IAOeIIIAEUeIA AEAAeAIIss IAOE OE?A?IE

AIEIAIA ANO?IIIII*IA IANA?AAOI?Iss

AIAeUeIA*AIEI Aiaoieie Iao?iae/

OAeE 523.4+551.591

IA?IIAeE*II CIIIE

IA?AIAO?IA AOIINOA? THIIOA?A I NAOO?IA

01.03.03 — Aaeiioiceea i oiceea Noiy/ii? nenoaie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aieiai?e ano?iiii?/i?e iana?aaoi???

Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e ?AI,
i?ioani?, Aie?oeei Aai?a?e Na?a?eiae/,

?inoeooo o?ceee aoiinoa?e ?AI, i.
Iineaa, ?in?y,

aee?aeoi?;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?, I?ieio’?aa Aaeaioeia Aieiaeeie??aia,

E?einueea ano?io?ce/ia iana?aaoi??y, i.
Iao/iee,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

E?o/eiaiei A?oae?e A?eai?iae/,

Ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai,

oi?aa?neoaoo ?i Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i.
Ee?a,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 22 » aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.208.01 i?e Aieiai?e
ano?iiii?/i?e

iana?aaoi??? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie (Aiein??a,
Ee?a-127,

03680, AAI IAIO).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Aieiaii?
ano?iiii?/ii?

iana?aaoi??? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 17 » aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe Aon?aa
I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeineiaeaeaiiy aa?iaoeie iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa oice/ieo
ia?aiao?ia ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? i?aaenoaaey? cia/iee iioa?an aeey
aaaaoueio ?icaeieia no/anii? ieaiaoieiai?.

Aeooaeueiinoue ?iaioe ii aeaiie oaiaoeoei, ii aeyao iaoaiiciia
ia?aaea/i ciaiioiio i aioo?ioiio cao?aiue aei ?icaeyaeoaaieo oa?ia
aoiinoa?e i ii aea/aiith ?iciiiaiioieo eieeaaeueieo i?ioeania a
ieaiaoieo aoiinoa?ao aecia/a?oueny neiaeoth/eie ianoaaeiaie:

— naia iayaiinoue ciii iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? ia
nueiaiaeii ? aeia?a aiaeiia; i?ioa cia/aiiy ia?iiaeia oeeo ciii, ?o
aiieiooaea, ia?aeie aeioooth/eo nee, yei aeeeeeathoue i iioii
o?eaaeee /an iiaeo?eiothoue oaei ciiie, iaoaiicie ia?aaea/i aia?ai? i
iioi?iaoei? iiae ?iciiiaiioieie oa?aie a aoiinoa?i i o.i.- ana ua
caeeoathoueny i?aeoe/ii iaaea/aieie;

— aeey ieaiao ic cia/iei iaoeeii aeaaoi?o aei ieiueie ?o i?aioe
oa?aeoa?ia aiae/ooia ?icieoey i?eoieo niiy/ii? aia?ai? aei ?icieo
oe?ioieo iiynia i?ioyaii ia?iiaeo iaa?oaiiy iaaeiei Niioey, ui ni?ey?
i?iyao naciiieo ciii a ieaiaoieo aoiinoa?ao; aeyaeaiiy naciiieo
aa?iaoeie iioe/ieo, eiiaiaoe/ieo i o. i. oa?aeoa?enoee aoiinoa?
ieaiao-aiaaioia, ?o aeineiaeaeaiiy i aeieac oiai, ui naia naciiii ciiie
ii?iiiiaiiy ieaiaoe Niioeai ? aiaeiiaiaeaeueieie ca aeayei ic
niinoa?aaeoaaieo aa?iaoeie — yaey?oueny aecia/aeueiei i?e aecia/aiii
oice/ieo iaoaiiciia ia?aaea/i aia?ai? i iioi?iaoei? iiae ?icieie oa?aie
a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao;

— /eneaiii ?iaioe ii aaeiinaeniieiai?, oai?aoe/iee aiaeic naeniieiai?
ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? oa aeaii ano?iiiii/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca ciiiaie
aeaeeii? a ?icieo aeieyieao niaeo?o iiaa?oii oia?iaiai oa?o ieaiao
iaaeathoue iiaeeeainoue aeenoaioeieii aea/aoe i?ioeane a aeeaieeo oa?ao
aoiinoa? ieaiao-aiaaioia oa aeineiaeaeoaaoe ?o aioo?ioith aoaeiao.

Iaoa aeaii? aeena?oaoei? iieyaa?:

1) o aeyaeaiii ?aaoey?ieo ia?iiaee/ieo i/aai eaaciia?iiaee/ieo
neeaaeiaeo, i?enooiio o ciiiao iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ieaiaoieo
aoiinoa?, ia iniiai aiaeico /aniaeo ?yaeia niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo,
io?eiaieo o niaeo?aeueiiio aeiaiaciii 300-800ii;

2) o aecia/aiii aiieiooaee oeeo ciii, cia/aiue ia?iiaeia inioth/eo
aa?iaoeie, ?o aiaeiiiiinoae o iiaeoeyo ieaiao i a ie?aieo ii?oieiai/ieo
iiynao aeaeeieo aeeneia THiioa?a i Naoo?ia;

3) o aeenoaioeieiiio aeineiaeaeaiii ano?iiiii/ieie iaoiaeaie
aeeiaiiee, eiiaiaoeee, no?oeoo?e ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? oa o aecia/aiii
ia?aiao?ia aioo?ioiuei? aoaeiae ieaiao-aiaaioia;

4) o ?a?no?aoei? aeanieo eieeaaiue aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia, ui
aeicaieeei c?iaeoe eieueeinii ioeiiee ?o aeeiaii/ieo i eiiaiaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oeyoii aea/aiiy eieeaaeueieo aeiaaeueieo iia?oeieieo iiae,
iiae oeneo i a?aaioaoei?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia.

® Io?eiaii iiai oioiiao?e/ii i niaeo?aeueii aeaii i?i aa?iaoei?
aiaeaeaii? caeaoiinoi ie?aieo aeieyiie aeeneia THiioa?a i Naoo?ia,
aeeneo anueiai aeenea THiioa?a oa niinoa?aaeii aeaii i?i ?iciiaeie
yne?aainoi acaeiaae oe?ioieo iiynia i acaeiaae oeaio?aeueiiai
ia?eaeiaia THiioa?a a ?icieo aeiaaeeiao oaeeue niaeo?aeueiiai iioa?aaea
300-800ii ca 593 ii/i iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue a 1977-1995??.

® ?c niaeo?aeueiiai iaoaiaoe/iiai aiaeico aaaaoi?i/ieo
niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo aia?oa aeyaeaii: inioaaiiy naciiii? ia?aaoaeiae a
aoiinoa?i THiioa?a c ia?iiaeii 11.86 ?ieia, i?iya 22.3-?i/iiai
Oaeeianueeiai iaaiioiiai oeeeeo Niiy/ii? aeoeaiinoi oa iieacaia
iayaiinoue aieiaeo ciii aaniethoii? ci?yii? aaee/eie THiioa?a c
ia?iiaeii aiey 180 ?ieia.

® ?c ?acoeueoaoia ia/eneaiue iioe/ieo ia?aiao?ia aoiinoa?e Naoo?ia oa
ic ii?iaiyeueiiai aiaeico noaio aoiinoa?e aeey aeaio iineiaeiaieo
iiiaioia ?iaiiaeaiue ieaiaoe a 1966 oa a 1980??. aia?oa
ca?a?no?iaaii i?iyae naciiii? ia?aaoaeiae a aoiinoa?i Naoo?ia ia ?iaiyo
oi?ioaaiiy iaoaiiaeo nioa iiaeeiaiiy oa oeueo?aoiieaoiaiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy a aeiaiaciii niaeo?a 300-370ii.

® Aia?oa aecia/aii aeeiaii/ii i eiiaiaoe/ii ia?aiao?e i oa?aeoa?ii
ianooaae aeey aeeaieeo oa?ia aoiinoa?e THiioa?a ic aeenoaioeieieo
ano?iiiii/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue aeaeeiiai oia?iaiai oa?o ieaiaoe.

® Cai?iiiiiaaia i ?aaeiciaaia ia i?aeoeoei iaoiaeeea niinoa?aaeaiue oa
?o ia?iaee, eio?a aeicaieeea aia?oa ca?a?no?oaaoe ia?oi aeai
aa?iiiiee aeanieo eieeaaiue aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia; aiieiooaee
aa?iaoeie aeeneo ieaiao-aiaaioia a neiie aeieyioei niaeo?a ciaoiaeyoueny
a iaaeao 0.0008-0.004m.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

— Aaoi?ii aeeiiaii oioiiao?e/ii, niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ii ?
niaeo?iiiey?eiao?e/ii niinoa?aaeaiiy THiioa?a i Naoo?ia a ia?iiae
1977-1995??. a niaeo?aeueiiio aeiaiaciii 300-800ii;

— ii?aoeueiaaii ani io?eiaii iaie niinoa?aaeii aeaii ii aaniethoiie ?
aiaeiiniie aeaeo?ioioiiao?i?, niaeo?ioioiiao?i? i niaeo?iiiey?eiao?i?
THiioa?a i Naoo?ia: ?acoeueoaoe aei?aaeaii ca aieea aoiinoa?ii?
aenoeieoei?, aeaii oioiiao?e/iiai ?iciiaeieo yne?aainoi ii aeeneao
aei?aaeaii ca aieea aoiinoa?iiai o?aioiiiy, c?iaeaia aaniethoia
i?ea’ycea niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo aei niaeo?o Niioey;

— aaoi?ii aeeiiaii ani ?ic?aooiee, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo i?aaenoaaeaii a oeie
?iaioi; ?ic?aooiee ia?aiao?ia aoiinoa?e Naoo?ia i?iaiaeeeenue ii
i?ia?aii etha’ycii iaaeaiie iai Aeeoaa/ AE.I.;

— cai?iiiiiaaii aeaeieeoe oaeee /eiiee ye «naciie» na?aae
aeiaaiia?iiaee/ieo ciii, ui aiaeaoaathoueny a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao, yeee ?
aaaeeeaei iai?yieii a ieaiaoieiai/ieo aeineiaeaeaiiyo (niieueii ic
No?eeiaei I.O. ia ?iaieo i?aaao );

— cai?iiiiiaaia i ?aaeiciaaia iaoiaeeea aea/aiiy naciiieo i?ioeania a
aoiinoa?ao ieaiao-aiaaioia ia ei?ioeeo iioa?aaeao /ano;

— aeeiiaii aiaeic ?iaiyiiy iaia?a?aiinoi aeey ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? a
cai?iiiiiaaiiio iaie ii?iiaaii e?eoa?iaeueiiio aeaeyaei, ui aeicaieeei
ioe?ieoe cia/aiiy na?aaeiuei? aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi ia?aiiuaiiy
iiaio?yieo ian a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a ii cia/aiiyo aeiaaeueieo aeeiaii/ieo
ia?aiao?ia iiaeiaiinoi Aieioeeia (niieueii ic No?eeiaei I.O. ia ?iaieo
i?aaao);

— aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy niinoa?aaeaiue, ?aaeiciaaia
niinoa?aaeia i?ia?aia i noai?aii aiaeiiaiaeia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy
aeey aeeiiaiiy ?ic?aooieia, iaiaoiaeieo aeey ?icaeieaiiy inoeeeyoeie
i?ici?inoi aoiinoa?e Caiei i eieeaaiue aeeneo aiae iaaanieo ia’?eoia;

— cai?iiiiiaaia i iaa?oioiaaia iaeay, ui cia/aiiy aa?oeeaeueii?
oaeaeeinoi ia?aiiuaiiy iiaio?yieo ian w@(10-50)ni/nae ? iiaeeeaoi?ii
i?ioeania ooai?aiiy i ?iciaaeo oia? ia ieaiaoi (aiaeaoaa?oueny ciiia
aiaeaeaii? caeaoiinoi oia? c ia?iiaeaie, yei niiaiaaeathoue ic
cia/aiiyie, c yeeie ciiith?oueny aa?oeeaeueia oaeaeeinoue); oea
aeicaieeei aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ca?a?no?oaaoe ?aaeiaeueii
inoeeeyoei? (aeanii eieeaaiiy) aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

I?aaenoaaeaia aei caoenoo aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa aeeiiaia o aiaeaeiei
Oiceee oie Niiy/ii? nenoaie (OONN) Aieiaii? ano?iiiii/ii? iana?aaoi?i?
IAI Oe?a?ie. Nii/aoeo aiia i?iaiaeeeany ii Ananithciie niinoa?aaeiie
i?ia?aii «Ieaiaoiee iao?oeue N?N?», a yeie aiaeaeie OONN AAI IAI
Oe?a?ie aenooiaa eii?aeeiaoi?ii a ?aieao aoaoiai N?N?. Iiney oeueiai
aaoi? aoa aiaeiiaiaeaeueiei aeeiiaaoeai iaoeiaiaeineiaeieoeueei? oaie
«Aea/aiiy aa?oeeaeueii? no?oeoo?e oia?iaeo oa?ia ieaiao-aiaaioia ic
aeenoaioeieieo niinoa?aaeaiue», a 1993-1997??. aoa ea?iaieeii
iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueei? oaie «Ei?ioeiia?iiaee/ii aa?iaoei? iioe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ieaiao», eio?a aoiaeeea a ia?aeie i?ii?eoaoieo oai o
Aiaeaeieaii Oiceee i Ano?iiiii? IAI Oe?a?ie i ?acoeueoaoe, i?aaenoaaeaii
a oeie aeena?oaoei?, i?aeoe/ii a iiaiiio ia’?ii aaieoee a iiaenoieiaee
caio ii cacia/aiie oaii. C 1998?. aeena?oaio ea?o? aiaeii/ith oaiith
«Ciiie oice/ieo ia?aiao?ia ieaiao i ?o noiooieeia, iaoiiaeaii aieeaii
Niioey». Aaoi? a?aa o/anoue o iiaeia?iaeieo eiiia?aoeaieo i?ia?aiao
ii aea/aiith aoiinoa?e THiioa?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia.

I?eaaaeaii a aeena?oaoei? ?acoeueoaoe niinoa?aaeaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny, aeei?enoiaothoueny i iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii i?e
eieueeiniiio aiaeici oioiiao?e/ieo, iiey?ecaoeieieo ? niaeo?aeueieo
aeineiaeaeaiue THiioa?a i Naoo?ia, aeey ?ic?aooieia iiey aiaeaeoiai oa
iiaeeiooiai ieaiaoieie aoiinoa?aie aei?iiiithaaiiy, i?e ?ic?iaoei
iiaeaeae noaiaea?oieo aoiinoa? ieaiao-aiaaioia, ui yaey?oueny
aeooaeueiei i?e iiaeaioiaoei iaoeiaeo i?ia?ai ?o aeineiaeaeaiue ca
aeiiiiiaith einii/ieo aia?aoia. Ani iaaaaeaii a aeena?oaoei?
?acoeueoaoe niinoa?aaeaiue, iiaeooue aooe a aoaeue-yeee /an aeei?enoaii
oe?ieei eieii caoeieaaeaieo aeineiaeieeia, ineieueee aiie iioaeieiaaii o
aiaeiieo aeaeaiiyo a Oe?a?ii i ca ei?aeiiii, aea iiaeaii a oaaee/iiio
i/aai a?aoi/iiio aeaeyaei. A aiaee?eooy c aenieith ii?ith aeinoiai?iinoi
eieeaaiue aiaeaeaii? caeaoiinoi oia?iaeo oa?ia aoiinoa? THiioa?a i
Naoo?ia c ia?iiaeaie, ui niiaiaaeathoue ic cia/aiiyie ia?iiaeia aeanieo
eieeaaiue aiaeiaaiaaei?aeo aoiinoa? oeeo ieaiao-aiaaioia, aea? iai
iiaenoaao cacia/eoe i?i ia?aoiae oaeiai iai?yio a ieaiaoioiceoei ye
naeniieiaiy ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? aiae oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie a i?aeoe/io
ieiueio aeineiaeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiiaiaeaeeny, aai aoee i?aaenoaaeaii ia
ano?ioice/ieo naiiia?ao AAI IAI Oe?a?ie, ia naiiia?ao «Oiceea oie
Niiy/ii? nenoaie» (AAI IAI Oe?a?ie), ia naiiia?i Ano?iiiii/ii?
iana?aaoi?i? Oa?ueeianueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo, ia naiiia?ao AAI AI
?inienueei? Oaaea?aoei? (Ioeeiai), a Aea?aeoiiaa?neoaoi i.
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, ia caniaeaiiyo I?aceaei? Iaoeiiiaeueii? Aeaaeaii? iaoe
?anioaeiee Aieiaiy, ia ui?i/iie (1987?.) iaoeiaie nani? Iaoeiiiaeueii?
Aeaaeaii? iaoe ?anioaeiee Aieiaiy, a oaeiae i?aaenoaaeyeeny ia
ano?iiiii/ieo ia?aaeao i neiiicioiao: Ia?aaea ?iai/i? a?oie
«Ieaiaoe-aiaaioe» (Aeia-Aoa, Eacaonoai, 1980); Neiiicioi «Ano?iiiii/ii
aeineiaeaeaiiy a Iiaaeaiiie Aia?eoei» (Ea?aean, Aaianoaea, 1987);
Neiiicioi «Aeineiaeaeaiiy oie Niiy/ii? nenoaie» (Ea-Ieaoa, A?aaioeia,
1987); Ia?aaea ?iai/i? a?oie «Ieaiaoe-aiaaioe» (Eaiiia?aae, ?inienueea
Oaaea?aoeiy 1988); Ia?aaea ?iai/i? a?oie «Ieaiaoe-aiaaioe» (Aeia-Aoa,
Eacaonoai, 1989); Ui?i/iee neiiicioi Aia?eeainueei? ano?iiiii/ii?
anioeiaoei? (Ia?ieaiae, NOA, 1994); O?aoie c’?cae Oe?a?inueei?
ano?iiiii/ii? anioeiaoei? (Ee?a, Oe?a?ia, 1995); *aoaa?oee c’?cae
Oe?a?inueei? ano?iiiii/ii? anioeiaoei? (Ee?a, Oe?a?ia, 1997); 29 iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioeiy ii aea/aiith Iinyoey i ieaiao (O’thnoii, NOA, 1998).

