?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?I. A. N. NEIAI?IAeE

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

OAeE 281.9 (477) + 947 (477)

AA?AUAA?IA Iaae?y A’y/aneaa?aia

IA?O? CAAAEUeIIAeA?AEAAI? EOEUeOE

NAssOEO EEEIAIOA ? IEEIEAss

OA ?O A?AeOAI?AIIss O IAI’ssOEAO ?NOI??? ? EOEUeOO?E

EE?ANUeEI? ?ON?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue

09.00.11 — ?ae?a??ciaanoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ioca?ciaanoaa oa ioi?iie iai’yoie ?noi??? oa
eoeueoo?e Ee?anueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa
e o A?aeae?eaii? ?ae?a??ciaanoaa ?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aieeIAAeOIEA Aaiiaae?e Ieoaeeiae/, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa
?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe?E*EA Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

IAAEAIEI TH??e A?oae?eiae/, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeieoi?
o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo na?oiai?
aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaaEe?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea (eaoaae?a ?noi??? ?in??)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 12 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.161.03 a ?inoeooo? o?einio??
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 12 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

Oei/aniai aeeiioth/ee iaia’ycee a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iaaeoiea A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiaeaeueoa inieneaiiy iaaecae/aeii
aeeaieiai oaiiiaio o?enoeyinueei? nayoino?, i?ea?iaeueieo oi?i ?
ci?noiaiiai aaaaonoaa, aeanoeaeo eiai eoeueoeaaoe?? ia
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo caieyo, ? iniaeeai aeooaeueiei. O aeiao noaiiaeaiiy
o?enoeyinoaa ia ee?anueeiio a?oio? noi?ioaaany cia/iee iaioaii nayoeo
ii?eoaa/?a nii/aoeo noieeoe?, a caiaeii ? an??? e?a?ie. Ee?a noaa
ina?aaeeii noaiiaeaiiy ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy o?enoeyinueeeo iao?iiaeueieo
eoeueo?a, ui iaee ?einueea, a?caio?enueea oa i?noeaaa iioiaeaeaiiy.
*?eueia i?noea na?aae ieo iin?ee eoeueoe nayoeo Eeeiaioa ? ?einueeiai
(ae.30-97) e Ieeieay *oaeioai?oey, a?o??ieneiia I??e?e?enueeiai
(ae.280-343), ye? o ei?ioeee oa?i?i (ia?o? aeanyoe??//y i?ney o?auaiiy
?on?) io?eiaee noaoon caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo iao?ii?a, ia?oeo
o?enoeyinueeeo iie?iaeoae?a Ee?anueei? ?on?. Iao?iiaeueia ooieoe?y
nayoeo Eeeiaioa e Ieeieay, ye? aoaiiaoaaeeny ?einueeith ?
Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeith oea?eaaie, iaoiiaeaia, ia?o ca ana,
iniaeeainoyie ?aiiueiai Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa, ?aeaeiith iniiaith
yeiai aoea ee?eei-iaoiae??anueea niaaeueia, eiai oiea?aioi?noth e
a?aee?eo?noth uiaei No?aeii? ? Cao?aeii? o?enoeyinueeeo oea?eia. Eoeueoe
nayoeoae?a noaee iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino, iniaeeai aieeioee ia iie?oe/ia, ?ae?a?eia ?
eoeueoo?ia aeeooy Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae. Ia?ace naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay
?acii c ?ioeie o?enoeyinueeeie ?ae?ea?yie inayoeee aiioaeueio iiae?th
a?o/eciyii? ?noi??? — O?auaiiy ?on?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? oaie a?aee?eaa? iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo
i?ae i?ioeanaie iioe?aiiy eoeueo?a a ??cieo ?aa?iiao ?on? e caaaeueieie
i?ioeanaie o?enoeyi?caoe?? ee?ai-?onnueeiai noni?euenoaa a oeaio?? e ia
ia?eoa???; aeicaiey? i?ine?aeeoaaoe ?ieue eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa e
Ieeieay o oi?ioaaii? iniiaieo ?en Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa, iia’ycaieo,
cie?aia, c? nooiaiai eiai aeieo?eiaeueii? a?aee?eoino? Na?oiaiio
o?enoeyinoao, aca?iica’yceii oea?eae e aea?aeaae, oyae?iiyi oea?eae aei
?inoeoooe?eii? naiiaecia/aiino?. Cacia/aia oaia ia? i?yiee aeo?ae ia
iaeio c iaeneeaaei?oeo ? iaea?oioiai?oeo i?iaeai, iinoaaeaieo ?noi???th
ia?aae no?aeiineia’yinueeeie ia?iaeaie — aecia/aiiy aeanii? /anoee
?noi?e/ii? niaaeueie Ee?anueei? ?on?, i?e/iio, ia c oi/ee ci?o ??
iaoai?/iiai iiae?eo, a a eiioaeno? a?aene?aeeiaoaaiiy ia?oiaeaea?ae
iaoe?iiaeueii?, o aeaiiio ?ac?, eoeueoiai? aoii?ae?a?eii? niaoeeo?ee.
Iaia?an?/iei ? cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo eoeueo?a o ca’yceo c
aeieo?eiaeueiei e ?inoeoooe?eiei a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai
i?aaineaa’y, aeooiai? i?aeaaeeie yeiai cia/iith i??ith oi?ioaaeeny naia
a aiioo Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa. A aeaiiio aniaeo? iniaeeai aino?i
noi?oue ieoaiiy aieeao aeaaiuei?onueeeo eoeueo?a ia e?enoae?caoe?th
oe?a?inueei? i?aaineaaii? o?aaeeoe??. Eiai cia/ou?noue iineeth?oueny
no/aniei ?aeaeiei oa i?aai?caoe?eiei a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai
i?aaineaa’y.

I?iaeaie i?aeianaiiy aeooiaiino?, ui aino?i noiyoue ia iei?oiueiio aoai?
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, iiaiith i??ith iia’ycai? c ?aaaia?aoe??th
o?enoeyinueeeo ?aeaae?a aoiai?cio, i?eiaoo aeooiaiiai iaae o?eaniei.
Aeey Oea?eae nayoee Eeeiaio, ia?o ca ana, — nayuaiiiio/aiee, a nayoee
Ieeieae — aneao-iiaeaeaeiee, yeee oaeinoi?any iniaeeai? Aiaei?
aeaaiaeao? — aeiyoeiaiai aea?o /oaeioai??iiy. A ia?acao oeeo aeaeaoieo
nayoeoae?a, ac??oe?a aaeeeiio/aieoeoaa e aneaoecio, caeeaaeaii iiooaeiee
ii?aeueiee iioaioe?ae o?enoeyinoaa, eiai nioe?aeueii coe?ethth/a ?aeay.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?o? caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? eoeueoe nayoeo
Eeeiaioa ? ?einueeiai e Ieeieay I??e?e?enueeiai, ?o a?aeoai?aiiy a
iai’yoeao ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e Ee?aa. I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaiiaeyoue: iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy eoeueo?a nayoeo Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay a
Ee?anuee?e ?on?; ?aa?iiaeueia niaoeeo?ea ?o aoaioaaiiy; aieea cacia/aieo
eoeueo?a ia ?icaeoie a?o/eciyii? eoeueoiai? o?aaeeoe??; ?o ?ieue o
caa?aaeaii? aeooiaii? nii??aeiaiino? cao?aeiiai ? no?aeiiai
o?enoeyinoaa.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue ia??iae e?i. O-O??? no.,
oiaoi a?ae ii/aoeo o?enoeyi?caoe?? e aaiace nayoieoeueoiai? o?aaeeoe??
aei caaa?oaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo eoeueo?a a aaia?ao?/ieo
oa o?iiieia?/ieo iaaeao Ee?anueei? ?on?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeiny o eiioaeno? iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa
?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, o oiio /ene?
ieaiiaiai aeanyoeoiiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “?noi??y ?ae?a?? a Oe?a?i?”.

Aeena?oaioea noaaeoue ca iaoo cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeniiai aiae?co eoeueo?a
nayoeo Eeeiaioa e Ieeieay ye oaiiiai?a nae?aeueiiai ? noni?eueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, a?aeoai?aieo o iai’yoeao ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e Ee?anueei?
?on?.

Caaaeuei?e iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae iioe?aiiy nayoieoeueoiai?
o?aaeeoe?? a Ee?anuee?e ?on?, oa?aeoa? aieeao ia oeae i?ioean
nae?aeueieo o?enoeyinueeeo oe?iiinoae Caoiaeo ? Noiaeo;

— aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa e
Ieeieay ia ??cieo aoaiao aaiethoe?? aeaaiuei?onueeiai noni?euenoaa;

— aeyaeoe ?ieue oeeo eoeueo?a o ?ae?a?eiiio, eoeueoo?iiio ? iie?oe/iiio
aeeoo? ia?iae?a Ee?anueei? ?on?;

— c’ynoaaoe ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? aoaioaaiiy cacia/aieo eoeueo?a e
aeine?aeeoe, oaeei /eiii, niaoeeo?eo aieeao nayoieoeueoiaiai eiiiiiaioo
ia o?ae aoii?ae?a??aaiaco a O-O??? no.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue oi?aa?naeuei?
i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino? e ?noi?ecio. ?o ?aae?caoe?y a?oioo?oueny,
cie?aia, ia eiioan?ei?e iaoia?aaeaeaiino?, aeciaii? i?aaa ethaeeie ia
naiaiaeo nia?no?, aeine?aeaeaii? ?ae?a?eieo ? nioe?aeueieo yaeu o ?o
noaae?aeueiiio ?icaeoeo oa aca?iica’yceo.

