?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AII OE?A?IE

AEACIAA Ieaenaiae?a Iaae?aia

OAeE 4O (077)

IA?NIAEOEAI?NOUe ? IANOOII?NOUe O OI?IOAAII?

OAENOIOAI?*EO OI?IUe A O*I?A II*AOEIAEO ?

5 EEAN?A

CAAAEUeIIINA?OIUeI? OEIEE

13.00. 02. — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo

iaoe, i?ioani? AAOOEAIEI Ieeiea
Nai?eeiae/,

AII Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee a/aiee nae?aoa?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
o?eieia?/ieo

iaoe, i?ioani? IAOeUeEI Ethaia
?aai?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao

?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e noee?noeee

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio EOEA* Na?oeaia

Iaian?aia, I?aeeinueeee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. I.A.Aiaiey, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e iaoiaeeee

aeeeaaeaiiy iia ? e?oa?aoo?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — AEeoiie?nueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.ss.O?aiea, eaoaae?a iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy oe?a?inueei?
iiae.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “27” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiae.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26. 452.02 a ?inoeooo?
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie ( 252053, i.Ee?a, aoe. N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a, 52-a
).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “27” aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.A.AIIAeA?AIEI

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia c?inoaiiyi cia/aiiy
i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii aeoeaii? oa aeooiaii aaaaoi? iniaenoino?
a nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo oiiaao ?icaoaeiae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.
Iaeii?th c iniiaieo oiia oeueiai i?ioeano ? iaaoooy oeiey?aie oiiiue
? iaae/ie aieueii ni?eeoaaoeny. Ia aieiaeith/e aeineiiaei iiaith oa
iiaeaiiyi, a?iiaaeyiei iiai? aea?aeaae ia aoaea ni?iiiaeiee aeeiioaaoe
iieeaaeaii ia iueiai noniieuenoaii ?iciiiaiioii ooieoei?. Oiio iaeiei
?c iaeaieiaiioeo caaaeaiue oeiee a aaeoci iiaii? inaioe ? caaaeaiiy
iaa/eoe oeiey?ia ciinoiaii, a?aiaoe/ii i?aaeeueii oa noeeinoe/ii ai?aaii
aeneiaethaaoe nai? aeoiee.

Aea?aeaaia iaoeiiiaeueia i?ia?aia «Inaioa» iaeiei ic
no?aoaa?/ieo caaaeaiue ?aoi?ioaaiiy ci?noo ina?oe aecia/a? “aea/aiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae a on?o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeao, ooaa?aeaeaiiy
?? ye iniiaii? iiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy caaaeueiiina?oiuei?, i?ioan?eii? oa
aeui? oeiee”. ?ic?iaeaii ia iniiai i?ia?aie eiioeaioei? iiaii? inaioe
aaa/athoue aieiaia caaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae ye iaa/aeueiiai
i?aaeiaoa o aeoiaaiii iniaenoinoi, iaaeieaii? «oiiiiyie e iaae/eaie
aieueii, eiioiieaoeaii aei?aaaeaii ei?enooaaoeny iiaieie caniaaie i?e
ni?eeiyooi (neooaiii e /eoaiii), noai?aiii (aiai?iiii e ienueii)
aeneiaethaaiue o ?icieo noa?ao, oi?iao, aeaeao i aeai?ao iiaeaiiy,
oiaoi a caaacia/aiii ?? anaai/ii? iiaeaii?ai? eiiiaoaioei?» A?ey?a I.I.,
Neo?ao?anueeee E.A., Neiiiaieiaa E.I., Oaeaoiaa A.O. Eiioeaioe?y
iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaii? iiae a oeieao Oe?a?ie // Aeeaineiai.- 1996.- ?
1.-N. 16-21..

Aeey iiaiioeiiiiai oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi iaiaoiaeia
caaacia/aiiy oeieiniiai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a onio eaieao
inaioiuei? nenoaie, ii/eiath/e aiae aeioeieey i caaa?ooth/e iaa/aiiyi
o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe. Iaeiei ?c iniiaieo i?eioeeiia ?aaeicaoei?
Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiiiaeueii? i?ia?aie «Inaioa» («Oe?a?ia OOI
noieiooy») ? “aacia?a?aiinoue inaioe, ui a?aee?eaa? iiaeeea?noue aeey
iino?eiiai iiaeeaeaiiy caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oa oaoiai? i?aeaioiaee,
aeinyaiaiiy oe?e?niino? ? ianooiiino? o iaa/aii? oa aeoiaaii?;
ia?aoai?aiiy iaaoooy ina?oe o i?ioean, ui o?eaa? oi?iaeiaae anueiai
aeeooy ethaeeie” Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia “Ina?oa” (Oe?a?ia OO?
noie?ooy).- Ee?a: ?aeaeoaa, 1994.- N. 30..

Nenoaia aacia?a?aii? inaioe, ui aaea neeaeany a Oe?a?ii,
yaey? niaith noeoiiinoue iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeia oa
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaioieoeueeeo onoaiia, yei niieueii ae?ioothoue
caaaeaiiy aeoiaaiiy, iaa/aiiy, inaioe e i?ioanieii? iiaeaioiaee
iniaenoino? c o?aooaaiiyi ?? iio?aa oa iioyao aei naiiinaioe ?
naii?icaeoeo.

Aiaeiiaiaeii aei o?aaeeoei?, ui neeaeany inoi?e/ii, inaioo
?icaeyaeathoue ye ?yae nooiaiia, ui iineiaeiaii oneeaaeiththoueny, i
yeeie iiaeiia i?ieoe ethaeeia, ui iaa/a?oueny.

Eiaeiiio a?iiaaeyieiiai noniieuenoai iaaea? iiaeeeainoue
nei?enoaoeny noeoiiinoth inaioiio eaiie, nooiaiia oa aoaiia.
Aca?iica’ycie, ?aeiinoue i oeieiniinoue nenoaie aacia?a?aii? inaioe
coiiaeth?oueny naia aeio?eiaiiyi i?eioeeiia ia?niaeoeaiinoi i
ianooiiinoi a iaa/aiii.

Iniaeeainoth aacia?a?aii? inaioe ? aeene?aoiinoue ??
i?aaiicaoeieii? iniiae. O nenoaii aacia?a?aii? inaioe iniaeeai
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? ai?eciioaeueii-aa?oeeaeueia aeene?aoiinoue, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ca’yceaie eaiie oa nooiaiia. Aiia ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aooaaiiy eiie?aoieo iniaeeainoae eiaeii? inaioiuei? eaiee, ui
noeeothoueny iiae niaith. Iioeiaeuei? oiiae oaeiai a?aooaaiiy
noaiiaeyoue ?aeiinoue, ianooiiinoue, ia?niaeoeaiinoue, i??a?oiy aoai?a
oa oeieiniinoue aacia?a?aii? inaioe.

E?ii aeene?aoiinoi, iniaeeainoyie aacia?a?aii? inaioe ?
oaeiae ?? aaaaoieiiiiiaioiinoue, ?iciioa?aeoa?iinoue i noia?a/eeainoue.
Oni oei iniaeeainoi cia/ii oneeaaeiththoue nenoaio inaioe,
noai?ththoue ?iciiiaiioii noia?a/iino? uiaei ?aaeicaoei? i?eioeeiia
ianooiiinoi oa oeieiniinoi nenoaie, ui aiaeiiaiaeii iiaeiineoue ?ieue
i?eioeeio ianooiiinoi o caaacia/aiii aacia?a?aii? inaioe.

Ianooiiinoue c iiaeyaeo iaaeaaiai/ii? aeioeieueiinoi ni?ey?
oeieiniinoi nenoaie, ui a naith /a?ao ia?aaeaa/a? ?aeiinoue oeieae onio
?? eaiie oa nooiaiia o aeinyaiaii? caaaeueii? iaoe.

sse iieaco? aeinaiae, i?ioean ia?aoiaeo iieiaeoeo oeiey?ia
aei na?aaeiuei? eaiee aiaeaoaa?oueny iai?inoi. Iaaeinoaoi? caaacia/aiiy
ianooiiinoi ye o ciinoi, oae i a iaoiaeao i?aaiicaoei? iaa/aeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi aaeueio? aaeaioaoeith aeioae aei iiaeo oeieueieo oiia,
oneeaaeith? ?iaioo a/eoaey-neiaanieea, ia ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith a o/iia
ia?aaeaa/aieo i?ia?aiieie aeiiaaie na?aaeiuei? caaaeueiiinaioiuei?
oeiee iiaeaii?aeo oiiiue, cie?aia i?iaeoeoaaoe oaenoe
(aeneiaethaaoeny).

Ia iaaei ii/aoeiai? i na?aaeiuei? eaiie caaaeueiiinaioiuei?
oeiee aeieea? eiiieaen ineoieiai/ieo, iaaeaaiai/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo
i?iaeai, yei iiaeooue iaoe ye ia’?eoeaiee, oae i noa’?eoeaiee
oa?aeoa?. Aaeaioaoeiy oeiey?ia ? iaeiei ic iaeaaaeeeaioeo aeaiaioia
ianooiiinoi. Caaaeueioaaiiy i?ioeano aaeaioaoei? iicia/a?oueny ia
caaaeueieo ?acoeueoaoao iaa/aiiy. Aiii iiynith?oueny ianaiia?aae
oei, ui iiae /an ia?aoiaeo oeiey?a c ii/aoeiai? eaiee aei na?aaeiuei?
ciiith?oueny eiai noaoon, a oaeiae ci?no, iaoa, caaaeaiiy, oiiae oa
aeiiae aei iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy. Ia «noeeao» iiae eaieaie e nooiaiyie
aacia?a?aii? inaioe aeieeathoue ia’?eoeai? aeiaeaeoe/ii noia?a/iino?, ui
ia?aoeiaeaeathoue noai?aiith iioeiaeueieo oiia, yei caaacia/othoue
ianooiiinoue. Oiio iiae /an ia?aoiaeo aei eiaeii? ianooiii? inaioiuei?
eaiee oeiey?i noa’?eoeaii aiae/oaathoue i ciooaii aeieaoe ?iciiai ?iaeo
o?oaeiiui. Caiaene aeieea? ii?aeueia iacaaeiaieaiinoue, cie?aia, c
i?e/eie cieaeaiiy oniioiinoi, yeinoi iaa/aiiy.