Ia’?i i no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?.

Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny ic Anooio, Ia?aaeiiae, aeeeaaeo iniiaieo
?acoeueoaoia ?iaioe a aeaio *anoeiao ii o?e ? aeaa ?icaeiee,
aiaeiiaiaeii, a eiaeiie i?e ?o iane?iciie ioia?aoei?, Aeniiaeia i Nienea
eioa?aoo?e, yeee iaei/o? 430 iaeiaioaaiue. Caaaeueiee ia’?i
aeena?oaoei? noaiiaeoue 344 noi?iiee. ?c ieo 39 iethno?aoeie ia 39
noi?iieao oa 16 oaaeeoeue ia 16 noi?iieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny iinoaiiaea caaea/?, ?? aeooaeuei?noue oa
oeyoe cae?eniaiiy. Aoiinoa?a — neeaaeiee oiii/iee, aiae?iiaoaii/iee i
o.i. eiiieaen ic i?eoaiaiiei ?e iaai?ii oiii/ieo ia?aoai?aiue i
eiiaiaoe/ieo ?ooia. Ani oei ?a/i oei /e iioei /eiii
aiaeia?aaeathoueny (i?iyaeythoueny) a aoiinoa?i ieaiaoe. Aeayei c
oeeo aiaeia?aaeaiue ie iiaeaii ca?a?no?oaaoe aeenoaioeieii ia caaeaiiio
?iaii a aoiinoa?i. I?iaiaeicoaaaoe ?o, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa,
aea aeaia cao?aiiy ooai?eeiny i yei aeanoeainoi ia? aoiinoa?a ia ?iaii
eiai oi?ioaaiiy i/aai ?a?no?aoei?. A ia?oie /anoeii ?iaioe ie i?iaaee
aeineiaeaeaiiy aieeao oaei? ciaiioiuei? aeioooth/i? neee, ye ciiia
ii?iiiiaiiy ieaiaoe Niioeai, a a ae?oaie /anoeii ?icaeyiooi aieea
aioo?ioiio aeioooth/eo nee (ciiie aioo?ioiuei? aia?ai? ca ?aooiie
ia?a?iciiaeieo aia?ai? aiae aeonoe/ieo oaeeue, aiae aioo?ioiio
i?ea?aie/ieo oa?ia i cnoaieo oa/ie, aioo?ioiio a?aaioaoeieieo oaeeue a
iaa?oiaie ?iaeeii i o.i.) ia aeaeieaiee aeey aea/aiiy oa? aoiinoa?e.

*anoeia 1. Naciiii i iioi niiy/ii-iaoiiaeaii ciiie a ieaiaoieo
aoiinoa?ao. Aei ia?oii?e/ei, ui oei /e iioei /eiii aieeaathoue ia
aoiinoa?e ieaiao, ie ia?aaeianii aiaeianee /eiieee, aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycaii c eieueeinoth aei?iiiithaaiiy, ui iaaeoiaeeoue ia ieaiaoo aiae
Niioey: iiaeeeai ?aaeueii ciiie niiy/ii? ?aaeiaoei? a ?icieo
aeiaaeeiao oaeeue ic /anii; aa?iaoei? a ii?iiiiaiii ?icieo oe?io
ieaiaoe Niioeai /a?ac iayaiinoue iaoeeo ini iaa?oaiiy ieaiaoe aei
ieiueie aeeiioeee; aiaeiiiiinoue i?eoieo niiy/ii? aia?ai? aei aoiinoa?
ieaiao a ia?eaaei? ? a aoaei? /a?ac iayaiinoue aenoeaio?eneoaoa i?aioe
ieaiao, oiaoi /a?ac ?? aeiioe/iinoue.

?icaeie 1. Aeiy niiy/iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy ia ieaiaoii aoiinoa?e.
Ca?ac aeinoiai?ii anoaiiaeaii, ui iio?e niiy/iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy,
iniaeeai a aeieyioei niaeo?a <300ii, cia/ii ciiith?oueny (ia iaeeieoei i aeanyoee aiaenioeia) ia i?ioyci niiy/iiai oeeeeo. A iioaa?aeueiee iioie o eiii? aiaeith i?e 121.6ii ciiith?oueny a iaaeao aiae 2 aei 8 a?a ni-2 n-1 ), oiaoi aei 400%. Oaea iiaeaeuaia aei?iiiithaaiiy ic aeoeaieo iaeanoae niiy/iiai aeeneo aeeeeea? iaaii aoaeoe a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao. I?e/iio, ?aaeiaoeiy c ?iciith aeiaaeeiith oaeeue aieeaa? ia ?icii oa?e aoiinoa?e. ? oi/a caaaeueii aa?iaoei? niiy/ii? iinoieii? iaaaeeei, oa ?aaeoeiy aoiinoa?e ia ieo iiaea aooe cia/iith. Oiio, iaa?yae /e iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i inoioio aaciina?aaeith ciiio iaa?iao o?iiinoa?e. Nei?ioa anueiai, aiaeaoaathoueny niiy/iiiaoiiaeaii ciiie o aa?oiie aoiinoa?i i iiney oeueiai caeienith?oueny ia?aaea/a oeueiai cao?aiiy aiec, iai?eeeaae, aei ?iaiy oia?, ye iaeiiio ic iai/ieo iiaeeeaoi?ia ciii. Oaei i?ioeane iathoue aeayeee i?iiiaeiee aoai, iaiaoiaeiee aeey inoaoi/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?ai? a aoiinoa?iee i?ioean, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei ciiie aa?e/ieo, oaiia?aoo?ieo i o.i. iieia: 1) ciiia eieueeinoi niiy/iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy, ui aeinyaa? aeayeiai e?eoe/iiai oa?o aoiinoa?e, aianeiaeie ae?aioaaiiy ia?enoeie oia?aie i/aai iaaeoia?iaith aeeieith /a?ac ciiie eieueeinoi aeoeaii? iaei? neeaaeiai?; aeieeath/a aianeiaeie oeueiai ioieiaeaeaiiy ia ?iaii ia?aiiai aeey ?icaeyaeo oa?o i?eaiaeeoue aei ciiie aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoei?; 2) ciiia aa?oeeaeueiiai ?iciiaeieo aoiinoa?ieo neeaaeiaeo, ui ii?ooo? oaieiaee aaeain iiaeeco o?iiiiaoce, a aeieeath/i aianeiaeie oeueiai aa?oeeaeueii i ai?eciioaeueii aoiinoa?ii ?ooe aoaeooue i?eaiaeeoe aei ciii oeneo, ui a naith /a?ao, ciiieoue aoiinoa?io oee?eoeyoeith. Aiaeic aaaaoueio ?iaio c aeaii? oaiaoeee i?eaiaeeoue ian aei aeniiaeo, ui aa?iaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy Niioey a aeiaiaciii 100-300ii iiaeooue noaiiaeoe naia oie oice/iee aaaio, caeaoiee iia'ycaoe niiy/iee oeeee ic caaaeueiith oee?eoeyoei?th aoiinoa?e, iineieueee eiioeaio?aoei? iaeeo iaeo?aeueieo neeaaeiaeo i ?iciiaeie oaiia?aoo?e cia/ii ciiiththoueny ia ?iaiyo na?aaeiuei? aoiinoa?e. A oea, a naith /a?ao, ni?e/eiy? aei ciiie i?ioiey aio?o, noaoe/ii? noieeinoi no?aoinoa?e, a cia/eoue, iiaeia i/ieoaaoe ia aiaeiiaiaeii ciiie a ia?eaeiiiaeueiiio ia?aiini oaiea ieaiaoa?ieie oaeeyie a o?iiinoa?o; /a?ac ieo aiaeaoaa?oueny iiaeoeyoeiy no?aoinoa?ieie ciiiaie oace ieaiaoa?ieo oaeeue, ui, a naith /a?ao, i?eaiaeeoue aei ?o cia/iiai aieeao ia o?iiinoa?io oaiia?aoo?o i oee?eoeyoeith aoiinoa?e. Niaoeiaeueii iinoaaeaii aeii?e ia aaeiiao iieacaee, ui aeey aoiinoa?e Caiei iniiaiee aeeaae a ciiio oeneo i ?iciiiaiioieo i?ioeania aiey ieaeiuei? a?aieoei o?iiinoa?e aiinyoue i?ioeane, ui aiaeaoaathoueny aiey o?iiiiaoce (30% ciiie oeneo i?e caiei aecia/athoueny i?ioeanaie a oa?i 0-3 ei i ia 60% iia'ycaii c i?ioeanaie, ui aiaeaoaathoueny aeua 8 ei - oiaoi aiey o?iiiiaoce). Aiaeiii oaeiae, ui a ?iee iaeneioia niiy/ii? aeoeaiinoi a caiiie aoiinoa?i /anoioa c'yaeythoueny aenioii oia?e oeio "Cirrus" ? "Cirro-stratus", i /anoioa iiyae oaeeo oia? caieueoo?oueny iaeaea ia 33%. Aiaeiai/ia neooaoeiy iiaea niinoa?iaaoeny i a aoiinoa?ao THiioa?a ? Naoo?ia, aeeeeeath/e ooai?aiiy aa?icieueiiai na?iaieo ic i?iaeoeoia oioieico iaoaia i aiiaea, aiiny/e aiaeiiaiaeii ciiie o aiaeaeaii, iiaeeiaeueii i aei?iiiithaaeueii aeanoeainoi oia?iaeo no?oeoo? ? iaaeoia?iai? aenioii? aeeiee. ?icaeie 2. Aa?iaoei? iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoiinoa?e THiioa?a. Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy niiy/ii? aia?ai? aei aoiinoa?e THiioa?a ia na?aaeiie aiaenoaii aiae Niioey a 27 ?ac iaioa, iiae aei Caiei. I?ioa ii?a aieeao iaai?o niiy/ieo aei?iiiithaaiue ia noai ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? ia ciaioo?oueny i?iii?oeieii eaaae?aoo aiaenoaii, oiio ui i?e oeueiio iaiaoiaeii a?aoiaoaaoe ? eiiieii ?icii?e ieaiaoe, i iiooaeiinoue ?? aoiinoa?e, i inioaaiiy oioioiii/ii aeoeaieo iaeeo aeiiioie, i i?enooiinoue iaaiioieo iieia, ? iayaiinoue ?aaeiaoeieieo iiynia, i o.i. Aeene THiioa?a aoeieiio, eiai ie?aieo aeieyiie i iniiaieo ii?oieiai/ieo aeaoaeae iiiioii ciiith?oueny c /anii, ui iia'ycaii ye ic ciiiith aiaenoaii aei caiiiai niinoa?iaa/a, oae i ci ciiiith aeueaaaei ieaiaoe /a?ac aa?iaoei? oe?eie i iioaineaiinoi oaiieo i naioeeo oia?ieo ooai?aiue ia ieaiaoi (oiaoi c aa?iaoeiyie iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoiinoa?e ieaiaoe, a cia/eoue - c ?o oice/ieie, eiiaiaoe/ieie i oiii/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie). Oei ciiie iiaeiii caeaaeaoe aiae iaaiioii? eiaia?aoi/ii? oe?ioe Niioey, a ia aiae aeaeeii?. O?aaeeoeieii oeueiio oaeoo ia i?eaeieyeiny cia/ii? oaaae ineieueee iaoee ini iaa?oaiiy THiioa?a aei ieiueie i?aioe neeaaea? anueiai 3.3i. A ca'yceo c oei, ui iaaiioinoa?a THiioa?a cia/ii iiooaeiioa caiii?, a i?iya niiy/iiai iaaiioiiai 22.3-?i/iiai oeeeeo a aaiaoiinoa?ieo i?ioeanao cia/ii aiae/oo-iioee aiae 11.1-?i/iiai, oi aa?iaoei? eiaiiaaiioii? oe?ioe Niioey (aiae 13.3i aei +13.3i) i?eaiaeyoue aei oiai, ui iiaeniiy/ia oi/ea ia iaaiioinoa?i THiioa?a ca iaeei i?aioaeueiee ia?iiae ciiith?oueny ia 26.6i , i oea aaea ? iiiioiith aaee/eiith aeey iiaeeeaiai i?iyao naciiieo ciii a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a. E?ii oiai, /a?ac iayaiinoue aenoeaio?eneoaoa i?aioe (e=0.048450) iniothoue ua i 21.2%-ii aa?iaoei? a i?eoioei niiy/ii? aia?ai? aei aoiinoa?e THiioa?a a iiiaioe ciaoiaeaeaiiy ieaiaoe a ia?eaaei? i a aoaei?. I?e/iio, ieaiaoa ciaoiaeeoueny a ia?eaaei? a iiiaio, aeecueeee aei eioiueiai niioeanoiyiiy aeey iiaii/ii? iiaeoei. Iiaeeeai, oaeiae, aa?iaoei?, iia'ycaii c niiy/iith aeoeaiinoth, ineieueee cia/ii ciiie oeueo?aoiieaoiaiai aei?iiiithaaiiy Niioey ciiaeooue aiaeia?aceoeny ia aia?aaoeoei aa?oiuei? aoiinoa?e THiioa?a. Ciiie, aeeeeeaii oei?th i?e/eiith, iiaeooue iineoe ia oieueee ia?iiaee/iee, aea i nii?aaee/iee oa?aeoa?. C 1862 ii 1965??. ?icieie aaoi?aie aeeiiaii 162 ie?aii ioeiiee aeeneo THiioa?a o aeaeeiiio naioei, ui aeicaieeei iai ae?aooaaoe 26 na?aaeiuei?i/ieo cia/aiue Mth, yei caaaeaii a ?aeeio nenoaio c i?eaaaeaiiyi aeeneo ieaiaoe aei na?aaeiueiai i?ioenoiyiiy i aei oace 0i. C 1978 ii 1991??. ie aeeiiaee niaoeiaeueio i?ia?aio ii aecia/aiith iioaa?aeueii? ci?yii? aaee/eie anueiai aeeneo THiioa?a. Ca cacia/aiee ia?iiae aoei c?iaeaii 93 iiaeeaiaeoaeueii aeii?e THiioa?a a oieueo?i "V", ui aeaei iai iiaeeeainoue aeiiiaieoe inioth/ee niinoa?aaeiee ?yae niiiia na?aaeiuei?i/ieie ioeiieaie ci?yii? aaee/eie anueiai aeeneo THiioa?a ia iioa?aaei a 14 ?ieia: a 1978, 1980, 1981, 1987, 1989, 1990 i 1991??. Oi/iinoue aecia/aiiy aaniethoii? ci?yii? aaee/eie ieaiaoe ii iaoeo niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo o ani ?iee aoea e?aua 2%. Ii aeaieo ?aooe ?iaio oi/iinoue eiaeii? ic aeei?enoaieo iaie ioeiiie aeeneo ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao aiae 2 aei 15%. I?e/iio aioo?ioiy oi/iinoue eiaeii? ic na?ie aeii?ia caaaeaee aoea e?aua 4%. Anueiai aeey aiaeico iaie ciaeaeaii 33 na?aaeiuei?i/ii cia/aiiy aicoaeueii? aaniethoii? ci?yii? aaee/eie THiioa?a ca ia?iiae 1862-1991??. ii 255 iiaeeaiaeoaeueiei ioeiieai. E?ii oiai, aeei?enoiaoth/e /eneaiii oioia?aoi? ieaiaoe ca aeineiaeaeoaaiee ia?iiae, iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii aiaeiinia oioiiao?e/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy ciiie yne?aainoi THiioa?a. Canoinoaaaoe iaoo i?ia?aio i?iaaaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeico oioiiao?e/ieo ?yaeia ii iaoiaeo iaeneiaeueii? aio?iii? (IIA) aei na?aaeiuei?i/ieo aeaieo ie io?eiaee, ui a ciiiao iioaa?aeueiiai aeeneo THiioa?a c ai?iaiaeiinoth e?aua 99% inio? ia?iiae ic cia/aiiyi O=22.5 (+1.6,-1.2) ?ieia, ui aeecueei aei o?eaaeinoi Oaeeianueeiai iaaiioiiai oeeeeo niiy/ii? aeoeaiinoi. E?ii oiai, oei ae aeaii aeacothoue ia iayaiinoue aieiaeo ciii Mth c iiaeeeaei cia/aiiyi ia?iiaea iaeaea 180 ?ieia. Aeeiiaaoe aiaeiai/ii ia/eneaiiy aeey oioiiao?e/iiai ?yaeo M(t), ui neeaaea?oueny ic anio inioth/eo a iaoiio ?icii?yaeaeaiii 255 iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo oi/ie, ie iaea?aeaee ia?iiaeia?aio aea c e?auith ?icaeieueiith caeaoiinoth ii /anoioi, aea c iaioith ai?iaiaeiinoth: 1) e?aua 95% - aeyaeaii i?iya oaea aeaio cia/aiue ia?iiaee/ieo neeaaeiaeo: T1=23.9 (+1.4,-1.0) i T2=22.1 (+1.3,-0.9) ?ieo, ? 2) e?aua 90% - i?iyaeythoueny ia?iiaee T3=11.88 (+08,-0.6), T4=11.1 (+0.7,-0.5) i T5=3.4 (+0.3,-0.2) ?ieo. Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeaiee iaie aiaeic ciii iioaa?aeueiiai aeeneo THiioa?a o aicoaeueiie aeieyioei niaeo?a ic /anii, iieaco? ia cia/ii aieueoee aieea naia Oaeeianueeiai iaaiioiiai oeeeeo niiy/ii? aeoeaiinoi ia i?ioeane a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a, ui aiaeaoaathoueny ia ?iaii oi?ioaaiiy aa?oiuei? a?aieoei oia?iai? nenoaie ieaiaoe. Aiaeic inioth/eo oioiiao?e/ieo ?acoeueoaoia M(t) aeicaieea aeyaeoe, oaeiae, i?iya oaeai?iiai cia/aiiy i?aioaeueiiai ia?iiaeo (23.9 ?ieo), naiiai i?aioaeueiiai ia?iiaeo (11.88 ?ieo) i ia?iiaeo niiy/ii? aeoeaiinoi (11.1 ?ieo). Aei oiai ae, iaie iiaeoaa?aeaeaii inioaaiiy cia/aiiy ia?iiaee/iinoi T=3.4 ?ieo a ciiii oioiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoiinoa?e THiioa?a, ui iiaeooue aooe iiyniaii noia?iiceoei?th aeaio ia? /anoio: 1/T5=1/T1+1/T4 i 1/T5=1/T2+1/T3. Iiia?aaeiie aiaeic iioaeieiaaieo a iaoeiaie eioa?aoo?i ?acoeueoaoia, a oaeiae iaoi niinoa?aaeii aeaii (1979-1981, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1989-1991 i 1995??.) i?i aiaeiiniee ?iciiaeie yne?aainoi acaeiaae oeaio?aeueiiai ia?eaeiaio THiioa?a iieacaa, ui o ani ?iee iaeaieueoi aa?iaoei? aiaeaeaii? caeaoiinoi aiaeaoaaeeny a aeaaoi?iaeueiie (EZ) oa a Iiaaeaiiie ? Iiaii/iie O?iii/ieo ciiao (STrZ, NTrZ). Naia inoaiii aeai ciie /anoioa anueiai iiia?aiiiii noaaaee iaeyne?aaioeie iaeanoyie ia aeeneo. Oiio aiaeiioaiiy ?o yne?aainoae Aj ie cai?iiiioaaee a yeinoi iai/iiai iiaeaena aeoeaiinoi i?ioeania, ui aiaeaoaathoueny a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a. Ae?aoiaoaaeiny cia/aiiy iiaeaeno aeoeaiinoi aeey aeaio niaeo?aeueieo aeieyiie: 360-425ii ? 540-580ii. ?acoeueoaoe a neiie aeieyioei niaeo?o ie ai?ieneioaaee neioni?aeith: A=A0*Sin2*(t-t0)/O. Canoinoaaiiy niiniao iaeiaioeo eaaae?aoia aeicaieeei aecia/eoe iaaiaeiii ia?aiao?e (A0=0.21±0.02; t0=1965.1±0.3; T=11.86±0.15. Oiaoi, cai?iiiiiaaiee iaie oaeoi? aeoeaiinoi Aj ia?iiaee/ii ciiith?oueny c aiieiooaeith A0=21% i c ia?iiaeii T=11.86 ?ieia. Aiaeiioaiiy Aj aeey niaeo?aeueiiai aeiaiaciio 540-580ii iieacothoue, ui a oeie aeieyioei niaeo?a ?iciao eieeaaiue yne?aainoi iaeaea ia /aa?oue iaioee i "aocie" Aj=1 aiaeiiaiaeia e?eaa i?ioiaeeoue ia 1.5-2 ?ieo ?aiioa, iiae e?eaa o neiie aeieyioei niaeo?a. Oaeei /eiii, aeaiee aiaeic iieacaa inioaaiiy oeeeei/iinoi a aeiaaiia?iiaee/ieo eieeaaiiyo oaeoi?a aeoeaiinoi Aj iiaeoeue ieaiaoe c ia?iiaeii 11.86 ?ieia. Oea cia/aiiy oi/ii niiaiaaea? c ia?iiaeii iaa?oaiiy THiioa?a iaaeiei Niioey. Oaea ia?iiaee/ia ciiia yne?aainoi a ?icieo iiaeoeyo ieaiaoe aeaco? ia oa, ui a aoiinoa?i aiaeaoaa?oueny ia?iiaee/ia aeiaaeueia ia?aaoaeiaa ani?? nenoaie oee?eoeyoei?, no?oeoo?e oia?iaeo oa?ia i iaaeoia?iai? aeeiee. Oiaoi, i?iaaaeaiee iaie aiaeic niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo aeaco? ia inioaaiiy naciiii? ia?aaoaeiae a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a. I?e aeineiaeaeaiii ia?iiaee/iinoae o ciiii iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? iaiaoiaeii i?eeiaoe aei oaaae iiaeeeainoue inioaaiiy ? nii?aaee/ieo ciii. Aiaeic io?eiaieo iaie 120 caienia niaeo?ia (600-650ii) eiaeii? ic iniiaieo ii?oieiai/ieo aeaoaeae aeeneo THiioa?a i ci?ee ii?iaiyiiy 18Sco, yeinoue iaea?aeaiiai iaoa?iaeo i ?icaeieueia niaeo?aeueia caeaoiinoue aeicaieeee iai c oi/iinoth aei aeaeieueeio aeiia ca?a?no?oaaoe iiiaio (03.09.87) ii/aoeo ?aioiaiai caieueoaiiy (ia 9%) iaoaiiaiai iiaeeiaiiy a Iiaii/iie Aeaaoi?iaeueiie Nioci (NEB) o ii?iaiyiii c iiaeeiaiiyi a iioeo ii?oieiai/ieo iiynao THiioa?a. Oaea aiaeiiiiinoue o iiaeeiaiii iiae oaiiith NEB oa iioeie ii?oieiai/ieie aeaoaeyie caa?aaeany i o aa?anii-eenoiiaaei 1988?. Aeoiaey/e c iiaeaei aa?oeeaeueii? no?oeoo?e ieaiaoii? aoiinoa?e (iaae iaeii?iaeiei iioe/ii oianoei aaciai-aa?icieueiei oa?ii ciaoiaeeoueny /enoi aaciaee iioe/ii oiieee oa?) aeey iiiaioo iiiceoei? (20.10.87) aoee ciaeaeaii cia/aiiy iiiai?iinoi aeaeeaaiiy eaaioa oa iiaeeiath/i? neeaaeiai? iioe/ii? oiaueie aeey oeaio?o iaoaiiai? nioae iiaeeiaiiy a Iiaii/iiio i Iiaaeaiiiio aeaaoi?iaeueieo iiynao a iiiaio, eiee ciiie iiaeeiaiiy a NEB aoee iaeneiaeueieie ca aanue nacii aeaeeiinoi THiioa?a. Oaei aa?iaoei? iaoaiiaiai iiaeeiaiiy a Iiaii/iie aeaaoi?iaeueiie nioci THiioa?a ie iiynieee cia/iei caieueoaiiyi (iaeaea a 5 ?ac) iiaeeiath/i? neeaaeiai? iioe/ii? oiaueie a aoiinoa?i ieaiaoe. ?icaeie 3. Naciiii ciiie a aoiinoa?i Naoo?ia. Aeey ieaiao, yei iiaeiaii Caiei iathoue cia/iee iaoee aeaaoi?o aei ieiueie i?aioe, oa?aeoa?ia aaeeea aiaeiiiiinoue a i?eoioei niiy/ii? aia?ai? aei ?icieo oe?ioieo iiynia ca ia?iiae iaa?oaiiy iaaeiei Niioey. Eoo iaoeeo aeaaoi?a Naoo?ia aei ieiueie eiai i?aioe neeaaea? 26i44'; neaea?e/iee ia?iiae iaa?oaiiy iaaeiei Niioey - 29.45 ?ieia. Oiio Naoo?i iaeei ic iniiaieo i iaeaieueo iai/ieo i?aoaiaeaioia ic a?oie ieaiao-aiaaioia aeey aea/aiiy naciiieo ciii a noaii aoiinoa?e i?ioyaii ?icoiiiai iioa?aaeo /ano. Iiaaeaiia iiaeoey ieaiaoe iaea?aeo? a noii aieueoo eieueeinoue niiy/ii? aia?ai?, iiae iiaii/ia, iineieueee eioi? aeey iiaaeaiii? iiaeoei niioeanoiyiiy ia? iinoea iiae /an ciaoiaeaeaiiy Naoo?ia a ia?eaaei?, i naia /a?ac aeiioe/iinoue i?aioe (e=0.05566) niinoa?iaa?oueny aneiao?iy i?eoieo ?aaeiaoei? aei iiaaeaiii? ? iiaii/ii? iiaeoeue ia 25%. Iniaeeai aaeeei naciiii ciiie i?eoieo aia?ai? aiae Niioey niinoa?iaathoueny aeey aenieeo oe?io: a 10 i aieueoa ?ac. E?ii oiai, ceiiaa iiaeoey o?eaaeee /an ciaoiaeeoueny a iiey?iie ii/i i a oiii eieaoeue, yei ua ia aeai o?aoeie ciaioothoue aaee/eio i?eoieo niiy/ii? ?aaeiaoei? aei aoiinoa?e, iiaeneethth/e, oei naiei, naciiii eiio?anoe a i?eoioei aia?ai? aiae Niioey. ssnii, ui oaea ciiia ?aaeeio ii?iiiiaiiy aoiinoa?e Naoo?ia iiaeiia aiaeia?aceoeny ia oice/ieo i iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao oia?iaiai iie?iao i/aai iaaeoia?iai? aeeiee ieaiaoe oa ia aa?oeeaeueiie no?oeoo?i aoiinoa?e ia ?icieo oe?ioao. Nacii 1980?. aoa ni?eyoeeaei aeey iaea?aeaiiy ii?iaiyeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aieo iiynia iaio iiaeoeue Naoo?ia, ineieueee aeaaoi? iioaineaiinoi iaeaea niiaiaaeaa ic ni?aaaeiii aeaaoi?ii ieaiaoe. Naoo?iioeaio?e/ia noeeaiiy Caiei a ia?iiae iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue aoei +(1.2-0.8i) o ethoiio i -(1.6-1.5i) a o?aaii-/a?aii 1980?. Eieueoey Naoo?ia aoee aeaeii oiiueiaith noi?iiith, ui i?aeoe/ii aeeeth/aei aieea ?icniyiiai ia ieo naioea. I?e oeueiio, aiie cae?eaaee ia aeeneo aocueeo nioao oe?eiith 0.1-0.4". Ca /an niinoa?aaeaiue, ca aeiiiiiaith aeaioiaeaiiai iaie niaoeiaeueiiai neaioth/iai i?eeaaeo, ie iaea?aeaee iiiaae 6500 oioiaeaeo?e/ieo neaiia ocaeiaae ia?aeaeueieo aeaaoi?o oi?ae i acaeiaae oeaio?aeueiiai ia?eaeiaia. Iaeaea 40% io?eiaiiai oiaei niinoa?aaeiiai iaoa?iaeo aoei ii?aoeueiaaii iaie ua aei 1983?. i aeei?enoaii i?e iaienaiii iaoi? eaiaeeaeaonueei? aeena?oaoei?. Ia nueiaiaeii ie caaa?oeee ia?iaeo anio niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo. Aeeiiaia ?iaioa caaaeyee ca?eueoaiith ia?iaeaiiai iaoa??aeo a 2.5 ?ace aeicaieeea a ?noioi?e ii?i iiaeaeueoe oi/iinoue iaea?aeaieo oioiiao?e/ieo i?ioieia aeenea Naoo?ia (ia 0.5-10% a ?icieo aeiaaeeiao oaeeue). Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny eiai i?eeiiaiaeo iaeanoae (aei 10% a oeueo?ao?ieao?). Aiaeic anueiai niinoa?aaeiiai iaoa?iaeo iieacaa, ui a aeiaaioaeeueiaie aeieyioei niaeo?a niinoa?iaa?oueny iaeaieueoa iioaiiiiiy e?ath. I?e ia?aoiaei aei neiio i?iiaiia yne?aainoue e?aeiaeo iaeanoae ii/eia? ?inoe i a oeueo?aoiieaoi ia?aaeuo? yne?aainoue a oeaio?i aeenea. Oeae oaeo ii oioia?aoi/ieo ninoa?aaeaiiyo a 1966?. i?e iiiiiaeueiiio iaoeei eieaoeue aei caiiiai niinoa?iaa/a aia?oa aeyaea Ia?a (aeea a [17]) ia aeiaaeeii oaeei 355ii. ?iciiaeie yne?aainoi ii oeaio?aeueiiio ia?eaeiaio a aeiaai- ? ei?ioeioaeeueiaiio aeiaiaciiao niaeo?a ia? ?iciee aeaeyae. Aeey oioiiao?e/ieo neaiia a 540ii oa?aeoa?ia iayaiinoue yne?aai? iiaaeaiii? aeaaoi?iaeueii? ciie (SEZ), yea ia 20-30% yne?aaioa iiaaeaiii? iiii?ii? iaeanoi (ia oe?ioi |40.0i|), aiaeiiaiaeii, i?e 540ii i 755ii. Iiaii/ia aeaaoi?iaeueia iaeanoue ia 7-10% oaiiioa SEZ. E?ii aneiao?i? aeaaoi?iaeueieo iaeanoae, aeayea aneiao?iy niinoa?iaa?oueny i ia iiii?ieo oe?ioao. Oae, ia oe?ioao |35i| iiaii/ia iiaeoey nenoaiaoe/ii yne?aaioa iiaaeaiii? ia 3-6% aeey iaio ia?iiaeia iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue. Aeey ei?ioeeo aeiaaeei oaeeue oa?aeoa?ii cia/ia ciaioaiiy aiaeaeaii? caeaoiinoi aeaaoi?iaeueieo iaeanoae Naoo?ia o ii?iaiyiii c iioeie aeaoaeyie. I?e/iio iaeaieueo oaiia iaeanoue aeeneo ciiuaia o iiaaeaiio iiaeoeth. ? yeui a 457ii oea ua iaei iiiioii, oi a oeueo?aoiieaoi aeia?a aeaeii, ui iiaaeaiiee aeaaoi?iaeueiee iiyn ia 5-15% (a ?icieo aeiaaeeiao oaeeue) oaiiioee iiaii/iiai. Iiii?ii iiyne a iaio iiaeoeyo ia 20-40% yne?aaioi iiaaeaiiiai aeaaoi?iaeueiiai iiyno. Ia aeiaaeeii oaeei 346ii ?, iniaeeai, a 316ii niinoa?iaathoueny oaiii iiey?ii "oaiee" ia oe?ioao >|60i|.