Oai?aoe/ia iniiaa. A iniia? oaie eaaeaoue ianooii? oai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy:

— i?i a?aee?eo?noue oea?eae Ee?anueei? ?on? uiaei cao?aeieo ? no?aeieo
o?enoeyinueeeo o?aaeeoe?e;

— i?i caeiiii??i?noue aaiethoe?? o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae Ee?anueei? ?on?
aei aeanii? ?inoeoooe?eii? ? aeieo?eiaeueii? naiiaecia/aiino?;

— i?i ooiaeaiaioaeueio ?ieue oea?eiaieo o?aaeeoe?e Ee?anueei? ?on? o
oi?ioaaii? oaiiiaio oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaa’y;

— i?i ni?eeiyooy nayoieoeueoiai? ?aeaieia?? oa i?aeoeee ia?iaeaie
i?ai?/ieo oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo caiaeue ?on? a ?? ee?anuee?e
?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

O i?aoe? aeei?enoaii oe?eee niaeo? aeine?aeieoeueeeo iaoiae?a.
Ea?oth/enue i?iaeaiii eiioan?eiei oa nenoaiii-o?iiieia?/iei i?aeoiaeaie
aei iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy iiae?e ? yaeu ?ae?a?eiiai oa nioe?aeueiiai
aeeooy Ee?anueei? ?on? (e?i. O-O??? no.), aaoi?ea aeei?enoaea ??ciiaeaee
aiae?oe/iiai iaoiaeo, cie?aia, ?noi??ia?ao?/iee, eia?/iee,
?eiiia?ao?/iee a oaeiae iaoiaee eeaneo?eaoe?? oa ii??aiyiue; neioaco,
aiaeia?e oa ocaaaeueiaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei o a?o/eciyi?e
?noi??ia?ao?? eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?ie? iao?iiaeueieo eoeueo?a
naa. Eeeiaioa e Ieeieay o ?ae?a?eiiio, eoeueoo?iiio, nioe?aeueiiio
?icaeoeo aeaaiuei?onnueeiai noni?euenoaa (e?i. O-O??? no.). A iniia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy eaaeeoue aeyaeaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueii? ?ie? eoeueo?a
naa.Eeeiaioa e Ieeieay o oi?ioaaii? a?o/eciyii? nayoieoeueoiai?
o?aaeeoe?? e o noaiiaeaii? iniiaieo iciae Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa,
oniaaeeiaaieo i?ci?oa oe?a?inueeei i?aaineaa’yi, a naia: aeaiie?aoecio
oea?eiaiiai aeeooy, oiacaeaaeiaiiy oea?eae a?ae na?onueei? aeaaee,
a?aee?eoino? ?? ?ioei ?ae?a?eiei nenoaiai, iiaoe?iiaeueiaiiy
ia?yaeiai-eoeueoiai? noa?e ? oea?eiaiiai ienoaoeoaa. Eiioeaiooaeueiei
iiiaioii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaeiae iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
ee?anueeee ?ae?a?eiee oeaio? aeeiioaaa ?ao?aineyoe?eio ooieoe?th,
iioe?thth/e nayoieoeueoiao o?aaeeoe?th a i?ai?/i? oa i?ai?/ii-no?aei?
?aa?iie ?on?.

Aaoi?eith iaa?oioiaaii ?yae oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue, ye? a?aecia/athoueny
iiaeciith ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— c eoeueoaie nayoeo Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay iia’ycaia oi?ioaaiiy ?aiiuei?
oea?eiaii? o?aaeeoe?? aoaioaaiiy nayoino?, a oaeiae ?icaeoie
aiaineoaeaiaeo ia?yae?a, noaiiaeaiiy ?eiiiienii? o?aaeeoe?? a Ee?anuee?e
?on?;

— oaeo i?euaieaiiy eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay aei a?o/eciyiiai
?ae?a?eiiai a?oioo cana?ae/oaaa aeaiie?aoeci Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa,
cia/iith i??ith caaacia/oaaa oi?ioaaiiy a?aee?eoi? ?ae?a?eii? nenoaie a
?one-Oe?a?i?. Oea ia’?eoeaii a?aeiia?aeaei iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/iei
i?aaiaiiyi aaeeeieiyc?anueei? oa oea?eiaii? aeaaee;

— a i?ioean? ?aoeaioe?? ia aeaaiuei?onnueeeo caieyo iacaai? eoeueoe
iaaoee i?noeaai? nai???aeiino?, ui aeyaeeiny a niaoeeo?oe? inieneaiiy
naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay ye o?enoeyinueeeo iao?ii?a Ee?aa e
a?aeoai?eeinue, cie?aia, o anoaiiaeaii? i?noeaaeo nayo, ?icieno o?ai?a,
i?enayo? nayoeoaeyi oea?eiaieo ? oieueeei?ieo e?oa?aoo?ieo oai??a,
oneaaeaii? /oaeioai??iiyi ?eii oiui;

— ia?oei ? aeciaiei ina?aaeeii aoaioaaiiy oa ?iiianthaeaeaiiy eoeueo?a
naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay noaea iiioiaioaeueia oea?eaa Aiai?iaeeoe?
Aeanyoeiia, yea a ia?o? aeanyoe??//y i?ney o?auaiiy ?on? a?ae?a?aaaea
?ieue i?ia?aeiiai ?aeaieia?/iiai ina?aaeeo Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae. Ooo
aoee aeaooiaai? a?aoa?? ia /anoue naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay, caa??aaeeny
ei?noinuee? ?eiie nayoeoae?a, oi?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano oea?eaa
eiaioaaeanue o?aiii na.Eeeiaioa ? oea?eaith Ieeiee Aeanyoeiiiai;

— eoeueoe naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay iin?aeathoue oeaio?aeueia i?noea a
caaaeuei?e nae?aeuei?e ???a?o?? ee?ai?onueeeo nayoeo. Aiie
a?aeoai?ththoue ?aeaei? aeoiee oa iniaeeaino? aaiace Ee?anueeiai
o?enoeyinoaa a oe?eiio;

— a?ae ii/aoeo iiaoooaaiiy ia ee?anueeiio a?oio? eoeueoe naa.Eeeiaioa ?
Ieeieay ?icaeaaeenue ia?aeaeueii e aca?iiiia’ycaii, iaaoaath/e /eiaei
ni?eueieo ?en. Oea iicia/eeinue ia ia?iaeaeai?e a Ee?a? ?eiiiieni?e
o?aaeeoe?? ia?iiai cia?aaeaiiy nayoeoae?a ye iaaanieo i?aaenoiyoae?a
Ee?anueei? ?on? e ia ?? iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo a i?ai?/ii-?onueeeo
oeaio?ao;

— ee?anuee? ?noi?e/i? ?aae?? aecia/eee iniaeeao ?ieue eoeueo?a
nayoeoae?a o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio, eoeueoo?iiio, ?ae?a?eiiio aeeoo?
ia?aaeon?i oeaio?aeueieo caiaeue ?on?. Aeaia ianoaaeia noaea aieiaiith
ia?aaeoiiaith caoaa?aeaeaiiy eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay ye
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo (e?iaoeue O? no.);

— iioe?aiiy eoeueo?a c Ee?aa o i?ai?/iiio oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio
iai?yieao a?aeaoaaeiny neio?iiii c o?ainoi?iaoe??th a oe? ?aa?iie ?ioeo
eiiiiiaio?a o?enoeyinueeiai a??iniia?aeaiiy. A?aeoae o?iiieia?y ?o
?iciianthaeaeaiiy nai???aeii a?aeaeaa? aoaie o?enoeyi?caoe?? ?on?
(iii?oii? aeeiai?ee noaiiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo eoeueo?a o cacia/aieo
caieyo iaaoei c na?aaeeie O?? no.).

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaii iinoaiiaeith ? ?ica’ycaiiyi
eiiieaeno i?iaeai, ui a?aeoai?ththoue aaiaco a?o/eciyii? o?aaeeoe??
iieeii?iiy nayoino?. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aianeii o ae??oaiiy
caaaeueiiiaoeiai? i?iaeaie, iia’ycaii? c iaoe?iiaeueiith
?aeaioeo?eaoe??th iie?aoi?/ii? aeooiaii? niaaeueie Ee?anueei? ?on?.
I?aoey ni?ey?, cie?aia, iiaeeaeaiiio ?icoi?iith ?ie? ?ae?a?eieo /eiiee?a
o oi?ioaaii? iie?oe/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo, ?aeaieia?/ieo i???ioe??a
aeaaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaae.

