1

AIEEINUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? EAN? OE?A?IEE

IAIENOEE AIAe??E AIEIAeEIE?IAE*

OAeE 796-053.7+331.826

I?AeAIOIAEA NOA?OIEEANIEE?A ? A?AeA??

AeI IAA*AIIss IA OAEOEUeOAO?

O?CE*IIAI AEOIAAIIss

24.00.02 — O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy

??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe

c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo

Eooeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oeyi Aiaaeai
Ieoaeeiae/, Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ieo iniia ? iaoiaeeee
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eooe
Ieaenaiae? Na?a?eiae/, A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai, i?ioani? eaoaae?e oai??? ?
iaoiaeeee o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio O?aoueyeia Ieeiea

Ieaenaiae?iae/, aeioeaio ?inoeoooo ci?noo ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy i. Ee?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa I?eea?iaonueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Aaneey Noaoaieea, eaoaae?a oai??? ? iaoiaeeee o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ?
nii?oo, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. ?aaii – O?aie?anuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 2 » ea?oiy 1999?. ia 11 aiae. ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 32.051.02 Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, (263021, Eooeuee, aoe. Aeiie/aiea,
30)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee» 1″ aa?aciy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?ue niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo
Oeueinue A.A.

iaoe, aeioeaio

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue. O caeiiao Oe?a?ie «I?i ina?oo», «I?i o?ce/io eoeueoo?o ?
nii?o», Aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? «INA?OA(Oe?a?ia XXI no. )»,
Aea?aeaai?e i?ia?ai? ?icaeoeo o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo a Oe?a?i?
caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaioiaee iiai? aaia?aoe??
i?aoe?aiee?a, i?aeaeuaiiy ?oiueiai i?ioan?eiiai oa caaaeueiieoeueoo?iiai
??aiy.

I?iaeai? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e i?enay/aii aaaaoi
aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a. A ?o iie? ci?o aoee
ia?aaaaeii oae? ieoaiiy: i???ioaoe?y ia i?ioan?th a/eoaey o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e(N. TH. Aaeaaiei, 1973; C.I.A’yoe?ia 1977; ?. I. Ea?aaiieia,
1981; I. A. Iioi??i, 1981; ?. I. I?e?o?ia, 1983; A. A. Oeneyeia, 1984;
A. A. Eica, 1994; A. A. Iiaeueyiaiei, 1995); iaoiaeieia?y a?aeai?o o
aeu? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee, ye? aioothoue oao?aoe?a c o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy(A.I.Oii?/iaa, ?. ?. Oiaetho, 1970; A. O. Iaeaiei, 1973; E. I.
A?ey?aa, 1974; E. A. Eaa/aiei, 1976; A. A. ?e/eiaa, 1977; E. A.
Iieiaeoeiaa, 1981; N. A. Iaaei?eiaa, 1982; A. I. Oeyii?eiaa, 1983; N. A.
Aieiaaiiaa, 1987; A. A. Eiiao?i, 1989; A. I. Aioe?a, I. ?. Aoeue/a?ia,
I. ?. Iie?eoeueeee, 1994; N. TH. Aaeaaiei, A.A.Ieao??, 1994; I. I.
*aniieia, 1998); iiooe oeyo?a iioeiaeueieo i?ia?ai anooiieo ?nieo?a ia
oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy(A. A. Eiiao?i, 1989; A.?.Aiae?inia, 1994;
TH. Oaee?, E. ss. ?aauaiei, 1996); no?oeoo?a ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e(I. N. Eooe, A. A. Eaiiiaa, E. A. Aaeaeaethe, 1996; A.
I. Oeyi, 1997).

Aiaeii/an, iacaaaeath/e ia oaeee oe?ieee niaeo? iai?yie?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, ieoaiiy
i?aeaioiaee ? a?aeai?o aa?oo???io?a aei iaieiae?iiy i?ioan??th
nii?oeaiiai iaaeaaiaa aea/aii iaaeinoaoiuei, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny
ia i?ioean? i?ioan?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy oao?aoe?a c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.
Aaeaea ye?noue i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aecia/a?oueny ??aiai aioiaiino?
nooaeaio?a aei canai?iiy ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie iaiao?aeieo
iaaeaaiao.

Ioaea, aeooaeuei?noue oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny, c
iaeiiai aieo, ia’?eoeaieie noni?eueieie iio?aaaie o i?aeaioiaoe?
aenieaae?o?eiaaieo oao?aoe?a c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o iaaeaaia?/ieo
aocao, eio?? a a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai nueiaiaeaiiy, c ?ioiai —
a?aenooi?noth aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ia??oiooaaiiy ci?noo oa iaoiaeeee
i?aeaioiaee ? a?aeai?o aa?oo???io?a aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ye iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ?o i?ioan?eii? iaenoa?iino?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c caaaeaiei ieaiii IAe? I?i?noa?noaa
Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iieiae? ? nii?oo ia 1990 – 1995 ?ie?a. Ca oaiith
1.3.1.03. “Ia??oiooaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?ia?aioaaiiy o?ceoeueoo?ii – icaei?ia/eo caiyoue ? eiai eaae?iaa
caaacia/aiiy” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 910026146).

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo oa
i?aai?caoe?? anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ? iaoiaeeee i?aeaioiaee aei ieo ia
canaaeao eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aeiiiiiaea oni?oii i?aeaiooaaoenue aei
anooiieo ?nieo?a noa?oieeanieeai oa iaa/aoenue ia oaeoeueoao?, ui
c?aooith ni?eyoeia i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? a/eoaey
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e aei aoaeoeaiiai aeeiiaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaia’yce?a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/ii ia??oiooaaoe ? aaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio
i?aeaioiaee ? a?aeai?o noa?oieeaniee?a aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith oa a?iioacith ia?aae aeine?aeaeaiiyi
noaaeeenue oae? caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe noai i?aeaioiaee ? a?aeai?o noa?oieeaniee?a aei iaa/aiiy ia
oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a oai??? ? i?aeoeoe? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy.

2. Noi?ioaaoe aaciao nenoaio i?aeaioiaee ? a?aeai?o aei iaa/aiiy ia
oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe ??
iaaeaaia?/io aoaeoeai?noue.

3. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeaioiaee noa?oieeaniee?a
aei anooio oa iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — aeiaoc?anueea i?aeaioiaea oa a?aea??
noa?oieeaniee?a aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy aeueo
iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a ina?oe.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ci?no ? oi?ie i?aeaioiaee oa a?aeai?o
noa?oieeaniee?a aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o:

— ia??oiooaaii? iaiao?aeiino? eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?ioeano
i?aeaioiaee noa?oieeaniee?a ? a?aeai?o aa?oo???io?a aei iaa/aiiy ia
oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ?aei?noue oai?aoe/ii?,
?ooiai? oa ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee;

— aecia/aii? eiiieaeno i?aai?caoe?eii – iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano i?aeaioiaee noa?oieeaniee?a ? a?aeai?o aei
iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ui aeeth/a? niaoe?aeueii
i?aai?ciaaio aeiaoc?anueeo i?aeaioiaeo oa aaeaeaaoio aeiiaai iiaeae?
i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a nenoaio a?aeai?o.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? o:

