3

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i.  A.N.Neiai?iaee

NE?IOeIAA IEAIA A?EOI??AIA

OAeE 378.14.(09)

I?AeAIOIAEA IAAeAAIA?A-AIEAE?NO?A

O OAI?*?E NIAAeUEI? Ae?ss*?A OA?E?ANUeEI?

IAOe?IIAEUeII? IOCE*II-IAAeAAIA?*II?

OEIEE (20-70 ??. OO no.)

13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

O a ? e ? a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iiiiaa Ethaeieea Aeaiee?aia, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaeueie/oe Na?a?e Aaa?eeiae/, E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.Aeiie/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
iaaeaaia?ee iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaca?aa Ieeiea ?anoao?eiae/, Noinueeee

iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. A.N.Iaea?aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino?.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
iaaeaaia?ee,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_10__”_a?oaeiy_ 1998 ?. i __13_ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.04 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee ca
aae?anith: 310168, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2, aoae. 221.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee (310168, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2) .

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “__29_” __aeiaoiy_ 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aeieo?aiei O.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. O aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai?
“Ina?oa (Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy)” cacia/a?oueny, ui i??i?eoaoieie
iai?yiaie aeoiaaiiy iieiae? ? “oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?,
ethaia? aei ??aeii? caie?, naiai ia?iaeo, eiai eoeueoo?e oa ?noi???,..
caaacia/aiiy aeooiaii? ?aeiino? iieie?iue”. Ea?oth/enue oeeie
caaaeaiiyie, iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea a iiooeao oeyo?a oa cania?a
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaeaoeueeeo eaae??a aeui? oeiee
caa?oa?oueny aei aea/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy oai?/i? niaaeueie i?ia?aneaieo
ae?y/?a a?o/eciyii? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee e eoeueoo?e.
Oaeee i?aeo?ae ni?eyoeia aeyaeaiith ?o oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae oa aeina?aeo,
aeicaieeoue aeiiiaieoe iiaeie iaoa??aeaie ?noi??th iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee
Oe?a?ie, aeiiiiiaea oai?/iio aeei?enoaiith ciaeaeaieo o i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaieo o no/anieo ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea a ieayae? oaeaiiaeoeo i?aaenoaaiee?a a?o/eciyii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee oa eoeueoo?e iaeaaeeoue caniiaieeai
Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee I.A.Aieoa?ao
(1883-1966), A.?.Aie?? (1903-1966), I.A.Ieoaeeiao-Neaei?iao (1890-1956),
I.?.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo (1892-1966), ?.N.Iaoi?aeeinueeiio (1896-1960).

Caneoaeai? ae?y/? ienoaoeoa, aeina?ae/ai? aeeeaaea/? i?enayoeee nai?
aeeooy iaaeaaia?/i?e oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e ae?yeueiino?, i?aaioee
i?aeaeueoe eoeueoo?iee ??aaiue ia?iaeo, oi?ioaaee anoaoe/i? iiaeyaee
iieiae?, i?iiaaoaaee oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueio ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/io
niaaeueio. A?aeii? iaeno?e i?aeaiooaaee aaaaoi oaeaiiaeoeo iaaeaaia?a,
c?iaeee aaaiiee aianie o ?ic?iaeo ieoaiue iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo aei ?iaioe o
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie ??cieo ??ai?a.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Aiae?c no/anii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e iieaco?, ui ieoaiiy i?aeaioiaee
a/eoae?a oa aeeeaaea/?a ioceee aeey na?aaei?o ? aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a i?eaa?oaee oaaao iaaeaaia?a ? ioceeiciaaoe?a. E?oa?aoo?o c
oeeo i?iaeai iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie. Ia?oa — oai?aoe/i? e
iaoiaee/i? i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? i?aeaioiaoe? a/eoae?a ioceee ia
io-ce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a. Ae?oaa —
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? ii?ooothoue ieoaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a aeeiiaanueeeo oaeoeueoa-o?a eiina?aaoi??e, ioce/ieo
aeaaeai?e, ?inoeooo?a ienoaoeoa. I?ae??oioyi iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaio a?oi ? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?aoe? a?aeiieo iaaeaaia?a-ioceeai-o?a
I.I.Ai?aen?ii?, E.A.A?/aaeieeiai?, A.A.Anao’?aa, Ae.A.Eaaaeaanueeiai.

Na?aae aeine?aeaeaiue ia?oi? a?oie iniaeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue ci?noiaiei
i?aoeyi A.A.Aaaeoee?ia, E.A.Eiaaeue, A.A.Eeoa/iaa, A.I.Iaaeaeee,
A.I.Oaa/aiei, TH.A.THoeaae/a, N.A.Iaeueie/oea, I.?.Eaca?aaa,
O.I.Oaiueei.

Aei ?ia?o ae?oai? a?oie a?aeiinyoueny iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? noaoo?
E.A.Aa?aiaieia, A.A.Iaeaaoca, A.A.?oa?iooaeia. Aeaye? ieoaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee ia aieaeueieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo
ioce/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ?icaeyaeathoueny o iaoiaee/ieo cioeoao
I.N.Aa?eyia, i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a
i?enay/aia noaooy A.A.Iaiaaai?.

Ie?aia i?noea na?aae aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? a?oie caeiathoue ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a eiina?aaoi??e oa ioceeiciaaoe?a, ye? aena?oeththoue aeaye?
aniaeoe iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa iaoiaee/ii? niaaeueie ae?y/?a
Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee. Na?aae ieo
a?ia?ao?/ii-iaoiaee/i? i?aoe? O.I.Ieoaeeiai? «Aeoiaaiiy ni?aae?a o
Ee?anuee?e eiina?aaoi???» oa ?.A.Ia?eioaiea «Iaaei Aaneeueiae/ Aieoa?a —
iaaeaaia-aieae?no», a oaeiae iiiia?ao?y O.I.Oaa/ei
«I.?.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo».

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e
iieaco?, ui aianie caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/-ii? oeiee a ?ic?iaeo iaoe oa ci?noo i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a, oi?i oa iaoiae?a i?aai?caoe?? ?o i?aeoe/ii?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? o aeu?e oeie? a eiiieaen? ia
aeine?aeaeoaaany.

Aeooaeuei?noue ? iaiao?aei?noue ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy,
nooi?iue iaoeiai? aeine?aeaeaiino? i?iaeaie coiiaeee aea?? oaie
aeena?oaoe??, aecia/aiiy ?? o?iiieia?/ieo ?aiie, ia’?eoa, i?aaeiaoa,
iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy caaaeaiue.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — oai?/a niaaeueia ae?y/?a Oa?e?anueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee c ieoaiue i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a
— aieae?no?a ( 20-70 ??. OO no.).