Iaoa??aee ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue i?eneoaeeoeny aiaineiaai,
i?aaineaaiiio aeooiaainoao a Oe?a?i?, aeey yeeo ? aeooaeueiei ieoaiiy
iiooeo ia?oiaeaea?ae a?o/eciyii? eoeueoiai? o?aaeeoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo oa i?eeeaaeieo i?aoeyo
c ?noi??? o?enoeyinoaa a Oe?a?i?, i?e ?ic?iaoe? ie?aieo iaa/aeueieo oai
oa niaoeeo?n?a ?c niaoe?aeueiinoae “?ae?a??ciaanoai”, “eoeueoo?ieia?y”,
“oe?a?iiciaanoai”, a aeneo?n?ei?e ?iaio?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?eethaeiaii o iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeyo, aeaieioaieo ia
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Ina?oa ? eoeueoo?a O? no. Ae?yeuei?noue ss?ineaaa
Ioae?iai ? no/ani?noue” (Ee?a, 1996), “Iai’yoee a?o?oaeoo?e ?
iiioiaioaeueiiai ienoaoeoaa a na?oe? iiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue” (Ee?a, 1996),
“Oea?eaa Aiai?iaeeoe? Aeanyoeiia a Ee?a? (aei 1000-e?ooy inay/aiiy)”
(Ee?a, 1996), “I?iaeaiu a?oaieiaee e enoi?ee Ainoi?a. E 170-eaoeth
Ea?/aineiai iocay ae?aaiinoae” (Ea?/ue, 1996), “Aoiai?ci. Ethaeeia.
Ii?aeuei?noue” (Ae?iaiae/, 1996), “Eiino?aioeu a Aecaioee. Aecaioeeoeu
ca ?oaaaeaie naiaai ioa/anoaa” (Iineaa, 1997), “Aeooiaia niaaeueia
Ee?anueei? ?on?” (Iaeana, 1997), “Iiaeeyinuee? /eoaiiy. Na. Aeeieo??e
(Ooioaei) nayoeoaeue ?inoianueeee oa eiai aeiaa” (Ee?a, 1997), “500
?ie?a io/aieoeueei? eii/eie nayuaiiiio/aieea Iaea??y Ieo?iiieeoa
Ee?anueeiai” (Ee?a, 1997), “O?enoeyinoai a eiioaeno? ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e
Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a, 1997), “Caiia?aeue iiao aeath Aai: etha?oue iaeei
iaeiiai” (?iai 13, 34)” (Ee?a, 1998), ia /aoaa?oiio i?aeia?iaeiiio
eiia?an? oe?a?i?no?a (Iaeana,1999).

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeany ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo ?ae?a?eieo
i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a noaooyo, ai?uaieo
o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa aeo?iaeao ( 16 ), a oaeiae o iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe?e ( 8 ).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? ? iine?aeiai?noue aeeeaaeaiiy iaoa??aeo coiiaeai?
eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie, iinoaaeaiith iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie. O
ia?oiio ?icae?e? aaoi?ea caa?oa?oueny aei ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai oa
aeaea?aeiciaa/iai aiae?co iinoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeai. Ae?oaee ?
o?ao?e ?icae?ee i?enay/aii a?aeiia?aeii ?ice?eooth ?aoeaioe?? eoeueo?a
na.Eeeiaioa ? na.Ieeieay a aeooiai?e o?aaeeoe?? Ee?anueei? ?on?, ?o
noaiiaeaiith ye caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo. Oea aeaei ciiao o /aoaa?oiio
?icae?e? ia?aeoe aei ?icaeyaeo iiaeaeueoi? aaiethoe?? ee?anueei?
o?aaeeoe?? aoaioaaiiy nayoeo Eeeiaioa e Ieeieay ia no?aeii-neia’yinueeeo
caieyo. A?aeoae aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e.
Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe (aac nieneo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e) — 163 noi?.
Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 286 iaeiaioaaiue. O
i?aoe? ai?uaii 8 ?ethno?aoe?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?noue iaoeiai? i?iaeaie. Iaa?oioiao?oueny
aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??; aecia/athoueny ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe; ?ice?eaa?oueny
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy; aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??; ie?aneai?
iiaeeea? ia?niaeoeae aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy; cacia/ai?
oi?ie ?? ai?iaaoe?? oa no?oeoo?e.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aea” — i?aaenoaaeaii
aeieeaaeiee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e ? aeaea?ae, yeee ?icii/eia?oueny c
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo oea?eiaii-i?aaineaai?e
i?iaeai? a oe?eiio, cie?aia: ia?aae?noi??? oa iniaeeainoyi
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa ia ?on?; ii/aoeiaiio noaiiaeaiith
oea?eiaii? i?aai?caoe?? oa ?? aca?iia?aeiineiai c eiyaeith aeaaeith,
no?aeieie oa cao?aeieie o?enoeyinueeeie oeaio?aie (?.Ia??iei, I.*oaaoee,
A.Eocuei?i, I.?aiia, ss.Uaiia, I.A?ae/aanueeee, A.Coaa?ue e TH.Iaaeaiei,
I.Eioey?, A.Oeueyiianueeee, A.?e/ea, A.Eieiaeiee, I.ss?ioeueeee oa ?i.).
Nthaee ae oa?eoee i?aoe?, a yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny oaiiiai o?enoeyinueei?
nayoino? a ??cieo ?? aeyaao (A.?icaiia, A.Oaaeioia, A.Oiii?ia,
N.Aaa?eioeaa, A.Nie?iiaa, A.Aiaeia, N.Ieio?e, A.Ai?nueeee, A.Eooaeia,
O.*aeea, I.Aeaenaiae?ia, N.E?einueeee, I.I?e?oaiei, A.?e/ea).

Cacia/ai? ?iaioe aaaeeea? aeey iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oei, ui
?ice?eaathoue caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ?ae?a?eii? nenoaie
Ee?nueei? ?on?, ni?eythoue aeeaoiio ?icoi?iith ?ie? ? i?noey
o?enoeyinueeeo eoeueo?a a ?? aeooiai?e niaaeuei?, iathoue
caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy aeey aena?oeaiiy iinoaaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeai.

Ae?oaa a?oia iaoeiaeo nooae?e ? aieiaiith ? aaciina?aaeiuei noino?oueny
eoeueo?a nayoeo Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay. Iaeaaaii?oee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aeie
neeaaeathoue aa?ieia?/ii-oaenoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, o oiio /ene?
oaeeo a?aeiieo iaoeiaoe?a, ye ieo?iiieeo Iaea??e (Aoeaaeia),
a?o?iaiae?eo Eaii?ae (Eaaae?i), a?o?iaiae?eo Aioiiei (Eaiono?i),
A.Eeth/aanueeee, I.Ieeieuenueeee, I.Niaieaanueeee, I.E?anianueeee,
?.O?aiei, I.A?ooaanueeee, a oaeiae no/anieo a/aieo: A.Iiaeneaeuenueeiai,
TH.Aaaoiiaa, I.Io?’yiiaa, ?.Aa?auaa?ia, I.E?ooiai?, N.?iniaaoeueeiai.

*anoeia i?aoeue i?enay/aia oi?ioaaiith iacaaieo eoeueo?a ia cao?aeii- oa
i?aaeaiii-aa?iiaenueeeo caieyo (a?o?iaiae?eo Aioiiei (Eaiono?i),
I.E?anianueeee, ?.Oeyieei, ?.O?aiei).

Aaiaca eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay a Ee?anuee?e ?on?, ianaiia?aae,
yce/ieoeuee? ei?ai? ia?ac?a nayoeoae?a aiae?cothoueny a i?aoeyo
I.Aacniiiaa, I.Noioeiaa, E.Ninaiea, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ?.Aie/eiaa,
?.O?aiea, I.A?ooaanueeiai, ?.Ieioieeiaa, I.Aiciyea, A.Oniainueeiai,
I.Iaca?aanueeiai, I.Aeaieeaanueei? e I.Oea/a).

O iecoe? i?aoeue ienoaoeoaiciaa/iai oa?aeoa?o aeine?aeaeothoueny ia?ace
naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay, a?aeia?aaeai? o iiioiaioaeueiiio oa noaieiaiio
aeeaiieno (A.Aicianainueeee, I.Iao?ia, I.Iaea?aiei, A.Eaca??a,
A.Nie?iiiaa, A.Aoaianue?a, I.Aa?nueea, A.Eiaaei, I.AEieoianueeee,
E.I?ey?aa, A.Naaioeeoeueea).

Ee?anueeo ?aoeaioe?th ia?ac?a nayoeoae?a, a?aeoai?aieo o iacaao
ee?anueeeo o?ai?a oa i?noeaainoae, o ?icien? oeaio?aeueieo a?o?oaeoo?ieo
iai’yoie Ee?aa ciaoiaeeii o ?iaioao e?a?ciaaoe?a oa ?noi?ee?a ieioeiai
noie?ooy: I.Cae?aanueeiai, I.Caoa?/aiea, I.Eaaaaeeioeaaa, I.Iao?iaa, a
oaeiae no/anieo iaoeiaoe?a I.I?e?oaiei oa ?.Ia?aie?ii?.