— ia??oiooaaii? iaiao?aeiino? eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?ioeano
i?aeaioiaee ? a?aeai?o noa?oieeaniee?a ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aie i?aeaioiaee noa?oieeaniee?a aei anooio ia
oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa iaoiaeeee a?aeai?o aa?oo???io?a aei
iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, yea iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue o aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao ina?oe Oe?a?ie ?
aeanoue iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe ia’?eoeaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ?o noai.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a
i?aeoeeo i?aeaioiaee noa?oieeaniee?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e i. Oa?iiiiey
oa Oa?iii?euenueei? iaeano? aei anooio ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
oa i?e oi?ioaaii? i?ia?aie anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ?c niaoe?aeueiino? ia
oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, i?i ui
na?ae/aoue a?aeiia?aei? aeoe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeanue
oeyoii aenooi?a ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Ina?oa a
aaeoc? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa nii?oo» (Euea?a,1996), Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Eoeueoo?a oa aeieia?y thiaoeoaa»
(Oiaeueieoeueeee,1996), Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«Iioei?caoe?y i?ioeano o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a nenoai? ina?oe»
(Oa?iii?eue,1997), Ae?oa?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
ani??aio?a «Iieiaea nii?oeaia iaoea Oe?a?ie» (Euea?a,1998),
Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?i aea?aeaai? oanoe ? ii?iaoeae
ioe?iee o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie»
(E?aiaiaoeue,1998), a oaeiae ia caaaeueiioaeoeueoaonueeeo oa
eaoaae?aeueieo iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa? o iaoeiaiio ia??oiooaaii? ?
?ic?iaoe? ci?noo anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
oa i?ia?ai i?aeaioiaee aei ieo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo aeey aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa 13
noaooyo o iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeiiaia ia 213 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 43
oaaeeoe?, 10 ?enoie?a oa 2 noaie . O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii 260 e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae, c yeeo 23 ?iicaii?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny eiai i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue, aeaco?oueny
iaoa, a?iioaca, ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny noa?a
ai?iaaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Oai?aoe/ia ia??oiooaaiiy i?aeaioiaee oa a?aeai?o
noa?oieeaniee?a aei anooio ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy»
aiae?co?oueny no?oeoo?a i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e ? oi?ie i?ioi???ioaoe?eii? ?iaioe c noa?oieeanieeaie, i?iaeaie
i?iaiicoaaiiy a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee oa a?aeai?o aei iaa/aiiy ia
oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; noi?iie oe??? i?aeaioiaee oa aeiiae aei
caei?ia’y aa?oo???io?a.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeeea oa i?aai?caoe?y ? eiioeiaaio
aeine?aeaeaiiy” i?aaenoaaeai? caaaeaiiy, aoaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiaeeea eiai i?iaaaeaiiy, a?aeiiino? i?i i?aai?caoe?th
oa eiioeiaaio aeine?aeaeoaaieo.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy o 1996 – 1997 ?ieao iaie i?iaiae?ciaaii ci?no
oa i?aai?caoe?th anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ia oaeoeueoaoao o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a Oe?a?ie.

C iaoith oi?ioaaiiy aaciai? i?ia?aie anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ?c
niaoe?aeueiino?, i?iaiae?ciaaii ? i?aeaeaii ei?aeyoe?eiiio aiae?co
iieacieee oanooaaiiy ??aiy ?ooiai?, oai?aoe/ii?, ineoieia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaeaiino? oa noaio caei?ia’y aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
A.Aiaothea i?ioyaii 1992 – 1996 ??. ? aeine?aeaeaii ?o aieea ia
oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy i?ioyaii ia?oiai eo?no. Ia oe?e iniia? noi?iiaaii
aaciao i?ia?aio anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue oa nenoaio ?o ioe?ithaaiiy. Oey
i?ia?aia ai?iaiaaia ia oaeoeueoaoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
A.Aiaothea(1997, 1998), ?aaii – O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? A.Noaoaieea (1997) oa o Eai’yiaoeue – Iiae?euenueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (1998). Ai?iaaoe?y aeaea
iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe.

A ?acoeueoao? aieaooaaiiy aa?oo???io?a, ui anooiathoue ia oaeoeueoao
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a 1995 oa 1996 ?ieao aeyaeaii oi?ie i?aeaioiaee aei
anooiieo ?nieo?a oa o?oaeiiu?, c yeeie cono??/aeenue anooiieee.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo ? ai?iaiaaieo iiaeaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa ?acoeueoao?a ?o
iieooaaiiy, iaie aoei ?ic?iaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueio i?ia?aio
aeiaoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee.

Aeey ia?aa??ee aoaeoeaiino? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oe??? i?ia?aie aoee
noi?iiaai? aea? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ? eiio?ieueia a?oie.

Caiyooy a?oi i?aeaioiaee o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a aei anooio ia oaeoeueoao
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia aac? Oa?iii?euenueeiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai e?oeath oa caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e i. Oa?iiiiey.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Nenoaia anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ia oaeoeueoao
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy» i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

C iaoith aea/aiiy aeoiee oao?aoe?a uiaei ci?noo ? i?aai?caoe?? anooiieo
aei?iaoaaiue iaie i?iaaaeaia aieaooaaiiy a/eoae?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e,
o?aia??a AeTHNO, aeeeaaea/?a oaeoeueoao?a o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeaoc?a
Oe?a?ie, ?iniaeoi??a c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?aeiiieo oi?aae?iue ina?oe.
Ci?no aieaoe aeey an?o ?aniiiaeaio?a aoa iaeiaeiaee.

Ocaaaeueieaoe ?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy ??cieo a?oi ?aniiiaeaio?a, iaie
io?eiaia ?ioi?iaoe?y uiaei iiceoe?e an?o caoe?eaaeaieo noi??i a
i?aeaioiaoe? a/eoaey o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ? ia iniia? oeueiai ae?iaeaii
i?aeoiaee oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo nenoaie a?aeai?o aa?oo???io?a aei
iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

A?eueo?noue iieoaieo(93,6%) aeneiaeeenue ca oa, uia i?iaiaeeoe anooii?
aei?iaoaaiiy ?c niaoe?aeueiino? i?e a?aeai?? aa?oo???io?a ia oaeoeueoao
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. ?c cai?iiiiiaaieo ia aea?? ?aniiiaeaio?a aeaio
nenoai ioe?ithaaiiy (aaeueia ? nenoaia «caeaa – ia caeaa») anooiieo
aei?iaoaaiue a?eueo?noue(74,5%) iieoaieo aeneiaeeenue ca aaeueio nenoaio
ioe?ithaaiiy

Ia ia? ?aeeii? aeoiee na?aae oao?aoe?a uiaei ioe?ithaaiiy ??aiy
nii?oeaii? iaenoa?iino? aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.
A?eueo?noue iieoaieo(64,5%) noeeythoueny aei aeoiee i?i aeioe?euei?noue
?? ia?aa??ee. I?ioa a?eueoa o?aoeie an?o oao?aoe?a (35,5%) aaaaeathoue
ca iaaeioe?eueia aeeth/aiiy o anooii? aei?iaoaaiiy ia?aa??eo ??aiy
nii?oeaii? iaenoa?iino?.

I’yoaeanyo a?aenioe?a iieoaieo oao?aoe?a aeneiaeeenue ca iaiao?aei?noue
aecia/aoe ??aaiue ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae i?aoaiaeaio?a ia
nooaeaionuee? i?noey, ?io? 50% -«i?ioe» oaeeo aei?iaoaaiue. Iaea?eueoa
i?eoeeueiee?a oeeo oano?a aoei na?aae o?aia??a.