?ooieiith neeith iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano i?ioani? I.I.Aeaieeia
aaaaea? noia?a/i?noue iiae aenoiooeie a ina?oiueiio i?ioean?
iaa/aeueieie e i?aeoe/ieie caaea/aie ? iayaiei ?iaiai ciaiue, oiiiue
oa ?icoiiaiai ?icaeoeo oeiey?ia. Aiia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei, ui naiei
oiaeii iaa/aiiy ia?aae o/iyie noaaeyoueny ana iiai e iiai caaea/i, yei
? c?icoiieeie aeey ieo, i?eeiathoueny ieie i iiaeooue aooe ae?ioaii
ca oiiae iaaiiai iai?oaeaiiy ?icoiiaeo nee.

O nai?io ?icaeoeo iniiaia noia?a/i?noue i?ioiaeeoue ?yae
aoaiia. Nii/aoeo aiia aeieea? ye iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iiae
aeeaeaeoe/ieie caaea/aie ? ?iaiai ciaiue oa ?icaeoeo oeiey?ia. Aeaei
iiaea aeieeiooe iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iiae i?eeiyoeie o/iyie aeiiaaie
caaea/i oa iayaieie a ieo ni?yiiaaiinoth, iio?aaaie e iioa?anaie.
Ia?aooi, aeieea? noia?a/i?noue iiae ianoaiiaaie uiaei iaa/aeueii?
aeiyeueiinoi oa eiie?aoieie ?acoeueoaoaie, yei oeiey? iaea?aeo? ia
oiio /e iioiio aoaii i?inoaaiiy aei iaoe.

O aeeaeaeoeoei aaaaea?oueny: yeui oaeiai ?iaeo o?oaeiiui
o/ii ni?iiiaei? iiaeieaoe, oi aiie ? iaaioue iaaeaaiai/ii aeioeieueieie
/E.A.Caieia/. Aeiyoeiaa ?ieue o oaeiio ?o iiaeieaiii iaeaaeeoue
iaaeaaiai/iei caniaai, yei ?aaoeththoue ianooiiinoue o iaa/aiii.

Iiae ianooiiinoth iaa/aiiy ia?oueny ia oaaci oaeee
aca?iica’ycie noiiaeieo inaioiio eaiie (o iaoiio aeiaaeeo — ii/aoeiai?
e na?aaeiuei? eaiie caaaeueiiinaioiuei? oeiee), eiee aeiaeaeoe/ii
noia?a/iino?, yei ia’?eoeaii i caeiiiii?ii aeieeathoue i?e oeueiio,
?ica’ycothoueny oeyoii caaacia/aiiy iaaeaaiai/ii i?aaiiciaaii?
aca?iiaei? aiaeiiaiaeieo eiiiiiaioia iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? nenoaie.

Aea/aiiy e aiaeic i?iaeaie ia?niaeoeaiinoi i ianooiiinoi a
?iaioi ii/aoeiai? oeiee oa na?aaeiuei? eaiie caaaeueiiinaioiuei? oeiee
uiaei ?icaeoeo ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy, cie?aia o oi?ioaaiii a oeiey?ia
oaenoioai?/eo oiiiue, ? iniaeeai aeooaeueiei. Ia?niaeoeaiinoue i
ianooiiinoue ioiieththoue ia oieueee caaaeueii noi?iie
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, a e oni eiai iniiaii aniaeoe —
ciino, iaoiaeeeo, i?aaiicaoeith oi?aaeiiiy. Eiaeai c ieo iio?aao?
ie?aiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy e aea/aiiy eiie?aoieo caniaia oaeineiiaeaiiy c
oi/ee ci?o ianooiiinoi.

Oae, «Eiioeaioeiy iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaii? iiae a oeieao
Oe?a?ie» c iaoith iiaeieaiiy o?aaeeoeieiiai aaoi?eoa?ecio i?iiiio?
caiiieoe iiynithaaeueii-iethno?aoeaiee oei iaa/aiiy
aeiyeueiinii-i?iaeaiiei, ui «ni?eyoeia oi?ioaaiith naiinoieiinoi,
iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo oai?/eo caeiaiinoae, iioaineaiie iiaeaii?aie
i?aeoeoei o/iia a onio aeaeao, aeai?ao, noeeyo i oeiao iiaeaiiy,
ia?aoai?eoue o/iiiy ia o?ieao ?iaeii? iiae o cania aeooiaiiai
caaaa/aiiy i ?icoiiaiai ?icaeoeo, iaaeanoue eiio ?en ni?aaaeiueiai
aeaiie?aoecio e aoiaiinoe/ii? ni?yiiaaiinoi»11 A?ey?a I.I.,
Neo?ao?anueeee E.A., Neiiiaieiaa E.I., Oaeaoiaa A.O. Eiioeaioe?y
iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaii? iiae a oeieao Oe?a?ie // Aeeaineiai.- 1996.- ?
1.-N. 16-21. .

I?ioa aeiyeueiinii-i?iaeaiiee, a oaeiae
aeiyeueiinii-eiioiieaoeaiee iiaeoiaee aei aea/aiiy ?iaeii? iiae (
I.I.Aiey?a, E.I.Aa?caoeueea, I.N.Aaooeaiei, I.A.Aaoe, A.A.Eae?o,
I.TH.Eoiaeiaa, I.?.Eaca?aiei, I.?.Eueaia, E.A.Neo?aoianueeee,
A.O.Oaeaoiaa oa ii.), ye? aeoeaii ?aaeicothoueny a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao
oeie Oe?a?ie, ua iaaeinoaoiuei canoiniaothoueny a na?aaeiie eaioei ?
iniaeeai a noa?oeo eeanao, aea o?aaeeoeieieie o ?iaioi aaaaoueio
o/eoaeia-neiaanieeia caeeoa?oueny nenoaiii-iieniaee iiaeoiae aei
aea/aiiy iiaieo yaeu. Oea ia ni?ey? caaacia/aiith oi?ioaaiiy a o/iia
eiioiieaoeaieo oiiiue i iaae/ie, cie?aia ae?iaeaiith a ieo
oaenoioai?/eo oiiiue. Oaeei /eiii, iayaiinoue ?icieo iiaeoiaeia aei
iaa/aiiy ?iaeii? iiae a ii/aoeiaie i na?aaeiie eaieao
caaaeueiiinaioiuei? oeiee ni?e/eiythoue iaaii o?oaeiiui a i?ioeani
?icaeoeo ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy oeiey?ia, ui aiaeaeaa?oueny ia eiai
caaaeueiiio ?iaii, yeee o aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia caeeoa?oueny iaaenieei.

O?aooaaiiy iaaeieieia a iaieiaeiiii iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie,
o/iyie na?aaeiio eeania, noa?oieeanieeaie i, ia?aooi, aeioneieeaie
na?aaeiio oeie oiiiiyie e iaae/eaie iiaeaii?aiai niieeoaaiiy aeeeeea?
iiaeaeuaiee i?aeoe/iee iioa?an aei aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
ia?niaeoeaiinoi i ianooiiinoi uiaei ciinoo oi?? /anoeie /eiii?
i?ia?aie na?aaeiuei? caaaeueiiinaioiuei? oeiee «?iaeia iiaa», yea
aecia/a? nooue ?iaioe iaae oi?ioaaiiyi a o/iia oiiiue naiinoieii
aoaeoaaoe ca’ycii aeneiaethaaiiy. Ineieueee iniaeeaa ?ieue o
iiaeaii?aie eiioiieaoei? iaeaaeeoue naia oaenoiai, aeieea?
iaiaoiaeiinoue eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaeo aei ae?ioaiiy caaaeaiue
ia?niaeoeaiinoi e ianooiiinoi o iaa/aiii o/iia 4(3) oa 5 eeania
noai?thaaoe ca’ycii aeneiaethaaiiy.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy oeiiaeo iaaeieieia aeneiaethaaiue,
noai?thaaieo o/iyie 5 eeano, aea? iiaenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
iaa/aiiy i’yoeeeanieeia neeaaeaoe oaenoe iaaeinoaoiuei nie?a?oueny ia
oi eiiaaiaeeaeaeoe/ii canaaee ?icaeoeo ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy, ia yeeo
??oioo?oueny iaa/aiiy ?iaeii? iiae o/iia o ii/aoeiaeo eeanao.
Ia?ic?iaeaiinoue i?iaeaie a oai?aoe/iiio e iaoiaee/iiio aniaeoao
aeyaey?oueny o aiaenooiinoi aiaeiiaiaeieo ?aeiiaiaeaoeie
o/eoaeyi-neiaanieeai, ui iaa/athoue i’yoeeeanieeia. O ?acoeueoaoi
oeueiai iaea?aeoaaii iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie ciaiiy oa iaaooi ieie iaae/ee
uiaei noai?aiiy ca’ycieo aeneiaethaaiue ia caaaeaee ciaoiaeyoue
a?aeiia?aeia i?iaeiaaeaiiy i ia noathoue iniiaith ?iaioe c ?icaeoeo
ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy o 5 eeani.