?acii c oei iayai? iaoeia? caeiaooee ia aeathoue oe?e?nii? ea?oeie
noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ia?oeo iao?iiaeueieo eoeueo?a ia oa?aiao
Ee?anueei? ?on?. Ia cae?eniaii eiiieaeniiai ?noi?eei-?ae?a??ciaa/iai
aiae?co inieneaiiy eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay ye iaa?ae’?iii?
/anoeie aeooiaii? niaaeueie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ia aeyaeaia a iiai?e
i??? ?ieue noieeoe? ?on? o oi?ioaaii? iaioaiio nayoeo iie?iaeoae?a
aea?aeaae.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaee:

1. A?o/eciyi? oa ?iicaii? e?oiiene ? o?ii?ee: Iia?noue a?ai’yieo e?o,
?iao??anueeee, Eaa?aio??anueeee, Ieeiiianueeee, Iiaai?iaenueeee
e?oiiene, Noaiaiia Eieaa, o?ii?ea O?oia?a Ia?caao?cnueeiai. Cacia/aia
a?oia a?o/eciyieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae uiaei
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy e ooaa?aeaeaiiy eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay;
?ioi?io? i?i aeaye? iiae??, iia’ycai? ?c caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiei oaioaaiiyi
nayoeoae?a, ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aaeoi? ?icaeoeo iacaaieo eoeueo?a a
iaaeao Ee?anueei? ?on?. I?iaoeueea o?ii?ea, aaoi?noai yei? iaeaaeeoue
?ieneiio Ia?caao?cnueeiio O?oia?o, aea? ia’?eoeai? iia?aeiieaiiy i?i
Ee?a ii/aoeo O? no., eiai nae?aeuei? nii?oaee, cie?aia, Aeanyoeiio
oea?eao.

2. Iai’yoee aeaaiuei?onueei? e?oa?aoo?e: aa?ia?ao?/i? oa ?io? oea?eiai?
oai?e (AEeo?y, Neiaa ia ia?aianaiiy iiuae, Iioaaeuei? neiaa, *oaeana,
neoaeae, I?ia?, Neiai i?i Caeii ? Aeaaiaeaoue ?ea??iia Ee?anueeiai,
Ee?anuee? aeaaiee/i? eenoee oiui). Oeae iaeaaaii?oee aeie aeaea?ae
oa?aeoa?eco? iniaeeaino? oaioaaiiy Ee?aa ye nae?aeueiiai ina?aaeeo
no?aeiiai neia’yinoaa, niaoeeo?eo ?aoeaioe?? eoeueo?a nayoeoae?a ia
oa?aiao Ee?anueei? ?on?, ??aaiue oa ianooaae io?oe?eii-oea?eiaiiai
oaioaaiiy naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay.

3. Onia ia?iaeia oai?/?noue, aeooiai? a??o?: a??o? Aieoaeii? eieae;
oe?a?inueeee, ?in?enueeee, a?ei?onueeee oieueeei? — ia?aeace, eaaaiaee,
aia??ee. Oeae ieano aeaea?ae ni?ey? aeeaoiio ?icoi?iith ia?iaeiiai
noaaeaiiy aei nayoeo; aecia/a? nai???aei?noue ?o oaioaaiiy a
oeaio?aeueiiio ? i?ai?/ieo ?aa?iiao aea?aeaae; aea? iaoa??ae aeey
c’ynoaaiiy aeeiai?ee oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?a?eii? iaioaeueiino? i?ae aieeaii
aeine?aeaeoaaeueieo eoeueo?a.

4. Iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie
(i.Ee?a). I?noyoue aeai? noiniaii o?aaeeoe?? aeaaiueiee?anueeiai
oaioaaiiy na.Ieeieay, cie?aia, iaeaeaai?oi? ee?anueei? /oaeioai?ii?
?eiie Ieeiee Iie?iai ia aeieoiaioao XIX no.

5. Iiioiaioaeueiee aeeaiien Nio?enueeiai niai?o oa Ee?ee?anueei? oea?eae
a Ee?a?, iai’yoee noaieiaiai aeeaiieno, ?eiiiieni? i?ea?iaee aeei?enoai?
a eiioaeno? a?aeoai?aiiy ie?aieo ?en aeaaiuei?onueeiai ?ae?a?eiiai
na?oiaeyaeo oa nayoieoeueoiai? o?aaeeoe?? a nae?aeueiiio ienoaoeoa?
Ee?anueei? ?on?.

Ioaea, aeaea?aeueia aaca icia/aii? oaie, caaaeath/e ia ?? aeaeiao
??ciiiai?oi?noue oa ci?noiaio iane/ai?noue, a?aee?eaa? iiaeeeaino? aeey
aeeaieiai e ??ciia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?oeo eoeueo?a
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy Ee?anueei? ?on?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “?aoeaioe?y eoeueoo nayoiai Eeeiaioa a aeooiai?e
o?aaeeoe?? Ee?anueei? ?on?” — ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo ee?anueeiai eoeueoo na.Eeeiaioa ye iao?iiaeueiiai, eiai
o?ainoi?iaoe?? a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiee, a oaeiae iioe?aiiy a i?ai?/i? oa
i?ai?/ii-no?aei? ?aa?iie.

Ianaiia?aae eaeaoueny i?i aeooiaio noi?aiao?th Ee?aa ye aeaaiueiai
nae?aeueiiai ina?aaeeo no?aeiiai neia’yinoaa. Cacia/aii, ui o?aaeeoe?y
oaeiai inieneaiiy Ee?aa nyaa? aeeaei yce/ieoeueeeo /an?a, a o?enoeyinoai
ia?aeiyei oeth o?aaeeoe?th ? iaaeaei ?e iiai? yeino?, iacaaaeaee
cae??ieei ca Ee?aii cia/aiiy “??onaeeia caie? ?onueei?”, aea
a?aeaoeiny oneaaeaiiy ia?oeo ?onueeeo nayoeo.

O ca’yceo c oeei ?icaeyaeathoueny oeaio?aeuei? aeey aeena?oaoe?eii? oaie
iiiyooy nayoino? oa /oaea. A?aecia/a?oueny, cie?aia, ui a iiaiiaaa?iai?e
?on? nayo?noue noaea aeuei ?aeaaeii ? aeooiaiei aoaeiiii. Ia?ac
nayoino?, noai?aiee aeaaiuei?onueeeie aa?ia?aoaie, iaa iaia?an?/ia
cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae a?o/eciyii?
eoeueoo?e.

Aeae? aena?oeth?oueny i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ia ee?anueeiio a?oio?
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai eoeueoo nayoiai Eeeiaioa ? ?einueeiai,
aecia/a?oueny eiai aioo??oi?e ?aeaeiee ci?no. I?inoaaeo?oueny ?ieue
ee?anueei? ?ae?a?eii-?noi?e/ii? o?aaeeoe?? o oi?ioaaii? noaoono na.
Eeeiaioa ye iaaaniiai o?anoeoaey Ee?anueei? ?on?. ?icaeyaea?oueny
ieoaiiy ?noi?e/ii? aeie? iaeaeaai?eoi? ee?anueei? nayoei? — iiuae na.
Eeeiaioa ?einueeiai.

?i’y nayoiai Eeeiaioa, iaie-io/aieea, yeee aoaiiaoaaany ye Cao?aeiith,
oae ? No?aeiith o?enoeyinueeeie oea?eaaie, oeny/o ?ie?a oiio aoei aeia?a
a?aeiia anueiio o?enoeyinueeiio na?oia?. Oea?eaa a?aeiineoue eiai aei
?ic?yaeo “ioae?a aiinoieuenueeeo” — aaciina?aaei?o o/i?a aeaaiaaeoeyoe
aiinoie?a, yeeo iioaiiaothoue a?ae?aco ca aiinoieaie. Aeaai?e
noa?ineia’yinueeee oaeno (ia?aeeaae c a?aoeueei?), i?enay/aiee
na.Eeeiaioo, ?iaio? eiai “i?ina?oeoaeai oea?eae”. Ia iaoo aeoieo, oaea
aeiyoeiai aeniea ioe?iea na.Eeeiaioa c aieo ae?aai?o aaoi??a na?ae/eoue
i?i oi?eaeuei?noue eiai i?noey a iaioaii? nayoeo ye iaeaeeae/iai aei
O?enoa.

Ie aaaaea?ii, ui eiycue Aieiaeeie? ye iiaiiaaa?iaiee o?enoeyiei ?
aeaeaeiaeyaeiee iie?oee, ia?o ca ana iaa aeaacoe c Oa?niiana ia i?aaao
ia?aiiaeoey eiai aieiaio nayoeith — iiu? Eeeiaioa, aeia?a ?icoi?th/e ?o
oa?eciaoe/ia cia/aiiy e aecia/io ?ieue o ?ica’ycaii? ieoaiue
aioo??oiuei? ? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee. I?eaoooy nayoei? aei Ee?aa aoei
??aiicia/iei i?eoanoth a i?noi naiiai na.Eeeiaioa — iaaaniiai o?anoeoaey
yce/ieoeueei? ?on?. Caiaeii iiu? aoee iieeaaeai? aei oea?eae
Aiai?iaeeoe? (Aeanyoeiii?) — nae?aeueiiai ina?aaeeo Ee?anueei?
aea?aeaae, ui, ia iaoo aeoieo, iieeaei ii/aoie aoaioaaiith aeanieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo nayoeiue, a ia?oo /a?ao nayoeo iiuae. Ine?eueee oea?eaa
aoaeoaaeanue oaea ca iayaiino? nayoei? a i?no? ? oaeo iaeaooiueiai
iieeaaeaiiy ?? aei oeueiai o?aio ia aeeeeeaa noii?ao, oea ia?aaeaa/aei
inay/aiiy niaoe?aeueiiai a?aoa?y ia /anoue nayoeoaey, yeee, ie
aaaaea?ii, ? aoa aeaooiaaiee a oea?ea?. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, Aeanyoeiia
oea?eaa, ia?aoai?aia ia ina?aaeie aoaioaaiiy na.Eeeiaioa ?einueeiai,
iaea eiaioaaoeny o?aiii na.Eeeiaioa ? oey iacaa ca 20 ?ie?a a?ae aeiy
iieeaaeaiiy aei ia? iiuae nayoeoaey iaa?aea oi?io onoaeaiiai i?noeaaiai
oiiii?io. Inue /iio i?iaoeueeee o?ii?no O?oia? Ia?caao?cnueeee iacaaa
Aeanyoeiio oea?eao “oea?eaith io/aieea ai O?eno? ? iaie Eeeiaioa”.
Aaaaea?ii, ui naia c oaioaaiiy na.Eeeiaioa ?icii/aeiny a?aeiia
ai?iaeiaae noie?oue iaeiiieoeoai aei ee?anueeeo i?aaineaaieo nayoeiue.
Ioaea, a O? no. a Ee?a? oi?io?oueny ia?oee iao?iiaeueiee eoeueo i?noa —
eoeueo na.Eeeiaioa ?einueeiai. Iai?ee?ioe? O? no. a?i iaae?a? cia/aiiy
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai, ui cana?ae/othoue iai’yoee ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e.