I?e 407ii niinoa?iaa?ii neeueio aiaeiiiiinoue oa?aeoa?o iioaiiiiiy
acaeiaae iiaaeaiii? i iiaii/ii? aeaaoi?iaeueieo iaeanoae Naoo?ia: a NEZ
iioaiiiiiy aei e?ath cia/ii aieueoa, iiae a SEZ. Oaea ?icieoey a aeayeie
ii?i caa?iaa?oueny i a 372ii, aea a iiaii/iie aeaaoi?iaeueiie iaeanoi
caieueoaiiy yne?aainoi aei e?ath ciiith?oueny ?? ciaioaiiyi i?e cos(i)
(i — eoo aiaeaeaaiiy naioea) aeaui aieueoiio, iiae a SEZ.

Ii?iaiyiiy iaoeo ?acoeueoaoia a oeueo?aoiieaoi 1980?. c aeaieie,
iaea?aeaieie Ia?a a aiaeiai/ieo oiiaao ii?iiiiaiiy Naoo?ia niiy/iith
?aaeiaoei?th, iieaco?, ui a 1966?. oaeiae iaea iinoea aiaeiiiiinoue a
oa?aeoa?i ciiie iioaiiiiiy aei e?ath aeeneo iiae SEZ i NEZ. I?ioa, a oie
/an a iiaii/iie aeaaoi?iaeueiie ciii niinoa?iaaeinue cia/ia caieueoaiiy
yne?aainoi aiae oeaio?o aei e?ath, oiaei ye a SEZ aiii i?aeoe/ii aoei
aiaenooi?. A 1980?. neooaoeiy ciiieeany ia cai?ioio: oaea SEZ iaea
cia/ii aieueoo yne?aainoue ia e?ath aeenea, oi/ i noaea iaeoaiiioith
aeaoaeeth ia aeeneo Naoo?ia. A 1966?. iaeoaii?oith aeaoaeeth aoea
iiaii/ia aeaaoi?iaeueia iaeanoue.

Aeey aea/aiiy aiaeiiiiinoae a ?aciiaeieao yne?aainoi ii aeeneo
Naoo?ia a ?icieo aeiaaeeiao oaeeue niaeo?aeueiiai aeiaiaciio 300-800ii
ca aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiith iaie iaoiaeeeith (aeea.a [17]), ie
ii?aoethaaee ani inioth/i a iaoiio ?icii?yaeaeaiii ?iciiaeiee yne?aainoi
acaeiaae oeaio?aeueiiai ia?eaeiaia ca 1966 i 1980??., oiaoi, aeey
iiiaioia, eiee iaeaeai iiaeoei Naoo?ia io?eioaaee aiae Niioey i?eaeecii
iaeiaeiao eieueeinoue aia?ai?. Aeey oeueiai ie iiaeieeee iiaii/io
/anoeio oioiiao?e/iiai i?ioiey ia aiaeiiaiaeio iiaaeaiio eiai /anoeio i
io?eiaee «oaeeth» aiaeiioaiue yne?aainoae iiaii/ii? ? iiaaeaiii?
iiaeoeue a ?icieo aeiaaeeiao oaeeue aeey aiaeiiaiaeieo oe?io.
?acoeueoaoe aeey anio aeiaaeei oaeeue ie ii?ioaaee ia yne?aainoue
oeaio?o aeenea Naoo?ia. Iaeaieueoi aa?iaoei? aeueaaaei c oe?ioith
niinoa?iaathoueny a oeueo?aoiieaoi (346-372ii) i a nioaao iiaeeiaiiy
iaoaiii i?e 725 i 792ii. A iioeo aeiaaeeiao oaeeue aiaeiiiiinoi a
yne?aainoyo iiaaeaiii? i iiaii/ii? iiaeoeue cia/ii iaioi. I?e oeueiio,
caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao ?yae iniaeeainoae.

