Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa

I?OEIA Na?a?e Aaea??eiae/

OAeE: 340.0(09)(477)

IA?ANAEAINUeE? IAOe?IIAEUeI? IAIOEIE

IA OE?A?INUeEEO CAIEssO O NEEAAe? ?IN?ENUeEI?

?IIA??? A XVIII — IA II*AOEO XX NO.

(?NOI?EEI-I?AAIAA AeINE?AeAEAIIss)

12.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;

?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie (i.
Oa?e?a).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Caeoeaa Eaii?ae Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa (i. Oa?e?a),

ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

No?aoia Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,

caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee ia?iaeii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie

?i. ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

*aoiae/ Aaea??e Aiaoie?eiae/

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai
Iaoe?iiaeueii?

aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “22” o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 — 00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.700.03 a Oi?aa?neoao?
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: 310080, Oe?a?ia, i. Oa?e?a, i?. 50-??//y
N?N?, 27.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: 310080, Oe?a?ia, i. Oa?e?a, i?. 50-??//y
N?N?, 27.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “21” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ee?e/aiei A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? aa?aioo?oueny ?
iine?aeiaii ?aae?co?oueny iie?oeea ni?yiiaaia ia caaeiaieaiiy aoi?/ieo
iio?aa an?o iaoe?iiaeueiinoae Oe?a?ie. O Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, i?eeiyo?e
a?ae ?iai? Oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo — a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie an?o
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, cae??ieai? i?aaa iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei Oe?a?ie 1). Ca
Caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie a Oe?a?i?” a?ae 25 /a?aiy
1992 ?ieo aei ieo iaeaaeaoue a?oie a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, ye? ia ?
oe?a?ioeyie ca iaoe?iiaeuei?noth, aeyaeythoue ii/oooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiiona?aeiieaiiy oa ni?eueiino? i?ae niaith.

Aea/aiiy ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c noaiiaeaiiyi i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o
OV??? — ia ii/aoeo XX no., ? cie?aia, noiniaii ia?anaeainueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei (i?aaenoaaieee ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueieo a?oi, ui
iieieeeny /a?ac ??ci? i?e/eie ca iaaeaie nai?? aoi?/ii? oa?eoi???), ?
aeooaeueiei c iaoeiai?, i?aeoe/ii? oa iie?oe/ii? noi??i.

Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano ieoaiiy ?icaeyioo? o aeine?aeaeaii? a iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? caeeoaeenue ia aea/aieie, a ia?oo /a?ao o ca’yceo c
iaaeinoaoi?i caeo/aiiyi aeaea?aeueii? aace oa ?nioth/eie ?aeaieia?/ieie
noa?aioeiaie.

C i?aeoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o ieoaiiy iia’ycai? c i?aaiaei noaoonii
ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei ? aeooaeueieie aeey aecia/aiiy
eo?no oa oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ?icaoaeiae aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii?
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ui i?ioiaeeoue iei?. Aoaeoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo o
oeueiio iiaeia aeinyaoe noi?ioaaaoe a ia?oo /a?ao iaaio caeiiiaeaa/o
aaco uiaei iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

No/ania aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea aea?aeaae iio?aao? e?eoe/iiai
inieneaiiy iaeiie/aiiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo, aae iia?oi? iie?oe/i?
??oaiiy nie?aeenue ia iaoeiai ia??oioiaaiee aiae?c o?ie?a ieioeiai.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei “Aieiaieo iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie ia 1996-2000 ??.”,
caaaeueii?inoeooonueei? “I?ia?aie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue Caii??cueeiai
th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo IAN Oe?a?ie” a?ae 28 n?/iy 1997 ?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aena?oeaii? aaiethoe?? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai?
aace noiniaii ia?anaeaioe?a ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo o neeaae? ?in?enueei?
?iia??? o XV??? — ia ii/aoeo XX no. oa ?? cia/aiiy aeey i?ioeano
?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai iiey uiaei ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai a aeena?oaoe?? cina?aaeaeaii oaaao ia aeeiiaii?
oaeeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:

– aecia/eoe oaeoi?e aieeao ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii XV??? — ii/aoeo XX no.;

– i?iaiae?coaaoe i?aaia? canaaee iie?oeee o?yaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? o
XV??? —

ia ii/aoeo X?X no. noiniaii ?iicaiieo a?enueeiaeo ia?anaeaioe?a;

– aeine?aeeoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace noiniaii
eieii?no?a o XV??? — ia ii/aoeo X?X no.;

– aeyaeoe ?ieue nenoaiaoecaoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa noiniaii ia?anaeainueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei aeey nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeaaiono?ith e?ath;

– i?iaiae?coaaoe ci?ie o i?aaia?e iie?oeoe? o?yaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia???
aei i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
X?X — ia ii/aoeo XX no.;

