee?a a?ae iaaeieo/eeaeo nioe?ae?caoi??a.

?ioa?an aei Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae ? aaoueiaia I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai, ye
iin?y ?? aeaaee, i?ieeioany a Oe?a?i? ia ia?aeii? 1980—1990-o ?ie?a.
Naia a ia??iae a?aenoithaaiiy iacaeaaeiino? oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeii.

No/ania oe?a?inueea ?noi?e/ia iaoea ia’?eoeaii i?aeoiaeeoue aei aiae?co
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee i?ia?aeieo iie?oe/ieo nee oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??
1917-1921 ?ie?a. Aa?a?i? ?aoi?ie, i?iiiiiaai? on?ia nioe?ae?noe/ieie
oe?a?inueeeie ia?o?yie, nooi?noue caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy caiaeeee aei
iaeicaiaeey, a ne?ae aoei a i???iooaaoeny ia cai?io aenoaineaieo oi?i
caiea?ianoaa, ia ?ioaineai?.

Iei? aeiaaaeaii, ui an? oe?a?inuee? ia?o?? (aac aeiyoeo) iaee nai?
aa?a?i? i?ia?aie, ye? ca an?ia ia?aiao?aie, o oiio /ene? e ca
aeaiie?aoeciii oa i?eeoaaiiyi i?i iacaiiaei? naeyinuee? aa?noae, i?/ei
ia iinooiaeeny a?eueoiaeoeuee?e.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Ai?ioueaa oe?a?inueeeo naeyi ca caieth a
1917-1918??.” c?iaeaii aiae?c iaoeiai?, aeieoiaioaeueii? oa iaioa?ii?
e?oa?aoo?e c aeaii? oaie. A?aei?/aii, ui iaea?eueo yne?aai ?oo ca
?ica’ycaiiy caiaeueii? i?iaeaie i?iyaeany a iianoainueei-ia?oecainuee?e
ai?iouea? oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa. sse iieacothoue /eneaii?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioae?oeenoe/i? oai?e, iaioa?ia e?oa?aoo?a a iniia?
naeyinueeeo aenooi?a, ui i?ieioeeenue Oe?a?iith a 1917-1918 ??. aoei
aaaeaiiy naeyi aieiae?oe caieath. Naia ia oi?iao ? iaoiaeao ai?ioueae
naeyinueeeo ian, iaaaeiaieaieo ia?oeyieaie Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo ?ica’ycaoe
caiaeueia ieoaiiy ia Onoaiia/eo cai?ao, caaino?thaaee oaaao aeine?aeieee
A.??/eoeueeee, O.Ea?aoieeiaa, A.Eeoiiee. Iaae? aena?oeaiiy naeyinueeeo
aenooi?a, ?oiy oa?aeoa?enoeea oa ioe?iee ia?aaoaaee o iiai?e caeaaeiino?
a?ae noaiiaeaiiy eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N?, c iaeiiai
aieo, oa iaoe?iiaeueieo ia?o?e oa aeecueeeo aei ieo iie?oe/ieo
a?oioaaiue ca ?? iaaeaie, c ae?oaiai, ye aei naiiai ?ooo, eiai ci?noo oa
iane?aee?a.

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?noi?ee?a ae?anii?e ai?ioueaa i?ia?aeii? aa?noae
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? – naeyinoaa, o 1917-1918 ??. ia ciaeoea iaeaaeiiai
i?noey, aaeaea ia’?eoeaii aiia ianea ?oeiaoe?th iniiaai oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?aaeyinueei? ?noi?e/ii? aeenoeeie?ie,
yea naeyinueeiio ?ooia? 1917-1918 ??. i?enayoeea ia iaeio nioith noaoae,
aeanyoee iiiia?ao?e oa eieaeoeaieo i?aoeue.

Aaniethoia a?eueo?noue ?ia?o ?icaeyaeaea naeyinueeee ?oo ye
iaeaaaeeea?oo ia?aaeoiiao ia?aiiae AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? a Oe?a?i?, ye
a?oio, ii yeiio “o??oioaeueiith oiaeith” i?ieoea ?aaeyinueea aeaaea,
a?aeaa?oi i?aeoaniaoaaeeny oaeoe, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaee cia/ei?noue
a?eueoiaeoeueeeo ?aeae ? ?oi?e aieea ia ?icai?oaiiy naeyinueeiai ?ooo.
A?oioiaii oa?aeoa?ecoaaa noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ?noi??? ?aaiethoe?eieo
iiae?e 1917?. ?noi??ia?ao ae?yeueiino? a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? a ia??iae
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie A.Ion??iei. O aeaio nai?o iiiia?ao?yo aaoi?
i?iaiae?coaaa e?oa?aoo?o, i?enay/aio ai?iouea? a?eueoiaee?a ca
naeyinuee? iane o 1917-1918??., a?aecia/ea aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy
aino?ioe caiaeueii? i?iaeaie a oaeoeoe? a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o??. I?ioa
oni?oe a?eueoiaee?a ia oeueiio iai?yieo iieacai? aac a?aeiia?aeiiai
aiae?co ae?yeueiino? ?ioeo, ae?th/eo a Oe?a?i? ianiaeo i?aai?caoe?e ?
iie?oe/ieo nee, i?i ?nioaaiiy yeeo aeine?aeieee eaaeue iaaaaeoaaeeny
aiai?eoe. Oae? ae aaaee aoee oa?aeoa?i? e aeey ioae?eaoe?? A.
Ei?ieueiaa.