?.O?aiei, a ne?aeii ca iei TH.Aaaoiia, A.Eocuei?i oa ?io? oaa?aeyoue, ui
c 90-o ?ie?a O? no. ii/eia?oueny caiaiaae eoeueoo na.Eeeiaioa,
aeoeniaiiy eiai eoeueoii na.Ieeiee I??e?e?enueeiai. Iao iaoeiaee iiooe
aea? i?aenoaae aeey ni?inooaaiiy oeueiai aeniiaeo. ssne?aaei i?eeeaaeii
iiaeaeueoiai iioe?aiiy eoeueoo na.Eeeiaioa ia no?aeiineia’yinueeeo
caieyo aoea iiae?y 1147 ?., eiee ia ee?anueeo ieo?iiiee/o eaoaae?o aac
naieoe?? Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai iao??a?oa, aea aieiaith na.Eeeiaioa
?einueeiai, aoei aenay/aii ieo?iiieeoa c ?one/?a — Eeeia Niieyoe/a.
Iacaaeiaai aei oe??? iiae?? a Ee?a? aoea caaaeaia Ee?ee?anueea oea?eaa,
a ?icieno yei? oaeiae i?ineaaey?oueny na.Eeeiaio ?einueeee. Caaaeath/e
ia oa, ui o??ioii?y Eeeia Niieyoe/a oa caiiaeaiiy ?icieno Ee?ee?anueei?
oea?eae aoee ?i?oe?eiaai? i?aaenoaaieeaie ai?iaoth/eo eiyaeeo aeeiano?e,
iiaeaii eiinoaooaaoe iaaio ?ioaa?oth/o ?ieue eoeueoo na.Eeeiaioa a
iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Ee?anueei? ?on? O?? no. Aeneiaeaio iaie oaco i?i
iiaeaeueoa iioe?aiiy oeueiai eoeueoo i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iauiaeaaii ciaeaeaia
a Iinea? o I?iayo O??? no. ienaiia iai’yoea ee?anueei? aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e (A?ii na.Eeeiaioo), ia?aeeaaea/ yei? (c a?aoeueei?)
iaa?aeiiee, i?ioa i?eionea?ii, ui iei i?a aooe Eeeiaio Niieyoe/.

Aaoi?ea, caa?oath/enue aei i?ai?/ii-?onueeeo iai’yoie oieueeei?o oa
?eiiiieno, iieaco? i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?? o O?? no. eoeueoo na.Eeeiaioa
a iiaai?iaenuee? oa aieiaiaenuee? caie?, aea a?i oaeiae iaaoaa?
iao?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. I?ioa, yeui a Ee?a? oeae eoeueo iinea
anaioiiethth/ee oa?aeoa?, oi a i?ai?/ieo ?aa?iiao a?i io?eio?
yne?aaiae?aaeaio “aiaeio” (“ii?nueeo”) ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th, o ca’yceo c
aaia?ao?/iei ?icoaooaaiiyi oeacaieo oa?eoi??e.

O ciaiaieo?e Noaiaii?e eiec?, neeaaeai?e aaea a na?aaeei? XVI no.
i?aaenoaaieeaie iineianueeiai aeooiaainoaa, ia?ac na.Eeeiaioa
iio?aeoiaaiee aiaeia?/ii eiai ia?aco a ee?anueeiio “Neia?” O? no.
Oea?eiaii-e?oo?a?eia oaioaaiiy na.Eeeiaioa a Oe?a?i? o?eaaei ai?iaeiaae
OV??—XVIII no., i?i ui cie?aia na?ae/aoue iai’yoee e?oo?a?eiiai oeoaa.
Ua a ieioeiio noie?oo? I.Iaieainueeee a?aecia/aa aaee/acio iiaaao aei
nayoeoaey, yea caa??aaeany a ia?iae?. Ia iaoo aeoieo, aeoeniaiiy eoeueoo
na.Eeeiaioa c ?ae?a?eii? noa?e ia anueiio no?aeiineia’yinueeiio i?inoi??
ii/aeiny cia/ii i?ci?oa O? no., eiee eiai ooieoe?y ye
aiinoiea-iie?iaeoaey iiaiiaaa?iaii? aea?aeaae aoea ae/a?iaia.
A??ia?aeii, oeae i?ioean a?aeaoaaany a o?iiieia?/ieo ?aieao XV—XVI no.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiee eoeueo na.Ieeieay
I??e?e?enueeiai o ee?ai-?onueeeo iai’yoeao” — aeine?aeaeo?oueny
noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie ee?ai-?onueeiai eoeueoo na.Ieeieay, eiai
yce/ieoeuee? ei?ai?, ia?aoai?aiiy eoeueoo a ?aia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai
iao?iiaeueiiai, ?aa?iiaeueia niaoeeo?ea eiai oaioaaiiy.

Aaoi?ea aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoue, ui ina?aaeeii ooaioaaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy
eoeueoo na.Ieeieay ye i?noeaaiai iao?iiaeueiiai oaeiae noaea Aeanyoeiia
oea?eaa, a ye?e aoa aeaooiaaiee a?aoa? ia /anoue nayoeoaey,
ciaoiaeeeenue i?eiaeii? aea? aeaai? ?eiie c eiai cia?aaeaiiyi (iiaeeeai
?o i?ci?o? eii??), iaeia c yeeo, ca?aeii c aeaai?i ee?anueeei ia?aeacii,
aoea i?eaacaia eiycai Aieiaeeie?ii c Oa?niiana. Aiae?c oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe, ui a ia?iaei?e iaca? o?aio — “Ieeiea
Aeanyoeiiee” — a?aeaeany i?noeaaee noaoon Aeanyoeiii? oea?eae ye oeaio?o
oi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo na.Ieeieay.

A ?iaio? ni?inoiaaii oi/eo ci?o ie?aieo aeine?aeiee?a, ca?aeii c yeith
eoeueo na.Ieeieay ia ?on? iaa ia ei?noinueea, a eiinoaioeiiiieuenueea
iioiaeaeaiiy. Noeoii?noue c?a?aieo iaie oaeo?a aeyaey? eiai i/aaeaeio
ei?noinueeo aaiaaeia?th, yea aoea ia’?eoeaii aecia/aia iiae?yie o?auaiiy
eiycy Aieiaeeie?a a Ei?noi?-Oa?niian?.

Aeena?oaoe?eiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeiaaaeaii, ui iniaeeaiai ?icaith
oaioaaiiy na.Ieeieay a Ee?a? iaa?aei ca eiycthaaiiy Anaaieiaea
ss?ineaae/a (1078—1093 ??.). Naia oiae? aoei anoaiiaeaii nooi i?noeaaa
nayoi ia /anoue ia?aianaiiy iiuae nayoeoaey ?c i?noa I??e a Iae?e Ac??
aei ?oae?enueeiai i?noa Aa?? (1087 ?.). Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?eia A?caio?y
oeueiai nayoa ia aeciaea ? Ee?anueea ?onue noaea ?aeeiith
no?aeiio?enoeyinueeith aea?aeaaith, yea aoaiiaoaaea iai’youe na.Ieeiee
I??e?e?enueeiai aea?/? ia ??e: 6 a?oaeiy ? 9 o?aaiy: “Ieeiea Ceiiaee” ?
“Ieeiea O?aaiee”. Cao?aei? oea?eiai? aeaea?aea iia?aeiieythoue, ui a
ca’yceo ?c anoaiiaeaiiyi o Ee?a? o?aaiaaiai nayoa iaia O?aai ?? i?eneaa
aei eiycy Anaaieiaea ?ieneiia Oaaei?a c iiuaie na.Ieeieay. Oe? oaeoe, ia
iaoo aeoieo, na?ae/aoue i?i a?aee?eo?noue oea?eae ?on? ye aei No?aeiiai,
oae ? aei Cao?aeiiai o?enoeyinueeeo oeaio??a. Aeiey nayoei? iai
iaa?aeiia, i?ioa, aeine?aeaeoth/e ieoaiiy uiaei iayaiino? iiuae
na.Ieeieay *oaeioai?oey a Ee?a?, ie c’ynoaaee, ui a aei?aaiethoe?eiee
/an /anoee caa??aaeeny o?eueee a Ee?ai-Ia/a?nuee?e Eaa??: a /oaeioai?i?e
?eii? nayoeoaey o Aaeee?e Ia/a?nuee?e oea?ea? ? a Ieeiea?anuee?e oea?ea?
Iee?euenueei-Aieueie/iiai iiianoe?y. C?a?aiee iaoa??ae aea? ciiao
aaaaeaoe, ui oi aoee naia iiu? iaae?neai? eieenue iaiith ?einueeei
eiycth Anaaieiaeo.