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – oai?aoe/i? ?aea? oa i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue
caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee c
ieoaiue i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a (20-70 ??. OO no.).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — aiae?c iaoe oa ci?noo, oi?i oa iaoiae?a
i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o oai?/?e niaaeuei? ae?y/?a
Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee a 20-70 ??. OO
no., aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy iaaooiai aeina?aeo a oiiaao
?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. I. ?ice?eoe aeoiee ca?iaeaeaiiy Oa?e?anueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee.

2. Aeyaeoe aoaie ?icaeoeo Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee.

3. I?iaiae?coaaoe aianie ae?y/?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee a ?ic?iaeo iaoe oa ci?noo i?aeaioiaee
aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo.

4. ?icaeyiooe oi?ie oa iaoiaee i?aai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo.

5. Aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ?aeae oa aeina?aeo ae?y/?a Oa?e?anueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee oa iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
?o niaaeueie a no/anieo oiiaao.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue oai??y iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy, iieiaeaiiy i?i ae?aeaeoe/io ?aei?noue oa aca?iica’ycie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai e caaaeueiiethaenueeiai, ?noi??? c nueiaiaeaiiyi,
aeioe?euei?noue oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy niaaeueie aeaeaoieo a?o/eciyieo
ae?y/?a iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee oa eoeueoo?e a no/anieo oiiaao,
iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie “Ina?oa
(Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy)”.

Iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee, oai?aoe/iee ?
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
ioceeiciaa/i? e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??ae?a aea?aeaaieo oa i?eaaoieo a?o?a?a,
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. Aeyaeaiiy,
nenoaiaoecaoe?y oa ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae ? i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee, canoinoaaiiy ?o aeina?aeo a iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao 50-70 ??. OO no.

Aeaea?aeiciaa/ith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iaoa??aee oa aeieoiaioe
?oeiieniiai a?o?ao I.?.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny a
Aea?aeaaiiio ioca? ioce/iiai, oaao?aeueiiai oa e?iiienoaoeoaa Oe?a?ie,
a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai ?inoeoooo ienoaoeoa ?i.
?.I.Eioey?aa-nueeiai, ?oeiiene, ye? a i?ea?iaeao oa eii?yo
caa??aathoueny a i?eaaoieo a?o?aao I.A.Aieoa?aa, A.?.Aie??,
I.A.Ieoaeeiaa-Neaei?iaa, ?.N.Iaoi?aeeinueeiai, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?aoe?
caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee,
iioae?eiaai? a aeayeeo aeaeaiiyo, ?o aenooie oa noaoo? o a?o/eciyi?e
ia??iaeeoe?, iaa/aeuei? ieaie, i?ia?aie aeueo ioce/ieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a, iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee oa i?ae?o/ieee, aeia?aeeiaa e iaioa?ia
e?oa?aoo?a aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iiaeyae?a ae?y/?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee 20-30 ??. OO no. i?ae /an oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aei iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ?o oai?aoe/ieo
?aeae oa i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? c ieoaiue i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o 50-70 ??. OO no.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iueiio
cae?eniaii ni?iao nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
iaoa??ae?a ?c ieoaiue noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo Oa?e?anueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee a 20-70 ??. OO no.,
i?iaiae?ciaaii aianie ae?y/?a oe??? oeiee a ?ic?iaeo iaoe e ci?noo
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo, oi?i oa iaoiae?a
i?aai?caoe?? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oa?eiaa oa Ee?aa, aeyaeaii ia?niaeoeai?
oaiaeaioe?? aeei?enoaiiy ?o aeina?aeo a no/ani?e iaaeaaia?/i?e
aoc?anuee?e i?aeoeoe?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o aoc?anueeeo eo?nao ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee,
ioce/ii? iaaeaaia?ee, iaoiaeee ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, aeeeaaeaiiy aieaeo,
iinoaiiae aieino, ia iaaeaaia?/ieo, ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao,
?inoeoooao i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, ia aieaeueieo
oaeoeueoaoao eiina?aaoi??e oa ?inoeooo?a ienoaoeoa, o cai?iaaaeaeaii?
aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaia?a oe??? oeiee a no/anio
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/io i?aeoeeo.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa aecia/a?oueny oei, ui a aeine?aeaeaii?
aia?oa a oe?e?niiio aeaeyae? i?iaiae?ciaaii oai?aoe/i? ?aea? oa
i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee c ieoaiue iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a, oaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a iia? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe
oa iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
aeei?enoaiiyi a?o?aieo aeaieo, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeue ae?y/?a
Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ai-eaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee, iaeia?aeiii?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? oa iaioa?ii? e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??ae?a iaaeaaia?/ii?
ia??iaeeee, canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo
iao?, i?aaeiaoo oa caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo
cae?enithaaeiny o aenooiao aaoi?a ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee,
ia oaeoeueoaonueeeo oa oi?aa?neoaonueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee, Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 275-??//th
a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy A.N.Neiai?iaee. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy e ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii a 6 iaoeiaeo noaooyo aaoi?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

iniiai? aoaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee;

iaoa oa ci?no iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a o oai?/?e
niaaeuei? i?aaenoaaiee?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee;

oi?ie oa iaoiaee i?aai?caoe?? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oa?eiaa oa Ee?aa
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. Iniiaiee
oaeno ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 150 noi??iie, caaaeueiee — 190 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/athoueny ia’?eo, iaoa, caaaeaiiy, ?ice?eaathoueny iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?aeoiaee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe, iaoeiaa iiaecia,
oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo aeniiae?a, ai?iaaoe?y
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny
ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? ?aea? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o
oai?/?e niaaeuei? ae?y/?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii —
iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee (20-70 ??. OO no.)” ia iniia? aea/aiiy a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? oa ienoaoeoaiciaa/i? e?oa?aoo?e
?icaeyaeathoueny aeoiee Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee, aeyaeai? a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieiai? aoaie ?? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo, aiae?cothoueny iaoa ? ci?no
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo.

Aea/aiiy ??cieo aeaea?ae iieaco?, ui c aeaai?o /an?a ae?eiaei caniaii
aeoiaaiiy iieiae? aoea ia?iaeia i?niy, i?aeii?yaeeiaaia oi?ioaaiith
ethaeeie- o?oae?aieea, iao??ioa, aoiai?noa, ?icaeoeo aeooiaii aaaaoi?
iniaenoino?. I?ni? caa?aaee aeey iaaeaaia?ee oae? iaoiaee aeoiaaiiy, ye
iniaenoee i?eeeaae, caioi/aiiy, ianoaiiao ? iia/aiiy, caaacia/eee
i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aei?noue oa eoeueoo?ia?aeiia?aei?noue aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano. A XVI – XVII no. noaiiaeaiith oa ?icaeoeo Oa?e?anueei?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee ni?eyea i?aai?caoe?y ioce/ii? ina?oe a
a?aonueeeo oeieao Oe?a?ie ? aeeeaaeaiiy oeeee?a ioce/ieo aeenoeeie?i o
Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinuee?e aeaaeai??. O XVIII – ii/. OO no. aaaeeeao ?ieue o
oi?ioaaii? oa ?icaeoeo aoiai?noe/ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo ?aeae,
anoaoeei-aeoiaieo o?aaeeoe?e, iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino?
oe?a?inueei? ioce/ii? oeiee a?ae?a?aea iao??ioe/ia oa i?naiii-oai?/a
ae?yeuei?noue A.N.Neiai?iaee, O.A.Oaa/aiea, Ean? Oe?a?iee,
A.I.Aa?oiaeioey, O.I.Eieanne, I.I.Eiceoeueeiai, I.A.Eenaiea oa ?i.