Aiae?coth/e iianoainueeee ?oo, iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe iniiai?
e?eoa???, ca yeeie iaoeiaoe? ??cieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo iai?yi?a iaiaaaeeny
aeiaanoe aeinoia??i?noue nai?o iiaeyae?a. Ia?o ca ana oea – e?euee?niee
aiae?c naeyinueeeo aenooi?a, ooo aeine?aeieee, ia iath/e aeinoia??ieo
aeieoiaioaeueieo aeaea?ae, ia iiaee aeyaeoe e?euee?noue noeo?eieo oa
i?aai?ciaaieo aenooi?a, i?iaiaey/e ia?aooiee /enaeueiino? naeyinueeeo
aenooi?a, c’yniaoth/e iaoiaee oa oi?ie ai?ioueae, a/ai? iaooiaooaaeeny
ia ieoaiiy ea??aieoeoaa aa?a?iei ?ooii. Icia/aiiy ?ie? n?euenueeeo,
aieinieo caiaeueieo eii?oao?a, naeyinueeeo ni?eie, ?aae n?euenueeeo
aeaiooao?a, caeaaei?noue ?o ae?e a?ae iie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe?? – aoei
aaaeeeaei iiiaioii a aeine?aeaeaii? ?iciiae?eo nee a oe?a?inueeiio nae?
1917-1918??.

Iio??aii aecia/eoe aieiaio aaaeo ca?oa?aeii? ?noi??ia?ao?? –
aeieo?eia?noai. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei aoaeue-yeeo
i?iya?a canoinoaaiiy naeyiaie ca?ieii? neee, eiaeia iaoeiaa oeiea
aeaaaea oaeoieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?? ?nioaaiiy. Noiniaii ?aaeyinueei?
?noi??ia?ao??, oi iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea i?iaeaie caa?ocea o aaeee?e
e?eueeino? iaeiiieaiiai? e?oa?aoo?e, ia?aaaioaaeaii? iaeiia?/ieie
ioe?ieaie, noaiaoeciii oa o?aaiaioa?i?noth.

No/aniee ia??iae oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
caiiaiaiiyi nooe?eueii? “a?ei? ieyie” – oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??
1917-1921 ??. Iniaeeai ie?aeii i?aoeththoue iaae aniaeoaie, iia’ycaieie
?c naeyinueeei ?ooii o 1918 ?ioe?, A.Aa?nothe, A.Aieeiaeinueeee,
A.Nieaeaoaiei, N.Eoeue/eoeueeee, ss.Iaeee oa ?io?. ?oi? ioae?eaoe??
iathoue aaaeeeaa eiioeaiooaeueia cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a oa ?o iane?aee?a a?ae /anoi
aiethioa?enonueeiai ae??oaiiy o ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? i?aeaeoi i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
noi?ioeueiaaii iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie a 1920-80-o ??. aoei ??
na?aeiia iaoooaaiiy, aai o?aaiaioa?ia aena?oeaiiy. Eeoa aeine?aeaeaiiy
ie?aieo a/aieo a?aecia/aeeny i?eioeeiia?noth oa ?noi?e/iith
i?aaaeea?noth, i?ioa ? aiie ia aoee iicaaaeai? ?aeaieia?/iiai
iaoa?oaaiiy. Oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? ieoaiiy i?ieoei a
aeae?eueea aoai?a. Ia?oee aoai ( ia??iae 1920 ( ii/aoeo 30-o ??., eiee
?nioaaea iiaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaiiai aena?oeaiiy iiae?e. Ae?oaee aoai ( c
na?aaeeie 1930-o ??. aei ii/aoeo 1990-o ??., eiee ioe?iee aeaaaeeny
ia?o?eieie oa aea?aeaaieie aee?aeoeaaie, a nai aeine?aeieoeueeee i?ioean
ia?aoai?eany a eaiii?caoe?th iaaieo ?aeaieia?/ieo iieiaeaiue oa
eiioeaioe?e. O?ao?e ( no/aniee aoai, eiee ia iniia? a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a,
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, iaioa?ii? e?oa?aoo?e, ye a?o/eciyii?, oae ?
ca?oa?aeii? iiaeia ?aaeueii ioe?ieoe iniiai? /eiieee oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe??. Ca?oa?aeia ?noi??ia?ao?y oaeiae iaea o?e aoaie ?icaeoeo.
Ia?oee ioiieth? naia ?aaiethoe?eiee ia??iae ? aeeth/a? noaoo?, a?ioo?e,
ioae?oeenoe/i? oai?e, aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae, noai?ai?
aaciina?aaei?ie ea??aieeaie ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e. Ia ae?oaiio aoai?
(1920-1945 ??.) aa?a?ia i?iaeaiaoeea i?ciaaaeany caeaa?eueoiai /a?ac
iaioa?io e?oa?aoo?o. ? o?ao?e aoai (1945-1991 ??.) oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ia?aaaaith i?aoeue oaoiaeo ?noi?ee?a iaae iaioa?iith e?oa?aoo?ith.

Aeooaeuei?noue ieoaiiy iaoiiaeea aeieeiaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ii oai?. Ciaeueiaoth/e noai ?aaeueieo aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei
a Oe?a?i? iaia?aaeiaei? oa a ?iee ?aaiethoe??, aeei?enoiaoth/e
aeieoiaioaeuei? oa a?o?ai? aeaea?aea, aaoi?e c’yniaothoue i?e/eie
iacaaeiaieaiiy iniiaii? iane naeyinoaa ?nioth/ith nenoaiith
caieaaieiae?iiy, ui c?i?oe?thaaee aei oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? aace
naeyinueeiai ?ooo.