1) Iiaia aioeoaciinoue niaeo?aeueiiai oiaeo aiaeiioaiue BN/BS(/j/) aeey
aeaaoi?iaeueii? iaeanoi c iaeiiai aieo oa iiii?ii? i iiey?ii? iaeanoae c
iioiai. Aioeoaciinoue i?iyaey?oueny a oiio, ui a OO a 1980?. iiaii/ia
aeaaoi?iaeueiay iaeanoue yne?aaioa iiaaeaiii? aeaaoi?iaeueii? iaeanoi,
oiaei ye ia iiii?ieo oe?ioao i a iiey?ieo ?aaiiiao iiaaeaiia iiaeoey
yne?aaioa iiaii/ii?. O aeaeeieo ? a /a?aiieo i?iiaiyo iaaiaee: oaea
iiaaeaiia aeaaoi?iaeueia iaeanoue yne?aaioa iiaii/ii?, a a iiii?ieo
oe?ioao i a iiey?ieo iaeanoyo — iiaii/ia iiaeoey ia? aieueoo
yne?aainoue.

2) Ii iaoeo aeaieo 1980?. aeey anio o?ueio aeaeieaieo oe?ioieo iiynia
inio? cia/aiiy aeiaaeeie oaeei, i?e yeiio ?o yne?aainoue a iiaii/iie ?
i?aaeaiiie iiaeoeyo iaeiaeiaa. I?e/iio, i?e ia?aoiaei aiae OO a /a?aiio
iaeanoue nii/aoeo ae?iaiththoueny yne?aainoi a iiii?ieo oe?ioao (i?e
407ii), iiney oeueiai — a iiaaeaiiie i a iiaii/iie aeaaoi?iaeueieo
iaeanoyo (i?e 457ii) i oieueee i?e 540ii — ae?iaiththoueny yne?aainoi
iiey?ieo ?aaiiiia.

3) A 1966?. niinoa?iaaeany aeaui iioa ea?oeia: iiey?ii iaeanoi a iaio
iiaeoeyo i?eaeecii ?iaii ii yne?aainoi aeey anio o?ueio inioth/eo a
iaoiio ?icii?yaeaeaiii aeiaaeei oaeeue — 350, 590 i 619ii; iiaaeaiia
aeaaoi?iaeueiay iaeanoue aoea yne?aaioa iiaii/ii? aeaaoi?iaeueii?
iaeanoi a onio aeiaaeeiao oaeeue; a iiii?ieo oe?ioao a oeueo?aoiieaoi i
a 590ii iiaii/ia iiaeoey aeaui yne?aaioa iiaaeaiii?, i eeoa a iaoaiiaie
nioci i?e 619ii iiaaeaiia iiaeoey ia 5% yne?aaioa iiaii/ii?.

Oaeei /eiii, a oeueo?aoiieaoi yne?aainoi anio aeineiaeaeoaaieo a
1966?. oe?ioieo iiynia ciaoiaeyoueny a i?ioeoaci aei aiaeiai/ieo
niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo a 1980?. A iaoaiiaie nioci iiaeeiaiiy
i?e 619ii yne?aainoi iiii?ieo i i?eiiey?ieo iaeanoae Naoo?ia
ciaoiaeeeenue a i?ioeoaci c ?iciaoii aiieiooaee aei 15-20%. Aeayea oaeey
i?ioeoaciinoi yne?aainoae niinoa?iaa?oueny i a aeaaoi?iaeueieo iaeanoyo.
I?ioa, ye a 1966, oae i a 1980??. a iieinao NI4 SEZ aoea yce?aaioa NEZ.
Iaeiiiioiioa i?ioeoaciinoue o yne?aainoyo iiaii/ii? i iiaaeaiii?
iiaeoeue Naoo?ia a 1966 i a 1980??. i?iyaey?oueny a aeaaoi?iaeueiiio
iiyni ii niinoa?aaeaiiyo a oeueo?aoiieaoiaeo i?iiaiyo (c ?iciaoii
aiieiooae aei 45%). Aeey iiii?ieo ? i?eiiey?ieo iiynia ?iciao aiieiooae
aiaeiioaiiy yne?aainoae ii aeaieo a 1966 i 1980??. a 350ii neeaaea?
15-20%. Oiaoi, iaeneiaeueia aiieiooaea naciiieo aa?iaoeie
niinoa?iaa?oueny ia oe?ioao |5-15i|. Naia cacia/aii oe?ioe aeiaoa
anueiai ciaoiaeeeenue a caoiieo eieaoeue. Oey i?e/eia cia/ii iiaeneeth?
eiio?ano aa?iaoeie i?eoieo aia?ai? aei ieaiaoii? aoiinoa?e aiae Niioey
/a?ac caoaiiaiiy eieueoeyie ye?ac ceiiai? iiaeoei Naoo?ia.

?c iaea?aeaieo iaie aeaeo?ioioiiao?e/ieo, niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ieo ?
niaeo?iiiey?eiao?e/io aeaieo, a oaeiae aiaeiai/ieo aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo
iioeie aaoi?aie (i?i aaniethoio aiaeaeaio caeaoiinoue aeieyiie aeeneo
Naoo?ia, i?i aiaeiiniee ?iciiaeie yne?aainoi acaeiaae oe?ioieo iiynia i
acaeiaae oeaio?aeueiiai ia?eaeiaia ieaiaoe, i?i iiey?ecaoeieii
aeanoeainoi aeieyiie aeaeeiiai aeeneo), a ?icieo aeiaaeeiao oaeeue i?e
?icieo oiiaao inaioeaiiy ieaiaoe Niioeai i a ?icii naciie aeaeeiinoi
Naoo?ia, — ie ii i?ia?ai? AE.I. Aeeoaa/ i?iaaee iaiaoiaeii ?ic?aooiee c
iaoith aecia/aiiy iioe/ieo ia?aiao?ia aaciai? ? aa?icieueii? neeaaeiaeo
aoiinoa?e ieaiaoe. ?c aiaeico cia/aiue ia?aiao?ia, ?ic?aoiaaieo aeey
?icieo oe?ioieo iaeanoae, neiaeo? aeniiaie, ui aeey iiaeoei, yea aei
iiiaioo iaea?aeaiiy niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo ae?aioaaeanue eieueoeyie (oai
o?eaaeee /an aoea ceia: a iiaaeaiiie iiaeoei aei 1966?. i a iiaii/iie
iiaeoei aei 1980?.), oia?iaee oa? ? aieueo ?ic?iaeaeaiei i eiai aa?oiy
a?aieoey ciaoiaeeoueny a iueiio ia aieueoie aenioi, iiae o iiaeoei, yea
«ia?aaeeea» aei oeueiai eioiie nacii. E?ii oiai, oi aeaaoi?iaeueii
iaeanoi Naoo?ia, yei o?eaaeee /an aoee cae?eoi eieueoeyie, aiae/oaath/e
aeaoioeeo i?eoieo a aoiinoa?o niiy/ii? ?aaeiaoei?, aiae?iciythoueny aiae
iioeo oe?ioieo iiynia iiaeaeuaiith eieueeinoth neeueii iiaeeiath/i?
eieuei?iai? aeiiioee.

O anio ieaiao iniothoue iaaii e?eoe/ii oi/ee ia i?aioi, iiaeeco yeeo
aiaeaoaa?oueny ?icea ciiia iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, i niinoa?aaeaiiy
i?ioyaii /ano iaioa iieiaeie iaeiiai naciio (1/8 i?aioaeueiiai ia?iiaeo)
aeicaieythoue aeyaeoe ciiie iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae ieaiaoe i anoaiiaeoe,
ui naia naciiii aa?iaoei? ii?iiiiaiiy ieaiaoe Niioeai aoaeooue
i?e/eiith inioth/eo ciii. Oea oaa?aeaeaiiy ie ia?aai?eee ia i?eeeaaei
aiaeico ?iciiaeieo iaoaiiaiai iiaeeiaiiy acaeiaae oeaio?aeueiiai
ia?eaeiaia Naoo?ia a 1965 ? 1967??. i?e naoo?iioeaio?e/iiio iaoeei
Niioey B=+5i i B=-5i, aiaeiiaiaeii; oiaoi ca iaeei caiiee ?ie aei
iiiaioo ?iaiiaeaiiy i /a?ac iaeei ?ie iiney iueiai. A 1965?. eieueoeyie
cae?eaaeany /anoeia iiaaeaiii? aeaaoi?iaeueii? iaeanoi a aeiaiaciii
oe?io aiae -1i aei -7i, a a 1967?. /anoeia iiaii/ii? aeaaoi?iaeueii?
iaeanoi a aeiaiaciii aiae +1i aei +7i. Oiio ie i?iaiaeeee ii?iaiyiiy
?acoeueoaoia oieueee aeey oe?io >7i.

Caoaeoaaaoe aiaeiiaiaeii i?ioiei aiaeiioaiiue iaoaiiaiai iiaeeiaiiy
a nioci NI4 i?e 619ii ie?aii aeey oeaio?aeueii? aeeaeie RN/RS i aeey
aeaiaaeaioii? oe?eie WN/WS, ie io?eiaee inioaaiiy aioeoacii? naciiii?
oaeei a ciiii iiaeeiaiiy a iiii?ieo iaeanoyo i a iiey?ieo ?aeiiao
Naoo?ia. I?e/iio, a iiey?ieo ?aaiiiao aioeoaciinoue i?iyaey?oueny e?aua
i iniiaiee aeeaae a inioaaiiy aioeoaciinoi aiinyoue aa?iaoei?
oeaio?aeueii? aeeaeie: aeey RN/RS aioeoacia oaeey inio? i a iiey?ieo
?aeiiao, i a iiii?ieo iaeanoyo, oiaei ye aioeoacia naciiia ciiia
aeaiaaeaioii? oe?eie niinoa?iaa?oueny ia?aaaaeii oieueee a iiey?ieo
?aeiiao. Oiaoi, niinoa?aaeoaaia aioeoaciinoue o aa?iaoeiyo iiaeeiaiiy
iaoaia acaeiaae oeaio?aeueiiai ia?eaeiaia iinaiae/o? i?i oa, ui iaaioue
oaei? iaei? ciiie iaoeeo ini iaa?oaiiy ieaiaoe a ea?oeiiie ieiueii, ui
aiaeaoeany ia Naoo?ii c 1965 ii 1967??., aeinoaoiuei aeey ?a?no?aoei?
naciiieo ciii a aoiinoa?i.

*anoeia 2. Aoiinoa?ii oaeei i naeniieiaiy THiioa?a i Naoo?ia.
?icaeie 4. Aeeiaiiea i iiaeaei aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoei? THiioa?a i
Naoo?ia. Aeey aoiinoa? ieaiao-aiaaioia oa?aeoa?ia aii?yaeeiaaia
ciiaeueia no?oeoo?a aeaeeiiai oia?iaiai oa?o, ui coiiaeaii ia?aaaaeiei
neiao?e/iei ?aaeeiii a aeiaaeueiie oee?eoeyoei?. ?aeeiei i?yiei
niinoa?aaeiei iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?ooia a ?o aoiinoa?ao ? ie?aii aeii?e
aeaeeieo ciiaeueieo ia?aiiuaiue. Aeey oiai, uia c?icoiioe inaneiao?e/io
no?oeoo?o i iioi aeaoaei ieaiaoii? iaoai?ieiai? iaiaoiaeii ?icia?aoeny c
iaoaiiciaie, ui i?eaiaeyoue a ?oo aoiinoa?o, i c i?e/eiaie, yei
coiiaeththoue noieeinoue oeeo e?oiiiianooaaieo oa/ie. E?ii aeia?a
aiaeiii? ciiaeueii? aoaeiae aoiinoa? ieaiao-aiaaioia iinoieia oaaaa
i?eaeiey?oueny naioeei i oaiiei aeoi?ai c ?icii?aie aiae nioii aei
oeny/, a oi e aei aeanyoeia oeny/ eieiiao?ia. Oaei oaeei ? aeoi?i, ui
ioiieththoue oe?ieee aeiaiacii i?inoi?iaeo i /aniaeo ianooaaia, ? a
cia/iie ii?i oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?o oia?iaiai iie?iao, neoaeaoue
aaaeeeaei iiaeeeaoi?ii i?ioeania o aioo?ioiio oa?ao aoiinoa?e.

?c /enaeueiiai oa oai?aoe/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy noaoeiiia?iiai ?ooo
a’ycei? ?iaeeie, ?iciiuaii? iiae aeaiia eiioeaio?e/ieie noa?aie, yei
iaa?oathoueny iaaeiei niieueii? ini c iinoieieie, aea aeaui aiaeiiiieie
oaeaeeinoyie i?e ia?aiao?ao, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oeth oa/ith:
aiaeiioaiiy ?aaeionia noa? — h=r1/r2, aiaeiioaiiy eooiaeo oaeaeeinoae
iaa?oaiiy — m=W1/W2 i /enei ?aeiieueaena Re=W1r22/K (aea E —
eiaoioei?io eiiaiaoe/ii? a’yceinoi) — aeieeaa?, ui ia aeaaoi?i iiaeiai
aiaeaoaaoeny iiaeeii iane ?iaeeie aiae aioo?ioiuei? noa?e, i eiei
ciaiioiuei? noa?e aiia aoaea neiao?e/ii ?icoiaeeoeny aei iiethnia,
noai?thth/e aoi?eiio oa/ith. I?e iinooiiaiio caieueoaiii ia?aiao?a h, a
oaeiae i?e caieueoaiii /enea ?aeiieueaena ?iaeeia /a?ac aieea
Ei?iieiniaeo nee ia aoaea aeinyaaoe iiey?ieo iaeanoae, ?icaeieyth/enue o
ia?eaeiiiaeueiie ieiueii ia ?yae caieiooeo aeoi?ia c eiaei i i?aaei
iaa?oaiiyi. Oiaoi a oa/i? c’yaey?oueny ia?oa ianoieeinoue, eiee aeoi?i
?icoaoiaothoueny neiao?e/ii aeaaoi?o, ineieueee iaeaeai iiaeoei
ciaoiaeyoueny a iaeiaeiaeo aeeiaii/ieo oiiaao. Aeey oiieiai oa?o oaea
?icaaeoaeaia ?ioaiiy iiaeeco aeaaoi?o ia? aeaeyae neiao?e/ieo ii
aiaeiioaiith aei aeaaoi?a aeoi?ia Oaeei?a. Oice/iee ?icii? aeoi?ia
caeaaeeoue aiae oiaueie oa?o iiae noa?aie (h=r2-r1). Caaaeoaaia
ianoieeinoue iiaea aooe aiaeiiaiaeaeueiith ca inioth/o nioaanoo
no?oeoo?o ia THiioa?i (o anyeiio aeiaaeeo, ca ?? e?oiiiianooaaio
i?aaiicaoeith). Aeoiaey/e c aeaiiai i?eiouaiiy ie aecia/eee aeayei
aeeiaii/ii, eiiaiaoe/ii i i?inoi?iai ia?aiao?e aoiinoa?e THiioa?a. ?o
niiaiaaeaiiy c aiaeiai/ieie aaee/eiaie, ae?aooaaieie ii oeieeii
aiaeiiiiie iacaeaaeiie iaoiaeeoei aeicaieeoue iai neacaoe i?i
i?aaeeueiinoue iaoiai i?eiouaiiy.

Oiiaa ao?aoe noieeinoi oa/i? a eieueoeaaiio i?inoi?i iiae noa?aie, a
ioaea, i oiiaa aeieeiaiiy aeoi?ia Oaeei?a ae?aaea?oueny i?e aeiiiiici
e?eoe/iiai /enea Oaeei?a o aeaeyaei neiaeoth/iai niiaaiaeiioaiiy:
Ta=[(r2-r1)U1/E]* [h/r1]0.5>41.3 (U1 — eiiieia oaeaeeinoue aioo?ioiuei?
noa?e ia aeaaoi?i), yea aeoaea aeia?a niiaiaaea? c ?acoeueoaoaie
iiaeaeueieo oa /eneiaeo aenia?eiaioia. Aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy
noa?e/ii? oa/i? Eoaooa iieacaei oaeiae, ui i i?e cia/ii aieueoeo /eneao
Oaeei?a oa/iy ana ua caeeoaeany eaiiia?iith. ? oieueee i?e Ta=1715 noa?
iiiioiith iaeiianooaaia oo?aoeaioiinoue. Oi/a i a i?aeoe/ii iiaiinoth
oo?aoeaioieo oa/iyo a oiieeo oa?ao niinoa?iaa?oueny inioaaiiy
e?oiiiianooaaii? caeeoeiai? no?oeoo?e: oiaoi niinoa?aaeoaaia ea?oeia
neeaaea?oueny ic iinoieieo iaeiianooaaieo ?ooia i e?oiiiianooaaiiai
aeene?aoiiai cao?aiiy. Cie?aia i?e Re=20000 (aiaeiiaiaea? /eneo Oaeei?a
Ta=8000) niinoa?iaaeeny caeeoeiai e?oiiiianooaaii eieueoeaai aeoi?i
iiaeeco aeaaoi?a a iiaiinoth oo?aoeaioiiio ?aaeeii. Ia THiioa?i ye?ac i
niinoa?iaa?oueny i?eaeecii oaea ae neooaoeiy: ia oiii iaeiianooaaii?
oo?aoeaioiinoi iniothoue e?oiiiianooaaii eieueoeaai aeoi?i (na?oe? ciie
? oaii? nioae), ui ?icoaooaaeeny aieueo-iaio neiao?e/ii ii iaeaeai
noi?iie aiae aeaaoi?o.

Ii aaaaoi?i/ieo aeaieo oeaio?e iiaaeaiii? i iiaii/ii?
aeaaoi?iaeueieo nioa ciaoiaeyoueny ia oe?ioao |13.5i|. ?c oeueiai
cia/aiiy ciaoiaeeii ?icii? eiiieiiai ia?aoeio aeoi?a Oaeei?a ii
niiaaiaeiioaiith: h=Rth*sin(13.5i)= 16270 ei. Oiaoi, aeeaeia aaciai?
aoiinoa?e THiioa?a neeaaea? 16270ei. A ioaea, aaee/eia
hi=r1/r2=(r2-h)/r2=0.766. Iaea?aeaia cia/aiiy aiaeiioaiiy ?aaeionia
«oaa?aei? ei?e» THiioa?a r 1 i aa?oiuei? a?aieoei aeaeeieo oia? r2
i?aeoe/ii niiaiaaea? c aiaeiai/iei aiaeiioaiiyi (h=0.765), ae?aooaaiei
aeoiaey/e c i?eiouaiiy i?i aaeiaaaoe/iinoue aioo?ioiuei? aoaeiae
ieaiaoe. Ciath/e h, ciaeaeaii i cia/aiiy eiaoioeiaioo eiiaiaoe/ii?
a’yceinoi aeey e?oiiiianooaaieo ?ooia i?e Ta = 8000: K =
(U1h/Oa)[h/(r2-h)] = (1.9*1011ni2n-1).