A?aoiaoth/e aeeeaaeaia, oa ie?ai? aeoiee oao?aoe?a, aeneiaeaieo ieie a
aan?aeao, ?ioa?a’th oa o a?aeiia?aeyo i?e aieaooaaii?, ?aeiiaiaeo?ii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?iae i?e iaaee/ieo iaeyaeao o
o?ceoeueoo?ii — icaei?ia/iio aeeniaina?? aa?oo???io?a ? neooa/?a
aeiaoc?anueeeo i?aeaioia/eo a?aeae?eaiue.

Iao? iieooaaiiy aeyaeee aeioe?euei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aa??ee ??aiy
niaoe?aeueieo oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue oe?eueii? i?ia?aie c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e
i?e a?aeai?? aa?oo???io?a aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy. Ca ia? aeneiaeeinue 76% ?aniiiaeaio?a. Uiaei ci?noo
oai?aoe/ii? /anoeie anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue oi a?eueo?noue iieoaieo
a?aeaeaee ia?aaaao ?icae?eo ciaiue c aeae?a nii?oo (40%), iniia aiaoii??
ethaeeie ? caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy (34%). ?io? ?icae?ee ciaiue
iaea?aeaee a?ae 0 aei 20%. Cia/ia e?euee?noue ?aniiiaeaio?a (63,5%)
aeneiaeeenue ca aecia/aiiy ineoieia?/iiai noaoono aa?oo???io?a.

Nueiaiaei? a i?aeoeoe? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy aeei?enoiao?oueny aaeeea
??ciiiai?oi?noue oano?a aeey aecia/aiiy o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino?
ethaeeie. A i?aeoeoe? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a iae/ano?oa
ei?enoothoueny aeaaaeoeyoueia aeaiia ?ooiaeie oanoaie. Aiie
cai?iiiiiaai? iaie oao?aoeyi aeey ?aiaoaaiiy uiaei aeei?enoaiiy a
i?aeoeoe? a?aeai?o ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Aeey ae?a/ao a?ae 74% aei 55% iaa?aee oae? oanoe: no?eaie a aeiaaeeio c
i?noey; ieaaaiiy aac a?aooaaiiy /ano; caeiaiiy ?oe a oii?? eaaea/e; a?a
100 i. A?ae 41% aei 30% oae? oanoe: iaoaiiy a?aiaoe; a?a 1000, 60 i ;
iaoee aia?aae. A?ae 23% aei 20% oae? oanoe: a?a 2000, 30 i.

Aeey oeiioe?a a?ae 72% aei 64% iaa?aee oae? oanoe: no?eaie a aeiaaeeio c
i?noey; ieaaaiiy aac a?aooaaiiy /ano; i?aeoyaoaaiiy a aen? ia
ia?aeeaaeei?; a?a 100 i. A?ae 43% aei 30% oae? oanoe: iaoaiiy a?aiaoe;
a?a 3000 i ; i?aeeii ia?aai?ioii a oii? ia ia?aeeaaeei?. A?ae 27% aei
21% oae? oanoe: a?a 1500, 1000, 60 i.

Aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? i?ia?aie anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue a ia?oo /a?ao
iiaeiii aacoaaoenue ia ??oioiaiiio aiae?c? iiia?aaeiueiai aeina?aeo
oi?ioaaii? ?? ci?noo ia oaeoeueoaoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeaoc?a
Oe?a?ie oa eieeoiueiai N?N?. Aiae?c i?ia?ai ca inoaii? 60 ?ie?a aea?
i?aenoaae ia’?aeiaoe aeiiae, ui i?aae’yaeyeenue aei aa?oo???io?a a o?e
a?oie. Aei ia?oi? a?oie aoiaeyoue aei?iaoaaiiy, ye? aecia/athoue ??aaiue
o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino?, aei ae?oai? — oanoia? ai?aae ye? aecia/athoue
??aaiue aieiae?iiy oaoi?eith o?ce/ieo ai?aa oe?eueii? i?ia?aie ? aei
o?aouei? a?oie – aei?iaoaaiiy, ye? aecia/athoue ??aaiue niaoe?aeueieo
ciaiue c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e. I?e oeueiio inoaiiy a?oia aeiia aoea
aeeth/aia a i?ia?aie aei?iaoaaiue eeoa c 1991 ?ieo ia ie?aieo
oaeoeueoaoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iiaa aa/aiiy ci?noo
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aeaiiai i?io?eth aeayeeie eieaeoeaaie
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Iaie aeyaeaii oaeiae ?a??iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ci?noo anooiieo
aei?iaoaaiue oa ioe?iee iieaciee?a.

Aiae?c ii?iaoea?a ?ooiaeo oano?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ioe?iee
??aiy o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? ??cieie oaeoeueoaoaie o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy Oe?a?ie na?ae/eoue, ui aiie nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny(oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ii?iaoea?a ioe?iee iieaciee?a o?ce/ii?
i?aeaioiaeaiino? o i?ia?aiao anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ia oaeoeueoaoe

o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ??cieo aoc?a Oe?a?ie

(ia i?eeeaae? o?ueio aoc?a ca 1996 ?.)

OanoeNoaoueAoceEi?iaia?aaenueeee iaae. yiiaa?neoaoNeaa’yinueeee
iaae. iinoeoooE-Iiaeieuenueeee iaae.
oiiaa?neoaoioeiieaioeiieaioeiiea345345345Aia

1000i

(oa)*3,203,103,053,403,303,103,203,052,52AE4,204,103,525,004,304,104,203
,523,40Aia

100i

(nae)*14,313,512,814,513,813,014,312,812,2AE14,814,013,218,016,615,017,0
14,613,4Iiaeoyaoaaiiy

o aeni (?ace)*6912481161224Caeiaiiy i ?icaeiaiiy ?oe

(?ace)AE71112591271524

sseui aeiiae aei o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ia aeeeeeathoue caia?a/aiue ? ooo iiaeia
iieai?coaaoe eeoa c i?eaiaeo e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a, oi aei?iaoaaiiy c
ieaaaiiy noaaeyoue a aaniethoii ia??ai? oiiae aa?oo???io?a. C?icoi?ei,
ui aeey canai?iiy nii?oeaieo niinia?a ieaaaiiy iaiao?aei? ye i?i?ioi o?e
oiiae: iayai?noue eaae?o?eiaaieo oao?aoe?a; iaeaaeiaieo i?noeue aeey
oe?ei??/ieo caiyoue; aeeth/aiiy ?icae?eo ieaaaiiy a oe?euei? i?ia?aie ?
?iceeaaee o?ie?a.

Iaa?oue aac aeeaieiai aiae?co nueiaiaei?oiuei? neooaoe?? a aea?aeaa?
c?icoi?ei, ui o ia?aaaaeii? e?eueeino? aeioneiee?a oe?e oae? oiiae
a?aenooi?. Ioaea, aeey aeeiiaiiy nueiaiaei?oi?o aeiia iio??ai? iaae
coneeey aa?oo???io?a ? ?o aaouee?a, a a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao iaa?oue oae?
coneeey ia aeaaeooue iiceoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo. Aaeaea nueiaiaei? a
Oe?a?i? a e?auiio aeiaaeeo ooieoe?iio? iaeei aanaei ia 150 oeny/
ianaeaiiy ? ciaoiaeyoueny aiie aeeeth/ii o aaeeeeo i?noao, a a?aee?eo?
aiaeieie, yeui aiie ?, oi caa?oaeiai? ? a ieo naiai?aeaineoaeae ia
?aeiiaiaeothoue ieaaaoe.

Ioaea, i?iaeaio ieaaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeo?ii ae??ooaaoe oeyoii aeeeth/aiiy ?c
ci?noo anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue, aai a e?aeiueiio aeiaaeeo ia?aeoe ia cae?e
c ieaaaiiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ii?iaoeaaie ia?aaeaa/aieie «Aea?aeaaieie
oanoaie ? ii?iaoeaaie ioe?iee o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie aeey 17-??/ieo thiae?a.