C iaeyaeo ia cacia/aia iinoa? aeooaeueiinoue oaie
iaoiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aiia coiiaeaia, ii-ia?oa, no/anieie
oaiaeaioeiyie a ?icaeoeo eiiaainoeee, ineoieiiaainoeee i
eiiaaiaeeaeaeoeee, ui noinothoueny iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy iiae ia
aeiyeueiinii-eiioiieaoeaieo canaaeao, cie?aia ?iaioe iaae oi?ioaaiiyi
oaenoioai?/eo oiiiue ? iaae/ie o/iia 4(3) i 5 eean?a, a, ii-ae?oaa,
iaaeinoaoiueith ?ic?iaeaiinoth i?iaeai ianooiiinoi ? ia?niaeoeaiinoi
uiaei oi?ioaaiiy oaenoioai?/eo oiiiue i iaae/ie o/iia 4(3) oa 5
eeania o oai?aoe/iiio oa iaoiaee/iiio aniaeoao, ianeiaeeii /iai ?
iaaeinoaoi? aiiiiy oeiey?ia noai?thaaoe ca’ycii aeneiaethaaiiy,
ni?e/eiy? caaaeueiee iecueeee ?iaaiue iiaeaii?aeo oiiiue i iaae/ie
aeioneieeia na?aaeiuei? oeiee.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy a o/iia 5 eeano
oaenoioai?/eo oiiiue i iaae/ie c iii?ith ia iaea?aeaii a ii/aoeiaie
oeiei aeaiaioa?ii iiiyooy c eiiaainoeee oaenoo i ?o iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo ia aeiyeueiinii-eiioiieaoeaiie iniiai, a i?aaeiaoii — ?ic?iaea
iaoeiai ia??oioiaaii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aai?aii? iaoiaeeee
iaa/aiiy i’yoeeeanieeia naiinoieii aoaeoaaoe oaenoe, ci?i?ioiaaii ia
oaio e iaoo aeneiaethaaiiy, ia eiai aae?anaoa, c o?aooaaiiyi caaaeueieo
oiia niieeoaaiiy oa c iii?ith ia ciaiiy e iaae/ee o/i?a, caeiaoo? a
ii/aoeia?e eaioe?.

Caaaeueio iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeei caaacia/aiiy i?eioeei?a
ia?niaeoeaiino? ? ianooiiino? o oi?ioaaii? oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue a o/i?a
ii/aoeiai? eaiee oa 5 eeano, o ?ic?iaoe? a?aeiia?aeii? nenoaie ai?aa,
yea ni?ey? ?aae?caoe?? oeeo aaaeeeaeo aeeaeaeoe/ieo i?eioeei?a o
i?ioean? ?icaeoeo iiaeaiiy oeiey??a.

Aeoiaey/e c i?aaeiaoa ? caaaeueii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaiao?aeii aoei ?ica’ycaoe a eiai i?ioean? ?yae eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue,
cie?aia:

1.Ia iniiai aiaeico iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? oa
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? eioa?aoo?e c’ynoaaoe noai ?ic?iaeaiinoi i?iaeaie
a no/aniie eiiaaiiaoiaeeoei.

2. I?iaiae?coaaoe nenoaio oi?ioaaiiy o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
iiaeaii?aeo oi?iue ? iaae/ie a aniaeo? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

3. Ia??oiooaaoe ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii oa
eiiaaiaeeaeaeoe/ii canaaee oi?ioaaiiy a o/iia 5 eeano aiiiue neeaaeaoe
ca’ycii aeneiaethaaiiy ?icieo oeiia i noeeia.

4. Anoaiiaeoe ?iaaiue canai?iiy, inieneaiiy oa
onaiaeiieaiiy o/iyie 5 eeano oaenoieiai/ieo aiaeiiinoae, ia?aaeaa/aieo
i?ia?aiith, aeyaeoe nooiiiue noi?iiaaiinoi a ieo oaenoioai?/eo oiiiue oa
iaae/ie, i?iaiaeicoaaoe oeiiai iiieeee a o/iianueeeo oai?/eo ?iaioao
i c’ynoaaoe ?o i?e/eie.

5. Aianoe ei?aeoeae a nenoaio iaa/aiiy i’yoeeeanieeia
neeaaeaoe ca’ycii aeneiaethaaiiy c iaoith iiaeaeuaiiy
ooieoeiiiaeueii-iiaeaii?ai? ni?yiiaaiinoi iaea?aeoaaieo o/iyie
eaeneei-a?aiaoe/ieo ciaiue i aiiiue c iiaeyaeo ianooiiinoi
aeeeaaeaiiy o 4(3) oa 5 eeanao.

6. ?ic?iaeoe aenia?eiaioaeueio nenoaio ai?aa, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? ianooiiinoue o oi?ioaaiii a o/iia 4(3) oa 5 eeania oiiiue
neeaaeaoe ca’ycii aeneiaethaaiiy, i ia?aai?eoe ?? aoaeoeaiinoue .

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy: aoaeoeaiinoue oi?ioaaiiy o
i’yoeeeanieeia oiiiue aoaeoaaoe ca’ycii aeneiaethaaiiy iiaeaeueoueny,
yeui iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy noai?thaaoe oaeno nie?aoeiaoueny ia
aiaei?aoeueiaaii a ii/aoeiaie oeiei oaenoioai?/i aiiiiy oa niaoeiaeueii
?ic?iaeaio nenoaio ai?aa, yea caniaaie aiaeioeei-neioaoe/ieo aeie c
?icieie no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie oaenoo ni?eyoeia inieneaiith,
onaiaeiieaiith e iiaeeaeaiith ciaiue i aiiiue, iaiaoiaeieo aeey
i?iaeoeoaaiiy aeneiaethaaiue oa oaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaiiy a oeieiio.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoei aeei?enoaii
oaei iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aea/aiiy eiiaainoe/ii?, ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii? oa
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? eioa?aoo?e c aeineiaeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie;

— niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii, aea/aiiy e
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeinaiaeo a/eoaeia ii/aoeiaeo oa i’yoeo eeania;

— aiaeic onieo ? ienueiiaeo aeneiaethaaiue o/iia 4-5 eeania;

— iiaeeaiaeoaeueii aaniaee c o/iyie oa a/eoaeyie,
aieaooaaiiy a/eoaeia;

— iaaeaaiai/iee aenia?eiaio (eiinoaooth/ee, iaa/aeueiee,
eiio?ieueiee);

-noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoaoia iaaeaaiai/iiai aenia?eiaioo
(eieueeiniee ? yeiniee aiaeic aenia?eiaioaeueieo i eiio?ieueieo
aeaieo).

Iaoeiao iiaecio aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue ?ic?iaea e aenia?eiaioaeueia
ai?iaaoe?y iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, ye? caaacia/othoue ci?noiaee oa
i?ioeanoaeueiee ??ai? ianooiiino? o oi?ioaaii? a o/i?a 5 eean?a oi?iue
neeaaeaoe aeneiaethaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi ?oiueiai iiaeaii?aiai ?icaeoeo,
yeiai aiie aeinyaee a ii/aoeia?e oeie?, a?aeiia?aeii aei an?o /ioe?ueio
oac iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iaea?aeaii? oa
nenoaiaoecaoe?? iiaeo aeaieo i?i iiaeeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a 5 eeano
ai?iue aoaeoaaoe aeneiaethaaiiy ??cieo oei?a ? noee?a ia iniia?
oaenoieia?/ieo oa oaenoioai?/eo ciaiue, iaaooeo ieie a ii/aoeiaeo
eeanao, o e?iaaiaeeaeaeoe/iiio o?aeooaaii? caaaeueiiaeeaeaeoe/ieo
i?eioeei?a ia?niaeoeaiino? ? ianooiiino? uiaei i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue oeiey??a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? nenoaie ?icaeoeo ca’yciiai
iiaeaiiy a 5 eean? ia canaaeao ianooiiino? o iaa/aii? i’yoeeeaniee?a
neeaaeaoe ca’yci? aeneiaethaaiiy ??cieo oei?a ? noee?a.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeineiaeaeaiiy oa iniiaieo
aeniiaeia caaacia/o?oueny iaoiaeieiai/iith oa eiiaaiaeeaeaeoe/iith
ia??oioiaaiinoth aeoiaeieo iieiaeaiue; canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoiaeia
iaoeiai-iaaeaaiai/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo eiai iaoi e
caaaeaiiyi; eieueeiniei ? yeiniei aiaeicii ?acoeueoaoia
eiinoaooth/eo c?icia oa oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeineiaeaeaiiy caeienithaaeanue o i?ioean?
iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe a i’yoeo eeanao na?aaei?o oe?e i. Ee?aa ( ? 30,

? 81, ? 212), o eaeoeieiiio eo?ni aaoi?a ia eo?nao iiaeaeuaiiy
eaaeioieaoei? a/eoaeia oe?a?inueei? iiae oa eioa?aoo?e a Ee?anueeiio
i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiio ?inoeooo? oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a ii. A.A?ii/aiea, o
aenooiao ia iinueeeo oa iaeanieo iaoiaee/ieo naiiia?ao oa
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo, oeyoii ioae?eoaaiiy iaoiaee/ieo
i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

NO?OEOO?A ? INIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Iniiaiee ci?no aeeeaaeaii ia 180 noi??ieao. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny
ci anooio, aeaio ?icaeieia, aeniiaeia oa nieneo iniiaii?
aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e.