I?ioean iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ieo ciaiue ??cieie ?noi??ia?ao?/ieie
oeieaie iinea i?iaeaiiee oa?aeoa?. Noia?a/iino? iieyaaee a ??ciiiai?oieo
i?aeoiaeao aei noaio caiaeueieo a?aeiinei oa oeyo?a ?ica’ycaiiy
aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy o 1917-1918 ?ieao. sseui iaoeia? ?ic?iaee a/aieo
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e oa ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a ?icaeyaeaee i?iaeaio
ia iniia? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo oa nioe?aeueii-aecaieueieo
oaiaeaioe?e, oi ?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?/ia oeiea noeeyeanue a?eueoa aei
?aeaieia?/ieo ooaii?a i?ae aei e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy ae?enieo iiae?e.

I?ioyaii onueiai /ano ?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ca ei?aeiiii, ? ia
iaoa?eeia?e Oe?a?i? ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo oe?e, i?ae ieie oi/eeeny caacyo?
aeeneon??, ye? ia?aaiaeeeeny o ieiueio caia?a/aiiy aeniiae?a, ioe?iie ?
ocaaaeueiaiue iaeia iaeii?. Aea no/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao??
aea? iiaeeea?noue ia’?aeiaoe iaaeaaiiy ? i?inoaaeeoe ni?eueia o
aeniiaeao aeine?aeiee?a a?aeiinii i?e/ei ii?acee iaoe?iiaeueieo nee a
oe?a?inuee?e ?aaiethoe??, a caaaeueiiio aiie caiaeyoueny aei ianooiieo:

ii?acea iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee ia ii/aoeo 1918?. aoea
iaoiiaeaia oeai?noth eo?no ?aaeeeaeueieo nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue.
Caoyaoaaiiy c ae??oaiiyi caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy, iicaaaeei Oeaio?aeueio
?aaeo nioe?aeueii? aace a ia?ac? i?ia?aeii? aa?noae ianaeaiiy —
naeyinoaa.

Oe?a?inueea aaoueiainueea aea?aeaaa I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai iaiaaaeanue
ia?aaanoe iaoe?iiaeueio ?aaiethoe?th ia eiino?oeoeaiee oeyo. A iniiao
?icaoaeiae aea?aeaaiino? aoa iieeaaeaiee i?eioeei iaaeioi?eaiino?
i?eaaoii? aeaniino?. A?aeiiaa nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a ni?ai?aoethaaoe c
eiina?aaoi?aie, aeeeoao ieoiaoe?eieo a?enuee — noaee oeie oaeoi?aie, ui
cieueee aaoueiainueeo aea?aeaao, i?ecaaee aei a?aoiaaea/i? a?eie, a ca
iath ? ao?aoe iaae?e ia ooai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Aeioe?eueiith caea?oueny i?aeaioiaea ooiaeaiaioaeueii? ?noi??ia?ao?/ii?
i?aoe? c i?iaeaie i?noey ? ?ie? ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ui iaee i?noea
a Oe?a?i? ia ii/aoeo oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1921 ??. Aaaeaii
caeo/eoe iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia eeoa a?o/eciyieo a/aieo, a ?
non?aei?o c Oe?a?iith aea?aeaa ( ?in??, Iieueu?, I?ia//eie oa ?ioeo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

Aa?a?ia ieoaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ?aaiethoe??: a iiooeao oeyo?a
?ica’ycaiiy. (?noi??ia?ao?/iee ia?en).-E.: A?iie, 1998.–41 n.

Iianoainueeee ?oo oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa 1917-1918 ?ieao.
(?noi??ia?ao?/iee ia?en).-E.: A?iie, 1998.–52 n.

Aei ieoaiiy ia??iaeecaoe?? naeyinueeiai iianoainueeiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i?: 1918-1923 ?iee. ( // A?niee Ee?anueeiai Oi?aa?neoaoo.
?noi??y. — Aeione 34.( 1996. ( N.10-15 (ni?aaaoi? A.A.Ion??iei).

?noi??ia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy a ia?o?
?iee oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??: 1917-1921 ?iee. ( // Neiaiaeaiueia. (
1998. ( ?8.( N. 200-205.

Caicthe?ia I.?. Naeyinueea ieoaiiy a Oe?a?i? 1917-1918??. (?noi??ia?ao?y
i?iaeaie). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.06 — ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aeiciaanoai oa
niaoe?aeuei? ?noi?e/i? aeenoeeie?ie. — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Ee?a. 1998?.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aiae?co iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?noi?ee?a, iie?oee?a,
ioae?oeeno?a, aeiiii?no?a oa aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, a yeeo
eaeaoueny i?i noai aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, oaiaeaioe?e, i?e/eie ca?iaeaeaiiy
oa ni?yiiaai?noue naeyinueeeo ?oo?a 1917-1918??. Aeine?aeaeothoueny
i?e/eie oa iane?aeee ai?ioueae naeyinoaa ca caieth a ?iee oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe?? ca aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa aaoueiaiaoo
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai iiaeai? iaoeiaoeyie ??cieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo oe?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeine?aeaeaiiy, naeyinueea ieoaiiy,
oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y, Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, aea?aeaaa I.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai.