Ia?oa aeaaiuei?onueea ?aaeaeoe?y aeeo?y nayoeoaey, neeaaeaia iai?ee?ioe?
O? no. o Ee?a?, i?noeoue aeaa /oaea c ee?anueeith nthaeaoeeith: “*oaei
i?i iaiiaey” (“*oaei i?i yeanue ae?oeua”) oa “*oaei i?i iieia/eia a
Ee?a?”, ye? neiaie?cothoue a ia?iaei?e oya? ?aeath canooiieoeoaa,
iie?iaeoaeuenoaa nayoeoaey aeeoaeyi Ee?anueei? ?on?. E??i oiai, “*oaei
i?i iaiiaey” aeaiiino?o? i/aaeaeiee aca?iica’ycie ee?anueeeo eoeueo?a
naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay. AEeo?? na?ae/eoue, ui iai?ee?ioe? O? no.
na.Ieeieae iaea?aeaa noaoon caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai iie?iaeoaey. sse
iao?ii ?onueei? caie?, na.Ieeieae iin?a aeeeth/ia i?noea a ?ae?a?ei?e
na?aeiiino? no?aeieo neia’yi. Eoeueo *oaeioai?oey ye canooiieea ?
iii?/ieea o a?aeao aoa oa?aeoa?iei ? aeey aeueo nioe?aeueieo i?ioa?e?a,
? aeey ia?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

C’yniaaii, ui o O?? no. eoeueo na.Ieeieay iaaoaa? iao?iiaeueiiai
cao/aiiy a i?ai?/iiio oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio ?aa?iiao aea?aeaae. Iaie
aeiaaaeaii, ui, ye ? o aeiaaeeo ?c na.Eeeiaioii, eoeueo na.Ieeieay iaa
ooo iaiaaeaiee, ia?aaaaeii “aiaeiee” oa?aeoa?. I?e oeueiio aiae?c
i?ai?/ii-?onueeeo ?eiiiienieo ? oieueeei?ieo oai??a cana?ae/o? eiai
ee?anuee? aeoiee.

Iaoii?noue a Oe?a?i? anaioiiethth/a ?ieue eoeueoo na.Ieeieay ciaeoea
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie o oaioaaii? eiai ia N?/? ye iie?iaeoaey a?enueea
ii?yae ?c Aiai?iaeeoeath oa a?oaiaaeii Ieoa?eii.

Aaoi?ea caa?oa? oaaao ia iniaeeaino? ia?iaeiiai ni?eeiyooy ia?aco
nayoeoaey, yeee oi?ioaaany i?ae aieeaii io?oe?eii-oea?eiaii? aeieo?eie.
Oae, o aeooiaii-e?oo?a?ei?e o?aaeeoe?? Oea?eae i?ae /an uioeaeiaaiai
iieeoiaiiai i?ineaaeaiiy nayoeoaeue i?e?aeio?oueny aei eeeo aiinoie?a ye
?i iiae?aiee ? ??aiicia/iee. Aiaeia?/iiai inieneaiiy eiai ia?ac iaaoaa?
o oieueeei?i?e o?aaeeoe??.

Aeena?oaioeith aia?oa c?a?aiee ? aeine?aeaeaiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae uiaei
iaeaeaai?oi? ee?anueei? nayoei? — /oaeioai?ii? ?eiie Ieeiee Iie?iai.
E??i oiai, caaaeath/e ia aeaeaoia ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia cia/aiiy
no?aeiineia’yinueeiai, aieiaiei /eiii ?in?enueeiai, eoeueoo Ieeiee
Ca?aenueeiai, aeena?oaioeith cae?eniaii ie?aia aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aiane?aeie yeiai aeiaaaeaia ee?anueea iioiaeaeaiiy oeueiai eoeueoo.
?eiiieia?/iee aiae?c aeaai?o no?aeiineia’yinueeeo /oaeioai?ieo ?eii
na.Ieeieay iieaco?, ui aiie aeeiiai? a ?aieao ?eiiia?ao?/ieo ?caiae?a
/oaeioai?ieo ee?anueeeo ?eii Ieeiee Iie?iai ? Ieeiee Ca?aenueeiai. Ca
iaoei ia?aeiiaiiyi, ?eiiia?ao?y Ieeiee Iie?iai oa Ieeiee Ca?aenueeiai
eiioeaiooaeueii aecia/eea iniiai? o?aaeeoe?? a cia?aaeaii? na.Ieeieay a
onueiio aeaaiuei?onueeiio ?eiiiieno.

Oaiiiai oe?a?inueei? ?ae?a?eii? na?aeiiino? aeyaeany o caeeaeaii?
ia?ac?a O?enoa ? na.Ieeieay. Oae, eeoa o a?o/eciyiiio ?eiiiieno
cia?aaeaiiy Aiai?iaeeoe? e naiiai ?nona O?enoa caa?iai? aei na.Ieeieay
ye aei oeaio?aeueii? o?ao?e Aea?nona. Oea oe?eeii a?aeiia?aea?
ia?iaeiiio oyaeaiith i?i i?noea nayoeoaey a iaaani?e ???a?o??: “Eiee Aia
iii?a, Ieeiea aoaea Aiaii”.

Niaoeeo?ea Ee?aa ye nayuaiiiai oeaio?o no?aeiineia’yinueeiai na?oo
iieyaaea o aaee/aci?e iane/aiino? eiai ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o
ciaeaie nayoino?. A?aaea? e?euee?noue /oaeioai?ieo ? iniaeeai
oaiiaaieo ?eii na.Ieeieay oa i?enay/aieo eiio o?ai?a, a?aeiiino? i?i ye?
iaaaaeaii a ?icae?e?.

?icae?e 4. — “?icaeoie ee?anueei? o?aaeeoe?? aoaioaaiiy eoeueo?a nayoeo
Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay o i?ai?/ieo oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?aa?iiao ?on?”. A
?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oa aca?iica’yceo
eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay, aiae?cothoueny iai’yoee noaieiaiai
aeeaiieno, ye? a?aeoai?ththoue ee?anuee? ei?ai? oaioaaiiy nayoae?a ia
i?ai?/ieo oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo caieyo ?on?.

O eiioaeno? ?ae?a??ciaa/iai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie oi?eaeueiee
iaoa??ae aeathoue aea? iai’yoee noaieiaiai aeeaiieno — iiaai?iaenueea
?eiia O??? no. ? aieiaiaenueea XIV co., ye? a?aeii? oao?aoeyi i?ae
iacaith “Aiaiiao?? ia i?anoie? c i?enoiy/eie Ieeiea?i ? Eeeiaioii”.
I/aaeaeiith ? aiaeia?/i?noue aieiaiiai iioeao ?eiiia?ao?/ii? noaie: oea
noeaia aaei?aoeaiiai i?enoiyiiy naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay o?iii?e
Aiai?iaeeoe? c iaiiaeyi.

Aaaaea?ii, ui nthaeaoia iniiaa oai??a iioiaeeoue a?ae ?eiiia?ao??
??aee?nii? iai’yoee ee?anueei? ooaeiaeiuei? oeiee, iaeaeaai?oi? ?onueei?
i?aaenoaaieoe? ?eiiia?ao?/iiai ?caiaeo “Aiaiiaoa?? ia i?anoie? c
i?enoiy/eie” — Aiaiiaoa?? Na?inueei? (Ia/a?nueei?) O??? no., —
eiiiiceoe?y yei? aeeth/a? o?ao?o o?iiii? Aiai?iaeeoe? c iaiiaeyi ?
i?enoiy/eie caniiaieeaie Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueeiai iiianoe?y — i?aiiaeiaieie
Aioii??i ? Oaiaein??i. Oey /oaeioai?ia ia/a?nueea ?eiia aoea oe?iei
a?aeiiith ia ?on?. Nienee ?eiie oaeaeei ?iciianthaeaeoaaeenue a ??cieo
?aa?iiao e?a?ie, ui aoei ia’?eoeaii coiiaeaii io?oe?eiith iie?oeeith
ee?anueeeo i?aaey/eo e?e, caoe?eaaeaieo a ooaa?aeaeaii? a on?o ?onueeeo
caieyo o?enoeyinueeeo eoeueo?a, aaeaioiaaieo o Ee?a?.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, iaeiei ?c ia?oeo ? aeoeaieo iioe?thaa/?a ee?anueeeo
eoeueo?a o Iiaai?iae? noaa eiycue Inoeneaa Aieiaeeie?iae/ (eiyaeea o
Iiaai?iae? c 1096?. aei 1117?.), na?oiaeyae yeiai oi?ioaaany a *a?i?aia?
? Ee?a?. Ooaa?aeaeaiiy eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay o Iiaai?iae?
iia’ycaia oaeiae ?c ae?yeuei?noth iiaai?iaenueeeo ?ieneii?a — aeo?aeoe?a
?c Ee?aa. Neaae?ii, iaeaeaai?oo oea?eao ia /anoue na.Eeeiaioa caoaeoaaa
a?o??ieneii I?oiio, iino?eaeaiee Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueeiai iiianoe?y.