Aiae?c a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aeicaieea
aeyaeoe o?e iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae oa aeina?aeo
caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee.

Ia?oee (e?iaoeue O?O – ii/aoie OO no.) – iaa/aiiy ae?y/?a oe??? oeiee a
ioce/ieo o/eeeuao oa eiina?aaoi??yo Oa?eiaa, Ee?aa, Eaoa?eiineaaa; ?o
o/anoue a ina?oi?e oa a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?
Oa?e?anueei? ? Ee?anueei? o?e?e ?in?enueeiai Ioce/iiai Oiaa?enoaa (?IO).

Ae?oaee (20 – 30 ??. OO no.) – iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue o aeueo
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oa?eiaa e A?iieoe?, eeanao
oaeineiiaeaiiy aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a i?e Oa?e?anuee?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e iia??; oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo canaae
iaaeaaia?/ii? oa niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaoeueei? oa oai?/i? ?iaioe.

O?ao?e (50 – 70 ??. OO no.) – i?iaeiaaeaiiy aeoeaii? aeeeaaeaoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a ioce/ieo aocao Oa?eiaa oa Ee?aa, iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae ? i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a ia
??oio? iaoe?iiaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oa ia?iaeii-i?naiieo o?aaeeoe?e,
na?oiaeo aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaaeaaiue.

O ?iaio? iieacaii, ui aaea a 20 – 30 ??. iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai,
ye? iaaiai?thaaeeny o?yaeii, iaoeiaoeyie, aeeeaaea/aie
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a oa ienoaoeoaiciaaoeyie, aoea iaoa oa
ci?no i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo. Iaoeiaith oa
iaoiaee/iith aacith ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo iaaeaaiue ? aeina?aeo c ieoaiue
ioce/ii? iaaeaaia?ee noaa caniiaaiee o 1921 ?. o Iinea? Aea?aeaaiee
?inoeooo ioce/ii? iaoee (Ae?II).

Aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/iith naeoe??th ?inoeoooo ia iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo
iaaee/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoa ?ic?iaeaiee iniiaiee iaoiae i?aeaioiaee
eaae??a iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a, a?aeiiee o iaooe? ye “?aeeiee iaoiae
ni?ao”. Iaoa ? ci?no “?aeeiiai iaoiaeo ni?ao”, i?aeoeea eiai
aeei?enoaiiy o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a
iaiaeii?aciai aeeneoooaaeeny ia Ananithcieo ia?aaeao aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo
a 1925, 1937, 1940 ? 1954 ??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeyaeaii, ui i?aaenoaaieee Oa?e?anueei?
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee I.A.Aieoa?a oa I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei?ia o
aenooiao ia ia?aaeao o 20 – 30 ??., ia a?aei?io a?ae i?eoeeueiee?a
“?aeeiiai iaoiaeo ni?ao”, aaaaeaee ca iaiao?aeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe a
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?, ii?yae ?c ?acoeueoaoaie iaoeiaeo iiooe?a,
ciaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae nooaeaio?a oa i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae
aeeeaaea/?a.

Aecia/io ?ieue o ?icaeoeo ci?noo i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a
a?ae?a?aa ia?oee a Oe?a?i? i?ae?o/iee I.A.Ieoaeeiaa-Neaei?iaa aeey
iocae?ai?inoeooo?a oa ioci?iooe?e “Ia?ene c ieoaiue aieaeueii?
iaaeaaia?ee”, aeaeaiee o Oa?eia? a 1930 ?. O i?ae?o/ieeo aaoi?
?icaeyioa oa nenoaiaoecoaaa a?aeiiino? c ?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo
na?oiaeo aieaeueieo oe?e, ?o iaoiaee/i? iaaeaaiiy c ieoaiue iinoaiiaee
aieino, aecia/ea ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee. Iieaciai, ui a i?ae?o/ieeo aia?oa aoee
aecia/ai? aeaye? aniaeoe iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a: aeaee naiino?eii? ?iaioe c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iith
e?oa?aoo?ith, eiio?ieth oa naiieiio?ieth, caniae aoe/iiai, anoaoe/iiai
oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo.

I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei?ia o “Ia?enao”, I.A.Aieoa?a o aeiiia?ae? ia
Ananithci?e ia?aae? 1940 ?. ia??oiooaaee iaaeaaia?/io iaiao?aei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo i?eioeei?a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo oa iaoeiaino? a iaa/aii?. O aeiiia?ae?
I.A.Aieoa?a aecia/ea oaeiae caniae e i?eeiie oi?ioaaiiy o iaeaooi?o
nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie i?aai?caoe??
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo caiyoue, aoe/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy c oiaa?eoaie e
aeeeaaea/aie o iaaeaaia?/iiio na?aaeiaeu?. Ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe??
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee nooaeaio?a o nai?o i?aoeyo i?ioani?e ia
?icaeyaeaee.

Aiae?c ?ic?iaeaieo o 1946, 1969 ??. I?i?noa?noaii eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie
aea?aeaaieo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai aeey aeueo ioce/ieo caeeaae?a iieaco?,
ui iaoith iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a o 50 – 70 ??.
aoei ica?i?iiy ?o o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieie oa
niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ieie ciaiiyie, oi?iiyie e iaae/eaie, oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo, ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo yeinoae, ?icaeoie ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
iniaeeainoae ? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae.

Iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo ca ci?noii aeeth/aea o?e
iniiai? eiiiiiaioe: oi?ioaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie o
i?ioean? eaeoe?e ? i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c iniia iaaeaaia?ee e ineoieia??
aeui? oeiee; ica?i?iiy nooaeaio?a niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ieie ciaiiyie,
oi?iiyie oa iaae/eaie oeyoii aea/aiiy ?noi??? aieaeueiiai ienoaoeoaa,
iniia aieaeueii? iaoiaeeee, aiaoii??, o?c?ieia?? oa a?a??ie aieiniaiai
aia?aoo, i?iaaaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo caiyoue c aieaeo; iaaeaaia?/io
i?aeoeeo o aoc?.