Caictheeia I.E. E?anoueyineee aii?in a Oe?aeia 1917-1918 aa.
(Enoi?eia?aoey i?iaeaiu). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ca niaoeeaeueiinoueth 07.00.06 — Enoi?eia?aoey, enoi/ieeiaaaeaiea e
niaoeeaeueiua enoi?e/aneea aeenoeeieeiu. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie
Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. Eeaa. 1998a.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?othony iao/iua ?aaiou enoi?eeia, iieeoeeia,
ioaeeoeenoia, yeiiiienoia e aeieoiaioaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, a eioi?uo ?a/ue
eaeao i ninoiyiee aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee, oaiaeaioeee, i?e/eiao noaiiaeaiey
e iai?aaeaiiinoe e?anoueyineeo aeaeaeaiee 1917-1918 aa. Enneaaeothony
i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey ai?ueau e?anoueyinoaa ca caieth a aiaeu oe?aeineie
?aaiethoeee a ia?eiae Oeaio?aeueiie ?aaeu e aaoueiaiaoa
I.Nei?iiaaeneiai i?aaenoaaeaiiua o/aiuie ?acee/iuo enoi?eia?aoe/aneeo
oeie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoi?eia?aoey, enneaaeiaaiea, e?anoueyineee aii?in,
oe?aeineay ?aaiethoeey, Oeaio?aeueiay ?aaea, ainoaea?noai
I.Nei?iiaaeneiai.

Zemziulina N.I. The Peasant’s Issue in Ukraine 1917-1918.
(Historiography of the Issue). — Manuscript.

The thesis for the achievement of the scientific candidate degree by
speciality 07.00.06- historiography, source studies and special
historical disciplines. — Kyiv Tars Shevchenko University. Kyiv. 1998.

The dissertation deals with the analysis of the scientific works of
historians, political scientists, economists and documentary materials
in which the conditions of the agrarian relations, the tendencies,
reasons of the arising and direction of the peasant movements of years
1917-1918 are described. The reasons and consequences (given by
representatives of different historiographical schools) of the peasants’
struggle for land in the years of Ukrainian Revolution during the period
of Central Rada and Hetmanat (Ukrainian State) of P. Skoropadsky are
being analyzed researched in the framework of the thesis.

The key words: historiography, research, peasant issue, Ukrainian
Revolution, Central Rada and Hetmanat (Ukrainian State) of P.
Scoropadsky.

“A?iie” 252051, Ee?a –51, aoe. Aieeinueea, 60

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 16.09.98?. Oi?iao 60o80 1/16. Ae?oe ionaoiee.
Iae.aeae.a?e.0,9.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai.1042.

O?enothe I. Cai?oee ? iaoa??aee aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??
1917 — 1920 ?ie?a.- O.3-4. A?aeaiue, 1921-1922; Eeoiiee A.A. Aei ieoaiiy
i?i caiaeueio iie?oeeo ia Oe?a?i? a aeeneon?eiiio ii?yaeeo. -E.,
1921.; Ia?oin A. Oai??y eiiia?aoe??. -Iiaeaa?aaee., 1923,

Caeoaeiue A. Oe?aeineia e?anoueyinoai e niaaoneay aeanoue.- E., 1920;
Ea/eineee A. I/a?ee aa?a?iie ?aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia. — Auione 1. —
Oa?ueeia, 1922; Ao?aae/ I. E aii?ino i aeeooa?aioeeaoeee e?anoueyineiai
oicyenoaa Oe?aeiu. — Oa?ueeia, 1925.

*aaioa?ueia TH. Naeyinueeee ?oo ia Oe?a?i? a 1917 ?ioe?.- E.,
1940; ?oaa/ I.A. Eeaniaa ?icoa?oaaiiy naeyinoaa Oe?a?ie iaia?aaeiaei?
i?ieaoa?nueei? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? //Iaoeia? caienee
?inoeooo ?noi??? ? a?oaieia?? AI O?N?. — 1943.- Ei.1; Ai?iaeaoeeee
A.I. I iaeioi?uo iniaaiiinoyo ?anneiaiey e?anoueyinoaa ia Oe?aeia
a 1917 aiaeo // Aanoiee Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa. — 1947. — ?1.

?oaa/ I.A. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey
aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee ia Oe?aeia. -E.,1954.

Aai?aoeeee TH.I. Niaaoneay enoi?eia?aoey Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia. — Aeen… eaiae. ?no. iaoe.
-E., 1962.

Eyo ?.Ae. ?ica’ycaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy ia Oe?a?i?
(1917-1923??.).-E., — Aeiiaoeuee, 1975. Oaea/oe I.I. Aeiiii?/i? iniiae
aa?a?ii? ?aaiethoe?? ia Oe?a?i?.- E., 1973; *oi?eia A.I. A?eueoiaeee
Oe?a?ie o ai?iouea? ca o?oaeyua naeyinoai (aa?acaiue 1917- ethoee
1918).-Euea?a, 1974; *ieaa A.O. Eieoiciia aeaeaeaiea ia Oe?aeia
(1917-1929 aa.). — I.,1974; Oi?eue ?.A. O?oaeyua naeyinoai Oe?a?ie a
ai?iouea? ca aeaaeo ?aae.- E.,1977.

Ae?nueeee Ae. Aeeai? ni?iae aei?aaaeoaaiiy aioeaea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee.- Oi?iioi,1973.

Aa?nothe A.O. Ai?ioueaa o?oaeyuiai naeyinoaa Oe?a?ie ca
ci?oeiaiiy aeaaee ?aae. -E., 1984; Ia?i/ei A.?. Oe?a?inueea
naeyinueea eiiia?aoe?y: ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee aniaeo. — E., 1995;
Caoa?/aiei I. Naeyinueea a?eia a Oe?a?i?: ??e 1918. -E.,1997.

Noni?ia N.A. Aa?a?ia ieoaiiy a Oe?a?i?: i?e/eie, i?iyae, oeyoe
?ica’ycaiiy (e?iaoeue O?O — ii/. OO no.).–Oa?nii, 1997; sseeiaiei I.A.
Noaiiaeaiiy naeyinueeiai (oa?ia?nueeiai) ainiiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i? i?ney
neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai i?aaa (1861-1918 ??.)//O?AE.–1996.–?1.–N.3-13;
Iaeee ss. Caiaeueia ieoaiiy a Oe?a?i? a 1917-1920??. // Iaoeiaee ca??iee
Oe?a?inueeiai a?eueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. –Ithioai — Euea?a, 1995.–N.40-46;
Aa?aiianueea I. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a Oe?a?i? ca a?aeiiaeaiiy
aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? (aa?acaiue 1917-ea?oaiue 1918 ??.).–Euea?a,
1995.