O anooii ia??oioiaaii aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaie,
aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy, aiiioaco oa iaoiaee
aeineiaeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
aeeeaaeaii iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a oaeiae iiaeaii
aiaeiiinoi i?i ai?iaaoeith aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icaeie aeena?oaoe?? — “Ia?niaeoeai?noue ?
ianooii?noue i?ae ii/aoeiaith oa na?aaei?ie eaieaie caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
oeiee ye iaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeaia” — iinoeoue aiaeic iaaeaaiai/ii?,
ineoieiiaainoe/ii? oa iaoiaee/ii? eioa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie
ia?niaeoeaiinoi e ianooiiinoi iiae ii/aoeiaith oa na?aaeiueith
eaieaie caaaeueiiinaioiuei? oeiee. O iueiio aeaii aecia/aiiy
ia?niaeoeaiinoi e ianooiiinoi ye iaaeaaiai/ieo eaoaai?ie.
I?iaiae?ciaaii aaaiiee aianie o ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo iniia ianooiiino? a
iaa/aii? oa aeoiaaii?, c?iaeaiee a?aeiieie iaaeaaiaaie oa o?einioaie
OV?-OV??? no. — ss.A. Eiiainueeei, Ae. Eieeii, E.A.Aaeueaaoe??i,
?.A.Ianoaeioeoe?, A.Ae?noa?aaaii, E.Aa?aa?oii, E.Ae.Ooeinueeei,
A.Niaina?ii oa ?i. I?iaiae?ciaaii iaaeaaia?/i? i?aoe? N.O.*aaaea?iaa,
A.I.Nooiieeinueeiai, E.A.Caieiaa, A.A.Aiaiue?aa, A.E.Aooe? oa ?i.
Aeacaii, ui o no/ani?e iaaeaaia?oe? oaiiiai ianooiiino? ?icaeyaeathoue
ye caaaeueiiiaoeiaee i?eioeei (I.?.Iaoiooia, ?.ss.Ea?ia?),
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee i?eioeei (A.A.Aeaaeaeia), caaaeueiiaeeaeaeoe/iee
i?eioeei (A.I. Iieuoe, TH.E. Aaaainueeee, I.ss.Naa/aiei,
I.A.Aiaaeaiiae/), aeeaeaeoe/iee i?eioeei (A.I.Iaaec?aii). Eiaeia c
aecia/aiue ianooiiino? oa ia?niaeoeaiino? ia’?eoeaia, ui cana?ae/o?
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiee ? caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/iee ?o oa?aeoa?.

O oai??? ianooii?noue i?iieea? o ci?no ina?oe, a iaoiaeeeo
aeeeaaeaiiy, o ii?aeiaiiy eiiiiiaio?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano oa
eiai eaiie. Iiiyooy ianooiiino? oa?aeoa?eco? aeiiae, ui noaaeyoueny aei
ciaiue, oi?iue o/i?a ia iaaiiio aoai? ?o iaa/aiiy, oi?i, iaoiae?a ?
i?eeii?a ii?aoethaaiiy iiaiai iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ye c aieo
a/eoae?a, oae ? c aieo aaoi??a i?ia?ai oa i?ae?o/iee?a.

Ocaaaeueiaiee aiae?c ?yaeo aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai ianooiiino? e
ia?niaeoeaiino? aea? ciiao aecia/eoe oae? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene oeueiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai yaeua: ca’ycie iiia?aaeiueiai e ianooiiiai iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo a ci?no? ?iaioe; aca?iica’ycie ?ai?oa iaaooeo ? iiaeo ciaiue,
oi?iue ? iaae/ie, ?o ?icoe?aiiy, iiaeeaeaiiy, oneeaaeiaiiy; a?aooaaiiy
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ae?oae oa oeo oi?iue, ye? caae?yi? a iniaeno?niiio
?oiueiio ?icaeoeo; anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo i?ae ie?aieie aoaiaie iaa/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aecia/aii ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii canaaee
ia?niaeoeaiinoi e ianooiiinoi uiaei iaa/aiiy o/iia 4(3) — 5 eeania
neeaaeaoe ca’ycii aeneiaethaaiiy. Aaoi?e a?aeiii? oai??? iiaoaiiiai
oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e (I.ss.Aaeueia??i, I.I.Iai/einueea,
I.O.Oaeec?ia oa ?i.) o nai?o i?aoeyo ?ice?eee nooue ianooiiino? ye
iiaoaii?noue caeiaoooy ethaeeiith ciaiue oa ai?iue. Oea a/aiiy i?i
neeaaei? aaaaoiieaiia? ci?ie, iia’ycai? c ooai?aiiyi iiaeo ae?e, ia?ac?a
oa iiiyoue. O i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e oai??y aeae?ey? 6
aoai?a. O aeena?oaoe?? aiie noa?aeoa?eciaai? i?ae eooii ci?o
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. I?iaiae?ciaaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ineoieia?a
(A.A.Aeaaeaeiaa, I.A.Caii?iaeoey, I.?.Iaiiiiyui?, E.O.Iaooiai? oa ?i.),
i?aoe? yeeo c?iaeee aaaiiee aianie o ae?iaeaiiy no/aniiai oyaeaiiy i?i
a?eia? iiaeeeaino? oa caeiiii??iino? canai?iiy ciaiue o i?ioean?
?icoiiaiai ?icaeoeo ae?oae.

Aiae?c niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e c oaei? aaeoc? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy iiae,
ye ?icaeoie ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy, cana?ae/o?, ui ia an?o aoaiao ??
?icaeoeo ooaa?aeaeoaaeinue ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy ai?iiy o/i?a ca’ycii
aeneiaethaaoenue. Aei iaiao?aeieo oiia i?aeaioiaee ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
iniaenoino? ?icaeoie iiaeaiiy a?aeiineee ss.A.Eiiainueeee,
E.Ae.Ooeinueeee. ?aeay i?aeoe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy iiae a
oeie? i?iieco? i?aoe? oaeeo aecia/ieo e?iaa?no?a, ye O.?.Aonea?a,
?.?.N?aciaanueeee, ?.O.Oi?ooiaoia. Nie?ath/enue ia iaoeiao niaaeueio
I.I.Iioaai?, N.O.?oniaa ?icaeyaea? ??aeia neiai ye aeaea?aei
iaiiaoi?iiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai na?oiaa/aiiy, ye nenoaio, a ye?e
o?enothoueny iniaeeaino? ni?eeiaiiy e a?aeia?aaeaiiy ae?eniino?..

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiaeiciaaii i?ia?aie e iiae?o/ieee, iaoiaee/ii
iiniaieee c i?iaeaie, iieacaii, ye ia i?aeoeoei caeienith?oueny
i?aaiicaoeiy ?iaioe iaae neeaaeaiiyi aeneiaethaaiue o 5 eeani.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei — “Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?ic?iaea
i?iaeaie ianooiiino? ? ia?niaeoeaiino? o iaa/aii? /aoaa?oieeaniee?a ?
i’yoeeeaniee?a na?aaeiuei? oeiee neeaaeaoe aeneiaethaaiiy” — iiaeaii
iien i?ioeano aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeineiaeiiai iaa/aiiy noai?thaaoe
oaenoe ca i?iiiiiaaiith iaoiaeeeith, cie?aia: iaoo e caaaeaiiy
iaaeaaiai/iiai aenia?eiaioo, eiai oiae; iniaeeao oaaao i?eaeieaii
eieueeiniiio ? yeiniiio aiaeiciai ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeiiai iaa/aiiy.

C iaoith aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy a oeiey??a oaenoioai?/eo
oi?iue aoei aeie?aieaii iniiai? oi?iiy, ye? neeaaeathoue ci?no ?iaioe
iaae ca’yciei iiaeaiiyi o/i?a. Iaoeiaith iniiaith aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeieo
aeey i?iaeoeoaaiiy oaeno?a oi?iue ? ?ic?iaeaia a ineoie?iaa?noeoe?
iiaeaeue ii?iaeaeaiiy aeneiaethaaiue, a?aeiia?aeii aei yei? o
iiaeaii?aiio aeo? aeae?eythoue /ioe?e oace (i???iooaaiiy, ieaioaaiiy,
?aae?caoe?y oa eiio?ieue). C oacaie iiaeaii?aiai aeoo a iaoiaeeoe?
ni?aa?aeiinyoueny /ioe?e a?oie ocaaaeueiaieo oi?iue: 1)
?ioi?iaoeaii-ci?noia?; 2) no?oeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?ei?; 3)
a?aiaoeei-noee?noe/i?; 4) ?aaeaeoe?ei?. Oe? aeaee iiaeaii?aeo oi?iue
aiaeii/an iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoenue ye aoaie noai?aiiy oaenoo.

O ?ic?iaoe? aenia?eiaioaeueii? nenoaie ai?aa ie aeoiaeeee c? no?oeoo?e
iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?, c? ci?noo oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue c ?o iii?ith ia
e?iaa?noe/i? ciaiiy, c eeaneo?eaoe?? ai?aa o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
oa?aeoa?ii aeeiioaaieo iia?aoe?e, a oaeiae ?c caaaeaiue ae?iaeaiiy
oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue c o?aooaaiiyi ia?niaeoeaiino? oa ianooiiino?
iaaoooy ?o o/iyie 4(3) oa 5 eean?a.

A iniiao aenia?eiaioaeueii? nenoaie ai?aa aoei iieeaaeaii i?ioenoaaeaiiy
aeae?a ?ia?o, ui i?iaiaeyoueny ia aioiaiio iaoa??ae?, oa i?iaeoeoaaiiy
aeneiaethaaiiy aai eiai /anoei.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeianaii ai?aae ia aiae?c oaeno?a oa oa?aeoa?enoeeo
iaaieo aeaiaio?a oaenoo. Ia?oueny ia oaac? aiae?c oaenoo c iiaeyaeo
ci?noo, no?oeoo?e, aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy iaaieo iiaieo cania?a.
Iaoith canoinoaaiiy oaeeo ai?aa ? ae?iaeaiiy o oeiey??a oi?iue
oaenoieia?/ieo, oiaoi caeaoiino? aeeiioaaoe iaa/aeuei? ae?? ia i?aenoaa?
canai?iiy iaaieo oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue c e?iaa?noeee oaenoo, a oaeiae
a?aeiia?aeieo iaae/ie oa aeina?aeo. Aei oaeeo ae?e ne?ae a?aeianoe
i?aeaaaeaiiy oaenoo i?ae iiiyooy (aai ai?iiy aecia/eoe oei oa noeeue
iiaeaiiy, caniae ca’yceo ?a/aiue o oaeno? oa ?i.) oa ae?th aeaaaeaiiy
iane?aeeo c iiiyooy (oiaoi ??ciiiai?oi? aeaee ?icai?o oaenoo: aiae?c
oeiieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e oaenoo, aiae?c eiai eiiiiceoe??, noee?noe/iee
aiae?c oaenoo, aiae?c aeei?enoaieo o oaeno? cania?a i?aeo?aciaiai
ca’yceo ? o. ?i.)