Ca aea?aeaaieie i?ia?aiaie 1946, 1969 ??. aeeeaaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
aeenoeeie?i caeiaei i?eaeecii 15% iaa/aeueiiai /ano. Iniiaia e?euee?noue
aiaeei a?aeaiaeeeany ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueio iaa/aeueii-aeoiaio oaoiao
?iaioo c? nooaeaioaie. Niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ia i?aeaioiaea aeioneiee?a
aieaeueieo oaeoeueoao?a ia?aa??yeany aecaiaiaoe?eiith eii?n??th i?ae /an
aea?aeaaieo ?nieo?a, yea i?enaithaaea ?i eaae?o?eaoe?th aeeeaaea/a
aieaeo oa ni?aaea. Iaaeaaia?/io i?aeaioiaeo aeioneiee?a aei
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? o aoc? aea?aeaaia eii?n?y ia
ia?aa??yea, eaae?o?eaoe?y iaaeaaiaa-aieae?noa iaaeaaaeany ia iniia?
ioe?iie, iaea?aeaieo nooaeaioaie a i?ioean? aea/aiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i oa ca iaaeaaia?/io i?aeoeeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeyaeaii, ui a aeiiia?aeyo ia Ananithci?e ia?aae? 1954
?., ia ye?e aoee i?aeaeai? aino??e e?eoeoe? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy “?aeeiiai
iaoiaeo ni?ao”, caniiaieee Oa?e?anueei? oeiee aenooieee c iaaeaaia?/ii
aeioe?eueieie i?iiiceoe?yie c ieoaiue iie?auaiiy i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a. Aea/aiiy iaoa??ae?a ?o i?eaaoieo a?o?a?a
aeicaieeei aaanoe o iaoeiaee ia?a ?yae iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue,
ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy iieiae? a
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao. Iieaciai, ui a 50 – 70 ??. iaeia c
aieiaieo caaaeaiue nai?? ae?yeueiino? aiie aaa/aee a ?noioiiio
iiaeeaeaii? ci?noo, a caaaa/aii? oi?i oa iaoiae?a iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a.

Oae, I.?.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo, aeoiaey/e c aeaniiai aeina?aeo,
cacia/aea, ui eiaeai iaaeaaia-ioceeaio ii?aeio? a nia? eiiieaen
ineo?/ieo, iaaeaaia?/ieo oa i?ioan?eieo cae?aiinoae, ? oni?o eiai
iaeaooiuei? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? caeaaeeoue a?ae aa?iii?eiiai
niieo/aiiy an?o oeeo aeanoeainoae. Aiia ?aaeeea aeeeaaea/ai i?eae?eyoe o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? iniaeeao oaaao ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio
i?aeoiaeo aei nooaeaio?a, oi?ioaaiith o ieo ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie
naiino?eii? ?iaioe, iaiieyaaea ia aeei?enoaii? a iaa/aii? /?oei?
iaoeiai? oa?i?iieia??.

?.N.Iaoi?aeeinueeee ?aeiiaiaeoaaa aeeeaaea/ai iinooiiai oneeaaeithaaoe
iaoiaee aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, i?iaoaeaeoaaoe o nooaeaio?a
o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy oai?/a noaaeaiiy aei aeeiiaiiy iaa/aeueieo
caaaeaiue, oi?ioaaoe ?o iaoe?iiaeueio eoeueoo?o.

I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei?ia o i?ae?o/ieeo “Ieoaiiy aieaeueii? i?aeaioiaee”
(1963), i?aeaioiaeaiiio a ni?aaaoi?noa? c Ae.A.?aoooaieii, ?ic?iaea
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ii?aaee aei cae?eniaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo
a iaa/aii?, i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii? aeiiaoiuei? ?iaioe, iaa?oiooaaa
iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? i?naiii? oai?/ino? ye
caniao iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iaeaooi?o iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a.

Iaaeaaia?/ii oe?iiee aianie o i?aeaioiaeo aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo c?iaea
I.A.Aieoa?a. A?i aeae?eea o?e aoaie caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee:
aea/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae oa ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo
nooaeaioa; oi?ioaaiiy niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo oa iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue,
oi?iue ? iaae/ie nooaeaio?a oa ?icaeoie ?o cae?aiinoae; aeei?enoaiiy
iaaooeo ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie o i?ioean? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee. O
iin?aieeo “Ii?aaee iieiaeei iaaeaaiaai-aieae?noai” (1956) a?i
ia??oiooaaa aaaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo i?ae
/an i?iaaaeaiiy anooiieo ?nieo?a aei aoco. ?aaeea aeeeaaea/ai o oiae?
caiyoue a?aoiaoaaoe ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iniaeeaino? ineo?ee nooaeaioa:
oa?aeoa? aiioe?e, aieueiaeo cae?aiinoae ? ?icoio, ?icaeoie aie?,
nooi?iue iaiieaaeeaino?, ?aoaeuei?noue, niin?a ieneaiiy nooaeaioa –
ia?aciee /e aiae?oe/iee.

A.?.Aie?y aei aaaeeeaeo /eiiee?a ye?nii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a a?aeiinea ??aaiue ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oa
niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie nooaeaio?a, ?icaeoie
?o oai?/eo oa i?ciaaaeueieo cae?aiinoae, nooi?iue caaaeueii?, anoaoe/ii?
oa iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a, i?aaiaiiy ?o aei
naiiina?oe ? naiiaeoiaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, aea/aiiy ??cieo aeaea?ae iieaco?, ui caniiaieee
Oa?e?anueei? oeiee a eaeoe?yo, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ? iaaeaaia?/ieo
i?aoeyo aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo aenoioee ?yae oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ?ic?iaeo iaoe oa ci?noo iaaeaaia?/ii? e
niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a. Oae,
I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei?ia oa I.A.Aieoa?a o 20-30 ??. aenooieee c ?aea?th
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy o iaa/aii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei nooaeaio?a oa i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo aeeeaaea/?a; aecia/eee
oaeiae aeaye? iaoiaee naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a c
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iith e?oa?aoo?ith, caniae anoaoe/iiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a.

O 50 – 70 ??. I.A.Aieoa?a, A.?.Aie?y, I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei?ia,
I.?.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo oa ?.N.Iaoi?aeeinueeee i?aoethaaee iaae
?ic?iaeith ieoaiue iaoe, aieiaieo eiiiiiaio?a, iiaeeaeaiiyi ci?noo
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a, iaa?oiooaaiiyi
aeeaeaeoe/ieo i?eioeei?a: ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo, iaoeiaino? oa
nenoaiaoe/iino? a iaa/aeueii-aeoiai?e ?iaio?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “I?aai?caoe?y i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a-aiea-e?no?a o ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao Oa?eiaa oa
Ee?aa (20 – 70 ??. OO no.) ?icaeyiooi iniiai? oi?ie oa iaoiaee
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo a oe?a?inueeeo
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao, i?iaiae?ciaaii iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe??
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a, aeyaeaii ia?niaeoeai?
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aeina?aeo ae?y/?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee oa iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?o niaaeueie a
no/anieo oiiaao.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a aeueo
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a Oa?eiaa oa Ee?aa aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo aeicaieea aeyaeoe, ui i?ia?aeiei caaaeaiiyi i?aeoe/ii?
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a aei iaeaooiuei? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii?
?iaioe o aoc? caniiaieee Oa?e?anueei? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee
aaaaeaee oi?ioaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo ? niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo ciaiue,
oi?iue oa iaae/ie, a oaeiae ?icaeoie oai?/iai noaaeaiiy aei ?iaioe.

O ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui aieiaiith oi?iith i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a aoei ?iaeea?aeoaeueia iaa/aiiy. O i?ioean?
aoaeeoi?ii? iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe c? nooaeaioaie-aieae?noaie, ye i?aaeei,
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? caiyooy. Aiae?c a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a
oa iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e 20 – 70 ??. na?ae/eoue, ui aeina?ae
caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee c ieoaiue
i?aai?caoe?? i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao
Oa?eiaa oa Ee?aa ca oi?iaie ? iaoiaeaie aeei?enoaiiy iaa aaaaoi
ni?eueiiai c no/aniith i?aeoe/iith ae?yeuei?noth aeeeaaea/?a ioce/ieo
aoc?a, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a aeia?aaeaeaa na?e /an.

Ua a 20 – 30 ??. I.A.Aieoa?a ii/aa canoiniaoaaoe ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee
i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo. A a 50
– 70 ??., nie-?ath/enue ia iaaooee aeina?ae, cai?iiiioaaa ia aieaeueieo
oaeoeueoaoao aeueo io-ce/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aeey iaaea?iaaieo
nooaeaio?a ca?eueoeoe oa?i?i iaa-/aiiy oa ?icoe?eoe ci?no iaa/aeueieo
i?ia?ai. O i?ioean? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe a?i oaaaeii noaaeea ca
?icaeoeii eiaeiiai nooaeaioa ? ia ??oio? ?acoeueoa-o?a niinoa?aaeaiue
?ic?iaeya eiiieaen iaaeaaia?/ieo i?eeii?a ? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ?aaeeie
caiyoue. Iaa/aeueio ae?yeuei?noue ii/eiaa ?c ?aoaeueii iai??eiaaii?
anooi-ii? aan?aee, yeo ?icaeyaeaa ye ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/io i?aeaioiaeo
aei caiyooy. No?oeoo?a eiaeiiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caiyooy, yea
i?iaiaeea I.A.Aieoa?a, ci?-ithaaeany a?aeiia?aeii aei
ineoi-o?c?ieia?/iiai noaio nooaeaioa. O?eaae?noue ie?a-ieo iaa/aeueieo
aeaiaio?a caiyooy caeaaeaea a?ae iaoe oa iniiaieo caaaeaiue. I?ioani?
iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?eueii ea?oaaa caiyooyie, /?oei aecia/ath/e i??o
aieeao aeeeaaea/a ia o?ae iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a.

Aea/aiiy aeina?aeo i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei?
oeiee iieaco?, ui i?ae /an caiyoue aiie oe?iei canoiniaoaaee neiaani?
iaoiaee iaa/aiiy, ?aaeeee nooaeaioai ? iieiaeei aeeeaaea/ai-aieae?noai
aeey ye?niiai ae??oaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaoe o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiai?e ?iaio? iiyniaiiy, ianoaiiao, caioi/aiiy. *?eueia
i?noea o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? i?aaenoaaiee?a oe??? oeiee iin?aeaea
aan?aea.

O 50-70 ??. A.?.Aie?y iaeiei ?c ia?oeo cai?iaaaeea o i?ioean i?aeaioiaee
iaeaooi?o iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a i?eioeeiiai iiao oi?io iaa/aeueii?
?iaioe – eaeoe??-aan?aee. O eiai i?eaaoiiio a?o?a? caa?aaeany noaiia?aia
oeeeeo eaeoe?e-aan?ae ?c ieoaiue iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aeueo ioce/ieo oa
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, yeee a?i /eoaa o Oa?eia?,
Ee?a?, Eai?ia?aae?, Nio?? oa Iae?i?. O eaeoe?yo-aan?aeao A.?.Aie?y
aenoioa iaoiaee/i? ii?aaee uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy aoe/ieo, aa?enoe/ieo,
aeoiaieo oa i?iaeaiieo aan?ae. Ii?yae ?c oeei a?i cai?iiiioaaa caeo/aoe
aei ?iaioe a ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao aeina?ae/aieo aoc?anueeeo
aeeeaaea/?a ?c iaaeaaia?ee oa ineoieia??, ?aaeea oaanoe aei iaa/aeueieo
i?ia?ai aeioe?eueieo caeeaae?a, ii/aoeiaeo ? na?aaei?o oe?e aeeeaaeaiiy
ioceee oa ni?ao.

I?ioani?e oa aeeeaaea/? Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aieaeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? oe?iei
canoiniaoaaee oaeiae ??ci? oi?ie iaa/aeueii? iieaciai? ?iaioe
nooaeaio?a, cie?aia i?iaaaeaiiy a?aee?eoeo caiyoue, oai?/? aenooie ia
aeaaeai?/ieo eiioea?oao. Iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?eueia i?aai?caoe?y ui?aco
neeaaei?oeo aenooi?a c iaa/aeueieie i?ia?aiaie ia a?aee?eoeo caiyooyo oa
aeaaeai?/ieo eiioea?oao aeaaaea ciiao aeeeaaea/ai aecia/aoe ??aaiue
iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue oa oai?/eo aeinyaiaiue nooaeaio?a, ni?eyea a?eueo
/?oe?e ia?aa??oe? oa ioe?ioe? yeino? iaaooeo ia caiyooyo iaa/aeueieo
oi?iue oa iaae/ie.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeina?aeo I.A.Ieoaeeiaa-Neaei?iaa oa
I.?.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo iieaco?, ui a ??ci? ?iee i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? o aocao Oa?eiaa oa Ee?aa aiie iaaeaaaee aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy
/?oe?e i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieth ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie nooaeaio?a, yeo
aaaaeaee iaiao?aeiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano. I?ioani?e nenoaiaoe/ii aeei?enoiaoaaee oae? oi?ie eiio?ieth,
ye ioe?iee oa iae?e, o yeeo oaa/aee ae?eiaee can?a noeioethaaiiy
iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a, ui ?noioii aieeaa? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy ?o iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee.

O ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui iaaeaaia?/ii ei?enieie oi?iaie i?aai?caoe??
ii-caaoaeeoi?ii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a I.A.Aieoa?a,
I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei-?ia, ?.N.Iaoi?aeeinueeee aaaaeaee oai?/? aenooie a
a?iiaaenuee?e eiioea?oi?e ae?yeueiino?, ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? nooaeaio?a. Aaeeeo ?ieue o
??oaii? caaaeaiue iaaeaaia?/ii? oa niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/-ii? i?aeaioiaee
iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo aiie a?aeaiaeeee iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?euei?e
i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii? aeiiaoiuei? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a, i?aee?anethaaee,
ui aiia ia? a?aeaoaaoeny i?ioyaii onueiai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano,
aeiaiaeeee, ui oi?iiy oa iaae/ee naiino?eii? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
ae?yeueiino? iaiao?aeii oi?ioaaoe o nooaeaio?a aaea c ia?oeo eo?n?a
iaa/aiiy.