Nieaeaoaiei A.O. Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y: eiioeaioe?y oa
?noi??ia?ao?y.- E., 1997; ?aae/aiei E.I. No/ania ?noi??ia?ao?y
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? a Oe?a?i?. 1917-1920 ??.-
Oa?e?a, 1996.

Ea/eineee A. I/a?ee aa?a?iie ?aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia.–Auione
1.–Oa?ueeia,1922; Aae?? I. I?e/eie aa?a?ii? ?aaiethoe?? ia Oe?a?i? ?
oeyoe aei ?ica’ycaiiy aa?a?ii? ni?aae.– E., A?aeaiue, 1920; Eiiiiaiei
E.N. Oe?a?ia ? ?in?y ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?aenoaae oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, 1917-1960.–Ithioai, 1965.

?noi??y naeyinoaa Oe?a?inueei? ?N?.–O.2.–E.,1965; I/a?ee ?acaeoey
nioeeaeueii-eeanniaie no?oeoo?u ONN? (1917-1937).–E.,1987; Ii?ic I.,
Ceoiei N. Oe?a?inueea naeyinoai ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy: o?aaaae?y ?
aa?i?ci.–Euea?a, 1997; Iai/aieiI.I., Neaaia A.I., Oia?/oe A.A. Aa?a?ia
?noi??y Oe?a?ie.–E.,1996 oiui.

Aaeaeaeai?anueeee I. Oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??. ?o ?icaeoie ?
i?ia?aie.–Caeuenaaaeaeue,1919; Iaua?yeia A. Caiaeueia iie?oeea
eiioi?no?a.–E.,1919.

Ieoethe I. Anaia?iaei? i?aai ia caieth oa i?iieneiaa iaeaooi?noue
Oe?a?ie.–Euea?a,1921; Eoeee ?. Ai?ioueaa ?ia?oiee?a ? naeyi ca
anoaiiaeaiiy ? ci?oeiaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia Oe?a?i?.–E.,1947 oiui.

?oaa/ I.A.. Ai?ioueaa a?eueoiaee?a Oe?a?ie ca o?oaeyua naeyinoai//
A?eueoiaeee Oe?a?ie a ai?iouea? ca ia?aiiao AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? ?
anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee (aa?acaiue 1917-ethoee
1918).–E.,1957.–N.110-143; Eaa/oe Ae. Neee aeaiie?ao?? ? eiina?aaoecio o
aecaieueieo ciaaaiiyo Oe?a?ie // ?aea? ? ethaee aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
1917 1923.–Iueth-Ei?e,1968.–N.41-57 oiui.

Ea/einueeee A. Aa?a?iee ?oo ca /an?a aaoueiaiueie// E?oiien
?aaiethoe??.–1928.–?1-2; Ie?iiaoeue I.?. Naeyinuee? iianoaiiy ia
Iiae?ee? o aa?ani?-aeiaoi? 1917 ?.// Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee
aeo?iae.–1965.–?2.–N.72-78; Aiooeye ?.E. I?i i?e/eie ii?acee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee // O?AE.–1994.–?1.–N.31-45 oiui.

Ne?eiiee I.I. ?noi??y i?ieaoa?nueei? ?aaiethoe?? ia Ae?a?i?: ei?ioeee
ia/a?e.–Oa?e?a, 1923; Iaei?ia I. C ?noi??? ?aaiethoe?eii? ai?ioueae ia
Oe?a?i? (1914-1919).–Oa?e?a, 1928; Eica/aiei A. Naeyinueeee ?oo 1917
?ieo ia Oe?a?i?// Naeyinueeee aoaeeiie. – 1927. — ?12. – N. 28-33 oiui.

Aeiie/aiei A. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?? (?noi??y oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??
[aa?acaiue 1917- a?oaeaiue 1919]).–*.1-3.–Ee?a, A?aeaiue, 1920; Iacaia
?. Oe?a?ia a iai? e ao?? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1921.–O.1-3.–I?aaa, 1942;
Nei?iiaaenueeee I. Niiaaaee: e?iaoeue 1917-a?oaeaiue 1918.–E.,
O?eaaeaeueo?y, 1995 oiui.

Eeieinueeee A. Eenoe aei a?ao?a-oe?ai?ia?a: I?i ?aeath ? i?aai?caoe?th
oe?a?inueeiai iiia?o?cio.–A?aeaiue, 1926; Oaiiaae I. ?aaiethoe?eiee
nioe?ae?ci ia Oe?a?i?.–A?aeaiue, 1921.

A?aaeaeaineay aieia ia Oe?aeia. 1917-1920 aa.: A 3-o oiiao, 4-o
eieaao.–E., 1967; Aaeeeay Ieoya?ueneay nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey e
iiaaaea Niaaoneie aeanoe ia Oe?aeia (oaa?aeue 1917 – oaa?aeue 1918). –
E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1977. – 711 n.

Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea: aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee.–O.1.–E., 1996;
O.2.–E., 1997; Oe?a?ia a OO noie?oo?. Ca??iee aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a.
(1900-1939).–E., 1997.