Cacia/eii, ui ae?aooaaia cia/aiiy K aiaeiineoueny aei aeeaeiii?
eiiaaeoei?, aiaeiiaiaeaeueii? ca e?oiiiianooaaia ia?aiiooaaiiy a
aoiinoa?i THiioa?a: oiaoi ca ciiaeueio no?oeoo?o aeaeeiiai oia?iaiai
oa?o i ? aoaeoeaiei cia/aiiyi eiaoioeiaioo eiiaiaoe/ii? a’yceinoi.

I?e aea/aiii cia?aaeaiue THiioa?a e?ii aeia?a aiaeiii? ciiaeueii?
no?oeoo?e oia?, caa?oathoue ia naaa oaaao eaioethaeee naioeeo i oaiieo
aeoi?ia, ?icoaoiaaieo acaeiaae ia?aeaeae ia neiaeoth/eo ieaiaoia?aoi/ieo
oe?ioao: naioei ia +47i i -41i, oaiii ia +35i i -31i. Ieae/a ie
iieaaeaii, ui oei nenoaie aeoi?ia i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith aeaeeiee
i?iya aeeaeiieo oaeeueiaeo i?ioeania a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a. O
i?aaenoaaeaii aoiinoa?e oaeaeeiiaa?oiai? ieaiaoe-aiaaioa ye oa?o
aoaeoeaii a’ycei? ?iaeeie iiae aeaiia eiioeaio?e/ieie noa?aie, ui
iaa?oathoueny iaaeiei niieueii? ini c iinoieieie, aea aeaui ?icieie
oaeaeeinoyie, aiey aioo?ioiuei? noa?e iiyaeythoueny i?ea?aie/ii
iia?oeieii oa?e. Iana «?iaeeie», ui aoyao?oueny a ieo ic aieueii?
aoiinoa?e, aeooiaoo?oueny acaeiaae iiaenoeeath/i? iiaa?oii a iai?yii
aeaaoi?iaeueieo oe?io i iiaeeco aeaaoi?a aiaeaoaa?oueny ?o cioeiaiiy.
Aianeiaeie oeueiai a aeaaoi?iaeueiiio «eieueoei» iaaeiei aioo?ioiuei?
noa?e noai?th?oueny iaaia cao?aiiy oeneo i iioeo ia?aiao?ia aoiinoa?e
(aonoeie, oaiia?aoo?e, oaeaeeinoi caoea i o.i.). Oaei iaaaeeei cao?aiiy
a iaa?oiaie ?iaeeii ?iciianthaeaeothoueny o aeaeyaei oaeeue. Oaeei
/eiii, iia?oeieii i?ea?aie/ii oa?e, yei ooai?ththoueny aiey
aoaeue-yeiai no?eaea aonoeie a aoiinoa?i ieaiaoe, noai?thth/e iaaaeeeee
iioie iane, iathoue caoaeaeoaaoe iia?oeieii iiaee a aoiinoa?i.

Iaoaiaoe/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy oaeeueiaiai ?ooo a na?aaeiaeui
i?iaiaeeeiny ii neiaeoth/ie noaii. Nii/aoeo ?icaeyaeaany ?iaiiaaaeiee
noai na?aaeiaeua. Iiney oeueiai aaiaeeeiny iaea cao?aiiy i
aeineiaeaeoaaeanue caaea/a i?i iiaeeeainoue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
?acoeueooth/iai oaeeueiaiai cao?aiiy. I?e oeueiio, iniiaii ?iaiyiiy
eiiaa?ecothoueny. Aeaei i?eioneaeinue, ui cao?aiiy i?iii?oeieia
exp[i(kr-wt)]. Iaoa oaei? i?ioeaaeo?e — ciaoiaeaeaiiy aeenia?nieiiai
niiaaiaeiioaiiy, ui iia’yco? /anoioo cao?aiiy c aaee/eiith oaeeueiaiai
aaeoi?o k i eiai iai?yiii uiaei ini iniiaiiai iaa?oaiiy. A caaaeueiiio
aeiaaeeo ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaeei aiicio?iiia, ineieueee oaciaa
oaeaeeinoue caeaaeeoue aiae iai?yieo ?iciianthaeaeaiiy. A aeaiiio
aeiaaeeo aeaeieaiee iai?yiie iia’ycaiee c iaa?oaiiyi. Eiiieia
aeeoa?aioeieia ?iaiyiiy a /anoeiaeo iioiaeieo, a yeiio iacaeaaeia ciiiia
aoiaeeoue oieueee a iioiaeii ii eii?aeeiaoao iaeiiai ii?yaeeo (ooo
ae?oaiai), ia? ?ioaiiy, ui iieno? eiii/io iiaa?oith oaeeueiaeo /enae, i
ooai?aia i?yieie, yei i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac ii/aoie eii?aeeiao. Ia
aeinoaoiuei aaeeeie aiaenoaii aiae aeaea?aea cao?aiiy oaeeueiai o?iioe
noathoue i?aeoe/ii ieineeie. I?e oeueiio, ?ioaiiy ?iaiyiue ?ooo, ui
iienothoue iioe?thaaio oaeeth, caeaaeeoue oieueee aiae iaeii??
eii?aeeiaoe — iai?yio ?? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy. Iiaenoaaeaoe ?ioaiiy aeaeo
ieinei? oaeei u1=ui*exp[i(wwt-kx-ly-mz)] a aeeoa?aioeieia ?iaiyiiy
(Du1)tt+(2Wo)2u1zz=0 (D- iia?aoi? Eaieana, Wi — /anoioa iaa?oaiiy
THiioa?a), iaea?aeo?ii -w2(u1xx+u1yy+u1zz)+4Wo2u1zz=0. Caiaey/e
eiaoioeiaioe i?e iaeiaeiaeo iioiaeieo, ciaoiaeeii
u1xx+u1yy+(1-4Wo2/w2)u1zz=0. Caiaene neiaeo?, ui ?ioaiiy aeaeo ieinei?
oaeei caaeiaieueiy? iaoa aeeo?iaiyiiy ca oiiae aeeiiaiiy aeenia?nieiiai
niiaaiaeiioaiiy w=±2Wo*sinq, aea q — eoo iiae iiaa?oiath iinoieii? oace
i ainnth iaa?oaiiy OZ.

Ioaea, /anoioa cao?aiiy caeaaeeoue oieueee aiae iai?yieo
?iciianthaeaeaiiy, aea ia caeaaeeoue aiae aaee/eie oaeeueiaiai aaeoi?o,
i iiaea iaoe ethai cia/aiiy w<2Wo c oei, uia eiaoioeiaio i?e u1zz aoa aiae'?iiei. A iioiio aeiaaeeo (w>2Wo) iaoa ?iaiyiiy caiaeeoueny aei
?iaiyiiy Eaieana. I?e oeueiio, cao?aiiy ?iciianthaeeoue naie aieea ia
anth aoiinoa?o. Oiaei ye a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo aeaea?aei, ui eieeaa?oueny c
/anoioith w<2Wo, ii?iaeaeo? a iaa?oiaie ?iaeeii ia?aiin aia?ai? oaeeue iiae eooii q=arcsin[w/(2Wo)] aei ini iaa?oaiiy OZ. A oa?aeoa? iiai?ioo aaeoi?o oaeaeeinoi c aenioith (ii aiaeeiieeiaie no?ieoei, /e i?ioe) iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey oiai, uia aiae?icieoe oaeei, ui ?iciianthaeaeothoueny a aoiinoa?i aai?o i aiec. Na?aaeiy ieaiaoioeaio?e/ia oe?ioa ?icaeyaeoaaieo aeua "eaioethaeeia" naioeeo aioeoeeeeiii/ieo oia?iaeo nenoai a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a ? |40.2i|. sseui aiie yaeythoueny aeaeeiei i?iyaii iioe?thaaieo iaai?o oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue, oi aiaenoaiue aiae ini iaa?oaiiy ieaiaoe, ia yeie ciaoiaeeoueny aeaea?aei cao?aiiy, aecia/eoueny ic niiaaiaeiioaiiy r=cos(40.2o)=0.764. Oey aaee/eia c oi/iinoth aei aeanyoi? aeiei i?ioeaioo niiaiaaea? c ae?aooaaiei iaie aeua aiaeiioaiiyi ?aaeionia ieaeiueiai (r1) ? aa?oiueiai (r2) e?eoe/ieo oa?ia, a oaeiae aeoiaey/e c i?eiouaiiy i?i aaeiaaaoe/iinoue aioo?ioiuei? aoaeiae ieaiaoe. Ia/eneaiiy ii ciiieao c einii/ieo aia?aoia "Aiyaeaea? 1,2" eiiieieo ?icii?ia naioeeo aioeoeeeeiiia, ?iciiuaieo ia ieaiaoi-oeaio?e/iie oe?ioi ±40.2i a i?iaeoei? ia aeaaoi? aea? ?o na?aaeii ?aaeione a iaaeao R=(150-450)ei. I?inoi ?ic?aooiee c aeei?enoaiiyi aaiiao?e/ii? iioeee oa i?eeiyaoe aei oaaae, ui eoo q iaeee, a ia?iiaee oaeeue cao?aiiy oa iaa?oaiiy THiioa?a iaaeiei ini ?, aiaeiiaiaeii, Td = 2*3.14/w i Oth=2*3.14/Wo - aeicaieythoue ciaeoe ?o cia/aiiy aeey i?eaaaeaiiai iioa?aaea ?icii?ia naioeeo aioeoeeeeiiia ia THiioa?i: Td = Tth/(2*sin(q))=(50-150)*Tth. Oiaoi, cao?aiiy iiaeiii iaoe ia?iiaee a 50-150 ?ac aieueoi ca ia?iiae iaa?oaiiy ieaiaoe iaaeiei nai?? ini. Aeii?e, aeeiiaii ?yaeii aaoi?ia inoaiiueiai /ano, aeicaieeee aeyaeoe, ui ia na?aaeith ciiaeueio oaeaeeinoue aaaaoueio i'yoai iaeeaaeathoueny aa?iaoei? ?o oaeaeeinoi c aiieiooaeaie i ia?iiaeaie, yei aoiaeyoue o ae?aooaaiee iaie /aniaee iioa?aae. Ioaea, niinoa?aaeaiiy ?iciiiaiioieo ?ooia ia aeaeeiie iiaa?oii oia?iaiai oa?o ieaiaoe aeicaieythoue aea/aoe i?ioeane o aioo?ioiio oa?ao iiooaeieo aoiinoa? ieaiao-aiaaioia. Ana oea ?acii acyoa cacia/a? ia iaiaoiaeiinoue aea/aiiy aca?iiaei? ?iciianthaeaeoaaii? iaai?o aioo?ioiuei? oaeei iaa?oaiiy (AOI) c iniiaiei ciiaeueiei ?ooii, ineieueee naia oey aca?iiaeiy, aieiaiei /eiii, i aecia/a? cia/io /anoeio i?ioeania, ui aiaeaoaathoueny a aoiinoa?i ia ?iaii aa?oiuei? a?aieoei oia?. Cacia/eii, ui yeui ao?aoe aia?ai? AOI i?e ?? aca?iiaei? c iniiaiei ?ooii iaei, oi aoaeo aca?iiaei? aoaea i?iyaeyoeny oieueee a iiaeoeyoei? aeeiaii/ieo i/aai eiiaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao?ia aoiinoa?e ia ?iaii aeaeeieo oia?. Aeineiaeaeaiiy oaeiai ?iaeo aca?iiaei? aioo?ioiuei? oaeei (AO) i iiaa?oiaai? oaeei (IO) iieacaei, ui oaeaeeinoue ia?aiiuaiiy iaeneioiia aonoeie aia?ai? aiaeiiaiaea? a?oiiaie oaeaeeinoi IO, a aiaenoaiue iiae ieie - aeiaaeeii AO. Ia?aiinoe oeae ?acoeueoao ia aeiaaeie aoiinoa?e THiioa?a, ie io?eiaee, ui "eaioethaeee" naioeeo aioeoeeeeiiia ia eiaiioeaio?e/ieo oe?ioao |40.2i| i?aaenoaaeythoueny iaeneioiaie aonoeie aia?ai? ?acoeueooth/i? oaeei. Aeii?e ciiieia ieaiaoe aeathoue na?aaeith aiaenoaiue iiae oeeie oee?eoeyoeieieie no?oeoo?aie 29840ei, yea i ? aeiaaeeiith aioo?ioiuei? oaeei a iaa?oiaie ?iaeeii, i ii ii?yaeeo aaee/eie aei?iaith? ?aaeiono ?innai Ro=(gh)0.5*(2Wo*sin(j)), aea g - i?enei?aiiy aieueiiai iaaeiiiy, h - aeeaeia aoiinoa?e i j - ieaiaoioeaio?e/ia oe?ioa. Iineieueee oaei aeiaai oaeei iathoue /anoioo, aeecueeo aei iia?oeieii? fi , oi oeae oaeo aeicaieea iai, aeei?enoiaoth/e oai?ith Oeiooiiaa aeey a?aie/iiai oa?o aoiinoa?e ia i?iaiaey/e i?inoi aeii?e eiiieieo ?icii?ia ?yaeo aeaoaeae ia aeaeeiiio aeeneo THiioa?a, aecia/eoe ?yae ianooaaia oa oa?aeoa?enoee aeey aoiinoa?e THiioa?a: oiaueio iia?oeieiiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o, a yeiio aiaeaoaa?oueny caoaeaeaiiy iia?oeieieo eieeaaiue ?icaeyaeoaaiiai oeio h?=r2*sin(j)= (190-570)ei; eiaoioeiaio aoaeoeaii? eiiaiaoe/ii? a'yceinoi Kth= hi2*Wi = ||i?e h = 190-570ei|| = (0.6?5.7)*1011(ni2n-1); oey ioeiiea niiaiaaea? c aiaeiiaiaeiei cia/aiiyi, iaea?aeaiei iaie c i?eiouaiiy, ui ia?oa ianoieeinoue oeio aeoi?ia Oaeei?a ? aiaeiiaiaeaeueiith ca niinoa?aaeoaaio nioaanoo no?oeoo?o oia? THiioa?a. ?icaeie 5. Aeanii eieeaaiiy i aeonoe/ii oaeei a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao-aiaaioia. A 1976?. aia?oa aoei aeacaii ia iiaeeeainoue oiai, ui aoiinoa?e THiioa?a i iioeo ieaiao-aiaaioia iiaeooue inoeeethaaoe ye ? oioinoa?a Niioey. I?e oeueiio noiy/a oaeey (aeanii eieeaaiiy) ooai?eoueny oiaei, eiee iieiaeia aeiaaeeie aa?oeeaeueii? oaeei oeiea /enei ?ac aeeaaeaoueny iiae aa?oiueith i ieaeiueith a?aieoeyie aoiinoa?e. ?c caaaeueieo ?iaiyiue iaoai?ieiaii i i?eaeecieo aeeiaii/ieo i eiiaiaoe/ieo ioeiiie oice/ieo ia?aiao?ia aoiinoa? neiaeo?, ui iniiaia iana oia? a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao-aiaaioia ooai?th?oueny i?e iayaiinoi aii?yaeeiaaieo ?ooia aaciiiaeiaieo iiaio?yieo ian ic cia/aiiyie aa?oeeaeueieo oaeaeeinoae wi a aeiaiaciii aaee/ei aiae iaeeieoeue aei nioaiue ni/n. I?e oeueiio, aaiiao?e/ia oiaueia oia? ia THiioa?i i Naoo?ii a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ciiith?oueny i?e ciiii cia/aiiy i iai?yio aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi ia?aiiuaiiy iiaio?yieo ian: - aaiiao?e/ia oiaueia oia? caieueoo?oueny ic caieueoaiiyi wi (iiae'eii iiaio?yieo ian) i Ko - eiaoioeiaioo oo?aoeaioiinoi; - ia aneo, e?ii naii? aa?oiuei? a?aieoei oia?, ?iaiyo aoiinoa?e niinoa?iaa?oueny ciaioaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ic /anii i?e iiceoeaieo wi ; - i?e ciiii ciaeo aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi wi (aiae iiaeeiio aei iioneaiiy iiaio?y) a aieueoinoi ciiaeaeueiaaieo aeiaaeeia niinoa?iaa?oueny ciaioaiiy ieoiiiai aiinoo neiiaeainiaaii? oace a oia?ao, oiaoi aiaeaoaa?oueny ?o ?iciaae; - yeui c'yaeythoueny ?ooe c wi=-(10-15)ci/n, oi nia?oo iinooiiai oiiaieueith?oueny c?inoaiiy oia?, i eeoa caiaeii, ?icaeoie oia?e ciiith?oueny ?? ?iciaaeii; - i?e cia/aiiyo |wi|>20ni/n ciiia ciaeo aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi
i?aeoe/ii c?aco ae i?eaiaeeoue aei ii/aoeo i?ioeania ooai?aiiy, aai
?iciaaeo oia?iinoi; i?e/iio /an, ui aecia/a? iiiaio iiyae oia? i/aai
ii/aoie ?o cieeiaiiy — ciaioo?oueny ic caieueoaiiyi iiaeoey
aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi ia?aiiuaiiy iiaio?yieo ian.