Ia ?o ni?aaaaeeeao aeoieo, /?oei i?aai?ciaaia ea??aieoeoai i?aeaioiaeith
oa aeeiiaiiyi aeiiaoi?o caaaeaiue nooaeaioaie, ?aoaeueia ia?aa??ea ?o
?acoeueoao?a aeicaieyee aeeeaaea/ai ?iaeoe iaiao?aei? aeniiaee ?, a ?ac?
iio?aae, aio/ei ci?-ithaaoe iaoiaee oa i?eeiie i?aai?caoe?? aeiiaoiuei?
?iaioe nooaeaio?a, iae?ath/e iioeiaeuei?.

O ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui i?ia?aei? ae?y/? Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee a 20 – 30 ??. i?aee?anethaaee iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee, a a 50 – 70 ??. ii/aee ?ic?iaeyoe
iniiai? ieoaiiy ?? i?aai?caoe?? ye iaia’yceiai? neeaaeiai? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a. Iaoo i?aeoeee aiie aaa/aee a i?aeaioiaoe?
nooaeaio?a aei naiino?eii? aeeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a ioce/ieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie. Iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeoeea i?iaiaeeeany
i?ioyaii IV – V eo?n?a ia aac? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a aac a?ae?eao
a?ae caiyoue. Ca iaa/aeueieie i?ia?aiaie ia i?aeoeeo a?aeaiaeeeiny o
1946 ?. – 51 aiaeeio ia aeaa ?iee, a a 1969 ?. – 144 aiaeeie. Aei ia?
aeiioneaeeny nooaeaioe, ye? a i?ioean? aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo aeenoeeie?i
iaieiae?ee iaaeaaia?/ieie oa niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ieie ciaiiyie,
oi?iiyie oa iaae/eaie.

I?aeoeeaio i?iaiaeea ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? caiyooy c aeaiia nooaeaioaie
na?aaei?o ioce/ieo caeeaae?a, a?ae?a?aieie i?ae /an eiieo?niiai
i?ineooiaoaaiiy. A?i neeaaeaa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ieaie iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe
aeey eiaeiiai nooaeaioa-o/iy, a?a uiaeaiiee, o yeiio caiioiaoaaa
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeeeaaea/a-eiinoeue-oaioa oa nai?
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca nooaeaioaie-o/iyie. O oiae? i?aeoeee
nooaeaioe-i?aeoeeaioe i?iaiaeeee oai?aoe/i? oa aeoiai? aan?aee c o/iyie,
aeani? a?aee?eo? caiyooy a i?enooiino? aeeeaaea/a-eiinoeueoaioa e ?ioeo
i?aeoeeaio?a. ?acoeueoa-oe iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a-i?aeoeeaio?a iaaiai?thaaeeny oa ioe?ithaaeeny. O e?ioe?
i?aeoeee ia IV ? V eo?nao nooaeaioe aiooaaee ca?oe i?i i?iaaaeaio ?iaioo
oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee nai?o o/i?a, ii?yae c oeei ia
IV eo?n? aiie neeaaeaee cae?e, ia V — ?nieo.

O aeniiaeao ia iniia? aea/aiiy oa aiae?co iaoa??ae?a aea?aeaaieo ?
i?e-aaoieo a?o?a?a, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeue, iin?aiee?a oa
i?ae?o/iee?a caniia-iee?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee, iaa/aeueieo i?i-a?ai aeueo ioce/ieo
caeeaae?a aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, no/anii? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii?,
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii?, iaioa?ii? e?oa?aoo?e e ?ioeo aeaea?ae
ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy e ia??oioiaothoueny eiai
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Oa?e?anueea iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ia oeiea i?ieoea o?e
in-iiaieo aoaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo. Ia?oee (e?iaoeue O?O – ii/aoie
OO no.) – iaa/aiiy ae?y/?a oe??? oeiee a ioce/ieo caeeaaeao Oa?eiaa,
Ee?aa, Eaoa?eii-neaaa, ?o ina?oiy oa a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ia
ae?yeuei?noue o Oa?e?anueeiio oa Ee?a-nueeiio a?aeae?eaiiyo ?IO; ae?oaee
(20 – 30 ??. OO no.) – iaa/aeueii-aeoiaia oa oai?/a ?iaioa o aocao
Oa?eiaa, A?iieoe?, eeanao oaeineiiaeaiiy eaae??a i?e Oa?-e?anuee?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e iia??, ?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo iniia iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
nia-oe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a; o?ao?e (50
– 70 ??. OO no.) – aeoeaia aeeeaaeaoeueea ae?yeuei?noue o ioce/ieo aocao
Oa?eiaa oa Ee?aa, ?icaeoie ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a oai?aoe/ii? oa
i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a, ?o iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeyaeaii, ui caniiaieee Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee a eaeoe?yo, aenooiao ia iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
ia?aaeao, iaaeaaia?/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeyo ?ic?iaeee ?yae
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei iaoe oa ci?noo iaaeaaia?/ii? e
niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo:

a) O 20 – 30 ??. I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei?ia oa I.A.Aieoa?a i?ae /an aeeneon??
c ieoaiue i?aai?caoe?eieo iniia iaa/aiiy a ioce/ieo caeeaaeao i?aeaeaee
e?eoeoe? “?aeeiee iaoiae ni?ao”, aenoioee ?aeath iaaeaaia?/ii?
aeioe?eueiino? iiaoaeiae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio
i?aeoiae? aei nooaeaio?a ? aeei?enoaii? i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo
aeeeaaea/?a, aecia/eee aeaye? aeaee naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a ?c
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iith e?oa?aoo?ith oa caniae ?o iaoe?iiaeueiiai
anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

a) O 50 – 70 ??. ae?y/? oe??? oeiee, aeoiaey/e c aeina?aeo
aeeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino? o aocao Oa?eiaa oa Ee?aa, iaa?oiooaaee oae?
oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy:

· ?.N.Iaoi?aeeinueeee aeyaea iniiai? eiiiiiaioe i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a: iaaeaaia?/iee, niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/iee,
iaoe?iiaeueii-anoaoe/iee;

· I.A.Aieoa?a aecia/ea aoaie caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee:
aea/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo
nooaeaio?a; oi?ioaaiiy o ieo niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo ? iaaeaaia?/ieo
ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie ? ?icaeoie cae?aiinoae nooaeaio?a;
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaaooi? i?aeaioiaee a i?ioean iaeaooiuei?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;

· A.?.Aie?y aieiaieie iieacieeaie ye?nii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a aaaaeaa oae?: ??aaiue iaaeaaia?/ieo ?
niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie, ?icaeoie
i?ciaaaeueieo ? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae, nooi?iue caaaeueii?, anoaoe/ii? oa
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, i?aaiaiiy aei naiiina?oe ? naiiaeoiaaiiy;

· I.?.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo cacia/aea, ui iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo iaoiiaeth?oueny eiiieaeniith aca?iiae??th
?o iaaeaaia?/ieo, ineo?/ieo ? ioce/ieo cae?aiinoae;

· I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei?ia ?icaeyioa ieoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy aeeeaaea/aie
ioce/ieo caeeaae?a iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?eueii? oa?i?iieia??, a oaeiae
oi?ioaaiiy naiino?eiino? oa aeoeaiino? nooaeaio?a, i?aai?caoe?? ?o
aeiiaoiuei? ?iaioe.