I?eioeeie ia?niaeoeaiino? oa ianooiiino? o ae?iaeaii? oaenoieia?/ieo
ciaiue iaoiaeii e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co icia/athoue, ianaiia?aae,
aeio?eiaiiy ?aeeiiai i?aeoiaeo, ?aeeieo aeo?aeieo iiceoe?e o i?ioean?
aecia/aiiy ci?noo e ianyao e?iaa?noe/ieo a?aeiiinoae ye o ii/aoeiaeo
eeanao, oae ? a na?aaei?e eaioe? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee. Aecia/aiiy
aeo?aeieo e?iaa?noe/ieo iiiyoue o ii/aoeiaeo eeanao cae?enithaaeinue o
ca’yceo ?c caaaeueieie i?aenoaaaie ?o aeae?eaiiy, ye? ?
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie ye o e?iaa?noeoe?, oae ? a e?iaaiiaoiaeeoe?.
Ine?eueee a na?aaei?e eaioe? e?iaa?noe/iee ?icaeyae oaenoo ni?yiiaaiee
ia aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae iiaoaeiae aeneiaethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii
aei neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy, ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia ai?aa aeey 4(3) eeano
oaeiae i?noeoue ?yae iia?aoe?e ia aiae?c oaeno?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei
??cieo oei?a oa noee?a iiaeaiiy, aeyaeaiiy a ieo niaoeeo?/ieo iiaieo
cania?a oa niiniae ?o aeei?enoaiiiy caeaaeii a?ae iaoe ni?eeoaaiiy.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie iaeaaeaoue ai?aae ia iiaoaeiao aeneiaethaaiue oa
?aaeaaoaaiiy. O ?ic?iaoe? oaeeo ai?aa iaie aoei a?aoiaaii, ui nenoaia
iaa/aeueieo ae?e ia? ia?aaeaa/aoe iniiai? aoaie oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaii?aeo
iaae/ie o/i?a. Aoei aeei?enoaii ai?aae, ni?yiiaai? ia: a)
a?aei?aoethaaiiy caaaeueiiai ci?noo iaeaooiueiai aeneiaethaaiiy; a)
aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?e oa eiiiiceoe?? aeneiaethaaiiy; a) aeia?? iiaieo
cania?a oa noai?aiiy oaenoo; a)oaeineiiaeaiiy oaenoo (?aaeaaoaaiiy).
Ine?eueee ci?no ? oa?aeoa? oeeo ai?aa a?aeiia?aea? no?oeoo?? iiaeaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino?, ie acyee ?o ca iniiao eeaneo?eaoe?? aeeaeaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo, aeei?enoiaoaaiiai aeey oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue neeaaeaoe oaenoe c
o?aooaaiiyi ia?niaeoeaiino? ? ianooiiino? ?o canai?iiy. On?
cai?iiiiiaai? a?oie ai?aa caaacia/othoue i?ioean iiaoaiiiai ?icaeoeo
ai?iue aoaeoaaoe ca’yci? aeneiaethaaiiy.

I?eioeei ia?niaeoeaiino? ? ianooiiino? o oi?ioaaii? oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue
o/i?a iieiaeoi? oeiee oa na?aaeiuei? eaiee ?aae?co?oueny a iiaoaiiiio
oi?ioaaii? e?iaa?noe/ieo ciaiue, o iinooiiaiio ae?iaeaii? oaenoioai?/eo
oi?iue c iii?ith ia oe? ciaiiy.

Oi?ioaaiiy oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue iiaeeeaa o?eueee ca oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy
ieaiii??ii? ?iaioe, yeith ia?aaeaa/aii iaaiee i?aeaioia/ee ia??iae.
I?aeaioia/ith oiiaii iacaaii ?iaioo, ui aeeiio?oueny i?ae /an
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oaenoaie oa i?ae /an oai?aiiy oaeno?a ia o?ieao iiae,
ine?eueee oaea ?iaioa ? i?iiaaeaaoe/iei aoaiii ii a?aeiioaiith aei
niaoe?aeueieo o?ie?a ?icaeoeo ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy. E??i oiai, ia?aae
?iaioith iaae ia?aeacaie oa oai?aie ie i?aeoeeoaaee i?iaaaeaiiy aeania
i?aeaioia/eo o?ie?a c ?icaeoeo ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy (oaie oaeeo o?ie?a —
“Iniaeeaino? iiaoaeiae oaenoo-?iciia?ae?”, “Iniaeeaino? iiaoaeiae
oaenoo-iieno” oiui). Caaaeaiiy oaeiai i?aeaioia/iai aoaio — noi?ioaaoe
/anoeia? oaenoioai?/? ai?iiy ia iniia? ai?iue oaenoieia?/ieo, ui oaeiae
ni?ey? ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio ia?niaeoeaiino?.

Ia?aa??ea aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee cae?enithaaeanue ia iniia?
iaaooeo i’yoeeeanieeaie oaenoieia?/ieo ? oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue,
noi?iiaaieo c iii?ith ia canai?i? a ii/aoeia?e eaioe? iiiyooy
e?iaa?noeee oaenoo. Caeiaoo? a i?ioean? aenia?eiaioo ?acoeueoaoe
c?noaaeyeeny c aeaieie eiio?ieueieo eean?a, aea caaaeaiiy
oi?ioethaaeenue o a?aeiia?aeiino? c /eiiith i?ia?aiith, i?ioa aac oaei?
iii?e.

?ic?iaeyth/e e?eoa??? ioe?iee oaenoieia?/ieo oa oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue, ie
aeoiaeeee c ?icoi?iiy oiai, ui ??ai? iaieiae?iiy oaeeie ciaiiyie
iiaeooue aooe noa?aeoa?eciaai? ca ci?noii, no?oeoo?ith, ca iiaiei
ioi?ieaiiyi oa caeaoi?noth oaeineiiaethaaoe noai?ai? aeneiaethaaiiy.
Oi?iiy, ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? yeeo o i?ioean?
aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeine?aeiiai iaa/aiiy aoa ia?aa??aiee, iiaeia
ca?oioaaoe ca oaeeie ia?aiao?aie:

1. Ci?no: ?ic??ciyoe oaeno oa noeoii?noue ?a/aiue; aecia/aoe oaio oa
aieiaio aeoieo aeneiaethaaiiy; ?ic??ciyoe, c oaiith /e c aieiaiith
aeoieith oaenoo ni?aa?aeiineoueny caaieiaie (oaenoieia?/i? ai?iiy);
inienethaaoe oaio oa ?? iaae? o iaeaooiueiio oaeno?; ?ice?eaaoe oaio ia
iniia? ae?a?aiiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoe
aeneiaethaaiiy aieiai?e aeoioe?; aeiae?aoe ni?aa?aeianaiee c oaiith aai
aieiaiith aeoieith oaenoo caaieiaie (oaenoioai?/? ai?iiy).

2. No?oeoo?a: aecia/aoe ca/ei, iniiaio /anoeio oa e?ioe?aeo oaenoo;
?ic??ciyoe eaioethaiaee oa ia?aeaeueiee niiniae ca’yceo i?ae ?a/aiiyie
oaenoo; /eaioaaoe oaeno ia /anoeie a?aeiia?aeii aei aecia/aieo i?e?ioai
(oiaoi neeaaeaoe eiai ieai oa aeio?eioaaoenue aacaoe?a, caienoth/e
aeneiaethaaiiy); aecia/aoe “a?aeiia” oa “iiaa” o ?a/aiiyo oaenoo;
aecia/aoe caniae i?aeo?aciaiai ca’yceo (oaenoieia?/i? ai?iiy);
i?iaiicoaaoe oaeno, aecia/ath/e eiai i?e?ioaie (neeaaeaoe ieai);
noai?thaaoe oaeno ca ieaiii, a?aeiia?aeii aei aecia/aieo i?e?ioai
aoaeoth/e aacaoee; caaacia/oaaoe iayai?noue no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a oaenoo
(ca/eio, iniiaii? /anoeie oa e?ioe?aee); i?aaeeueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
caniae i?aeo?aciaiai ca’yceo; aoaeoaaoe ?a/aiiy, aeio?eioth/enue
oaii-?aiaoe/iiai ca’yceo (oaenoioai?/? ai?iiy).

3. Iiaia ioi?ieaiiy: aecia/aoe iniiaiee oei iiaeaiiy aai oeie iiaeaiiy,
ye? ii?aeiothoueny a oaeno?; aecia/aoe “a?aeiia” oa “iiaa” o ?a/aiiyo
?iciia?ae? oa iieno i?aaeiaoa; ciaoiaeeoe oaco, aeieac oa aeniiaie o
oaeno? ?icaeoio; aecia/aoe noeeueiao iaeaaei?noue oaenoo (oaenoieia?/i?
ai?iiy); noai?thaaoe oaenoe-?iciia?ae? oa oaenoe-iiene (i?aaeiaoa,
oaa?eie), a oaeiae ?icaeoie-aeiaaaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie-iiyniaiiy;
naiino?eii aeiae?aoe ae?aaeaeuei? caniae iiae a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe oa
neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy, oiaoi noai?thaaoe aeneiaethaaiiy iaaiiai noeeth
(oaenoioai?/? ai?iiy).

4. ?aaeaaoaaiiy: iii?/aoe iiieeee oa iaaeie?ee o ci?no?, no?oeoo??,
iiaiiio ioi?ieaii? aeneiaethaaiiy (oaenoieia?/i? ai?iiy);
oaeineiiaethaaoe oaeno ia ??aiyo ci?noo, no?oeoo?e oa iiaiiai ioi?ieaiiy
(oaenoioai?/? ai?iiy).

I?aenoaaith aeey aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeiiai iaa/aiiy o iaoiio
aeine?aeaeaii? aoee: ienueiia? naiino?ei? ?iaioe o/i?a i’yoeo eean?a, a
oaeiae i?aenoieia? ienueiia? ?iaioe iai?ee?ioe? iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo.