O?iiinoa?e THiioa?a i Naoo?ia iathoue aaaaoee aeaiaioiee neeaae,
aeayei ic eiiiiiaio yeiai (iniaeeai aiaea, aiae?inoeueoiae aiiaeo, iaoai
i aiiae) eiiaeainothoueny ia iaaieo ?iaiyo a aoiinoa?i, ciiithth/e oei
naiei, yce?aainoii oa?aeoa?enoeee oia?iaiai oa?o aoeieiio. Oiio i?e
iiyai iaaioue ii?iaiyii iaaaeeeiai a?aaei?ioa aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi
ia?aiiuaiiy iiaio?yieo ian aiaeaoaa?oueny iiiioia ciiia ieoiiiai aiinoo
neiiaeainiaaieo oia?iaeo ian a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao-aiaaioia. A ca’yceo c
oeei, i?e iayaiinoi ia?iiaee/ii? ciiie a oaeaeeinoi aa?oeeeueiiai
ia?aiiuaiiy iiaio?yieo ian /a?ac inioaaiiy ?aaeiaeueieo inoeeeyoeie
(aeanieo eieeaaiue ieaiaoieo aoiinoa?), ie iiaeiii niinoa?iaaoe
aa?iaoei? aiaeaeaieo, iiaeeiaeueieo i aei?iiiithaaeueieo aeanoeainoae
aeaeeiiai oia?iaiai oa?o ? iaaeoia?iaiai ooiaio. Ii iaoiaeeoei,
i?aaenoaaeaiie a [17], ie c?iaeee ioeiieo ciii iioe/ieo ia?aiao?ia
aaciai? i aa?icieueii? neeaaeiaeo aoiinoa?e Naoo?ia, aeeeeeaieo
ciiiaie aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi: iiaeaeueii ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui ca
/an aiey aeaio aiaeei iiaeeii iiaio?yieo ian c oaeaeeinoth wi=30ci/c
i?eaiaeeoue aei caieueoaiiy aaniethoii? aiaeaeaii? caeaoiinoi a
aeiaaeeii oaeei 316ii ia aaee/eio 0.0035 i?e na?aaeiueiio cia/aiii 0.200
aeey aeaaoi?iaeueii? iaeanoi Naoo?ia. A aeiaaeeii oaeei 600ii —
eeoa ia 0.00007 i?e na?aaeiueiio cia/aiii 0.550. Ae?aooaaii iaie
cia/aiiy niaeo?aeueieo eiaoioeiaioia i?ici?inoi caiii? aoiinoa?e
[23,24] i iaoi niinoa?aaeii aeaii i?i ciiio aeueaaaei ?icieo aeieyiie
aeeneo Naoo?ia [1,2] iieacothoue, ui iaee?auei ? iiooe iiaeeeaeo ciii
iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae aoiinoa?e Naoo?ia /a?ac iayaiinoue ?aaeiaeueieo
inoeeeyoeie a niaeo?aeueiiio iioa?aaei 390-420ii. Naia a oeeo aeiaaeeiao
oaeeue aa?iaoei? i?ici?inoi caiii? aoiinoa?e aaea ia oae neeueii
ciiiththoue neaiae aiae ieaiao (ye oea ? a oeueo?aoiieaoi a 316ii),
naioeiaee iioie aiae ieaiao noa? cia/iei aeey iaaeieii? eiai ?a?no?aoei?
i?e aeaeo?ioioiiao?i? c iiae?aooieii oioiiia i ca /an aiey aeaio aiaeei
iiaeeii iiaio?yieo ian c oaeaeeinoth wi=30ci/c i?eaiaeeoue aei
caieueoaiiy aeueaaaei a aeiaaeeii oaeei 400ii ia aaee/eio aei 0.001 i?e
na?aaeiueiio cia/aiii 0.200 aeey aeaaoi?iaeueii? iaeanoi Naoo?ia. sse
iieaco? iao aeinaiae aaaaoi?i/ieo niaeo?iaeaeo?ioioiiao?e/ieo aeii?ia ia
ai?i Iaeaeaiae, i?eaaaeaii aeua aaee/eie ciii aiaeaeaii? caeaoiinoi
aoiinoa? ieaiao-aiaaioia ? oeieeii aeinooiieie aeey ?o ?a?no?aoei? i?e
niinoa?aaeaiiyo ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? c iiae?aooieii oioiiia o cacia/aiiio
aeiaiaciii niaeo?a.

A ca’yceo c aeeeaaeaiei aeua, ie i?eionea?ii, ui i?ioean eieeaaiue
oia?ioai?/i? aeiyeueiinoi ? aeia?ee cania aeey ?a?no?aoei? ?iciiiaiioieo
eieeaaeueieo i?ioeania iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao i?e ?o
aeenoaioeieieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo. Aeey niinoa?aaeiiai aiaee?eooy oaeeo
aa?iaoeie ie aeeiiaee niaoeiaeueiee eiiieaen niinoa?aaeii? i?ia?aie i
?ic?iaeee aiaeiiaiaeia i?i?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey aeyaeaiiy ia?iiaee/ieo
neeaaeiaeo o oioiiao?e/ieo ?yaeao ano?iiiii/ieo aeaieo. Iineieueee
aaee/eia aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi ia?aiiuaiiy iiaio?yieo ian a aoiinoa?i
THiioa?a ? aecia/aeueiith i?e aea/aiii eieeaaeueieo i?ioeania o
oia?ioai?/ie aeiyeueiinoi ia ieaiaoi, ie ioeiieee ?? ?icaeyioaoe
?iaiyiiiy iaia?a?aiinoi aoiinoa?e a aac?icii?iiio ii?iiaaii
e?eoa?iaeueiiio aeaeyaei; oea aeicaieeei ae?aceoe oa?aeoa?ii ianooaae
ooeaieo aaee/ei aiaeioe/ii /a?ac oiiaa?naeueii ia?aiao?e iiaeiaiinoi
Aieioeeia. Noiiuaiiy niiniao e?eoa?iaeueieo ?iaiyiue ? niiniao
iaac?icii?thaaiiy ii?ioaaiiyi oa aeei?enoaiiy iaaeeaeaiiy
«ianoeneoaaiinoi» aaco aeicaieeei iai io?eiaoe, ui aa?oeeaeueii
oaeaeeinoi a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao a na?aaeiueiio a noieueee ?ac iaioi
ai?eciioaeueieo (U), a neieueee ?ac aeiaooie oaeaeeinoi caoea ia eiiieio
oaeaeeinoue iaa?oaiiy ieaiaoe — iaioee aiae eaaae?aoa ia?oi? einii/ii?
oaeaeeinoi. Cia/aiiy aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi ia?aiiuaiiy iiaio?yieo ian
a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a, ae?aooaaia i?e cia/aiiyo U=25-150i/n, neeaaea? wi
=(10-50)ci/n, ui ? oeieeii caaeiaieueiei aeey iiaeeeainoi
?a?no?aoei? eieeaaiue oia?ioai?/i? aeiyeueiinoi ii cai?iiiiiaaiiio
iaie aeua niiniao.

C iaoith aeyaeoe ia?iiaee/ii neeaaeiai a ?yaeao aeaieo iaie aoea
canoiniaaia iaoiaeeea ia/eneaiiy cia/aiue ia?iiaeia ii ia?aiao?e/iiio
iaoiaeo iaeneiaeueii? aio?iii?, yeee oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaany a AAI IAI
Oe?a?ie o aiaeaeiei einii/ii? aaiaeeiaiiee i?e aea/aiii aieueii?
eaaciaeiaiai? iooaoei? i iioeo ia?iiaee/ieo neeaaeiaeo iaa?oaiiy Caiei.
Aeey aiaei?aoethaaiiy eiiieaeno i?ia?ai i aaeaioaoei? iaoiai i?ia?aiiiai
caaacia/aiiy aeey aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo ia?iiaee/ieo neeaaeiaeo o
oioiiao?e/ieo ?yaeao aeaieo i?e ano?iiiii/ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo, ie
aeeiiaee cia/io ?iaioo ii aecia/aiith cia/aiue ia?iiaeia o ciiii aeeneo
eiiao [15,16,20] oa ?ioeo ano?iiii?/ieo ia’?eo?a [7,8,11-13,18] c
aeiiiiiaith iaoi? i?ia?aie.

Caiia aoiinoa?a ? aieiaiei aeaea?aeii ?iciiiaiioieo ooiia i?e
ni?iaao ?a?no?aoei? aeanieo eieeaaiue aeeneo iaaanieo ia’?eoia ic
ano?iiiii/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ia iacaiieo iana?aaoi?iyo. Aeey a?aooaaiiy
inoeeeyoeie, ui aeeeeeathoueny aoiinoa?ith Caiei, iaie aoea iinoaaeaia i
aeeiiaia i?ia?aia niaoeiaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue ii iao?oethaaiith ca
i?ici?inoth caiii? aoiinoa?e a aeniaaeeoei? ia ai?i Iaeaeaiae (aenioa
2750i). Niinoa?aaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny c aeiiiiiaith niaeo?iiiey?eiao?a,
anoaiiaeaiiai ia 60-ni oaeaneiii oi?ie Ea?e Oeaenn (E?ia). A aeaio
iacaeaaeieo eaiaeao (naioei aiae ci?ee ?icaeieyeinue iaiiai?ici?ei
aeca?eaeii) i?iaiaeeeiny ia?aeaeueia oioiiao?oaaiiy a noaiaea?oiiio
oieueo?i «A» i a aeieyioei niaeo?a, oeaio?iaaiie ia aeiaaeeio oaeei
555ii. *an iaeiie/oaaiiy a iaio eaiaeao aoa iaeiaeiaei, aea aeaui
aa?ithaaany a ?icii ii/i: aiae 20 naeoiae aei 1 oaeeeie. ?acoeueooth/a
noaoenoe/ia oi/iinoue iaeiie/aiiai neaiaeo neeaaeaea 0.0003. A yeinoi
aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia’?eoa aea?aia Iiey?ia ci?ea, ?icoaooaaiiy yei? ia
iaainoeei caeeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii iaciiiiei ia i?ioyci anueiai /ano
niinoa?aaeaiue: aeaeieueea ii/ae a aeiaoii 1990, a aa?acii, a eaioii i
a eeiii 1991?ieo ii 6-8 aiaeei aacia?a?aiiai iao?oethaaiiy ci?ee.
Niaeo?aeueiee aiaeic io?eiaieo iaie ?acoeueoaoia c aeinoiai?iinoth e?aua
90% iieacaa iayaiinoue inoeeeyoeie i?ici?inoi aoiinoa?e [18,27] c
ia?iiaeaie 2.5, 3.6, 5.2, 8.9, 11.2, 16.5, 20.6, 48.0 i 107 oaeeei.
Noia?iee niaeo? inoeeeyoeie aeeneo aa?ith? aeaiue aiae aeiy.
Iaenoaaieueiioi ia?iiaee 3.6 i 20.6 oaeeei c aiieiooaeaie, aiaeiiaiaeii,
0.0008-0.004m i 0.003-0.007m a ?icii aeii. ?nioaaiiy ia?iiaeia 48 i
107 oaeeei a /eiaeie ii?i caeaaeeoue aiae iayaiinoi /e aiaenooiinoi
aio?o a i?ecaiiiio oa?i. Oiaoi, niinoa?aaeaiiy Iiey?ii? ci?ee aeicaieeee
iai ca?a?no?oaaoe ciiie i?ici?inoi caiii? aoiinoa?e c ia?iiaeaie
aeecueeeie aei ia?iiaeia aioo?ioiio a?aaioaoeieieo oaeeue aoiinoa?e
Caiei. Iaea?aeaii ?acoeueoaoe iaee, oaeiae, aeoaea aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
aeey ?o a?aooaaiiy i?e i?iaaaeaiii ?iaioe ii aecia/aiith cia/aiue
ia?iiaeia eieeaaiue iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia.

?c iaea?aeaieo aaniethoieo niinoa?aaeaiue aeaaoi?iaeueii? iaeanoi
Naoo?ia a ia?iiaee 1977-1984 i 1986-1987??. iaeuieueiioi ?yaee aeii?ia
ieaiaoe ? aeaio ci?ie ii?iaiyiiy a eiaeio c ii/ae aoee io?eiaii a
ni/ii-ethoiio 1979?. Ia?aeaeueii c iaie aiaeiai/io ?iaioo ii aaniethoie
aeaeo?ioioiiao?i? ciiaeueieo ii?oieiai/ieo aeaoaeae THiioa?a aeeiioaaa
A.I. Eeeiaiei, yeee etha’ycii iaaeaa a iaoa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy oi/ii
iiiaioe aeii?ia Iiaii/ii? o?iii/ii? ciie a cacia/aiee /an. Ia ia?oiio
aoaii iiaeaioiaee niinoa?aaeieo oioiiao?e/ieo ?yaeia aei ia?iaee ie
a?aooaaee oaciao caeaaeiinoue ii iaoiaeeoei, i?aaenoaaeaiie a ?iaio?
[1]. Iiney oeueiai, aeei?enoiaoth/e ae?aooaaii iaie na?aaeii ca ii/
cia/aiiy niaeo?aeueieo eiaoioeiaioia i?ici?inoi, ani iiaeeaiaeoaeueii
aiaeeiee aiae ieaiao i ci?ie aoee i?eaaaeaii aei iaeeie/ii? iiaio?yii?
iane M=1. Oaeei /eiii aoee iiaeaioiaeaii /ioe?e iniiaii iiiaeeie:
Ic,I*1,I*2 i Ith, yei a iiaeaeueoiio ie aiaeicoaaee ye eiaeai ie?aii,
oae i neeaaeath/e aiaeiiaiaeii aiaeiioaiiy In/Im. Aeey aeyaeaiiy
iiaeeeaeo ia?iiaee/iinoae a iaea?aeaieo ?yaeao iaie aoee aeei?enoaii
aeaeieueea iaoiaeee aeineiaeaeaiue.

Ca ioeueiao aiioo ie acyee iiiaio UO 17h 00m 18.01.79. Caaeath/e
ia?iiae Tk i ii/aoeiao aiioo, ae?aoiaoaaeeny ciiiii oace aeey eiaeii?
ie?aii acyoi? niinoa?aaeii? oi/ee. Iiney oeueiai aanue ia?iiae Tk ci
nai?ie oacaie aiae ioey aei iaeeieoei ie ?icaeee ia 32 ?iaii /anoeie i
ae?aoiaoaaee na?aaei? cia/aiiy aeey eiaeiiai ?yaeo, iiney /iai
?iciiaeieyee ani aaee/ei Ik ii oeei 32 oaciaei iioa?aaeai ia?aiiai
ia?iiaeo. Ii ona?aaeaiei a eiaeiiio iioa?aaei cia/aiiyi i?iaiaeeeany
na?aaeiy e?eaa i ia ianooiiiio e?ioei ae?aoiaoaaeeny
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ii aiaeoeeaiiy aiae na?aaeiuei? e?eai? aeey aneo
aeii?ia i aeey eiaeiiai ic 32 iioa?aaeia. Aeaei i?iaiaeeeany
iiiiiicaoeiy ?acoeueooth/i? e?eai? aei iiiio?iiaoe/ii? neioni?aee c
oaeei aea ia?iiaeii Tk oa aeayeith aiieiooaeith A0.

E?ii oiai, aeey aiaei?aoethaaiiy iaoiaeeee ?icaeieaiiy inoeeeyoeie,
aeeeeeaieo ciiiith i?ici?inoi aoiinoa?e Caiei i eieeaaiiyie aeenea
iaaaniiai ia’?eoa, a oaeiae aeey aeyaeaiiy aeanieo eieeaaiue aoiinoa?
ieaiao-aiaaioia, ie canoiniaoaaee niaeo?aeueiee aiaeic ii IIA aei oeeo
aea ?yaeia aeaieo. Ia ia?oiio aoaii i?ioeaaeo?a niaeo?aeueiiai
iaoaiaoe/iiai aiaeico ii IIA canoiniaoaaeany iaie aei iaeaeiaoeo ?yaeia
aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo a ii/i 19/20.01 i 31.01/01.02.79. Iiney
iiia?aaeiuei? ioeiiee cia/aiue ia?iiaeia ia?aai?yeiny caa?aaeaiiy oac
aeey eiaeiiai ic aeaeieaieo eieeaaiue. A?aoiaoth/e oace anio iniiaieo
ia?iiaeia i aeei?enoiaoth/e niinia «coeaaiiy», aeey eiaeiiai ic
aeineiaeaeoaaiiai a aeaiee iiiaio ia?iiaee/iiai i?ioeano i?iaiaeeeany
i?ioeaaeo?a coeaaiiy ?yaeia aeaieo ca aanue aeineiaeaeoaaiee ia?iiae.
Aei ciia iaea?aeaieo iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo ?yaeia (oioiiao?iy THiioa?a,
Naoo?ia, aeaio ci?ie) i aei ?yaeia neeaaeaieo ic ?o aiaeiioaiue
(ieaiaoa/ci?ea, ieaiaoa/ieaiaoa, ci?ea/ci?ea) ciiao canoiniaoaaeany
iienaia aeua ia/enethaaeueia i?ioeaaeo?a niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeico IIA.

A ?acoeueoaoi aeei?enoaiiy aeaio aeuaiienaieo i?ioeaaeo?, ie
io?eiaee c aeinoiai?iinoth e?aua 90% iaai? ia?iiaeia ?icii? o?eaaeinoi.
Ia?iiaee O=105±1.8, 130±2.4, 207±5.7 oaeeei i?iyaeythoueny oieueee o
anio iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo ?yaeao aeaieo, aea aiaenooii a ?yaeao, neeaaeaieo
ic ?o aiaeiioaiue, aea aiaeaoaa?oueny ?o aca?iia eiiiainaoeiy. Oea iiaea
aiai?eoe i?i oa, ui i?e?iaea oaeeo ia?iiaee/iinoae caeeaaeaia a ciiii
i?ici?inoi caiii? aoiinoa?e. Ia?iiaee O=137±2.6, 179±3.6 oaeeei
oa?aeoa?ii oieueee aeey Naoo?ia, a ia?iiaee O=103±1.8, 142±2.9 oaeeeie —
oieueee aeey THiioa?a [18,27]. C aaeeeith iiiai?iinoth ?o iiaeia
aiaeianoe aei aeanieo eieeaaiue aoiinoa? oeeo ieaiao, ineieueee aeniea
aia?aaoeea aoiinoa? ieaiao-aiaaioia iiaeiia i?eaiaeeoe aei ii?iaeaeaiiy
aeanieo inoeeeyoeie. Oei aieueoa, ui iaea?aeaii iaie cia/aiiy ia?iiaeia
i?aeoe/ii niiaiaaeathoue ic oai?aoe/ii ae?aooaaieie aaee/eiaie ia?oeo
aeaio aa?iiiie aeanieo eieeaaiue THiioa?a i Naoo?ia. Aiieiooaee
eieeaaiue aeeneo ieaiao-aiaaioia ia aeiaaeeii oaeei 407ii ciaoiaeyoueny
a iaaeao 0.0008-0.004m.