3. Ocaaaeueiaiee aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a-aiea-e?no?a aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo na?ae/eoue, ui ae?y/?
Oa?e?anueei? ioce/ii-iaaeaai-a?/ii? oeiee ?? aieiaia caaaeaiiy aaa/aee a
canoinoaaii? o iaa/aii? eiiieaen-iiai i?aeoiaeo aei oi?ioaaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo ? oaoiaeo ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie nooaeaio?a, ?icaeoeo
?o oai?/iai noaaeaiiy aei iaeaooiuei? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

a) O 20 – 30 ??. I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei?ia ? I.A.Aieoa?a caniaii ia?aa??ee
naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a ?c niaoe?aeueiith iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iith
e?oa?aoo?ith aaaaeaee neeaaeaiiy eiiniaeo?a ?o ?icaeoi?a uiaei aea/aieo
aeaea?ae, aeia?? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo aeey iaeaooiuei? aeeeaaeaoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Ii?yae c oeei o i?ioean? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo caiyoue ?c oaoo
aeei?enoiaoaaee ia??iaee/iee oa i?aenoieiaee eiio?ieue ciaiue, oi?iue oa
iaae/ie nooaeaio?a.

a) O 50-70 ??. ae?y/? Oa?e?anueei? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee a
i?ioean? i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aieaeo
canoiniaoaaee ??ci? oi?ie oa iaoiaee iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy:

· I.A.Aieoa?a ia ??oio? niinoa?aaeaiue ca ineoi-o?c?ieia?/iei noaiii
nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a ?ic?iaeya ? aeei?enoiaoaaa o iaa/aeueii-aeoiai?e
?iaio? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ?aaeeie caiyoue ? eiiieaene iaaeaaia?/ieo
i?eeii?a, ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ?
oai?/eo cae?aiinoae iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a, ?aaeea aeey iaaea?iaaieo
nooaeaio?a ca?eueooaaoe no?iee iaa/aiiy e ?icoe?thaaoe iaa/aeuei?
i?ia?aie.

· Iiaith oi?iith iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe aoa cai?iaaaeaeaiee A.?.Aie?ath a
i?aeoe/io i?aeaioiaeo iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a oeeee aa?enoe/ieo,
anoaoe/ieo, i?iaeaiieo ? aeoiaieo eaeoe?e-aan?ae, i?i/eoaiee o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie oa Cao?aeii? ?a?iie. A iueiio a?i
i?iiiioaaa oaeiae oaanoe a aeioe?eueieo caeeaaeao, ii/aoeiaeo oa
na?aaei?o oeieao aeeeaaeaiiy ni?a?a oa ioceee, a aei ?iaioe a ioce/ieo
aocao caeo/aoe aeina?ae/aieo aeeeaaea/?a ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i.

· I.A.Ieoaeeia-Neaei?ia, I.A.Aieoa?a, I.?.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo,
?.N.Ia-oi?aeeinueeee o i?ioean? i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
ioce/ieo aoc?a Oa?eiaa ? Ee?aa nenoaiaoe/ii aeei?enoiaoaaee a
iaa/aeuei?e ?iaio? i?iaaaeaiiy a?aee?eoeo caiyoue, oai?/? aenooie
nooaeaio?a ia aeaaeai?/ieo eiioea?oao, a oaeiae oae? oi?ie ia??iaee/iiai
oa i?aenoieiaiai eiio?ieth, ye ioe?iea e iae?e ?o iaaeaaia?/ieo oa
oaoiaeo ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie.

O oiae? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? ?iaioe iaaoee iioe?aiiy oai?/? aenooie
nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a o a?iiaaenuee?e eiioea?oi?e ae?yeueiino?, ye?
i?aeaeuoaaee ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueio iaaeaaia?/io iaenoa?i?noue. Ii?yae c
oeei o iaa/aeuei?e oa iicaiaa/aeuei?e ?iaio? iino?eii canoiniaoaaeeny ?
oae? iaoiaee, ye iiyniaiiy, caioi/aiiy, ia?aeiiaiiy, ianoaiiaa e
niiioeaiiy, iniaenoee i?eeeaae, iieac aieinii, ai?aae, aeiiae oa aeaye?
?io?.

4. Ie?aei? aeoiee caniiaieee Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee aeneiaeee c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-anoaoe/iiai eiiiiiaioo i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a.
Nai?th oai?/ith iaaeaaia?/iith ae?yeuei?noth aiie ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeeee
aeioe?euei?noue aeeeaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeith iiaith o aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao, canoinoaaiiy a iaa/aeueii-aeoiai?e ?iaio? i?naiii? oa
iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, i?iiaaoaaee a ??cieo
e?a?iao na?oo iaaeaaiiy oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. Aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy
iaaeaaaee ?icaeoeo o nooaeaio?a ?en, i?eoaiaiieo oe?a?inueeiio oa?aeoa?o
– i?aoeueiaeoino?, aeia?ice/eeaino? e iiaaae aei noa?oeo, iao??ioecio e
aieaethaiino?, i?naiiino?, iiaoe/iino? oa e??ecio, i’yeiai aoii?o.

5. Iniiaieie oaiaeaioe?yie ?icaeoeo ?aeae oa aeina?aeo caniiaiee?a
Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee, aeyaeaieie a
oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oae?:

· iinooiiaa iaaeaaia?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a-aieae?no?a o aeueo ioce/ieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie;

· ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii-anoaoe/iiai eiiiiiaioo i?aeaioiaee
aieaeueii-ia-aeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ia ??oio? aeei?enoaiiy iaaeaaiue
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie.