Uaaeeeia I. Aa?a?ia ?aoi?ia ? i?ia?an n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.
—E.,1918; Oauaiei-*ii?anueeee ?. I?e?iaei? aaaaoeoaa Oe?a?ie: N?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea i?iieneia?noue. —*.??.
—E.,1919; Ieoethe I. Anaia?iaeia i?aai ia caieth oa i?iieneiaa
iaeaooi?noue Oe?a?ie. —Euea?a, 1921. —*.12; Eiai ae. Caiaeuei? ?aoi?ie
ia Oe?a?i?. —Euea?a, 1921. Eiai ae. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea (1800—1925 ?.?.).
—Iiae?a?aaee, 1925. —O.2.— *.1.

Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeee I.?. Eiiia?aoe?y: ?? i?e?iaea oa iaoa. —Euea?a,
1936; Iaoe??ae/ E. Caaaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? iie?oeee oa ??
iai?yiee a ia?aoiaeiaee ia??iae: A?aeaeoea c? ca??ieea “N?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie”. —I?aaa, 1942; Ia?oin A. A?aeaoaeiaa oe?a?inueei?
eiiia?aoe??: A?aeaeoea c? ca??ieea “N?euenueea ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie”.
—I?aaa, 1942; Eiai ae. Oai??y eiiia?aoe??. —Iiae?a?aaee, 1923. —*.1.;
Iaoe??ae/ E. I?i n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? ?aeiie Oe?a?ie.— [A.?.],
[A.i.]

Caeoaeiue A. Oe?aeineia e?anoueyinoai e niaaoneay aeanoue. —E., 1920.
—N.23.

Aa?iaeca I. Ia?ene c ?noi??? ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo ia Oe?a?i?. —E.,
1926. —O.1. —N.14—15; Ii?o I. Noaoenoeea caieaaieiae?iiy a 1905 ?. ?
iia?e?caoe?y caiaeueii? aeaniinoe ia Oe?a?i? a?ae 1877 ii 1905.
//Oe?a?ia. —1907. —Ei. O?—O??. —N.168.

Ii?o I. ?c noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie //Oe?a?ia. —1907. —Ei.VII—VIII —N.20—46;
Eiai ae. Noaoenoeea caieaaieiae?iiy a 1905 ?. ? iia?e?caoe?y caiaeueii?
aeaniino? ia Oe?a?i? a?ae 1877 ii 1905 ?. //Oai naii. —Ei.
O?—O??.—N.145—180; O?enothe I. 1905 ??e ia Oe?a?i?. —E.,1925.

?oaa/ I.A. Eeaniaa ?icoa?oaaiiy naeyinoaa Oe?a?ie iaia?aaeiaei?
i?ieaoa?nueei? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? // Iaoeia? caienee ?inoeoooo
?noi??? ? a?oaieia?? AI O?N?. —1943. —Ei.1. —N.215—230; ?oaa/ I.A.
Eeaniaa ?icoa?oaaiiy naeyinoaa ia Oe?a?i? ii caie? iaia?aaeiaei? 1917
?ieo // Iaoeia? caienee ?inoeoooo ?noi??? ? a?oaieia?? AI O?N?. —1946. —
Ei.2. —N.185—203.

Ea/eineee A. E?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea // 1917 aiae a Oa?ueeiaa.
Oa?ueeia, 1927. —N.180—269; Eaaai N. Aa?a?iay ?aaiethoeey ia Eeaaueia. E
aii?ino i nioeeaeueiuo e iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannao ia naea.—E., 1923;
Iaaeaa?a I., Eiaai N. Aei?aaiethoeeiiiua caiaeueiua ioiioaiey a auaoae
Oa?niineie aoaa?iee // Ieoya?ue ia Iaeaueia.— Iaeanna, 1927. —N.69—77;
??a?cia A. Naeyinueeee ?oo ia Ee?auei? //E?oiien ?aaiethoe??. —1931.
—?4. —N.3—34; Aiae A.A. Ai?ioueaa naeyi Ee?anueei? aoaa?i?? ca
cae?eniaiiy eai?inueeiai aeae?aoo i?i caieth (eenoiiaae 1917 — n?/aiue
1918 ?ieo)// A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. —Na??y ?noi??? oa
o?einio??. —Aeione 1. —1959. —?2. —N.17—31; Ieoaeethe I.A. Naeyinueeee
?oo ia Aieei? o 1917 ?ioe? // Iaoeia? caienee Eooeueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
?inoeoooo. —Na??y noni?eueieo iaoe. —1957. —O.2. —N.89—100; Eiaai Y. Ec
enoi?ee aa?a?iiai aeaeaeaiey ia Aeaoa?eiineaaueia // Ai?ueaa ca Niaaou
ia Aeaoa?eiineaaueia. —1927. —N.53—72; Aaa?eo E.O.,Ino?ianeee N.ss.
Naeuenueeia oicyenoai Oa?ueeiaueiu ca 40 eao. —Oa?ueeia, 1958; Iai/aiei
A.I. Naeyinueeee ?oo ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie iaia?aaeiaei? Aaeeei? AEiaoiaai?
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? // I?aoe? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoooo. — Na??y noni?eueieo iaoe. —Aeione 8. —1962. —O.152.
—N.259—276; ?aoiaeueei I.O. Naeyinueeee ?oo o Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i??
(aa?acaiue 1917 —n?/aiue 1918 ??.). —O., 1972; Oeyi E.E., Ino?ianueeee
N.ss. Ieioea ? no/ania naea. —O., 1963.

Iaeee ss. Oioae?oa?eci a oe?a?inueeiio nae?: Ia?oa ni?iaa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. —Euea?a, 1996; C?iia/oe A.A. Eiiia?aoeaia ?aeay a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie ? NOA. —Ee?a, 1996; Ii?ic I., Ceoiei
N. Oe?a?inueea naeyinoai ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy: o?aaaae?y ?
aa?i?ci. —Euea?a, 1997.