Oaeei /eiii, ic aiaeico niinoa?aaeieo ?yaeia aeaieo ii
aeaeo?ioioiiao?i? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia, aeaiia iacaeaaeieie iaoiaeeeaie,
c ai?iaiaeiinoth e?aua 90% iaie aeyaeaii eieeaaiiy aeeneo ie?aieo
aeieyiie aeeneo THiioa?a i Naoo?ia, ui ii aaee/eii niiaiaaeathoue ic
cia/aiiyie aeanieo eieeaaiue ?o aoiinoa?. Oeae oaeo iiaeiai iaoe
aaee/acia cia/aiiy aeey noaiiaeaiiy i ?icaeoeo naeniieiai? aoiinoa?
ieaiao-aiaaioia.

O caeeth/i?e /anoei? c?iaeaii aeniiaee oa iai?/aii ia?oi/a?aia?
caaaeaiiy aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoiinoa? ieaiao-a?aaio?a.

AENIIAEE.

A Aeena?oaoei? ic aiaeico niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo iaie a
ia?iiae ic 1977 ii 1995??. i /eneaiieo niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo, io?eiaieo
iioeie aeineiaeieeaie aoiinoa? THiioa?a ? Naoo?ia, i?iaaaeaii ?aoaeueia
aeineiaeaeaiiy ii aea/aiith aiaeia?aaeaiiy ?iciiiaiioieo ia?iiaee/ieo
aeioooth/eo nee a ?o aoiinoa?ao. Oea aeicaieeei aeyaeoe naciiii
aa?iaoei? iioe/ieo, eiiaiaoe/ieo i o.i. oa?aeoa?enoee aoiinoa? oeeo
ieaiao-aiaaioia i aeiaanoe, ui naia naciiia ciiia ii?iiiiaiiy ieaiao
Niioeai ? aiaeiiaiaeaeueiith ca aeayei ic niinoa?aaeoaaieo aa?iaoeie. ?c
aiaeico aaaaoi?i/ieo niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo i?i ciiio iioaa?aeueiiai
aeeneo THiioa?a o aeaeeiiio naioei aeyaeaii i?iya 22.3-?i/iiai
Oaeeianueeiai iaaiioiiai oeeeeo Niiy/ii? aeoeaiinoi oa inioaaiiy aieiaeo
ciii aaniethoii? ci?yii? aaee/eie THiioa?a.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee oaeiae, ui ai?iaaaeaeaia iaie aiaeiioaiiy
yne?aainoae Iiaii/ii? ? Iiaaeaiii? O?iii/ieo cii Aj= BNTrZ/BSTrZ ?
oi?ioei iiaeaenii aeoeaiinoi aoiinoa?ieo i?ioeania ia THiioa?i.
Iaea?aeaia iayaiinoue oeeeei/iinoi a aeiaaiia?iiaee/ieo eieeaaiiyo Aj
iiaeoeue ieaiaoe c ia?iiaeii 11.86 ?ieia aeiaaea inioaaiiy naciiii?
ia?aaoaeiae a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a.

Iieacaii, ui aa?iaoei? aiaeaeaii? caeaoiinoi oia?iaiai oa?o Naoo?ia
a oeueo?aoiieaoi i a nioaao iiaeeiaiiy iaoaiii iiaeia iiynieoe
iayaiinoth naciiieo ciii, aeeeeeaieo iaoeeii ini iaa?oaiiy ieaiaoe aei
aeeiioeee, a ioaea, aa?iaoeiyie ii?iiiiaiiy ieaiaoe Niioeai, ui, a
naith /a?ao, i?eaaee aei ciiie iioe/ieo i oice/ieo ia?aiao?ia aoiinoa?e
Naoo?ia ia ?icieo oe?ioao. I?iaaaeaii iaie ia/eneaiiy aeey iiiaioia
?iaiiaeaiue 1966 i 1980??. a ?aieao aeaioa?iai? iiaeaei aoiinoa?e
Naoo?ia iieacaee, ui oe?ioii iiyne ieaiaoe, yei uieii aeeoee ic oiii
eieaoeue, aiae?iciythoueny aiae iioeo iiynia cia/aiiyie ?icnithth/i?
neeaaeiai? iioe/ii? oiaueie iaaeoia?iaiai aaciaiai oa?o, ia’?iiith
eiioeaio?aoei?th oia?iaiai aa?iciey i aaee/eiith oyaii? /anoeie
iieacieea caeiieaiiy oia?iaeo /anoie ni . Oai, aea o?eaaeee /an aoea
ceia (a iiaaeaiiie iiaeoei aei 1966?. i a iiaii/iie aei 1980?.),
oia?iaee oa? ? aieueo ?ac?iaeaeaiei i eiai aa?oiy a?aieoey ciaoiaeeoueny
aeua, iiae o iiaeoei, ui «ia?aaeeea» aei oeueiai eioiie nacii. Oi
aeaaoi?iaeueii iaeanoi Naoo?ia, ui o?eaaeee /an aoee cae?eoi
eieueoeyie, aiae/oaath/e aeaoioeeo i?eoieo a aoiinoa?o niiy/ii?
?aaeiaoei?, aiae?iciythoueny aiae iioeo oe?ioieo iiynia iiaeaeuaiith
eieueeinoth neeueii iiaeeiath/i? eieuei?iai? aeiiioee.

A oeueiio aeineiaeaeaiii iaie iieacaii, ui niinoa?aaeaiiy aeaeeii?
iiaa?oii oia?iaiai oa?o ieaiaoe aeicaieythoue aeenoaioeieii aea/aoe
i?ioeane o aioo?ioiio oa?ao aeeaieeo aoiinoa? ieaiao-aiaaioia,
aeineiaeaeoaaoe ?o aioo?ioith aoaeiao. I?e oeueiio, iia?oeieii
i?ea?aie/ii oa?e eiei aoaeue-yeiai no?eaea aonoeie a aoiinoa?i ieaiaoe
iiaeooue caoaeaeoaaoe iia?oeieii iiaee a aoiinoa?i. Iieacaia i?eioeeiiaa
iiaeeeainoue ooai?aiiy a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao-aiaaioia iia?oeieieo oaeeue
aeiaaeeiith ii?yaeeo ?aaeiona ?innai.