?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co c??ciaeo ?ia?o, i?iaaaeaieo i?ney
niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiiai iaa/aiiy, iieacaee, ui o/i?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a oni?oi?oa, i?ae o/i? eean?a eiio?ieueieo,
iaieiae?ee ye oaenoieia?/ieie, oae ? oaenoioai?/eie ai?iiyie.

Aiae?c aeaieo cana?ae/ea, ui o eiio?ieueieo eeanao oaeno a?ae noeoiiino?
oaiaoe/ii ia iia’ycaieo i?ae niaith ?a/aiue a?ae??cieee 82%
i’yoeeeaniee?a, i?ioa iaa?oiooaaoe naith aeoieo ciiaee eeoa 13%. A
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao, a o/i?a yeeo aoei noi?iiaaii ii/aoeia?
oyaeaiiy i?i nieneiao ?aei?noue ? ca’yci?noue oaenoo, 76% oeiey??a
ciiaee iiynieoe, a /iio iieyaa? a?aei?ii?noue i?ae a?oiith ia iia’ycaieo
ca ci?noii ?a/aiue ? oaenoii. Iaaiaeeii ?icai?ioo? aeai? i?i oe? ai?iiy
a oaaeeoe?.

Ii??aiyeuei? aeai? a?aei?aoethaaiiy oaenoieia?/ieo oi?iue a o/i?a
eiio?ieueieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a

Oi?iiy aecia/aoe oaio oaenooOi?iiy c’yniao

aaoe aieiaio aeoieo oaenooOi?iiy neeaaeaoe ieai oaenooOi?iiy aeae?eyoe
ca/ei oa e?ioe?aeo oaenooOi?iiy anoaiia

ethaaoe caniae i?aeo?a ciaiai ca’yceoOi?iiy aeyaeyoe nooi?iue
ia?aaaaeaiiy o oaeno? oeio iiaeaiiyEiio?ieuei? eeane 56 % 61% 57%
76% 23% 55%Aenia?eiaioaeuei? eeane 95% 93% 80% 89%
73% 86% Iaeneeaaei?oei c-iii?ae cacia/aieo o oaaeeoe?
aeyaeeinue aeey i’yoeeeaniee?a caaaeaiiy ?ic??cieoe nooi?iue
ia?aaaaeaiiy iaaiiai oeio iiaeaiiy o aioiaeo oaenoao, iaoith yeiai aoei
ia?aa??eoe ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? a o/i?a oi?iiy c’yniaoaaoe
eiioi?eaoeaio iaoo aeneiaethaaiiy. Iaeaea 60% o/i?a eiio?ieueieo oa 87%
o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a a?aeiia?ee, ui c’ynoaaee iniiaiee oei
iiaeaiiy, aecia/eaoe, ca?aaee /iai aoei noai?aia eiaeia ?c
cai?iiiiiaaieo aeneiaethaaiue. Canoinoaaaoe iaaoo? i?ae /an
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy ai?iiy aecia/aoe “a?aeiia” oa “iiaa” o
?a/aiiyo ?iciia?ae? oa iieno, 86% o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a
i?aaeeueii aecia/eee oeiiaa cia/aiiy eiaeiiai c o?eae?a. Iaoii?noue o/i?
eiio?ieueieo eean?a iiaee nie?aoeny eeoa ia eiioi?eaoeaio iaoo eiaeiiai
c aeneiaethaaiue. Oaeei /eiii, noi?iiaai?noue oi?iiy aecia/aoe
oaii-?aiaoe/i? ca’ycee o ?a/aiiyo ??cieo oeiiaeo cia/aiue ni?ey?
oaeineiiaeaiith ai?iiy i’yoeeeaniee?a ?ic??ciyoe oeie iiaeaiiy.

Aiae?c o/i?anueeeo ?ia?o, i?iaaaeaieo c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy noi?iiaaiino?
ai?iiy ?ic??ciyoe ooieoe?iiaeuei? noee? iiaeaiiy iieacaa, ui
e?euee?noue o/i?a, ye? aii?aeenue ?c caaaeaiiyi, o eiio?ieueieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao ? i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaith (a?aeiia?aeii — 79% oa
82%), ui na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a iaio a?oiao o/i?a oi?iiy aecia/aoe
eiioi?eaoeaio iaoo eiaeiiai ?c cai?iiiiiaaieo aeneiaethaaiue oa
?iia??iiai aae?anaoa iiaeaiiy a eiaeiiio c eiie?aoieo aeiaaee?a ?
noi?iiaaiei aeinoaoiueith i??ith.

O i?ioean? ia?aa??ee ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? ai?iiy iii?/aoe aeiiouai? a
oaeno? iiaeaii?a? iiieeee oa iaaeie?ee aoei c’yniaaii: ?c caaaeaiiyi
aii?aeiny 65% o/i?a eiio?ieueieo oa 70% o/i?a eean?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo.
C oeueiai iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a o/i?a, ye? a?aee o/anoue a
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaa/aii?, i?ae /an a?aei?aoethaaiiy oaenoieia?/ieo
oa oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue iiaia /oooy aeaui oaeineiiaeeeiny, i?ioa
a?aei?aoethaaiiy ai?iiy ni?eeiaoe ia neoo oaeno, cacia/ath/e a iueiio
iaaei?a/iino? oa iiaeaii?a? iiieeee, a o/i?a iaio a?oi iio?aao? ie?aii?
oaaae.

I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaei o ?ic?iaeai?e iaie iaoiaeeoe? iaa/aiiy
i’yoeeeaniee?a aoaeoaaoe oaenoe c iii?ith ia ciaiiy c e?iaa?noeee
oaenoo, iaaoo? o/iyie a ii/aoeia?e eaioe?, ? oa, ui canoiniaoaai? i?ae
/an aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy ai?aae i?iaiaeeeenue o iaai?e
iine?aeiaiino? ? ia?aaoaaee o aca?iica’yceo. Eiaeia ianooiia ai?aaa iaea
ia iao? canoinoaaiiy, ?icaeoie, ocaaaeueiaiiy oaenoieia?/ieo ciaiue oa
ai?iue, ui aoee canai?i? o/iyie a ii/aoeia?e eaioe?, a oaeiae ia
iiia?aaei?o o?ieao.

?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ia?aa??ee ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? o
i’yoeeeaniee?a oi?iiy inienethaaoe oaio oa iaae? oaie i?iaiiciaaiiai
oaenoo, a oaeiae oi?iiy aeiae?aoe iaoa??ae aeey ?ice?eooy oaie
aeneiaethaaiiy, cana?ae/eee, ui i?aaeeueii aecia/eee oaio oaenoo 80%
o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a, i?aaeeueii aecia/eee iaae? oaie (oeyoii
neeaaeaiiy ieaio) 75% oa i?aaeeueii ae?a?aee iaoa??ae aeey ?ice?eooy
oaie oaenoo 74% o/i?a oeeo eean?a. C-iii?ae o/i?a eiio?ieueieo eean?a
i?aaeeueii aecia/eee oaio iaeaooiueiai aeneiaethaaiiy 45%, ie?aneeee
iaae? oaie 38% oa i?aaeeueii ae?a?aee iaoa??ae aeey ?ice?eooy oaie 35%
ae?oae.

O i?ioean? ia?aa??ee ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? ai?iiy i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoe oaeno
aieiai?e aeoioe? c’ynoaaeiny, ui aii?aeiny ?c caaaeaiiyi 92% o/i?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a oa 74% o/i?a eiio?ieueieo eean?a.

Uiaei ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue /eaioaaoe oaeno ia aacaoee,
i?iaiicoaaoe ca/ei oa e?ioe?aeo oaenoo (oeyoii neeaaeaiiy ieaio) oa
neeaaeaoe ca/ei ? e?ioe?aeo aei cai?iiiiiaaiiai o?aaiaioo oaenoo, oi a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao oae? ai?iiy aeyaeeenue iaeaaeiei /eiii
a?aei?aoeueiaaieie o 80% (/eaioaaiiy oaenoo ia aacaoee), 92%
(i?iaiicoaaiiy ca/eio oa e?ioe?aee) oa 85% (neeaaeaiiy ca/eio oa
e?ioe?aee) o/i?a. A?aeiia?aeii, a o/i?a eiio?ieueieo eean?a cacia/ai?
ai?iiy aeyaeeenue noi?iiaaieie o 73% (/eaioaaiiy ia aacaoee), 90%
(i?iaiicoaaiiy ca/eio oa e?ioe?aee) oa 47% (neeaaeaiiy ca/eio oa
e?ioe?aee) oeiey??a.

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a ia?aa??ee ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? ai?iiy i?aaeeueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe caniae i?aeo?aciaiai ca’yceo cana?ae/eei, ui
a?aei?aoeueiaaia aiii o 92% o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a oa o 46%
o/i?a eean?a eio?ieueieo.

Ai?iiy neeaaeaoe oaenoe-iiene i?aaeiaoa i?iaeaiiino?oaaee 96% o/i?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa 68% o/i?a eiio?ieueieo eean?a. Uiaei ai?iue
neeaaeaoe oaenoe ?iciia?aeiiai oa?aeoa?o, oi ?o iiaioaaee 97% o/i?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa 70% o/i?a eiio?ieueieo eean?a. Eiio?ieueiee c??c
i?aeoaa?aeea iaoa i?eiouaiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/aia ?ic?iaeaiith iaie
iaoiaeeeith ae?iaeaiiy a o/i?a oaenoieia?/ia ai?iiy aecia/aoe “a?aeiia”
oa “iiaa” o ?a/aiiyo iieno oa ?iciia?ae? caiia?aa? ci?ooaaiith iiiyoue
iien ? ?iciia?aeue, a oaeiae ni?ey? a?aei?aoethaaiith ai?iue aoaeoaaoe
aeneiaethaaiiy caaeaiiai oeio.