Iaeno?aiei ?. ?noi??y iiai iieie?iiy. —N.24. Eeoiiee A. A ai?iouea? ca
naeyinoai //*a?aiiee oeyo.— 1926.— ?4.— N.92.; Oeaieaae/ I. Oe?a?inueea
neioaca /e oe?a?inueea a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia.— Aeiiaa?a, 1949.— N.29.;
?yaei?ia ?.?. A?eueoiaeoeuee? i?aai?caoe?? Oe?a?ie a AEiaoiaa?e
?aaiethoe??.— E., 1958.— N.36; Ei?ieeaneee N.I. Oe?aeineia
iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea a ia?eiae iiaeaioiaee Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee
// Enoi?ey NNN?. —1965. —?5. —N.20; Iiiia I.I. Iaeeiao?aeoaciua
aioeniaaoneea ia?oee. —I., 1924. —N.113.

Aonaa E.A Ia?oey yna?ia: io iaeeiao?aeoaciiai ?aaiethoeeiia?ecia e
eiio??aaiethoeee /Enoi?e/aneee i/a?e/. —I., 1975; Nie?ei E.I. E?ooaiea
iiiaue/ueeo e ao?aeoaciuo ia?oee /ia/aei OO a. —1920 a./. —I., 1977;
Ano?aoai O.I. Aieueoaaeee e eo iieeoe/aneea i?ioeaieee a 1917 a. —E.,
1973; Eiiei A.A. Aaie?ionoai ao?aeoaciuo e iaeeiao?aeoaciuo ia?oee
?innee a ia?eiae iiaeaioiaee e iiaaaeu Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. —I., 1965; Neaioeia O.A. E?ao
iaeeiao?aeoaciie iiiiceoeee. —I., 1973; Niaieaaa I.E. Ieoya?ueneay
?aaiethoeey e e?ao nioeeae-niaeaoaoaeae. —I., 1968; Iieooe?ia A.A. ?ino
aeeyiey aieueoaaeeia a iannao e e?ao iaeeiao?aeoaciuo ia?oee ia Oe?aeia
ia caaa?oathuai yoaia a?aaeaeaineie aieiu —E., 1972; Eo?an ?.O.
A.?.Eai?i ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo o?oaeyueo Oe?a?ie a AEiaoiaa?e
?aaiethoe?? (aa?acaiue—a?oaeaiue 1917 ?.). —E., 1971.

Eeea?eoeeay A.A. Aa?a?iue aii?in: i?iaae aa?a?iuo i?ia?aii e iieeoeee
iai?ieaoa?neeo ia?oee a ?innee. —I., 1981; Aao?ia ?.E., Ei?ieaa A.E.
Oaeoaeaiea i?ioeai?a/ee e oneeaiea ?aca?iaea n?aaee iaiueoaaeeia ia
Oe?aeia a 1917 aiaeo // Iai?ieaoa?neea ia?oee e i?aaiecaoeee
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?aeiiia ?innee a Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee e a?aaeaeaineie
aieia. —I., 1980. —N.42—51; Iieooeeia A.A. No?aoaaey e oaeoeea
aieueoaaeeia ii ioiioaieth e iai?ieaoa?neei iaoeeiiaeueiui ia?oeyi
(1903—1925 aa.). — Aeen… aeieo. ?noi?. iaoe. —I.,1986; Nie?ei E.I.
?inney 1917 aiae. Ec enoi?ee ai?ueau iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee. —I., 1987;
Iai?ieaoa?neea ia?oee ?innee: o?ie enoi?ee. —I., 1984. Aao?ia ?.E
Iiaaaea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee e aaie?ionoai iaiueoaaeeia ia Oe?aeia.
—O., 1983; Aao?ia ?.E., *a?iaiei A.I. Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey e
aaie?ionoai yna?ia ia Oe?aeia.—Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1983.

I??/oe I. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue 1917—1920. —O?eaaeaeueo?y, 1967;
Aeoaiiae/ ?. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a ?ie?a ?aaiethoe?? e
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue (1917—1920) // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee. —1967. —?3—4
(15—16). —N.5—60; Eiai ae. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a
1917—1920 ??. —Ithioai-*?eaai, 1968.

Ooaai—Aa?aiianeee I.E. Iaoeeiiaeecaoeey caiee. — NIa.,1906; Eiai ae.
Iaoeeiiaeecaoeey caiee. I/a?e aeaeaeaiey a iieueco iaoeeiiaeecaoeee
caiee e i?aeoe/aneea auaiaeu. —NIa., 1906; Iaua?yeia A. Caiaeueia
iie?oeea eiioi?no?a. —E., 1919. —N.4—5; Ea/eineee A. Nioeeaeecaoeey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia Oe?aeia. —E., 1919. —N.7.

Aieei N. Iaiueoaaeee ia Oe?aeia (1917—1921). —Vermont, 1990. —N.17;
Noaoaeueiee I. Oe?a?ia. ?noi??y. —N.305.

Ai?iiyinueeee I.A. Aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. –Aeen…
eaiae. ?noi?. iaoe. —Aei?i?iiao?iane, 1995. —N.122. Aa?oieye ?.I.
Aa?a?ia ieoaiiy a ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e.
(aa?acaiue 1917-ea?oaiue 1918 ??.).–Aeen…eaiae.?noi?.iaoe.–E.,
1993.–C.145; Ai?iiyinueeee I.A. Caci. i?aoey.–C.131.

Nieaeaoaiei A.O. Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y: eiioeaioe?y oa ?noi??ia?ao?y.
—E., 1997. —N.107—183.