6. Oai?/iio aeei?enoaiith o no/anieo oiiaao ?aeae oa aeina?aeo
i?aai?caoe?? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee 20 – 70 ??. OO no. ni?eyoeia:

· iiaeeaeaiiy ci?noo, oi?i oa iaoiae?a ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a o aeueo oa na?aaei?o ioce/ieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie;

· ?ioaa?oaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue eo?n?a iaaeaaia?/ieo oa
niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo aeenoeeie?i, caeo/aiiy aei aeeeaaeaiiy o
na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao aeina?ae/aieo oao?aoe?a ?c iaaeaaia?ee
oa ineoieia??;

· o aeiai?? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo aeey nooaeaio?a
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a iaaeaiiy i??i?eoaoo oai?/iio
aei?iaeo ae?y/?a oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e;

· ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aiaeei ia iaaeaaia?/io i?aeoeeo
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a, i?iaaaeaiiy i?aeoeee ia o?eueee ia aac? aoco, a e
na?aaei?o ioce/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a oa niaoe?aeueieo ioce/ieo oe?e,
caeo/aiiy aei ea??aieoeoaa i?aeoeeith oa eiinoeueooaaiiy aeeeaaea/?a
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo;

· caaacia/aiiy iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo eiioi?eaoeaiiai eiiiiiaioo
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a oiae? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a
aieaeo, aeoiaaiiy iiceoeaieo ?en iniaenoino? nooaeaioa, eiai
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae oa oai?/eo cae?aiinoae.

I?aeaioiaeaia aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oith ni?iaith aea/aiiy e ocaaaeueiaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae oa i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee c ieoaiue i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o 20 – 70 ??. OO no. Iiaeaeueoiai iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aaothoue ieoaiiy iaaeaaia?caoe?? iaa/aiiy oa
aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a aeueo ioce/ieo caeeaae?a, i?aai?caoe?eieo canaae,
ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee oa ?io? i?iaeaie.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeai? a oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Iniaeeaino? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o oai?/?e niaaeuei?
ae?y/?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee //Iiooee
aca?iiae?? no/anii? iaaeaaia?ee, ienoaoeoaa oa ina?oe: Ca.iaoe.i?.
Aei.1. – E.: IEA, 1997. – N.43 – 47.

2. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia i?aeaioiaea iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o Oa?eia? (30-60
??. OO no.) // Iiooee aca?iiae?? no/anii? iaaeaaia?ee, ienoaoeoaa oa
ina?oe: Ca.iaoe.i?. Aei.2. – E.: IEA, 1997. – N.48 – 53.

3. Aeaye? aniaeoe ioe?iee ioce/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o
iaoe?iiaeuei?e ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? //Eiio?ieue
iaa/aeueii-i?cia-aaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a ? nooaeaio?a. Iaoe.
a?ni. Aei.1. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997. – N.166 – 169.

4. Aianie ae?y/?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
oeiee a i?aeaioiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a // Iaaeaaia?ea oa ineoieia?y:
Ca. iaoe.i?. Aei.4. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997. – N.159 – 161.

5. Oeyoe oa caniae i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o niaaeuei?
Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee (20 – 30 ??. OO
no.) //Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe:
Ca.iaoe.i?.Aei.4. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997. – N.176 – 180.

6. A.N.Neiai?iaea ? ia?iaeiii?naii? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueei? aieaeueii?
oeiee //Iaaeaaia?ea oa ineoieia?y: Ca.iaoe.i?. Aei.6. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO,
1998. – N.95 – 100.

Ne?ioeiaa I.A. I?aeaioiaea iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o oai?/?e niaaeuei?
ae?y/?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee (20 – 70
??. OO no.) – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. –
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae oa i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? caniiaiee?a Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee c ieoaiue i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a.
?icaeyiooi aeoiee oe??? oeiee, aoaie ?? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo.
I?iaiae?ciaaii iaoo, ci?no, oi?ie oa iaoiaee i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a o oai?/?e niaaeuei? I.A.Aieoa?aa, A.?.Aie??,
I.A.Ieoaeeiaa-Neaei?iaa, I.?.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo,
?.N.Iaoi?aeeinueeiai. Aeyaeaii iiaeeeaino? iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy ?o
aeina?aeo a oiiaao ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o aoc?anueeeo eo?nao
?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee, ioce/ii? iaaeaaia?ee, iaoiaeeee ioce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aeaioiaea iaaeaaia?a-aieae?no?a, oai?/a niaaeueia,
caniiaieee Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee,
iaoa, ci?no, oi?ie oa iaoiaee iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano.

Neaioeiaa A.A. Iiaeaioiaea iaaeaaiaia-aieaeenoia a oai?/aneii ianeaaeee
aeayoaeae Oa?ueeianeie iaoeeiiaeueiie iocueaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie oeieu
(20 – 70 aa. OO no.) – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. –
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei.
A.N.Neiai?iaeu, Oa?ueeia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth oai?aoe/aneeo eaeae e
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iniiaaoaeae Oa?ueeianeie iaoeeiiaeueiie
iocueaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie oeieu ii aii?inai iiaeaioiaee iaaeaaiaia –
aieaeenoia (20–70 aa. OO no.). ?anniio?aiu enoiee yoie oeieu, yoaiu aa
noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu oeaeue, niaea?aeaiea, oi?iu e
iaoiaeu iiaeaioiaee iaaeaaiaia – aieaeenoia a oai?/aneii ianeaaeee
I.A.Aieoaaaa, A.?.Aiu?e, I.E.Ieoaeeiaa-Neaei?iaa,
I.E.Eeoaeiaiei-Aieueaaioo, E.N.Iaoi?aeeineiai. Ii?aaeaeaiu aiciiaeiinoe
aeaeueiaeoae ?aaeecaoeee eo iiuoa a oneiaeyo ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey a Oe?aeia. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu a aocianeeo eo?nao enoi?ee iaaeaaiaeee, iocueaeueiie
iaaeaaiaeee, iaoiaeeee iocueaeueiiai ainieoaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiaeaioiaea iaaeaaiaia – aieaeenoia, oai?/aneia
ianeaaeea, iniiaaoaee Oa?ueeianeie iaoeeiiaeueiie iocueaeueii –
iaaeaaiae/aneie oeieu, oeaeue, niaea?aeaiea, oi?iu e iaoiaeu o/aaii –
ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.

Sleptzova E.V. Preparation of the teachers — vocalists in a creative
heritage of the figures of the Kharkiv national music-pedagogical school
(20 – 70`s. XX Th century) — Manuscript.

The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate
of pedagogical sciences on a speciality 13.00.01 — theory and history of
pedagogics. — Kharkiv state pedagogical university named after
G.S.Skovoroda, Kharkiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to research of theoretical ideas and
practical activity of the founders of the Kharkiv national
music-pedagogical school on preparation of the teachers-vocalists (20 –
70`s. XX Th century). The sources of the Kharkiv national
music-pedagogical school, stages it formation and development are
considered. The forms and methods of preparation of the
teachers-vocalists in a creative heritage of P.V.Golubev, B.R.Gmyrya,
M.L.Mihailov-Sidorov, M.I.Litvinenko-Volgemut, I.S.Patorzhinsky are
analysed the purpose, contents. The opportunities of the further
realization of their experience in conditions of development of national
education in Ukraine are determined. The basic results of work can be
used in high school rates of a history of pedagogics, musical
pedagogics, technique of musical education.

Key words: preparation of the teachers-vocalists, creative heritage,
founders Khark?v national music-pedagogical school, purpose, contents,
forms and methods of educational process.

Похожие записи