O i?ioean? ii??aiyiiy ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? ai?iiy neeaaeaoe
oaenoe-?icaeoie c’ynoaaeiny, ui aaaaeaiiy iiiyooy ?icaeoi-iiyniaiiy oa
a?aei?aoethaaiiy oaenoiciaa/iai ai?iiy ?ici?ciaaaoe ?icaeoi oaeiai aeaeo
a aioiaeo oaenoao, a oaeiae ?ic??ciyoe ?icaeoi-iiyniaiiy oa
?icaeoi-aeiaaaeaiiy iiceoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia oi?ioaaii? oaeiai
aaaeeeaiai oaenoioai?/iai ai?iiy, ye i?iaeoeoaaiiy ca’ycieo
aeneiaethaaiue, o yeeo aei?a/ii ii?aeiothoueny ?icaeoie ??cieo aeae?a.
Oea iaaea? oeiey?ai a?eueoa iiaeeeainoae uiaei oai?aiiy neeaaei?oeo ca
ci?noii oa ??ciiiai?oi?oeo ca neioaene/iith aoaeiaith aeneiaethaaiue.
Oae, o neeaaeaiiio ia cai?iiiiiaaio oaio oaeno?-?icaeoi? c-iii?ae o/i?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a aeei?enoaee a?ae 5 aei 10 i?e?ioai 48% (o
eiio?ieueieo eeanao — a?aeiia?aeii 8% ae?oae), a?ae 2 aei 5 i?e?ioai
eeoa 52% (o eiio?ieueieo eeanao a?aeiia?aeii -92%), aeei?enoaee 3-7
neeaaeiii?ae?yaeieo ?a/aiue c i?ae?yaeieie i?e/eie 90% o/i?a (o
eiio?ieueieo eeanao oaei? e?eueeino? neeaaeiii?ae?yaeieo ?a/aiue ia
aeei?enoaa aeiaeai o/aiue).

O ca’yceo c eiiieaeniei i?aeoiaeii aei oi?ioaaiiy oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue
a?aei?aoethaaiiy ai?iiy oaeineiiaethaaoe noai?aiee oaeno iaaoaa?
iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy. Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaiiy o/iyie iaio a?oi
caaaeaiiy uiaei ?aaeaaoaaiiy oaenoo iieacaei, ui a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
eeanao aii?aeeny ?c eiai aeeiiaiiyi 70% o/i?a, oiae? ye o eiio?ieueieo
eeanao oea caaaeaiiy aeyaeeinue iineeueiei o?eueee aeey 32% oeiey??a.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii oae? aeniiaee:

1. ?icaeoie ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy i’yoeeeaniee?a, i?aai?ciaaiee
a?aeiia?aeii aei oai??? iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?, iiaeiai nie?aoeny ia
a?aei?aoeueiaai? a ii/aoeia?e oeie? oaenoioai?/? ai?iiy. Iaiao?aeiei
i?ae??oioyi oi?ioaaiiy oaeeo oi?iue iathoue noaoe caeiaoo? a ii/aoeia?e
eaioe? oaenoieia?/i? ciaiiy ? ai?iiy.

2. Aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aiiy neeaaeaoe oaenoe aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oa iine?aeiaiiai oi?ioaaiiy e oaeineiiaeaiiy
iaiao?aeieo oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy nenoaie
a?aeiia?aeieo ai?aa, canoiniaoaaii? o i?ioean? aea/aiiy
eaeneei-a?aiaoe/iiai oa a?aiaoeei-i?oia?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo, a oaeiae
aaciina?aaeiuei ia o?ieao ?icaeoeo ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy. Caaaeaiiy aei
oeeo ai?aa iiaeii? aooe i???ioiaai? ia aecia/ai? o ineoie?iaa?noeoe?
/ioe?e oace no?oeoo?e iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?.

3. Aeine?aeia ?iaioa iieacaea, ui ?acoeueoaoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy
oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue caaacia/o?oueny ca oiiae aeio?eiaiiy oaeeo aeiia:

iii?e ia caeiaoo? i’yoeeeanieeaie a ii/aoeia?e eaioe? iaa/aiiy
a?aeiiino? i?i oaeno, oaio, iniiaio aeoieo, caaieiaie, no?oeoo?i?
/anoeie oaenoo, aacaoe, caniae i?aeo?aciaiai ca’yceo;

oi?ioaaiiy o i’yoeeeaniee?a iiiyooy i?i i?e?ioaie oaenoo oa
oaii-?aiaoe/i? ca’ycee o ?a/aiiyo oaenoo, a oaeiae a?aei?aoethaaiiy a
ieo oi?iiy i?iaiicoaaoe oaeno oeyoii aecia/aiiy eiai i?e?ioai oa
?ice?eooy ?o o i?ioean? i?iaeoeoaaiiy aeneiaethaaiiy;

?aae?caoe?? a iaa/aii? ?aea? eiioi?eaoeaii? ni?yiiaaiino? iiaeaiiy
(noai?aiiy e aeei?enoaiiy iiaeaii?aeo neooaoe?e, ye? ni?eythoue
inieneaiith o/iyie iaoe oa oiia ni?eeoaaiiy);

a?aooaaiiy aca?iica’yceo a iaa/aii? i?iaeoeoaaoe oaenoe ??cieo oei?a,
cie?aia iieno oa ?iciia?ae?, a oaeiae ?icaeoi?a ??cieo aeae?a
(aeiaaaeaiiy, iiyniaiiy);

nenoaiaoe/iiai, ieaiii??iiai, oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o i?iaaaeaiiy
aiae?oe/ieo ? neioaoe/ieo aeae?a ?ia?o, c iniaeeaith oaaaith aei:

a) ci?noiaiai, eiiiiceoe?eiiai, iiaiiai aiae?co oaeno?a-c?ace?a c
iii?ith ia caeiaoo? a ii/aoeia?e eaioe? oaenoieia?/i? ciaiiy; a) oniiai
oa ienaiiiai i?iaeoeoaaiiy oaeno?a ??cieo noee?a ? oeiieia?/ieo cia/aiue
c iii?ith ia noi?iiaai? a i’yoiio eean? oaenoieia?/i? ai?iiy aoaeoaaoe
?a/aiiy oaenoo-?iciia?ae? oa oaenoo-iieno c o?aooaaiiyi oaii-?aiaoe/ieo
ca’yce?a, aeei?enoaiiy cania?a i?aeo?aciiai ca’yceo c o?aooaaiiyi
cacia/aieo ca’yce?a, noai?aiiy ?icaeoi?a ??cieo aeae?a.

4.Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia?aa??aii aenia?eiaioaeueii. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy oaenoioai?/eo
oi?iue i’yoeeeaniee?a c iii?ith ia caeiaoo? a ii/aoeia?e eaioe?
oaenoieia?/i? ciaiiy aea? ciiao oaeineiiaethaaoe i?ioean iaa/aiiy o/i?a
noai?thaaoe aeneiaethaaiiy ??cieo oeiieia?/ieo cia/aiue ?
?acoeueoaoeaiith, a, ioaea, aeioe?eueiith.

Aeeiiaia ?iaioa aeaea iiaeeea?noue ni?iaeooaaoe e ?io? i?iaeaie, ui
noaiiaeyoue ?ioa?an aeey iaeaooi?o aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaiith

c-iii?ae ieo, ia iaoo aeoieo, ? aaaaeaiiy aei iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie
iiiyooy i?i oaii-?aiaoe/i? ca’ycee o ?a/aiiyo oaenoo oa oi?ioaaiiy o
oeiey??a oi?iiy aecia/aoe oae? ca’ycee oa a?aoiaoaaoe ?o o i?ioean?
naiino?eiiai oai?aiiy oaeno?a, cie?aia oaeeo, aea ii?aeiothoueny ??ci?
oeie iiaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaii a
oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Iaoa??aee aei o?ie?a oe?a?inueei? iiae aeey 5-7 eean?a oe?e c
oe?a?inueeith iiaith iaa/aiiy (?-??? /aa?o?) // Oe?a?inueea iiaa ?
e?oa?aoo?a a oeie?.- 1993.- ?8.-N.3-56, ? 10,-N.13-53, ? 12.-N.3-57 (o
ni?aaaoi?noa?).

2. Iaoa??aee aei o?ie?a oe?a?inueei? iiae aeey 5-7 eean?a (?V /aa?oue)
// Aeeaineiai.- 1994.-?2.-N. 23-62 (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

3. Iaa/aeuei? ia?aeace (5-7 eeane) // Aeeaineiai.- 1995.- ?4.-N.26-35
(o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

4. Iaa/aeuei? ia?aeace c oe?a?inueei? iiae.-E.: Aa?en.-1997.-192 n. (o
ni?aaaoi?noa?).

5. ??aeia neiai. Iin?aiee c ?icaeoeo ca’yciiai iiaeaiiy aeey o/i?a 5
eeano.E.: Iaa?no?-S.-1997.- 62n. (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

6. Iaoa??aee aei o?ie?a oe?a?inueei? iiae a 5 eean? (? /aa?oue)
//Aeeaineiai.-1998.- ?8.-N.22-41.

7. Iaoa??aee aei o?ie?a oe?a?inueei? iiae a 5 eean? (?? /aa?oue)
//Aeeaineiai.- 1998.- ? 9.-N.17-30.

8. Iaoa??aee aei o?ie?a oe?a?inueei? iiae a 5 eean? (??? /aa?oue)
//Aeeaineiai.-1998.- ?10.-N.26-31.

9. Iaoa??aee aei o?ie?a oe?a?inueei? iiae ? 5 eean? (??? /aa?oue,
i?iaeiaaeaiiy) // Aeeaineiai.-1998.- ?11.-N.21-29.

10. Iaoa??aee aei o?ie?a oe?a?inueei? iiae a 5 eean? (?V /aa?oue)

// Aeeaineiai.-1999.- ?2.-N.18-24.

11. Iaoa??aee aei o?ie?a oe?a?inueei? iiae a 5 eean? (?V /aa?oue,
i?iaeiaaeaiiy) //Aeeaineiai.-1999.- ?3.-N. 23-29.

12. Ia?niaeoeai?noue ? ianooii?noue o oi?ioaaii? oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue a
o/i?a 4 ? 5 eean?a (oace aeiiia?ae?) // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “A??i/aie?anuee? /eoaiiy — 96: Ina?oa. Aoiai?caoe?y.
A/eoaeue”.- Ee?a, 1996.- N. 97-98.