?iaiaeei A., Aii/a?aiei A. Caiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee
//A?niee Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie. —Aei.2. —1994; Eiieeaiei I.E.
“Noi aei?a” Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. —E., 1992; Eiieeaiei I.E.,
EiieeaieiI.E. Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai Oe?a?ie. 1917—1920. —E., 1997. —N.10—87.

Eaeo?ei I.A. Eae n?aaeaeanue ?aaiethoeey. —Ecae.2. —I., 1990. —N.85;
Aiiaea?O.Ae. Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y Oe?a?ie a ia??iae ?iicaiii?
?ioa?aaioe?? oa a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie (ethoee 1918 — n?/aiue 1919 ??.).
—E., 1968. —N.162—165; Ea/einueeee A. Aa?a?iee ?oo ca /an?a aaoueiaiueie
// E?oiien ?aaiethoe??. —1928. —?1; ?2. Eiiaeooi? TH.TH. Oe?aieaiea
nithca ?aai/aai eeanna e e?anoueyinoaa ia Oe?aeia a ia?eiae
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. —E., 1964. —N.32; Noe?ai?nueeee I. A?ycue Iineae
//Iiaee oeyo. —1934. —7 na?iiy. —N.58—61; Aeieaiaa N. Nei?iiaaeueia.
—Aa?oaaa, 1934; ?inoiaaoeue I. Nei?iiaaenueeee ? nei?iiaae/oee. —
Naneaooi—Nanea/aaai, 1938; Eaca?aanueeee A. Aaoueiaiueia // Ca
aea?aeaai?noue. —1932. —Ca.2, Ca.3.

Iieiinueea—Aaneeaiei I. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. —2 aeaeaiiy. —E., 1993.
—N.499; Nieooa I. Aeiaiai? c Iineaith i?ioe aaoueiaia Iaaea
Nei?iiaaenueeiai: A.Aeiie/aiei oa I. Oaiiaae ii
aeiiiiiao aei Iineae — aei Eai?ia. [A.i.]: [A.a.], 1973. —N.223—224;
Ii?aoi I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ono??e Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae //?aea? ? ethaee
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917—1923. —N.317; Ian?ea I. Caiaeueia ni?aaa a
Oe?a?inuee?e Aea?aeaa? //Ca aaee/ iaoe??: O aeaaaeoeyo? ?ieiaeie
a?aeiiaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? aaoueiainueei? Aea?aeaae. —Euea?a, 1938.
—N.73.

I?iaeaithe O. Aei ieoaiiy i?i aioo??oith iie?oeeo aea?aeaae Iaaea
Nei?iiaaenueeiai //Inoaii?e aaoueiai. —E., 1993. —N.61—62; Eiai ae:
Aioo??oiy iie?oeea Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae (29 ea?oiy — 14 a?oaeiy 1918
?.). —Aeen… eaiae. ?noi?. iaoe. —E., 1995. —N.106; Iaeee ss. Caiaeueia
ieoaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e aaoueiainuee?e aea?aeaa? //Inoaii?e aaoueiai.
—N.99; Eeeiaiei—Ioae?ee A.N. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo ca /an?a
Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae aaoueiaia I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai. —E., 1997. —N.81;
?noi??y Oe?a?ie: iiaa aa/aiiy. —N.61—62; I’yeioa N.A. Aeiiii?/ia
iie?oeea o?yaeo Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae (ea?oaiue — a?oaeaiue 1918 ??.).
—Aeen… eaiae. ?noi?. iaoe. —E., 1997. —N.164; Noao?a I. Oe?a?ia a aeia?
Aee?aeoi??? OI?. —O.3. —N.56.

?aoan I.A. Aeaa aiaea ?aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia. —I., 1920. —N.109;
?eaaeea ?.E., Aeiaaiiie A.I.. ?noi??y Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: aiioa
nioe?ae?cio. —E., 1982. —N.85.

Noni?ia N.A. Aa?a?ia ieoaiiy a Oe?a?i?: i?e/eie, i?iyae, oeyoe
?ica’ycaiiy. —Oa?nii, 1997. —N.37.

??/eoeueeee A.Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea a?ae ethoiai aei aeiaoiy.- O.1928;
Ea?aoieeiaa O. Aa?a?ia ?aaiethoe?y ia Oe?a?i?// A?eueoiaee Oe?a?ie.-
1927. — ?10. — N. 44-51.; Eeoiiee A. A ai?iouea?
ca naeyinoai: caiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai eiio??aaiethoe?eieo o?yae?a ca
/an ?aaiethoe?? ia Oe?a?i?.-O.1926.

Noe?ai?nueeee I. Caiaeueia ieoaiiy.–Ia?eae, 1939.–N.15; A?ooaanueeee I.
Ia ii?ic? iiai? Oe?a?ie: noaoo? ? aeaea?aeuei?
iaoa??aee.–Iueth-Ei?e.–Euea?a.–Ee?a.–Oi?iioi.–Ithioai.–1992.–n.80.

Ion??iei A.A. A?eueoiaeee Oe?a?ie a AEiaoiaa?e ?aaiethoe?? (aa?acaiue
1917 – aa?acaiue 1918??.): aei ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie.- E., 1976.; Eiai
ae. Ia caueoa caaiaaaiee Aaeeeiai Ieoya?y.- E., 1986.

Ei?ieueia A.?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? a?eueoiaeoeueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie ia??iaeo i?aeaioiaee ? i?iaaaeaiiy Aaeeei?
AEiaoiaai? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe??.// O?AE.-1976.-?1.- N.136-145.

PAGE 1

Похожие записи