O O?? — ia ii/aoeo O??? no. eoeueoe nayoeoae?a iaae?athoue o Iiaai?iae?
iao?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? i?aenoaae oaa?aeeoe,
ui oea aoei coiiaeaii ?yaeii /eiiee?a, cie?aia, caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiei
oaioaaiiyi naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay ye iaaanieo iao?ii?a e?a?ie, aeoeaiith
ae?yeuei?noth o??? /anoeie i?noeaai? eiyaei? oa oea?eiaii? ae?oe, yea
iioiaeeea c Ee?aa. Ia inoaii? i?noea a ???a?o?? iacaaieo i?e/ei iaee
iie?oe/i? aia?oe?? Aaeeeiai Iiaai?iaea o eiai i?ioenoiyii? Ee?ao ?
i?aaiaiiy i? a /iio ia iinooiaoeny i?aaeaii?e noieeoe?. Ee?anueeo
aaiaaeia?th aeyaey? e aieiaiaenueeee eoeueo nayoeoae?a, aaeaea, ye
aaaaea?ii, a?i iia’ycaiee c i?n?iia?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth
ee?ai-ia/a?nueeiai /aioey Aa?aneia, caiaeii eaiii?ciaaiiai Oea?eaith ?
a?aeiiiai i?ae ?iaiai Aa?aneia Aieiaiaenueeiai (iiia? 1178 ?.). Eiai
oaioaaee o Aieiaae? ye i?noeaaiai nayoiai /oaeioai?oey. A?aeiii, ui a?i
canioaaa ia aa?ac? ??/ee Aieiaaee, ua aei canioaaiiy naiiai i?noa,
iiianoe? ? i?ei?n c Ee?aa oaiiaai? ?ae?ea??. E??i oiai, aieiaiaenueeee
eoeueo caciaa aieeao ee?anueei? o?aaeeoe?? ? /a?ac Iiaai?iae, aaeaea aei
XV no. Aieiaaea aoea i?ai?/ii-no?aeiith oa?eoi???th Iiaai?iaenueei?
caie?.

Iao?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? eoeueo?a nayoeoae?a ia i?ai?/ii-?onueeeo caieyo
a?aeoai?th? i?noeaaee ?eiiiien. Ia?i? cia?aaeaiiy naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay
cono??/a?ii a aaaaoueio iai’yoeao aeaaiueiai ienoaoeoaa. ?in?enuee?
ienoaoeoaiciaaoe? ieiio?aeue a?aecia/ath/e ee?anueea iioiaeaeaiiy
iiaai?iaenueeiai, aieiaiaenueeiai, ineianueeiai eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ?
Ieeieay, caia?a/othoue iiaeeea?noue caa?aaeaiiy ee?anueeeo eoeueoo?ieo ?
ooaeiaei?o aeoie?a o i?noeaa?e o?aaeeoe?? ?o ia?iiai cia?aaeaiiy. Aiie
aaa/athoue o i?e aai yne?aai ae?aaeaiee iiaai?iaenueeee oa?aeoa?, aai
?aeath iao?iiaoo, iia’ycaio c aeiiaoi?aie, ni?a?iaiieie naa.Eeeiaioo ?
Ieeieath, aai na?ae/aiiy i?noeaaiai oaioaaiiy nayoeoae?a ye iie?iaeoae?a
ii?aieaaoe?a ? iaiae??aiee?a.

Ie iiaeaii oaa?aeeoe, ui oaeiio “eieae?ciaaiiio” i?aeoiaeo a?aeo?
?noi?e/ii? ?ao?iniaeoeaiino?, aaeaea oaiaeaioe?y ia?iiai cia?aaeaiiy
nayoeoae?a aeyaeeanue oaea a ?icien? a?aoa?ii? aineaee Nio?enueeiai
niai?o Ee?aa, aea cia?aaeaiiy Iooe?a Oea?eae cono??/athoueny aia?oa a
?onueeiio ienoaoeoa? ? aea iinoao? naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay i?aaenoaaeai?
iaeaea ii?o/. Aaaaea?ii, ui o ca’yceo c iiaeaeueoei iaeii/aniei ?
aca?iiiia’ycaiei ?icaeoeii eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay ye
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo iie?iaeoae?a, oey oaiaeaioe?y a ia?o?e iieiaei? O??
no. ia?a?inea a onoaeaio ?eiiia?ao?/io o?aaeeoe?th ia?iiai ?o
cia?aaeaiiy.

?eiiia?ao?y ae ia/a?nueei? nayoei?, eio?a iniaeeai oaioaaeany a Ee?a?,
yeiaee?aua a?aeiia?aeaea ?aea? iaaaniiai iie?iaeoaeuenoaa naa.Eeeiaioa ?
Ieeieay Ee?anuee?e aea?aeaa?. Aaoi?ea iaa?oioiao? oi/eo ci?o, ca?aeii c
yeith a iaeiiio c ?eiiia?ao?/ieo aa??aio?a “Aiai?iaeeoe? Ia/a?nueei?”
a?aeaoeany cai?ia ia?niiaae?a Aioii?y ? Oaiaein?y Eeeiaioii ? Ieeiea?i.
Oea cia/ii iineeeei aiaineianueeee ci?no ?eiie, aaeaea i?aiiaeiai?
iinooieeeny i?noeai nayoeoaeyi, iaoe?iiaeueiei iao?iiai, ye? inay/oaaee
an? ?onuee? caie?. Nienee oe??? ?eiie ae?eoee aei i?ai?/ii?onueeeo
oeaio??a ? neoaoaaee ac??oeyie i?noeaaei ?eiiiienoeyi.

Ioaea, ia ?icaeyaeath/e nooi ienoaoeoaiciaa/? aniaeoe caaaeaieo
?eiiiienieo iai’yoie iiaai?iaenueeeo oa aieiaiaenueeeo caiaeue,
iaiao?aeii iaaieineoe ia i/aaeaeiiio ?o ca’yceo c aeaaiueith
ooaeiaeiuei-eoeueoo?iith o?aaeeoe??th, ui iioiaeeoue c Ee?aa. Aecia/iee
oa?aeoa? iai’yoie, ??aee?nia ?eiiia?ao?y aeicaieythoue iai
noaa?aeaeoaaoe ?o aacia?a/ia cia/aiiy aeey ?noi??? no?aeiineia’yinueei?
eoeueoo?e.

Caeeth/io /anoeio ?iaioe neeaaeathoue aeniiaee, a yeeo aeeeaaeai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui ia?oeie iao?iiaeueieie
eoeueoaie Ee?anueei? ?on? noaee eoeueoe naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay.
Aeine?aeaeoaai? eoeueoe aoee iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo /eiiee?a, ye? ni?eyee
oi?ioaaiith ee?anueei? oea?eiaii? iiaeae?, a?aee?eoi? No?aeiiio ?
Cao?aeiiio o?enoeyinoao. Ee?anueea o?aaeeoe?y iaoiiaeea ?icaeoie ?
niaoeeo?eo caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo eoeueo?a naa.Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay ia
anueiio no?aeiineia’yinueeiio aai?ae?a?eiiio i?inoi??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??

aeeeaaeaii o ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aa?auaa?ia I. Eoaee a?aaea i?e?a?ei. Iioaoee c ?noi??? iaeiiieoeoaa
// Ethaeeia ? na?o.—1990.—? 4.—N. 40-44.

2. Aa?auaa?ia I. Nayoee Eeeiaio — iie?iaeoaeue Ee?aa // Ethaeeia ?
na?o.—1995.—? 5/6.— N. 32-35.

3. Aa?auaa?ia I. Nayoee Ieeiea // Ethaeeia ? na?o.—1995.—? 8.—N. 7-11.

4. Aa?auaa?ia I. Iaeaeaai?oa /oaeioai?ia ee?anueea ?eiia //
?iaeia?ae.—1995.—? 12.—N. 80-85.

5. Aa?auaa?ia I. Ee?anueea aaiaaeia?y caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai eoeueoo
nayoiai Ieeieay // Aeooiaia niaaeueia Ee?anueei? ?on?.
Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue.—Iaeana: Iaye, 1997.—N. 158-163.

6. Aa?auaa?ia I. Ee?anuee? eoeueoe nayoeo Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay a
aeooiaiiio einiin? aeaaiuei? ?on? // Ethaeeia ? oai?/?noue: aoiai?noe/i?
aeyae.—Ae?iaiae/: Aei??, 1998.—N. 269-282.

7. Aa?auaa?ia I. Aeanyoeiia oea?eaa — ?noi?e/iee ina?aaeie aoaioaaiiy
nayoeoaey Ieeieay a Ee?a? // “Caiia?aeue iiao aeath Aai: etha?oue iaeei
iaeiiai” (?iai 13, 34). Aeiiia?ae?, iia?aeiieaiiy.—E.: Aeae. Ee?anueeiai
Iao??a?oaoo,1998—N. 137-139.

8. Aa?auaa?ia I. Eeeiaio ?einueeee — nayoee ii?eoaa/ ?one-Oe?a?ie //
?noi??y Oe?a?ie (oeaeiaaee).—1999.—? 19, o?aaaiue.—N. 9-11.

9. Aa?auaa?ia I. Neaaaoia ee?anueea nayoeiy — /oaeioai?ia ?eiia Ieeiee
Iie?iai oa ?? i?noea a no?aeiineia’yinuee?e eoeueoo?? // Oe?a?inueeee
?ae?a??ciaa/ee atheaoaiue.— 1999.—? 10.—N. 52-58.