Aeaciaa I.I.

Ia?niaeoeai?noue ? ianooii?noue o oi?ioaaii? oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue a
o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo ? 5 eean?a caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00. 02 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae.- ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iiaeaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aio iaoiaeeeo iaa/aiiy i’yoeeeaniee?a
aoaeoaaoe oaenoe, yea, aoaeo/e ci???ioiaaia ia an? oace iiaeaii?aiai
aeoo, ni?ey? ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeei?a ia?niaeoeaiino? oa ianooiiino? o
oi?ioaaii? oaenoioai?/eo oi?iue. Iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy i’yoeeeaniee?a
noai?thaaoe ca’yci? aeneiaethaaiiy nie?a?oueny ia a?aei?aoeueiaai? a
ii/aoeiaeo eeanao oaenoioai?/? ai?iiy oa niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaio nenoaio
ai?aa, yea caniaaie aiae?oeei-neioaoe/ieo ae?e c ??cieie no?oeoo?ieie
aeaiaioaie oaenoo ni?ey? iiaeeaeaiith ciaiue ? ai?iue, iaiao?aeieo aeey
i?iaeoeoaaiiy aeneiaethaaiue oa oaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaiiy a oe?eiio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaenoieia?/i? ciaiiy, oaenoioai?/? ai?iiy, oace
no?oeoo?e iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, caniae i?aeo?aciaiai ca’yceo, eaioethaiaee
oa ia?aeaeueiee oeie ca’yceo i?ae ?a/aiiyie oaenoo, i?e?ioaie oaenoo,
no?oeoo?i? /anoeie oaenoo.

Aeaciaay A.I.

Ia?niaeoeaiinoue e i?aainoaaiiinoue a oi?ie?iaaiee oiaiee nicaeaaaoue
oaenou o o/aueony ia/aeueiuo e 5 eeannia iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu.-
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.02 — oai?ey e iaoiaeeea iao/aiey
oe?aeineiio ycueo.- Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee eco/aia i?iaeaia ?aaeecaoeee
i?eioeeiia ia?niaeoeaiinoe e i?aainoaaiiinoe a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey
oiaiee nicaeaaaoue oaenou o o/aueony 5 eeannia.

?anniio?aiea oeacaiiie i?iaeaiu a ea/anoaa aaaeiaeoaai oneiaey ?aaiou ii
?acaeoeth nayciie ?a/e iaoneiaeaii, ai-ia?auo, nia?aiaiiuie
oaiaeaioeeyie a ?acaeoee eeiaaenoeee, ineoieeiaaenoeee e
eeiaaiaeeaeaeoeee, eioi?ua eanathony iaoiaeeee iao/aiey ycueo eae
n?aaenoao iauaiey ethaeae, e a yoie eiiioieeaoeaiie ooieoeee ii nai
yaeyaony iniaui aeaeii eioaeeaeooaeueiie, ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ai-aoi?uo, ?anniio?aiea i?iaeaiu iauyniyaony iaaeinoaoi/iie
?ac?aaioaiiinoueth aii?ina i?aainoaaiiinoe e ia?niaeoeaiinoe a
oi?ie?iaaiee oiaiee nicaeaaaoue oaenou o o/aueony ia/aeueiuo e 5 eeannia
a oai?aoe/aneii e iaoiaee/aneii aniaeoao, neaaenoaeai /aai yaeyaony
iaaeinoaoi/iia oiaiea oeieueieeia i?iaeooee?iaaoue nayciua auneacuaaiey,
/oi io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia o?iaia ?a/aauo oiaiee e iaaueia
auioneieeia n?aaeiae oeieu.

Aiaeec oeie/iuo iaaeinoaoeia auneacuaaiee, nicaeaaaaiuo o/aueieny 5
eeanna, aeaao iniiaaiey naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi iao/aiea iyoeeeannieeia
nicaeaaaoue oaenou a iaaeinoaoi/iie noaiaie iie?aaony ia
eeiaaiaeeaeaeoe/aneea iniiau, ia eioi?uo iino?iaii iao/aiea ?iaeiie ?a/e
o/aueony ia/aeueiuo eeannia. A ?acoeueoaoa iieo/aiiua ieaaeoeie
oeieueieeaie ciaiey i oaenoa e iaauee nicaeaiey nayciuo auneacuaaiee ia
anaaaea ia?aoatho i?iaeieaeaiea e noaiiayony iniiaie ?aaiou ii ?acaeoeth
nayciie ?a/e a 5 eeanna.

A nayce n yoei iniiaioth caaea/o aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey
ninoaaeei iaania/aiea i?eioeeiia ia?niaeoeaiinoe e i?aainoaaiiinoe a
oi?ie?iaaiee oiaiee nicaeaaaoue oaenou o/aueieny 5 eeannia n iii?ie ia
ciaiey e iaauee, noi?ie?iaaiiua o ieo a ia/aeueiii caaia.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneie e o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneie
eeoa?aoo?u a aeenna?oaoeee onoaiiaeaii ninoiyiea ?ac?aaioaiiinoe
i?iaeaiu a nia?aiaiiie eeiaaiaeeaeaeoeea, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiu
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea e eeiaaiaeeaeaeoe/aneea iniiau

oi?ie?iaaiey o o/aueony 5 eeannia oiaiee nicaeaaaoue nayciua
auneacuaaiey ?acee/iuo oeiia e noeeae. A enneaaeiaaiee onoaiiaeai
o?iaaiue onaiaiey, iniuneaiey e iniciaiey o/aueieny 5 eeannia
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo i?ia?aiiie oaenoieiae/aneeo ciaiee, a oaeaea o?iaaiue
noi?ie?iaaiiinoe o ieo oiaiee e iaaueia nicaeaaaoue oaenou n oeaeueth
iiauoaiey ooieoeeiiaeueii-?a/aaie iai?aaeaiiinoe onaaeaaaiuo o/aueieny
eaeneei-a?aiiaoe/aneeo ciaiee e oiaiee n oi/ee c?aiey i?aainoaaiiinoe
i?aiiaeaaaiey a ia/aeueiuo e 5 eeannao. E, iaeiiaoe, a aeenna?oaoeeiiiii
enneaaeiaaiee i?aaeeiaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueioth nenoaio oi?aaeiaiee,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuoth i?aainoaaiiinoue a oi?ie?iaaiee o o/aueony 4(3) e 5
eeannia oiaiee niaeaaaoue nayciua auneacuaaiey e i?aaenoaaeaiu
?acoeueoaou i?iaa?ee aa yooaeoeaiinoe.

Iieo/aiiua a oiaea yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iao/aiey ?acoeueoaou
iiaeoaa?aeeee, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey o iyoeeeannieeia oiaiee
nicaeaaaoue oaenou iiauoaaony, anee iaoiaeeea iao/aiey nicaeaaaoue
nayciua auneacuaaiey iie?aaony ia noi?ie?iaaiiua a ia/aeueiuo eeannao
ciaiey i oaenoa e oiaiey aai nicaeaaaoue, a oaeaea ia niaoeeaeueii
?ac?aaioaiioth nenoaio oi?aaeiaiee, eioi?ay n?aaenoaaie
aiaeeoeei-neioaoe/aneeo aeaenoaee n ?acee/iuie no?oeoo?iuie yeaiaioaie
oaenoa niinianoaoao iniuneaieth, iniciaieth e oaeoaeaieth ciaiee e
oiaiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?iaeooee?iaaiey auneacuaaiee e
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey ?a/e a oeaeii.

Ai?iaaoeey ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey inouanoaeyeanue a i?ioeanna
o/aaiie ?aaiou a iyouo eeannao n?aaeieo oeie a.Eeaaa, a eaeoeeiiiii
eo?na aaoi?a ia eo?nao iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee o/eoaeae oe?aeineiai
ycuea e eeoa?aoo?u a Eeaaneii iaae?aaeiiaeueiii einoeoooa
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey o/eoaeae ei. A.A?ei/aiei, a aunooieaieyo ia
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneeo eiioa?aioeeyo, a oaeaea iooai iioaeeeiaaiey
iaoiaee/aneeo ?aaio ii oaia aeenna?oaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaenoieiae/aneea ciaiey, oiaiey nicaeaaaoue oaeno, oacu
no?oeoo?u ?a/aaiai aeoa, n?aaenoaa iaaeo?aciaie nayce,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiue e ia?aeeaeueiue aeaeu nayce iaaeaeo i?aaeeiaeaieyie
oaenoa, iee?ioaiu oaenoa, no?oeoo?iua /anoe oaenoa.

Glazova O. P.

Perspectiveness and succession in the formation of habits of
texts-creation among the pupils of elementary school and the pupils of
the 5-th forms of secondary school. – Manuscript.

Thesis presented for a degree of Candidate of pedagogical sciencec on
speciality 13.00.02 – theory and menhods of teaching Ukrainian language.
– Institute of Pedagogics of Academy of Pedagogical Sciences. Ukrane,
Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis describes scientifically grounded and experimentally
examinated methods of teaching the pupils of the fifth form to create
texts. These methods are orientated on all phases of the structure of
speech act, they promote the realization of the principles of
perspectiveness and succession in the process of the forming of habits
of texts-creation. The methods of teaching the pupils of the fifth form
to create halting expressions are quided by habits of creation of texts
which were mastered at the elementary school and specially worked out
sustem of exercises. These exercises favour the deepening of knowledge
and habits which are necessary for producing expressions and improvement
the speech in whole by means of analytic-synthetical actions with
different structural elements of the text.

The key words: textological knowlege, habits of text-creation, phases
of the structure of speech act, means of interphrase connection,
sequence and parallel types of the connection among text’s seetences,
text’s microtheme, structural parts of the text.

Похожие записи