C 1992 ii 1996 ?iee iaie aoea i?iaiae?ciaaia aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a
o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? ? aecia/aii, ui na?aaei? ?acoeueoaoe
a?eueoino? iieaciee?a ia a?ae??ciythoueny.

E??i oeueiai iio??aii a?aecia/eoe, ui i?e caaaeuei?e ioe?ioe? o?ce/ii?
i?aeaioiaeaiino? niinoa??aa?oueny iaaia aeenaa?iii?ei?noue ?icaeoeo
ie?aieo o?ce/ieo yeinoae. I/aaeaeii a caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie? neeaeanue
i?aeoeea, eiee a/eoae? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa ? o?aia?e AeTHNO a i?ioean?
caiyoue ia i?eae?eythoue cia/ii? oaaae aa?iii?eiiio ?icaeoeo o?ce/ieo
yeinoae.

Io?eiaoe iiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ?ooiao i?aeaioiaeai?noue aa?oo???io?a
oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iiaeia eeoa, aeiiiaieaoe aeai? i?i
?icaeoie o?ce/ieo yeinoae aeaieie i?i ??aaiue aieiae?iiy ieie oaoi?eith
ai?aa oe?eueii? i?ia?aie. Oea iaeii/anii aea? ciiao ioe?ieoe
eii?aeeiaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? aa?oo???io?a oa ??aaiue ?icaeoeo aio/eino?.
Aaeaea ye?nia aeeiiaiiy ai?aa oe?eueii? i?ia?aie aenoaa? cia/i? aeiiae
aei i?iyao oeeo yeinoae.

??aaiue aieiae?iiy aa?oo???ioaie 1992 ? 1996 ?ie?a anooio ai?aaaie
oe?eueii? i?ia?aie ie aeyaeyee ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aa??ee yeino? aeeiiaiiy
ai?aa c a?iianoeee. Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui na?aaei? ?acoeueoaoe
caaaeii ia a?ae??ciythoueny o aa?oo???io?a 1992 ? 1996 ?ie?a.

Aiae?coth/e ??aaiue niaoe?aeueieo ciaiue, ie ia?aa??yee an? aeiee
ciaiue, ye? ? i?ae??oioyi oni?oiiai iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao?. Aei ieo ie
a?aeianee: iniiae oai??? ? iaoiaeeee o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa oai???
aeae?a nii?oo, ?noi??? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, aiaoii?? ? o?c?ieia??
ethaeeie oa caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy. A i?ia?aio ia?aa??ee aeeth/aeenue
eeoa o? ieoaiiy, ye? iathoue i?noea a oe?euei?e i?ia?ai? c o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e, a?ieia?? oa aaeaieia??. Aecia/aany a?aenioie iieoaieo, ye?
ciiaee aeaoe iiceoeaio a?aeiia?aeue ia iinoaaeai? ieoaiiy c aeua
ia?a?aoiaaieo aeie?a ciaiue.

??cieoe? i?ae ?acoeueoaoaie iieooaaiiy aa?oo???io?a 1992 oa 1996 ?ie?a
anooio ie ia aeyaeee ie??i a?aeiia?aeae c iniia aaeaieia??. Ooo aeaui
c??n a?aenioie iiceoeaieo a?aeiia?aeae, ui i/aaeaeii iia’ycaii c
aeeeaaeaiiyi iniia aaeaieia?? o oe?euei?e i?ia?ai?.

Ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue o 1996-1997 ??. ? ioe?ithaaeenue ca iaoiaeeeith Thill
E (1984), yea ia?aaeaa/a? ioe?ieo ie?aieo ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae a
caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy ?o ae?aaeaiino?.

Aiae?c ea?oe ineoieia?/iiai i?io?eth na?ae/eoue, ui o oeiioe?a 1995 oa
1996 ?ie?a anooio a?eueo?noue yeinoae iathoue na?aaeith nooi?iue
ae?aaeaiino? (a iaaeao ioe?ii/ii? ciie). I?ioa ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ooiai?
? oai?aoe/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino?, aiae?c ?o ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae
(aa?oo???io?a ??cieo ?ie?a anooio) aeyaea iaai? a?aei?iiino?.

A?aei?iiino? niinoa??aathoueny o ae?aaeai? oaeeo ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae
ye: aiaaiai?noue o nia?, caeaoi?noue aei ni?eeoaaiiy. Oe? yeino? iathoue
o oeiioe?a 1995 ?ieo anooio nooi?iue ae?aaeaiino? aeua na?aaeiueiai, a o
aa?oo???io?a 1996 ?ieo ?iioeueneai?noue, aacia/i?noue, eaaeiaaaei?noue,
noeeuei?noue aei niiioaiieo ae?e, aeeiai?/i?noue oa aia?a?ei?noue
iathoue nooi?iue ae?aaeaiino? aeua na?aaeiueiai.

O ae?a/ao, oae ye o oeiioe?a, a?eueo?noue ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae iathoue
na?aaeith nooi?iue ae?aaeaiino?, aea ae?a/aoa — aa?oo???ioe 1995 ?ieo
anooio iathoue aeua na?aaeiueiai nooi?iue ae?aaeaiino? c oaeeo yeinoae
ye: ?i?oe?aoeai?noue, nioe?aeueia aeoeai?noue oa nioe?aaaeuei?noue. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae anooiiee?a ae?a/ao 1995 ?ieo, aa?oo???ioe 1996 ?ieo anooio
iathoue aeua na?aaeiueiai nooi?iue ae?aaeaiino? c oaeeo yeinoae ye:
noeeuei?noue aei niiioaiieo ae?e, aeeiai?/i?noue oa aia?a?ei?noue.

I/aaeaeii, ? iiceoeai?, ? iaaaoeai? i?iyae ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae
aa?oo???io?a, ye? ie niinoa??aaee, a?aeaeca?eaeththoue c iaeiiai aieo
no/anio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th a aea?aeaa?, c ?ioiai —
cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeoiaoth/iai aieeao oeiee.

Noai caei?ia’y aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith aieaooaaiiy, ui ? noa’?eoeaiith
ioe?ieith inoaiiueiai. Nooi?iue iiaeeeaiai ?icaeoeo na?oeaai-noaeeiieo
caoai?thaaiue anoaiiaethaaee ca iaoiaeeeith Aeooai?ia N. I. (1980), a
naiiioe?iea caei?ia’y aecia/aeanue ca iaoiaeeeith Aieoaiea A. I (1991).

Iieooaaiiy nooaeaio?a ia?oiai eo?no uiaei naiiioe?iee caei?ia’y ?
nooiaiy iiaeeeaiai ?icaeoeo na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiue iieacaee,
ui ye oeiioe? oae ? ae?a/aoa iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue iani?eyoeeaeo
a?aeiia?aeae aeaee ia ieoaiiy, ye? ca neiioiiaie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny, ye
iaa?ice, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aiaeia?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie Ae?icae I.
A. (1998).

Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui o ia?o? aei? iaa/aiiy
o nooaeaio?a ia?oiai eo?no i?iyaeythoueny caeeoeia? yaeua iai?oaeaiiy
ineo?/ieo ooieoe?e ? aiioe?eiiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy, yea aeieeei a i?ioean?
i?aeaioiaee ? neeaaeaiiy anooiieo ?nieo?a. Ioaea, aeo?ae c oeueiai
iieiaeaiiy ie aaa/a?ii a oaeineiiaeaii? nenoaie anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ?
iaoiaeeee i?aeaioiaee aei ieo.