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia i iaa?oioiaaia iaeay, ui ia?oa ianoieeinoue
oeio aeoi?ia Oaeei?a, ui i?iyaey?oueny a oiieioa?iaie noa?e/iie oa/i?
Eoaooa, ? aiaeiiaiaeaeueiith ca niinoa?aaeoaaio ciiaeueio no?oeoo?o ia
THiioa?i. Ianeiaeeii oeueiai noaei aecia/aiiy aeeaeie aaciai? aoiinoa?e
ieaiaoe (h=16270ei) i cia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai eiaoioeiaioo eiiaiaoe/ii?
a’yceinoi aeey e?oiiiianooaaiiai ia?aiiooaaiiy aoiinoa?e THiioa?a
(K<1.9*1011 ci2n-1). Ia iiaenoaai aiae?iaeeiaii/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaeeueiaiai cao?aiiy a iaa?oiaie ?iaeeii iieacaii, ui naioei aioeoeeeeiii/ii aeoi?i ia oe?ioao +47i i -41i noaiiaeyoue ciaiioiie i?iya eaaciia?iiaee/ieo cao?aiue, ui aaia?othoueny a iia?oeieiiio i?ea?aie/iiio oa?i THiioa?a a aeaaoi?iaeueiie iaeanoi ia ?iaii a aoiinoa?i R=0.765rth. Ciaeaeaii iaaei aeiionoeieo cia/aiue ia?iiaeia oeeo oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue Td=(50-150)Tth aeey aoiinoa?e THiioa?a. Aeeiiaii ioeiiee oiaueie iia?oeieiiai i?ea?aie/iiai oa?o, a yeiio caoaeaeothoueny iia?oeiii eieeaaiiy a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a, ui aeicaieeei iacaeaaeiei niiniaii aecia/eoe cia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai eiaoioei?ioo eiiaiaoe/ii? a'yceinoi eiai aoiinoa?e K=(0.6-5.7)*1011 (ni2n-1), ui oa?aeoa?eco? e?oiiiianooaaia ia?aiiooaaiiy. A ca'yceo c oei, ui ciaeaeaia iaie aaee/eia aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi wo=(10-50)ni/c ? iiaeeeaoi?ii i?ioeania ooai?aiiy i ?iciaaeo oia?iaeo oa?ia ia ieaiaoi (aiaeaoaa?oueny ciiia aeueaaaei oia? ieaiaoe c ia?iiaeaie, yei niiaiaaeathue ic cia/aiiyie, c yeeie aiaeaoaa?oueny ciiia aa?oeeaeueii? oaeaeeinoi), - ie cai?iiiioaaee i iaa?oiooaaee iaeath, ui oaeee i?ioean eieeaaiue oia?ioai?/i? aeiyeueiinoi iiaea aooe niinoa?aaeiei niiniaii aeey ?a?no?aoei? ?iciiiaiioieo eieeaaeueieo i?ioeania a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao i?e iayaiinoi ia?iiaee/ii? ciiie a oaeaeeinoi aa?oeeaeueiiai ia?aiiuaiiy iiaio?yieo ian /a?ac inioaaiiy ?aaeiaeueieo inoeeeyoeie (aeanieo eieeaaiue) ieaiaoieo aoiinoa?. Aeey niinoa?aaeiiai aiaee?eooy aa?iaoeie aeeneo aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia aaoi?ii aoea ?ic?iaeaia niaoeiaeueia iaoiaeeea niinoa?aaeaiue, yea aeicaieeea ?icaeieeoe inoeeeyoei? i?ici?inoi aoiinoa?e Caiei i eieeaaiiy aeeneo aiae iaaanieo ia'?eoia, iaa?oioiaaii aeai? aiaeiiaiaeieo niaeo?aeueieo aeiaiaciiia aeey ?a?no?aoei? aeanieo eieeaaiue, i?iaaaeaii iaiaoiaeii niinoa?aaeaiiy, noai?aii i noa?aiii aeineiaeaeaii ia /eneaiieo i?eeeaaeao iaiaoiaeia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy. Iaoaiaoe/iee niaeo?aeueiee oa ia?iiaeia?iiee aiaeic niinoa?aaeieo ?yaeia aeaieo ii aeaeo?ioioiiao?i? aeieyiie aeeneia THiioa?a ? Naoo?ia aeicaieea iai c aeinoiai?iinoth e?aua 90% aeyaeoe cia/aiiy ia?iiaeia T=103, 137, 142 i 179 oaeeei, yei niiaiaaeathoue c aaee/eiaie ia?iiaeia aeanieo eieeaaiue aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia. ?c aeeeaaeaiiai aeua neiaeo? aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aeineiaeaeaiiy aa?iaoeie iioe/ieo, oice/ieo, eiiaiaoe/ieo oa ii. oa?aeoa?enoee ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? oeyoii aea/aiiy ?o aiaeaeaieo, iiaeeiaeueieo i aei?iiiithaaeueieo aeanoeainoae i?aaenoaaey? niaith aeoaea aaaeeeaee i ia?niaeoeaiee iai?yiie a ieaiaoieiai?. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe, ui i?aaenoaaeai? aei caoenoo. 1. Oioiiao?e/ii i niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ii aeaii i?i aa?iaoei? aiaeaeaii? caeaoiinoi ie?aieo aeieyiie aeeneia THiioa?a i Naoo?ia, aeeneo anueiai aeenea THiioa?a oa niinoa?aaeii aeaii i?i ?iciiaeie yne?aainoi acaeiaae ie?aieo oe?ioieo iiynia i acaeiaae oeaio?aeueiiai ia?eaeiaia THiioa?a a ?icieo aeiaaeeiao oaeeue niaeo?aeueiiai iioa?aaea 300-800ii ca 593 ii/i iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue a ia?iiae /ano 1977-1995??. 2. Aeyaeaiiy a ciiii iioaa?aeueiiai aeeneo THiioa?a o aeaeeiiio naioei i?iyao 22.3-?i/iiai Oaeeianueeiai iaaiioiiai oeeeeo Niiy/ii? aeoeaiinoi ? iayaiinoi aieiaeo ciii aeeneo ieaiaoe c ia?iiaeii aeecueei 180 ?ieia. 3. Aeyaeaiiy oeeeei/iinoi a ciiiao cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaie oaeoi?a aeoeaiinoi (aiaeiioaiiy yne?aainoae iiaii/ii? oa iiaaeaiii? o?iii/ieo cii) iiaeoeue THiioa?a c ia?iiaeii 11.86 ?ieia, ui aia?oa aeicaieeei aeacaoe ia inioaaiiy naciiii? ia?aaoaeiae a aoiinoa?i THiioa?a. 4. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieia ii aecia/aiith iioe/ieo ia?aiao?ia aa?oiio oa?ia aoiinoa?e ia ?icieo oe?ioao Naoo?ia i ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic io?eiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeey aeaio iineiaeiaieo iiiaioia ?iaiiaeaiue ieaiaoe a 1966 i a 1980??. a ?aieao aeaioa?iai? iiaeaei aoiinoa?e. 5. Ioeiiee aeeiaii/ieo i eiiaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao?ia oa oa?aeoa?ieo ianooaaia aeey aoiinoa?e THiioa?a ia iiaenoaai aiae?iaeeiaii/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue a iiaeaei aoiinoa?e, ui iaa?oa?oueny iaaeiei aeanii? ini, oa aeoiaey/e c aiaeico ?iaiyiiy iaia?a?aiinoi a ii?iiaaii e?eoa?iaeueiiio aeaeyaei. 6. ?acoeueoaoe iaoaiaoe/iiai niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeico niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo ic iinoaaeaii? i aeeiiaii? iaie i?ia?aie niaoeiaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue ii iao?oethaaiith ca ciiiaie i?ici?inoi caiii? aoiinoa?e a aeniaaeeoei? ia ai?i Iaeaeaiae (aenioa 2750i). 7. ?acoeueoaoe iaoaiaoe/iiai niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeico niinoa?aaeieo ?yaeia aeaieo ii niaeo?iaeaeo?ioioiiao?i? ie?aieo aeieyiie ia aeeneao THiioa?a i Naoo?ia, yei aia?oa aeicaieeee iai ic aeinoiai?iinoth e?aua 90% aeyaeoe cia/aiiy ia?iiaeia T=103, 137, 142 i 179 oaeeei, yei niiaiaaeathoue c oai?aoe/ieie aaee/eiaie ia?oeo aeaio aa?iiiie aeanieo eieeaaiue aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia. IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a) a ?aoa?iaaieo ia??iaee/ieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo: 1.Aeaeueia/aiei A.I.Io?aaeaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue thaeiie yeaaoi?eaeueiie iaeanoe Naoo?ia a 1977-1981aa. // Ano?ii. aanoiee. - 1984. - O.12, No 3. - N.191-198. 2. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Yeaeo?ioioiiao?ey Naoo?ia. II.Niaeo?a-eueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea y?einoe aaeieue oeaio?aeueiiai ia?eaeeaia // Ano?iiao?ey e ano?ioeceea. -1984. - No 51. - N.56-62. 3. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I., Noaeeia A.O., Ieiyeei I.O. I aiciiaeiii ia?eiaea aeoeaiinoe ia THieoa?a. Naciiu? // Ienueia a ano?ii. aeo?iae. - 1984.- O.10, No 9. - N.691-695. 4. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Ia aeoeaiinoe i?ioeannia a aoiinoa?a THieoa?a // Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaa. oae. - 1985. - O.1, No5.- N.91. 5. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. I aiciiaeiii aeeyiee eieaoe ia oioiiao?e/aneea naienoaa iaea/iiai neiy Naoo?ia // Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaa. oae. - 1985. - O.1, No 6. - N.12-15. 6. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Iaeioi?ua aeeiaie/aneea ia?aiao?u aoiinoa?u THieoa?a // Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaaaniuo oae. - 1986. - O.2, No 1. N.48-51. 7. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I., Naeaey O.A. Oioiiao?ey e niaeo?aeueiua iaaethaeaiey Naa?oiiaie 1987A // Eeiaiaoeea e oec.iaa. oae. - 1988. - O.3, No3. - N.89-91. 8. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Iaaethaeaiey Naa?oiiaie a Aieueoii Iaaaeeaiiaii iaeaea//Eeiaiaoeea e oec.iaa.oae.-1987.-O.3,No5.-N.84-85. 9. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I.I?iyaeaiea naciiiuo eciaiaiee a aoiinoa?a Naoo?ia. //Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaa.oae.-1987.-O.3, No6.-N.10-12. 10. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Iaaethaeaaiua i?iyaeaiey aioo?aiieo aieiiauo i?ioeannia a aoiinoa?a THieoa?a // Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaa. oae. - 1988. - O.3, No 4. - N.40-46. 11. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I., Aiaaeei TH.I., Ea?eiiia A.I., Ea?eiiiaa E.A. Iiey?eiao?ey na?oiiaie 1987A: iaaethaeaiey e eioa?i?aoaoeey // Ienueia a ano?ii. aeo?iae. - 1988. - O.14, No5. - N.387-395. 12. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I., A?oa?ia A.A., Aiaaeei TH.I. *aou?aooeaaoiay oioiiao?ey naa?oiiaie 1987A ia noaaeee iaaeaiey aa aeanea // Ienueia a ano?ii. aeo?iae. - 1988. - O.14, No 8. - N.692-694. 13. Gnedin Yu., Naumov V., Vidmatchenko A.P., Larionov V. Astrometry, photometry and spectropolarimetry of SN1987A // Adv. and Space Res. - 1988. - V.8, No 2-3. - P.(2)691-(2)694. 14. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. 1989 // Iiey?ecaoeeiiiua naienoaa oe?ioiuo iiynia THieoa?a // Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaa. oae. - 1989. - O.5, No4. - N.45-47. 15. ?icaiaoo A.E., ?niaaa O.E., *o?thiia E.E., Aeaeueia/aiei A.I., Ai?iaeaoeeee A.Ae. Aa?eaoeee nei?inoe ia?aciaaiey aaca e iuee a eiiaoa Aaeeay // Ienueia a ano?ii.aeo?iae. - 1989. - O.15, N4. -N.358-367. 16. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I., ?icaiaoo A.E., *o?thiia E.E. Enneaaeiaaiea ia?eiaee/iinoae a nei?inoe ia?aciaaiey aaca e iuee a eiiaoa ?/Aaeeay a ieoya?a-aeaeaa?a 1985a. // Ano?ii. aeo?iae. - 1990. - T.67, No 3. - N.636-641. 17. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Ieaiaou-aeaaiou: oai?aoe/aneea e iaaethaeaoaeueiua aniaeou//Ano?ii. aanoiee.-1991.- T.25, No 3.- N.277-292. 18. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Eciaiaiea aeanea iaaaniuo iauaeoia i?e ano?iiiie/aneeo iaaethaeaieyo ia ai?a Iaeaeaiae // Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaa. oae. - 1994. - T.10, No 5. - N.62-68. 19. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Inaaeaiea iuee a aoiinoa?a THieoa?a iinea iaaeaiey o?aaiaioia eiiaou Ooiaeea?a-Eaae // Eeiaiao. e oeceea iaa. oae. - 1995. - T.11, No 4. - N.21-24. 20. ?icaiaoo A.E., Oa?auoe A.I., Eenaeaa I.I., *a?iiaa A.I., Ethoue A.I., Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Oioiiao?ey e iiey?eiao?ey eiiaou Inoeia 1982 VI // Ano?ii. aanoiee. - 1997. - T.31, No6.- N.504-515. 21. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Aa?eaoeee iaoaiiaiai iiaeiuaiey a aoiinoa?a THieoa?a // Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaa.oae.-1997.-T.13,No 6.-N.26-32. a) a ia?aoa?iaaieo iaoeiaeo ia??iaee/ieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, i?ai?eioao: 22.Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Naciiiia eciaiaiea iaoaiiaiai iiaeiuaiey a aoiinoa?a Naoo?ia // Ano?ii.oee?eoey?. -1984. - No1331. -N.1-2. 23. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I., Aeiaaiiie A.I., Eeeiaiei A.I., Oaaeianeee A.E. I?ic?a/iinoue caiiie aoiinoa?u ia a.Iaeaeaiae ii iaaethaeaieyi 1977-1985aa. I. N?aaeiea ca ii/ue cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioa i?ic?a/iinoe. - E.: 1985. - 14n. (I?ai?./Aeai. a AEIEOE; No 6251-85). 24. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I., Aeiaaiiie A.I., Eeeiaiei A.I., Oaaeianeee A.E. Niaeo?aeueiua cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioa i?ic?a/iinoe caiiie aoiinoa?u ia ai?a Iaeaeaiae // Iaoiaeu iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iioe/aneeo oaeaneiiia. - I.: Ecae-ai IAO. 1987. - N.51-60. 25. Noaeeia A.O., Eieioeeia I.I., Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Ano?iiiie/aneea aniaeou oai?ee i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie. E.:1997.-23n. (I?ai?. IAI Oe?aeiu. Aeaaiay ano?ii. iana?aaoi?ey; AAI-98-1?). a) a i?aoeyo iaoeiaeo c'?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e: 26. Rozenbush V.K., Rspaev F.K., Churiumov K.I., Vidmatchenko A.P., Gorodetsky V.D. Variations of the gas and dust produktion rates of comet P/Halley (1986 III) // Comets in the post Halley era. - Bamberg: FRG, 1989. - P.280-281. 27. Vidmatchenko A.P. Brightness variations of Jupiter, Saturn and transparency variations of the Earth atmosphere // Bulletin of the american Astronomical society. -1994.- V., No 3. -P.1103. 28. A?aeueia/aiei A.I., Ei?noiue A.I. I?i aeayei iniaeeainoi iaa?oaiiy Caie? oa ?ioeo ieaiao Niiy/ii? nenoaie, ui iathoue niethuaii?noue // Iioi?iaoeieiee atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Ano?iiiii/ii? Anioeiaoei?. - No 7. - 1995.- N. 106. 29. Vidmatchenko A.P. Variations of Jupiter's brightness // Inform. bull. of UAA. 1997. No 11. P. 112. 30. Vidmatchenko A.P. On activity of Jupiter's atmosphere // XXIX Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. - Houston, Texas (USA). - 1998. (http: //cass.jsc.nasa.gov/meetings/LPSC98/pdf/ program.pdf/ 1092.pdf). P.1-2. 31. Aeaeueia/aiei A.I., Iaaiaeianeee I.A. Ano?iiiie/aneee niaeo?ioioiiiey?eiao?, ?aaioathuee a aeeaiaciia aeeei aiei 330-1070ii // O?oaeu 12 iao/ii-oaoie/. eiio. "Oioiiao?ey e aa iao?ieiae/aneia iaania/aiea". - I.: AIEEIOE. - 1999. N.17-18. AIIOAOe?ss Aiaeueia/aiei A.I. Ia?iiaee/ii ciiie ia?aiao?ia aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 01.03.03 - Aaeiioiceea ? oiceea Niiy/ii? nenoaie. - Aieiaia ano?iiiii/ia iana?aaoi?iy IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998. Aeeona?oaoeiy i?enay/aia aeineiaeaeaiith aa?iaoeie iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa oice/ieo ia?aiao?ia aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia ia iniiai io?eiaieo aaoi?ii iiaeo oioiiao?e/ieo i niaeo?aeueieo niinoa?aaeieo aeaieo ca 593 ii/i niinoa?aaeaiue a 1977-1995??. I?e oeueiio aia?oa aeyaeaii inioaaiiy naciiii? ia?aaoaeiae a aoiinoa?ao THiioa?a oa Naoo?ia, i?iya 22.3-?i/iiai Oaeeianueeiai iaaiioiiai oeeeeo Niiy/ii? aeoeaiinoi, iayaiinoue aieiaeo ciii aaniethoii? ci?yii? aaee/eie THiioa?a c ia?iiaeii 180 ?ieia. Aia?oa aecia/aii aeeiaii/ii i eiiaiaoe/ii ia?aiao?e i oa?aeoa?ii ianooaae aeey aeeaieeo oa?ia aoiinoa?e THiioa?a ic aeenoaioeieieo ano?iiiii/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue aeaeeiiai oia?iaiai oa?o ieaiaoe. Cai?iiiiiaaia ? ?aaeiciaaia ia i?aeoeoei iaoiaeeea niinoa?aaeaiue oa ?o ia?iaee, eio?a aeicaieeea aia?oa ca?a?no?oaaoe ia?oi aeai aa?iiiiee aeanieo eieeaaiue aiaeiaaiaaei?aeo aoiinoa? THiioa?a i Naoo?ia, - aea? iiaenoaao cacia/eoe i?i ia?aoiae oaeiai iai?yio a ieaiaoioiceoei ye naeniieiaiy ieaiaoieo aoiinoa? aiae oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie a i?aeoe/io ieiueio aeineiaeaeaiue. I?eaaaeaii a aeena?oaoei? ?acoeueoaoe niinoa?aaeaiue aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoei iiaeaeae noaiaea?oieo aoiinoa? ieaiao-aiaaioia. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoiinoa?a THi?oa?a, aoiinoa?a Naoo?ia, aoiinoa?a Caie?, oioiiao??y, niaeo?ioioiiao??y, aeani? eieeaaiiy. ABSTRACT Vid'machenko A.P. Periodical variations of Parameters of Jupiter's and Saturn's Atmosphere. - Manuscript. Thesis for a doctor's degree by speciality 01.03.03 - Geliophysics and physics of Solar system. The Main astronomical observatory of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998. The dissertation is devoted to research of variations of the optical characteristics and physical parameters of Jupiter's and Saturn's atmospheres on the basis of received by the author new photometrical and spectral observational data obtained for 593 nights in period 1977-1995. Existence of seasonal reorganization in Jupiter's and Saturn's atmospheres, existence of 22.3 years a magnetic Hale cycle of solar activity, availability of century changes of a whole Jupiter's disk brightness with a period of 180 years is revealed for the first time. The dynamic and kinematic parameters and characteristic scales for deep layers of Jupiter's atmosphere from remote astronomical observations of visible layer of a planet's cloud are determined for the first time. We propoused the observational method and data reduction procedure which the first two harmonics of free oscillations for Jupiter's and Saturn's atmospheres have allowed to register for the first time. Therefore such science direction in planetary physics as seismology of planetary atmospheres is taking from theoretical development to practical plane of researches. Represented in dissertation observational data were used for construction of standard atmospheres models of giant planets. Key words: atmosphere of Jupiter, atmosphere of Saturn, atmosphere of Earth, photometry, spectrophotometry, free oscillation. AIIIOAOeEss Aeaeueia/aiei A.I. Ia?eiaee/aneea eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia aoiinoa? THieoa?a e Naoo?ia. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.03.03 - Aaeeioeceea e oeceea Nieia/iie nenoaiu. - Aeaaiay ano?iiiie/aneay iana?aaoi?ey IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998. A ianoiyuae Aeenna?oaoeee ec aiaeeca iaaethaeaoaeueiuo aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo aaoi?ii a ia?eiae n 1977 ii 1995aa., e iiiai/eneaiiuo iaaethaeaoaeueiuo aeaiiuo, iieo/aiuo ae?oaeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie aoiinoa? ieaiao-aeaaioia, i?iaaaeaii ouaoaeueiia eneaaeiaaiea ii auyaeaieth ia?eiaee/aneeo aa?eaoeee iioe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee, io?aaeaoaeueiuo e/eee eceo/aoaeueiuo naienoa aoiinoa? THieoa?a e Naoo?ia, ii ii?aaeaeaieth oece/aneeo ia?aiao?ia iaea/iiai neiy e iaaeiaea/iie aeuiee, - eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ioaaonoaaiu ca iaaethaeaaiua eciaiaiey; auiieiaii niiinoaaeaiea ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo ei ia?eiaee/aneeo aa?eaoeee iioe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ieaiaoiuo aoiinoa? ni cia/aieyie ia?eiaeia, n eioi?uie i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey ?aciiia?aciuo aiciouathueo nee, e eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ia?aii?e/eiie iaaethaeaaiuo aa?eaoeee. Ec iaaethaeaiee THieoa?a e Naoo?ia a oe?ieii niaeo?aeueiii aeeaiaciia aia?aua auyaeaiu naciiiua aa?eaoeee iioe/aneeo, eeiaiaoe/aneeo e o.i. oa?aeoa?enoee aoiinoa? yoeo ieaiao-aeaaioia. Ec aiaeeca iiiaieaoieo iaaethaeaoaeueiuo aeaiiuo ia eciaiaiee eioaa?aeueiiai aeanea THieoa?a a aeaeeiii naaoa iaia?oaeaii i?iyaeaiea 22.3-eaoiaai Oaeeiaeiai iaaieoiiai oeeeea Nieia/iie aeoeaiinoe e iaee/ea aaeiauo eciaiaiee aaniethoiie caacaeiie aaee/eiu THieoa?a n ia?eiaeii ieiei 180 eao. Iieacaii, /oi aaaaeaiiia iaie ioiioaiea y?einoae thaeiie e naaa?iie o?iie/aneeo cii THieoa?a eae oaeoi?a oioiiao?e/aneie aeoeaiinoe iieooa?ee ieaiaou eciaiyaony n ia?eiaeii 11.86 eao. Yoi aiai?eo i nouanoaiaaiee naciiiie ia?ano?ieee a aoiinoa?a THieoa?a. Au/eneaiey aeey iiiaioia ?aaiiaeainoaee 1966 e 1980aa. a ?aieao aeaooneieiie iiaeaee aoiinoa?u Naoo?ia iieacaee, /oi oieueei /oi auoaaeoea ec oaie eieaoe oe?ioiua iiyna ioee/athony io ae?oaeo iiynia cia/aieyie ?annaeaathuae ninoaaeythuae iioe/aneie oieueiu iaaeiaea/iiai aaciaiai neiy, iauaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee iaea/iiai ay?iciey e iieiie /anoe iieacaoaey i?aeiieaiey iaea/iuo /anoeoe. A ceiiai iieooa?ee (thaeiii aei 1966a. e naaa?iii aei 1980a.) iaea/iue neie yaeyaony aieaa ?ac?aaeaiiui e aai aa?oiyy a?aieoea iaoiaeeony a iai ia aieueoae aunioa, /ai a iieooa?ee, "ia?aaeeaoai" aei yoiai eaoiee nacii. "Ceiiea" yeaaoi?eaeueiua iaeanoe Naoo?ia ioee/athony io ae?oaeo oe?ioiuo iiynia iiauoaiiui eiee/anoaii neeueii iiaeiuathuae oeaaoiie i?eiane. Aaoi?ii i?aaeeiaeaia e ?aaeeciaaia iaoiaeeea eco/aiey naciiiuo i?ioeannia a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao-aeaaioia ia ei?ioeeo eioa?aaeao a?aiaie. Iieacaii, /oi iaaethaeaiey aeaeeiie iiaa?oiinoe iaea/iiai neiy ieaiaou iicaieytho aeenoaioeeiiii eco/aoue i?ioeannu ai aioo?aiieo neiyo i?ioyaeaiiuo aoiinoa? ieaiao-aeaaioia, enneaaeiaaoue eo aioo?aiiaa no?iaiea. Aaoi?ii i?aaeeiaeaia e iainiiaaia eaeay, /oi ia?aay iaonoie/eainoue oeia aeo?ae Oaeei?a, i?iyaeythuayny a oiieineieiii noa?e/aneii oa/aiee Eoyooa, ioaanoaaiia ca iaaethaeaaioth ciiaeueioth no?oeoo?o ia THieoa?a. Yoi iicaieeei ii?aaeaeeoue aeoaeio aaciaie aoiinoa?u ieaiaou (h=16270ei) e cia/aiea yooaeoeaiiai eiyooeoeeaioa eeiaiaoe/aneie ayceinoe aeey e?oiiiianooaaiiai ia?aiaoeaaiey aoiinoa?u THieoa?a. Ia iniiaaiee aeae?iaeeiaie/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey aieiiaiai aiciouaiey ai a?auathuaeny aeeaeeinoe iieacaii, /oi naaoeua aioeoeeeeiie/aneea aeo?e ia oe?ioao +47 e -41 i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aiaoiaa i?iyaeaiea eaaceia?eiaee/aneeo aiciouaiee (n ia?eiaeaie O=(50-150)Oth), eioi?ua aaia?e?othony a eia?oeeiiiii iia?aie/iii neia THieoa?a a yeaaoi?eaeueiie iaeanoe ia aeoaeia ieiei 16270 ei. Iieacaii, /oi iaeaeaiiia aaoi?ii cia/aiea aa?oeeaeueiie nei?inoe w=30ni/n ia?aiauaiey aoiinoa?iuo iann neoaeeo ioee/iui eiaeeeaoi?ii i?ioeannia ia?aciaaiey e ?ac?ooaiey iaea/iuo neiaa ia ieaiaoa (aeieaeii i?ienoiaeeoue eciaiaiea io?aaeaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe iaeaeia ieaiaou n ia?eiaeaie, niaiaaeathueie ni cia/aieyie, n eioi?uie i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea aa?oeeaeueiie nei?inoe). A nayce n yoei i?aaeeiaeaia e iainiiaaia eaeay, /oi oaeie i?ioeann eieaaaiee iaeaeiia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony iaaethaeaoaeueiui iaoiaeii aeey ?aaeno?aoeee ?aciiia?aciuo eieaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao i?e iaee/ee ia?eiaee/aneiai eciaiaiey a nei?inoe aa?oeeaeueiiai ia?aiauaiey aicaeooiuo iann ec-ca nouanoaiaaiey ?aaeeaeueiuo inoeeeeyoeee (nianoaaiiuo eieaaaiee) ieaiaoiuo aoiinoa?. Aeey iaaethaeaoaeueiiai iaia?oaeaiey aa?eaoeee aeanea aoiinoa? THieoa?a e Naoo?ia aaoi?ii ?ac?aaioaia niaoeeaeueiay iaoiaeeea iaaethaeaiee, iicaieeaoay ?acaeaeeoue inoeeeeyoeee i?ic?a/iinoe aoiinoa?u Caiee e eieaaaiey aeanea io iaaaniuo iauaeoia, iainiiaai auai? niioaaonoaothueo niaeo?aeueiuo aeeaiaciiia aeey ?aaeno?aoeee nianoaaiiuo eieaaaiee, i?iaaaeaiu iaiaoiaeeiua iaaethaeaiey, nicaeaii e ouaoaeueii enneaaeiaaii ia iiiai/eneaiiuo i?eia?ao iaiaoiaeeiia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea. Ouaoaeueiue aiaeec iaaethaeaoaeueiuo ?yaeia aeaiiuo ii niaeo?aeueiie yeaeo?ioioiiao?ee o/anoeia aeenea THieoa?a e Naoo?ia iicaieee n aeinoiaa?iinoueth eo/oa 90% auyaeoue cia/aiey ia?eiaeia T=103, 137, 142 e 179iei., eioi?ua niaiaaeatho n aaee/eiaie ia?eiaeia nianoaaiiuo eieaaaiee aoiinoa? THieoa?a e Naoo?ia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aoiinoa?a THieoa?a, aoiinoa?a Naoo?ia, aoiinoa?a Caiee, oioiiao?ey, niaeo?ioioiiao?ey, nianoaaiiua eieaaaiey.

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