10. Aa?auaa?ia I. Ina?oa OO? no. ? eoeueoiaa niaaeueia nayoeo Eeeiaioa
? Ieeieay // Ae?aeia eoeueoo?: Oe?a?ia o na?oiaiio eiioaeno?. O?einio?y
ina?oe.—Aei.4.—Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue.—Euea?a: Aeae. “Na?o”, 1999.—N. 313-326.

11. Aa?auaa?ia I. Ee?anuee? aeoiee aeaaiuei?onueeiai eoeueoo na.Ieeieay
// Iai’youe noie?oue.—1999.—? 3.— N. 129-136.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aa?auaa?ia Iaae?y A’y/aneaa?aia

Ia?o? caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? eoeueoe nayoeo Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay oa ?o
a?aeoai?aiiy o iai’yoeao ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e Ee?anueei? ?on?.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.11 — ?ae?a??ciaanoai.

?inoeooo o?einio?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei o a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? eiiieaeniei ?ae?a??ciaa/ei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi iao?iiaeueieo eoeueo?a nayoeo Eeeiaioa ? Ieeieay a
eiioaeno? ?o ?ie? a aeaaiuei?onueeiio oea?eiaiiio ? eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo?,
aieeao ee?anueei? o?aaeeoe?? ia oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai e
?aa?iiaeueiiai oaioaaiiy nayoeoae?a a iaaeao Ee?anueei? ?on?.

A i?aoe? aena?oeaiee oaiiiai iacaaieo eoeueo?a ye aeaeaoiiai yaeua
oe?a?inueeiai aeooiaiiai aeeooy, a?aeia?aaeaiiai o aeaaiuei?onueeeo
iai’yoeao ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?enoeyinoai, i?aaineaa’y, oea?eaa, eoeueoo?a,
iao?iiaeueiee eoeueo, nayo? Eeeiaio ? Ieeieae, ee?anueea o?aaeeoe?y,
?ae?a??ciaa/a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aa?auaaeia Iaaeaaeaea Ay/aneaaiaia

Ia?aua iauaainoaea?noaaiiua eoeueou nayouo Eeeiaioa e Ieeieay e
ioia?aaeaiea eo a iaiyoieeao enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u Eeaaneie ?one.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.11 — ?aeeaeaaaaeaiea. — Einoeooo oeeinioee
Iaoeeiiaeueiie Aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony ia?aui a ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?e/aneie iaoea
eiiieaeniui ?aeeaeaaaae/aneei enneaaeiaaieai iao?iiaeueiuo eoeueoia
nayouo Eeeiaioa e Ieeieay a eiioaenoa eo ?iee a oe?aeineie oea?eiaiie e
eoeueoo?iie aeecie, aeeyiey eeaaneie o?aaeeoeee ia oi?ie?iaaiea
iauaainoaea?noaaiiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai ii/eoaiey nayoeoaeae a i?aaeaeao
Eeaaneie ?one.

A ?aaioa inaauai oaiiiai iacaaiuo eoeueoia eae auaeathuaainy yaeaiey
oe?aeineie aeooiaiie aeecie, io?aaeaiiiai a ae?aaia?onneeo iaiyoieeao
enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u.

Iaicia/aii, /oi a i?ioeanna o?enoeaiecaoeee ?one a Eeaaa aicieeaao iiaia
aeey aa ia?iaea iiieiaiea nayoinoe eae aunoaai ii?aeueiiai eaeaaea e
aeooiaiiai ia?acoea.

?anniio?aiu nayoieoeueoiaua ia?aienoi/ieee oe?aeineiai i?aaineaaey.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi nayoeoaee Eeeiaio ?eineee e Ieeieae Ie?eeeeeneee noaee
ia?auie o?enoeaineeie iao?iiaie iiaiia?auaiiie ?one, ooaa?aeaeaiea
eoeueoa eioi?uo auei eieoeee?iaaii aeayoaeueiinoueth eeaaneiai eiycy
Aeaaeeie?a Nayoineaae/a. ssaeyynue iauao?enoeaineeie ii naiaio
i?ienoiaeaeaieth, yoe eoeueou a neeo eiie?aoiuo nioeeieoeueoo?iuo e
iieeoe/aneeo i?e/ei ieacaeenue oanii naycaiiuie n i?ioeannii
o?enoeaiecaoeee Eeaaneiai ainoaea?noaa.

Enneaaeiaaia niaoeeoeea ?aoeaioeee ii/eoaiey naa.Eeeiaioa e Ieeieay ia
ainoi/iineaayineie eoeueoo?iie ii/aa. Eo acaeiinaycue auea
i?aaeii?aaeaeaia oai ianoiyoaeuenoaii, /oi n ia/aea naiaai aaeeaeaiey a
?aeeaeicioth ii/ao ?one eoeueou nayoeoaeae ooaa?aeaeaeenue a
aaeeii?iaeiie yoiinioeeaeueiie e eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie n?aaea
oeaio?aeueiuo eeaai?onneeo caiaeue, ?acaeaaeenue ia?aeeaeueii,
i?eia?aoay i?e yoii iiiaeanoai iaueo /a?o.

Naeaeai auaiae, /oi naa.Eeeiaio e Ieeieae neiaieece?iaaee aeey ianniaiai
?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey ?one/ae-iaioeoia eaeath iauaia?iaeiiai
canooiie/anoaa e iie?iaeoaeuenoaa.

Ii?aaeaeaia ?ieue Aeanyoeiiie oea?eae ae?aaiaai Eeaaa eae
iauaainoaea?noaaiiiai oeaio?a ii/eoaiey yoeo nayoeoaeae e aeaeueiaeoaai
?ani?ino?aiaiey eo eoeueoa ia caieyo ?one.

Aeieacaii, /oi ia ia/aeueiii yoaia nayoeoaee ii/eoaeenue eae
o?enoeaineea iao?iiu Eeaaa, a a eiioea OI aaea i?eia?aee noaoon
iie?iaeoaeae anaai ainoaea?noaa, /oi iaoei oe?ieia io?aaeaiea a
a?oeoaeoo?iuo, eeiiiieniuo, eeoa?aoo?iuo e oieueeei?iuo iaiyoieeao
Eeaaneie ?one, a iicaea Oe?aeiu, ?inee, Aaei?onnee.

Aia?aua a iaoea ananoi?iiia enneaaeiaai eeaaneee eoeueo Ieeieay Iie?iai,
i?eia?aooee ia ?one iauaainoaea?noaaiiia cia/aiea. A nayce n yoei
inouanoaeai eeiiieiae/aneee aiaeec o?aieaoaeny a Nioee Eeaaneie e iuia
oo?a/aiiie ae?aaiae eeiiu Ieeieay Iie?iai. Naeaeai auaiae, /oi yoa
?aeeeaey eiioeaiooaeueii ii?aaeaeeea iniiaiua o?aaeeoeee a eeiiia?aoee
na. Ieeieay a ainoi/iineaayineie aeeaiiene.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?ineaaeaia eeaaneay aaiaaeiaey eoeueoia nayoeoaeae a
caieyo naaa?iie e naaa?i-ainoi/iie ?one a aeiiiiaieueneoth yiioo.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi naa.Eeeiaio e Ieeieae i?eiyee ia naay iao?iiaeueioth
ioiineoaeueii yoeo caiaeue ooieoeeth, einie?e?iaaiioth
oea?eiaii-iieeoe/aneeie e aeooiaiuie i?eaioe?aie auoiaeoeaa ec Eeaaa —
i?aaenoaaeoaeae eiyaeaneie e oea?eiaiie yeeou. Yoi yaeaiea iaoei, a
/anoiinoe, io?aaeaiea a ianoiie eeiiia?aoe/aneie o?aaeeoeee ia?iiai
ecia?aaeaiey nayoeoaeae.

A?aoiaioe?oaony auaiae, /oi enoi?e/aneay cia/eiinoue ia?auo
iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo iao?iiaeueiuo eoeueoia a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie e
?aeeaeiciie aeecie ainoi/iiai neaayinoaa iaoneiaeaia eo auaeathuaeny
?ieueth a aeooiaiie eoeueoo?a Eeaaneie ?one.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?enoeainoai, i?aaineaaea, oea?eiaue, eoeueoo?a,
iao?iiaeueiue eoeueo, nayoua Eeeiaio e Ieeieae, eeaaneay o?aaeeoeey,
?aeeaeaaaae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea.

SUMMARY

Vereschagina Nadia Viacheslavovna. The first cults of the whole state of
st. Kliment and st. Mikolay and their displaying in monuments of a
history and culture of Kiev Rus. — Manuskript.

The thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidata of
historical sciences by speciality 09.00. 11 — relidgious studies. — G.
S. Skovoroda Philosophy Institute of National Academy of sciences of
Ukraine (Department of Religious Studies), Kiev, 1999.

The thesis is the first complex research in the domestic religious
studies of patronal’s cults of st. Kliment and st. Mikolay in a context
of their role of Kiev Rus church cultural life and the influence of
Kiev`s tradition in formation of their native regional admiration of
bishops within the limits of Kiev Rus.

The phenomenon of theese cults as outstanding phenomenon of ukrainian
spiritual life reflected in Old Russian monuments of a history and
culture is covered in the work.

Key words: Christianity, Orthodoxy, church, culture, patronal’s cult,
st. Kliment and st. Mikolay, Kiev’s tradition, religious studies.

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