Nenoaia ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a ?ooiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a iaie
?ic?iaeyeanue ia iniia? ia?oeeioeeueiiai aiae?co iieaciee?a ?ooiaeo
oano?a. A?aeiia?aeii aei ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e Metivierg et all (ca Leger I.,
1980)aei iecueeiai ??aiy i?aeaioiaeaiino? a?aeianai? ?acoeueoaoe,
cia/aiiy yeeo aeinooii? a?eueo i?ae 80% i?ioanoiaaieo, ieae/a
na?aaeiueiai — 60-79%, aei na?aaeiueiai — 40-59%, aei aeua-na?aaeiueiai
— 20-39%, aei aenieiai iaioa i?ae 20%. Ia?oeaioeeueia oeaea noi?iiaaia
ia aac? aeanyoe ?aiaiai? oeaee. Oaeei /eiii aei iecueeeo ?acoeueoao?a
a?aeianaii 0-2 aaee, ieae/a na?aaeiueiai — 3-4 aaee, na?aaei?e — 5-6
aae?a , aeua na?aaeiueiai — 7-8 aae?a, aenieee – 9 -10 aae?a.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ci?noo anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue c
o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a iaie i?iaiae?ciaaii aeecueei 50
?ooiaeo oano?a, 19 c yeeo iae/ano?oa cono??/athoueny a i?aeoeoe?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a. Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a iaoaiaoe/iiai
aiae?co aeyaeaii aieea oeeo ?ooiaeo oano?a ia oni?oi?noue nooaeaio?a
ia?oiai eo?no oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?c nii?oeaii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i.

Aiae?c iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo i?iaiinoe/ieie aecia/eeenue o?noue oaeeo
?ooiaeo oano?a: 1)i?aeoyaoaaiiy a aen? (oeiioe?)(r=0,520 P<0,01); 2)caeiaiiy ? ?icaeiaiiy ?oe a oii?? eaaea/e(ae?a/aoa)(r=0,485 P<0,01); 3)a?a 3000 i. (oeiioe?)(r=0,395 P<0,05); 4)a?a 2000 i. (ae?a/aoa)(r=0,395 P<0,05); 5)no?eaie a aeiaaeeio c i?noey(oeiioe? r=0,512 P<0,01, ae?a/aoa-r=0,465 P<0,01); 6)a?a 100 i. (oeiioe?-r=0,341 P<0,05, ae?a/aoa-r=0,383 P<0,05). Cacia/eii, ui aeua ia?a?aoiaai? oanoe ?aeiiaiaeothoueny an?ia eaoaai??yie iieoaieo. O? ae oanoe iae/ano?oa cono??/athoueny a i?ia?aiao anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ?c niaoe?aeueiino? ia oaeoeueoaoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie. Ia iniia? ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy ?c nii?oeaii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i iathoue ai?aae c ?icae?eo a?iianoeee, ia ae?oaiio i?noe? (ca aaee/eiith aieeao) ciaoiaeyoueny nii?oeai? oa ?ooeea? ?a?e. Oea i/aaeaeii iineoaeeei i?aenoaaith aeey aeeth/aiiy ?ai? o i?ia?aio anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue o I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. E. Ae. Ooeinueeiai. Iaeiei c e?eoa???a a?aeai?o ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? aecia/aiiy ??aiy niaoe?aeueieo oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue. Ia?aae ii/aoeii aenia?eiaioo iaie aoea aeneiaeaia a?iioaca i?i oa, ui ??aaiue oai?aoe/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? iaiao?aeii aecia/aoe ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aa??ee oeo ciaiue, ye? ? aacith aea/aiiy ie?aieo aeenoeeie?i iaa/aeueiiai ieaio oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c caeaaeiino? oni?oiino? nooaeaio?a ia?oeo eo?n?a a?ae canai?iiy ??cieo ?icae?e?a oe?eueii? i?ia?aie iieacaa, ui o?eueee i'youe ?? ?icae?e?a ciaiue iathoue aeinoia??iee aieea ia oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ye o oeiioe?a oae ? ae?a/ao. Oea ciaiiy c ?icae?e?a aiaoii?? ethaeeie, oai??? ? iaoiaeeee o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, oai?aoe/ieo iniia aeae?a nii?oo, ?noi??? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa aaeaieia??. C iaoith oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueii? nenoaie aecia/aiiy ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei inai?iiy i?ioan?? a/eoaey o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, iaie i?iaiae?ciaaii i'youe ineoieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae iniaenoino? aa?oo???ioa, ye? a naith no?oeoo?o aeeth/athoue o?noiaaeoeyoue ineoieia?/ieo ?en. Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co aeyaeaii aaee/eie aieeao ineoieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? ?en iniaenoino? aa?oo???ioa ia oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Iaea?eueoee aieea ia oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy iathoue oae? ineoieia?/i? ?ene(es, cp, ce, do, so), ye? aoiaeyoue o iioeaaoe?eio, ae?yeueio, eiio?ieueio oa ?aeyoeaio noi?iie iniaenoino? aa?oo???ioa. ?ene, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue a?aeaa?o?noue, ia iathoue aeinoia??ieo aieea?a ia oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Ia?aiao?e aenia?eiaioaeueii? i?ia?aie a?aeai?o aa?oo???io?a aecia/aeenue oeyoii ei?aeyoe?eiiai ? ia?oeaioeeueiiai aiae?co, iieaciee?a o?ce/ii?, oai?aoe/ii? ? ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino?. Ia iniia? oeueiai aoee ?ic?iaeai? iaeaaei? iiaeaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy (oaae.2-3). Oaaeeoey 2 I?iaiinoe/ia iiaeaeue i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a (??aaiue i?iaiiciaaii? caaaeueii? oni?oiino? "caaeia?eueii") Eiio?ieuei? ai?aaeOeiioe?Ae?a/aoa?acoeueoaoSmsAaee?acoeueoaoSmsAaeeNo?eaie a aeiaaeeio c i?noey2221,6751920,076A?a 2000 i7607,2356095,325A?a 100 i13,80,06614,90,075Caeiaiiy ? ?icaeiaiiy ?oe140,416200,464Ae?iaaoe/i? ai?aae7,60,0768,00,127 Iii?iee no?eaie7,80,0768,10,088 Oai?aoe/ia iieooaaiiy5,00,2755,00,175 Oaaeeoey 3 I?iaiinoe/ia iiaeaeue i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a (??aaiue i?iaiiciaaii? caaaeueii? oni?oiino? "aeia?a", "a?aei?iii") Eiio?ieuei? ai?aaeOeiioe?Ae?a/aoa?acoeueoaoSmsAaee?acoeueoaoSmsAaeeNo?eaie a aeiaaeeio c i?noey2301,5361951,787A?a 2000 i7487,4675995,285A?a 100 i13,80,06614,80,056Caeiaiiy ? ?icaeiaiiy ?oe150277230,426Ae?iaaoe/i? ai?aae8,40,0389,20,0610Iii?iee no?eaie8,70,0389,10,0610Oai?aoe/ia iieooaaiiy7,00,2778,00,268 ?acoeueoaoe ineoieia?/iiai oanooaaiiy ie aeei?enoiaoaaee ye aeiaeaoeiao ?ioi?iaoe?th, aac yei? i?iaiicoaaiiy oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ia ? iaae?eiei. Iaeaaei? i?iyae ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaee/eiaie a aaeao, ye? iiaeai? a oaaeeoe? 4. Oaaeeoey 4 I?iaiinoe/i? iiaeae? ineoieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aa?oo???io?a Ineoieia?/i? aeanoeaino? iniaenoino? aa?oo???ioaoeiioe? (aaee)ae?a/aoa (aaee)Iioeaaoe?y6767Ae?yeuei?noue5656Eiio?ieue6858?aeyoeai?noue6778 Ia iniia? i?iaiinoe/ieo iiaeaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aieo noi??i i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ie aecia/eee ae?aiacii na?aaeiueiai aaeo, yeee aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe ??aaiue iiceoeaii? oni?oiino? iaeaooi?o nooaeaio?a. Oe? aeai? iiaeai? a oaaeeoe? 5. Oaaeeoey 5 Oeaea ioe?iee caaaeueiiai ??aiy i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy Caaaeueiee ??aaiue i?aeaioiaeaiino? Noia aae?a I?iaiiciaaia oni?oi?noueoeiioe?ae?a/aoaIecueeee0-38 0-39Iacaaeia?eueiiNa?aaei?e39-4840-50Caaeia?eueiiAenieee49-7052-70Aeia?a – A?aei?iiiI?iaiae?coaaaoe oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy ca ia?oa i?a??//y, ie aeyaeee, ui ?o ?acoeueoaoe ? i?iaiic c?iaeaiee iaie ca aenia?eiaioaeueiith nenoaiith a?aeai?o nooo?ai ia a?ae??ciythoueny. ??cieoey noaiiaeea anueiai aeaa a?aenioee. Oaeei /eiii, cai?iiiiiaaia iaie i?ia?aia anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue aea? iiaeeea?noue iaae?eii i?iaiicoaaoe oni?oe iaeaooi?o nooaeaio?a a iaa/aii?, ui aeanoue iiaeeea?noue i?e ?? aeei?enoaii? nooo?ai i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? aeioneiee?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? "Aeiaoc?anueea i?aeaioiaea anooiiee?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy" ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee aa?oo???io?a aei anooio oa iaa/aiiy. C oe??th iaoith iaie aea/aeenue aeoiee nooaeaio?a ia?oiai eo?no, ye iaaeaai?o aa?oo???io?a, ye? iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaoaaeenue i?e oi?ioaaii? ci?noo i?ia?aie aeiaoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee. ?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy iieacaee, ui o?eueee 37% ?aniiiaeaio?a ia cono??ee aeiaeieo o?oaeiiu?a i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aei anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue. Aeaaaeoeyoue n?i a?aenioe?a aa?oo???io?a a?ae/oee oneeaaeiaiiy a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee aei oai?aoe/iiai iieooaaiiy c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e. Oea a ia?oo /a?ao iia'ycaii c a?aenooi?noth iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, /e ?ioeo iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a, ca yeeie iiaeia aiooaaoenue aei oeueiai ?nieoo. 36% iieoaieo a?ae/oee cia/i? o?oaeiiu? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aei aei?iaoaaiue c ?ooiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino?. Ui c iaeiiai aieo iia'ycaii c ??aiai aeiia, ye? ? cia/ii aeueie i?ae ii?iaoeae oe?eueii? i?ia?aie, a c ?ioiai - c iaai?iiyi aoaeoaaoe nai i?ioean i?aeaioiaee. A?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy uiaei oi?i i?aeaioiaee iieacaee, ui iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue aa?oo???io?a (77%) aiooaaeenue aei anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue naiino?eii oae, ye niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaii? aeiaoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee aa?oo???io?a oaeoe/ii ia ?nio?. Iaie aoei ciaeaeaii aeiiii?/ii ?aoe?iiaeueio ? eia?/io no?oeoo?o aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo. Iaa/aeuei? caiyooy i?iaiaeeeenue o aeaeyae? eaeoe?e, nai?ia??a, o?aioaaiue, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai i?aeoeeoio ? naiino?eii? ?iaioe. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaciee?a o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeiii?oi?oeo ci?i caciathoue neeia? yeino? o/i?a. Oea yne?aai aeaeii ia ?acoeueoaoao aeeiiaiiy oano?a neeiaiai oa?aeoa?o, aea c?ooaiiy a i?aeoyaoaaii? o oeiioe?a noaiiaeyoue 25% ? 16% o ae?a/ao a caeiaii? ? ?icaeiaii? ?oe a oii?? eaaea/e. Iaai? c?ooaiiy o a?e c?inoaiiy niinoa??aathoueny ? o ?ioeo oanoao. Iaeiaio? i?e?inoe ?acoeueoao?a niinoa??aathoueny o a?aiaeo oanoao. I?e/eiith oaeiai noaiiaeua ? iecueeee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo aieueiaeo yeinoae noa?oieeaniee?a. Iaeiii?oi?o? ci?ie c on?o ?icae?e?a i?aeaioiaeaiino? anooiiee?a ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ye? i?ieoee niaoe?aeueio i?aeaioiaeo ca aeaiith i?ia?aiith, niinoa??aathoueny ?c oai?aoe/iiai ?icae?eo. Iaai? ci?ie niinoa??aathoueny ? o i?iyaao ineo?/ieo i?ioean?a noa?oieeaniee?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi. Neooa/? oeeo a?oi noaee aiioe?eii noaa?euei?oeie, eaa?euei?oeie o ni?eeoaaii? c ?ioeie ethaeueie, iaioa i?aeaeathoueny iaaaoeaiei aieeaai. O oeeo o/i?a cia/ii c??n nooi?iue eiioeaio?aoe?? coneeue uiaei ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, c’yaeeanue aiaaiai?noue o aenooiao ia?aae aoaeeoi???th oiui. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi, o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao iii?oieo ci?i o iieacieeao ineo?/ieo i?ioean?a ie ia niinoa??aaee. Cacia/eii, ui neooa/? c ieae/a na?aaei?i ??aiai aeeoee ia na?aaei?e ??aaiue i?aeaioiaeaiino? ca an?ia iieacieeaie. Ioaea ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo aeathoue i?aenoaao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui oni?oia ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue i?aeaioiaee aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei ia?. A i'yoiio ?icae?e? "Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy" i?aeaiaeeoueny i?aenoiie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue iaie iaea?aeai? o?e a?oie aeaieo: i?aeoaa?aeaeoth/? (1a?oia); aeai?, ui aeiiiaiththoue ?nioth/? ?ic?iaee (2 a?oia) oa aaniethoii iia? c i?aeiyoi? i?iaeaie. A aeine?aeaeaii? i?aeoaa?aeeeenue aeai?(Eiiaoeia A. A., 1987; Eaioaaeca A. N., 1991; Ooiaioeaaa A. I., 1976), uiaei caeaaeiino? canai?iiy i?ia?aiiaiai iaoa??aeo ?c nii?oeaii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i a?ae ??aiy ?ooiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino? nooaeaio?a. I?aeoaa?aeeeenue oaeiae aeniiaee aaoi??a aeine?aeaeaiue(Aaeaaiei N. TH. , Ieaoe?a A. A., 1994; Ithuaieiaa I. E., 1975; Iiaeueyiaei A. A., 1996) i?i iayai?noue aca?iica'yceo i?ae ??aiai aieiae?iiy anooiieeaie ai?aaaie oe?eueii? i?ia?aie ia ioe?ieo "a?aei?iii" oa ?o oni?oi?noth ?c nii?oeaii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i i?ae /an iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Aei ae?oai? a?oie iaea?aeaieo iaie aeaieo a?aeiinyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii?aoeueiaaieo iaoiaeii ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co, ye? aeiiiaiththoue ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aiaeia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?i caeaaei?noue i?ae ?icaeoeii o?ce/ieo yeinoae ? oaoi?eith aeeiiaiiy ai?aa (Oaee? TH., 1996). A iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? cia/ii aeiiiaiaii ?ai?oa io?eiai? aeai? i?i aeiiae aei ineoieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae iniae a/eoaey o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e (Aeoiaaa E. A., 1976; E??/oaeooee I. A., 1994; Eiaee?i A. A., 1994; Iooaiaaeaeeaa A., 1979). Oea aea? ciiao aiooaaoe aei anooio ? cae?enithaaoe a?aea?? aeey iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ia ye?nii iiaiio ??ai?. Nooo?ai aeiiiaiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?i aieea iniaenoeo yeinoae aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ia oni?oe a iaa/aii? (Oaee? TH., 1996). Cie?aia, eiie?aoeciaaii aaee/eie i?iyao ineoieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Iiaeie ? io?eiai? iaie aeai? i?i aeei?enoaiiy i?e anooi? ia oaeoeueoaoe o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a oanoiaeo aei?iaoaaiue. Aei oe??? a?oie aeaieo iaeaaeaoue oaeiae ?ic?iaea oa ia??oiooaaiiy ci?noo i?ia?ai anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue oa aeiaoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee anooiiee?a ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia iie?auaiiy i?ioeano oaoiai? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e. AENIIAEE 1. Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e oa i?aeoeee c i?iaeai i?aeaioiaee ? a?aeai?o aa?oo???io?a aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy aeyaea, ui: -i?iaeaia aeiaoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaia ? oea iicia/a?oueny ia ?o iiaeaeueoiio iaa/aii? ia oaeoeueoao?; -iaae??oaiith caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeieo aaciaeo aeiia aei aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy Oe?a?ie, ye? ia?aaeaa/aee a ioe?iee ?o oai?aoe/ii?, ?ooiai? oa ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino?; -iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaea iiaeae? a/eoaey o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia yeino? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. 2. Aiae?c i?ia?aie anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ia oaeoeueoaoe o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy Oe?a?ie cana?ae/o?, ui: -eiio?ieuei? ai?aae, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny ??cieie oaeoeueoaoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie, nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny; -o i?ia?aiao anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ?c niaoe?aeueiino? a?eueoino? oaeoeueoao?a a?aenooi? aei?iaoaaiiy aeey ia?aa??ee ??aiy niaoe?aeueieo ciaiue c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, ui cieaeo? iioeaaoe?th aeey aeioneiee?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e Oe?a?ie uiaei ?o canai?iiy; -o anooiieo aei?iaoaaiiyo ia oaeoeueoaoe o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie ia aeei?enoiaothoueny ineoieia?/i? iaoiaeeee, ui ia aeicaiey? a iiai?e i??? ioe?ieoe iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? aa?oo???io?a. 3. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue iaoeiai ia??oiooaaoe eiiieaen aoaeaioe/ieo oano?a aeey aecia/aiiy ?ooiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a. Aeyaeaii aeinoia??iee ca'ycie (P<0,05, P<0,01) oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?c nii?oeaii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i c ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo iaie oano?a. Oea aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ?o aeey aeei?enoaiiy a i?ioean? a?aeai?o aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoaoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie. 4. Ioe?ieo ??aiy niaoe?aeueieo ciaiue c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a i?ioean? a?aeai?o aa?oo???io?a aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe ca oaeeie aeieaie ciaiue: oai??y ? iaoiaeeea o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeae?a nii?oo; ?noi??y o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e; iniiae aiaoii?? ? o?c?ieia?? ethaeeie; iniiae aaeaieia??. sse?noue oeeo ciaiue aeinoia??ii(P<0,05; P<0,01) aieeaa? ia oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a c on?o i?aaeiao?a iaa/aeueiiai ieaio. 5. ?ic?iaeaia iaie iaoiaeeea ineoieia?/iiai oanooaaiiy aa?oo???io?a i?aeaeuo? iaae?ei?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy c on?o oeeee?a aeenoeeie?i iaa/aeueiiai ieaio oaeoeueoaoo. 6. Ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iiaeii? iinooiaoe eeoa caei?ia? thiaee ? ae?a/aoa, ye? iniaenoi iathoue aooe i?eeeaaeii aeey iane?aeoaaiiy. Aeiyoie iiaeooue neeaaeaoe aa?oo???ioe, ye? ni?yiiaaii aioothoueny aeey ?iaioe c iaaieie eaoaai??yie ?iaae?ae?a, aai aeey niaoeeo?/ieo cii i?iaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiy. 7. Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy noi?iiaaia i?ia?aia aeiaoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee anooiiee?a, yea ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo a?aeiiinoae c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, iaieiae?iiy oaoi?eith ai?aa, iaaoooy i?ioan?eii-cia/eieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie oa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?ooiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino?. Oea aea? ciiao iaeaaeii i?aeaiooaaoenue aei anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? a iiaeaeueoiio oni?oii iaa/aoenue. 8. ?ic?iaeai? ? ai?iaiaai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeathoue ciiao ia o?eueee iie?aueoe ??aaiue o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? anooiiee?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, aea ? oni?oii aiooaaoenue aei Aea?aeaaiiai oanooaaiiy oa neeaaeaiiy eiio?ieueieo ii?iaoea?a oe?eueii? i?ia?aie c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Iaienoee A. I?aeaioiaea iaeaooi?o aa?oo???io?a aei anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue c o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaee o aeu? caeeaaee ina?oe: Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. -Oa?iii?eue, 1998. -42 n. 2. Iaienoee A. I?aeaioiaea noa?oieeaniee?a aei anooio ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy // O?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy a oeie?. -1997. -N4. -N. 47-50. 3. Iaienoee A. A. Nenoaia i?ioan?eiiai a?aeai?o ia oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - 1998. - N2.- N.48-51. 4. Iaienoee A.A. Aiae?c i?ia?ai anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue ?c niaoe?aeueiino? ia oaeoeueoaoe o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy Oe?a?ie// Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - 1998.- N4. – N.141-142. 5. Iaienoee A.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e// Iaaeaaia?ea, ineoieia?y oa iaaeeei – a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1999.- ?1.- N.13-14. 6. Iaienoee A.A. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aeiaoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee anooiiee?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy// Iaaeaaia?ea, ineoieia?y oa iaaeeei – a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1999.- ?1.- N.15-16. 7. Iaienoee A. A. Caeaaei?noue oni?oiino? c nii?oeaii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i a?ae ?acoeueoao?a o oanoiaeo ai?aaao nooaeaio?a I eo?no oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy//Iaoa??aee anaoe. iaoe. eiio. "Ina?oa a aaeoc? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e: noai i?iaeaie ia?niaeoeae". -*. I. – Euea?a, 1996. -N. 212-215. 8. Iaienoee A. A. Aaeaieia?y c iniiaaie aiaoii?? ethaeeie, ye eiiiiiaio i?ioeano i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy//Ca??iee iaoa??ae?a IV iaoe-i?ae. eiio. "Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aaeaieia?? oa icaei?ia/i? o?ceoeueoo?e a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie". – E??iaia?aae, 1997. -N. 44-50. 9. Iaienoee A. A. O?ce/iee ?icaeoie ? o?ce/ia i?aeaioiaeai?noue nooaeaioie oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy//Iaoa??aee anaoe. iaoe. eiio. "Iioei?caoe?y i?ioeano o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a nenoai? ina?oe". -Ee?a-Oa?iii?eue, 1997. - N. 243-246. 10. Iaienoee A. A. O?ce/ia i?aeaioiaeai?noue nooaeaio?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e//Iaoa??aee I i?aei. iaoe-i?ae. eiio. "?ieue o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a caei?iaiio niinia? aeeooy". Euea?a, 1995. - N. 52. 11. Iaienoee A. A. Caei?ia'y ye eiiiiiaio noaiiaeaiiy a/eoaey o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy//Iaoa??aee ?? anaoe. iaoe-iaoiae. Eiioa?aioe?? "Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aaeaieia?/ii? ina?oe a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie". – E??iaia?aae, 1996. -N. 63. 12. Iaienoee A. A. I?iaeaia o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo noa?oieeaniee?a // Eoeueoo?a ? aeieia?y thiaoeoaa. -Oiaeueieoeueeee: 1996. -N. 61-62. 13. Iaienoee A. A. Aecaiai ?c niaoe?ae?caoe??-ia?oiiniiaa noaiiaeaiiy a/eoaey o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy//Iaoa??aee i?aei. iaoe-i?ae. eiio "Aaeaioaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? ae?oae ? iieiae?". –Iaeana, 1996. -N. 57-59. 14. Iaienoee A. A. Aecia/aiiy ??aiy o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy//Oace aeiiia?aeae anaoe. iaoe-i?ae. eiio. "Nooaeaionueeee o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaiee ?oo a Oe?a?i? ia ii?ic? XXI noie?ooy". –Ee?a, 1998. -N. 116. AIIOAOe?? Iaienoee A.A. I?aeaioiaea noa?oieeaniee?a ? a?aea?? aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 24.00.02 – O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy. – Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee, Eooeuee, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? i?aeaioiaee ? a?aeai?o iieiae? aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. A i?e ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio aeiaoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee oa nenoaio anooiieo aei?iaoaaiue aeey a?aeai?o aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Aeniiaee i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeaieie oanoiaeo aei?iaoaaiue, aieaooaaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo i?aeaioiaee ? a?aeai?o iieiae? aei iaa/aiiy ia oaeoeueoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oanooaaiiy, aa?oo???io, a?aea??, i?aeaioiaea, iiaeaeue i?aeaioiaeaiino?, ii?iaoeae, i?ia?aia, anooii? aei?iaoaaiiy. Iaienoue A.A. Iiaeaioiaea noa?oaeeannieeia e ioai? aeey iao/aiey ia oaeoeueoaoa oece/aneiai ainieoaiey. – ?oeiienue Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe ii oece/aneiio ainieoaieth e nii?oo ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 24.00.02 – Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a, oece/aneia ainieoaiea ?aciuo a?oi ianaeaiey. – Aieuineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. Eane Oe?aeiee, Eooee, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai iiaeaioiaee e ioai?a iieiae?aee aeey iao/aiey ia oaeoeueoaoa oece/aneiai ainieoaiey. A iae ?ac?aaioaia i?ia?aiia aeiaocianeie iiaeaioiaee e nenoaia anooieoaeueiuo yecaiaiia aeey aaeoo?eaioia oaeoeueoaoa oece/aneiai ainieoaiey. Auaiaeu iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu aeaiiuie oanoiauo eniuoaiee, aieaoe?iaaiey e ?acoeueoaoaie aiaae?aiey a i?aeoeeo iiaeaioiaee e ioai?a iieiae?aee aeey iao/aiey ia oaeoeueoaoa oece/aneiai ainieoaiey. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oanoe?iaaiea, aaeoo?eaio, ioai?, iiaeaioiaea, iiaeaeue iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe, eiio?ieueiua ii?iaoeau, i?ia?aiia, anooieoaeueiua yecaiaiu. Ognystyi A.V. Preparation of senior pupils and selecting them to studding in physical education department. – Manuscript Thesis for seeking of scientific degree of Candidate of Physical Education and Sport Science on speciality 24.00.02- Physical culture, physical education of different population groups. – The Volynsky State University by Lesya Ukrainka, Lutsk,1998. Basing on research, connected with investigation of methods of preparation and selection of senior pupils for physical education department, we determined improvement peculiarities of motive, theoretical and psychological preparedness of applicants for education. Based on this, we created entering test program for p. e. department and pre- high school program for senior pupils and experimentally checked efficiency of above mentioned programs. Creation of entering test program for physical education department foresaw development of estimation norms of physical preparedness, theoretical and psychological testing. The background of development of this program was the model of professional teacher of physical education. Based on study of entering test program, results of theoretical testing of applicants and analyzing their correlation connections with the success in study, we created theoretical test program, including tests on special knowledge: history of physical education ; theory and methods of physical education; theoretical fundamentals of kinds of sport; fundamentals of human anatomy; fundamentals of valeology. By forming entering motive tests we analyzed nearly 50 motive tests which are used to check physical preparedness and 19 which are mostly used in Ukrainian entering test programs on physical preparedness. As the result of our investigation scientifically-sound complex of 6 authentic exercises (pulling oneself up on the bar (boys),bending and unbending of hands laying on the floor(girls), standing broad jump, run 100m., 2000m.(girls), 3000m.(boys)).This program enables us to check applicants’ physical preparedness and to make prognosis for their successful study in physical education department. Having analyzed the results of our investigation it was determined that we must add the level of technique fulfillment of exercises from school program to get the full information about applicant’ motive preparedness for physical education department. Qualitative fulfillment of school exercises tend to high-grade physical qualities. We advise to check the possession of school program exercises basing on estimation of gymnastic exercises. We made the conclusion that gymnastic exercises are the most efficient while selecting applicants for physical education department and their further successful study. This conclusion is based on correlation analysis of school program, namely: track and field (r=0,345 P<0,05), sport and motive games (r=0,397 P<0,01), swimming (r=0,237 P<0,05), skiing (r=0,293 P<0,05), gymnastics (r=0,500 P<0,01). Analyzing the success in fulfillment of gymnastic exercises we found that the most informational is acrobatic and jumping preparedness of applicants. Good preparedness in gymnastics inevitably to success during other sport classes existing in physical education department. With the aim of improvement process for preparation of specialists and selecting applicants to physical education department we made a research on the question of advisability of estimation of psychological peculiarities of applicants. The methodic of psychological testing of physical education applicants was created and approved. We discovered the influence (r=0,415 P<0,01) of applicants’ psychological testing on the success in study of 1-st year students of physical education department. The practical usage of psychological testing in the process of selection requires special skills of examiners or people having psycho-diagnostic skills. Owing to that the usage of psychological methods in selection procedure for physical education department should play consultative role. Basing on the demands to the teacher of physical education and the results of our research we propose the model of preparedness of applicants for physical education department including: general and special knowledge ; motive preparedness; psycho-pedagogical features ; optimum health state. Here we should note that for qualitative solving the problem for preparing the teacher of physical education it must be a good interrelation of all above mentioned components of the model. On the preparedness model of applicants we developed the program for future applicants, which provides more profound teaching at schools the subjects connected with physical education, mastering techniques of exercises, acquiring of psychological-pedagogical skills, improvement of applicants’ health state. Our pre - high school preparing program can be recommended for practical usage not only for physical education departments but as the way for successful passing of State tests and physical preparedness of Ukrainian population and for demands in school program in physical education. Except this it can be used for independent exercises by senior pupils. Key – words: testing, applicant, selecting, and preparation, model of preparation, norms, and program, entering tests.

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