– aeae?eeoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aaiethoe?? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee
uiaei i?aaiaiai noaoono ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae a Oe?a?i? oa
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ca no/anieo oiia iaeiie/aiiai aeina?aeo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe oa ?io? i?aaia? aeieoiaioe
ye? aieeaaee ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo
Oe?a?ie. sse i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/ai? oai?aoe/i? ? i?aaia?
iniiae aaiethoe?? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ?in?enueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? uiaei
i?aaiaiai noaoono i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei
ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo o neeaae? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? o ??cieo ??
i?iyaao: oi?ioaaii? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace, ooai?aii? aea?aeaaieo
onoaiia ? i?aai?a oa neeaaeaiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a i?ae
i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy — XV??? — ii/aoie XX no. ie?aneai? c
iaoith a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a
uiaei ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei o ?in?enuee?e ?iia???:
a?enueeiaeo ia?anaeaioe?a oa ?iicaiieo eieii?no?a. Aeey aena?oeaiiy
iiaii? ea?oeie oai?aiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ia oe?a?inueeeo
caieyo o ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe aena?oeai? aoiinioe?aeuei? i?ioeane,
ye? a?aeaoaaeenue ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo aei XV??? no.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Ia?oeie aeine?aeieeaie, ye? aea/aee
?noi??th iiyae, aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ono??e eieii?e a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae
caeiiiaeaa/o aaco ?in?enueei? ?iia??? noiniaii ?iicaiieo ia?anaeaioe?a,
noaee A.I. Neaeueeianeee, A.?. Cauoe, I.I. Eeaon, A.I. ssno?aaia oa ?i.
Aiie i?iaiae?coaaee ie?ai? ieoaiiy i?aaiaiai noaoono ia?anaeaioe?a.
Oe?eaa? aeai? i?i i?aaiao aaco oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo
ianaeaiiy I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y aeathoue ?iaioe I.N. A?ooaanueeiai,
I. Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, Ae.?. Aei?ioaiea, ?.I. E?ei’yeaae/a,
A. O?ieieoeueeiai, Ae.?. Aaaae?y, A.?. Iena?aeaanueeiai,
I.A. Iii?oaeaiea oa ?ioeo. I?ioa aa?oi a?aecia/eoe oie oaeo, ui a
?iaioao X?X — ii/aoeo XX no. cia/ii ia?aa?eueoaia ?ieue oea?nueeiai
o?yaeo a ni?aa? canaeaiiy I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie oa ?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaa/i?
iie?oeee uiaei i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae Oe?a?ie.
Caiia/oaaeinue, ui ii?eoinoai cae?enithaaeiny ca ?aooiie aiooc?acio
ie?aieo ae?y/?a, a oie /an ye ?in?enueeee o?yae, i?ee?eaath/enue
aoiaiieie eicoiaaie, ?aae?ciaoaaa aieiaio iaeio iaoo — ?icoe?aiiy
oa?eoi??aeueieo aieiae?iue ?in?enueei? ?iia??? c aeeth/aiiyi aei ??
neeaaeo oa?eoi??? I?e/i?iiii?nueeeo caiaeue, E?eio, Eaaeaco ? Aaeeai c
?o aenieei aeiiii?/iei iioaioe?aeii.

O ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae c’yaeythoueny ?iaioe caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, a
yeeo aea/athoueny ie?ai? aniaeoe aeaii? i?iaeaie. Aaaiiee aianie o
aea/aiiy ianaeaiiy I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie c?iaeee aeaaeai?ee I.N. Aea?aeaa?i
oa N.A. Aa?iooaei, ye? aeyaeee oa aeei?enoiaoaaee o nai?o i?aoeyo
caeiiiaeaa/? iaoa??aee. O aeaeaieo a oeae ia??iae ?iaioao I.A. Iaaethea,
N.ss. Ai?iaiai, I.Ae. Aa/einueeiai, A.I. Eaaocaia, I.?. Ae?oaeei?iie,
?.?. Iaua?thea i?eae?ey?oueny oaaaa a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiio oa
aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie na?aaeeie XV???-X?X noie?ooy,
aeine?aeaeothoueny oae? th?eaee/i? aeieoiaioe, ye oaiaee i?ae
?in?enueeith ? Oo?aoeueeith ?iia??yie, ?iia?aoi?nuee? oeace, caeiie,
iai?oanoe oiui. A ieo ? oe?eaa? na?ae/aiiy i?i ?noi??th iiyae, a oaeiae
ainiiaea?noai ? iiaoo eieii?no?a, aea/athoueny ca’ycee i?ae ??cieie
aoiinaie. Aeine?aeieee N.?. Neaeaeueieeia, A.?. Iaoeei, I.I. Oeaiaiei,
?.O. ?an??a, Ae.A. Ein?a, O.E. Aieueaeei, I.A. ?iaiyeia oa ?io?
i?iaiaeyoue ?yae ii??aiyeueieo iien?a ia?iae?a Oe?a?ie, ye? ae?acii
?ethno?othoue i?aaia? noinoiee i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo aoiin?a ?
aeaaeith a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. ?iaioe ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo
iathoue ?noioi? iaaeie?ee o ca’yceo c oei, ui ie?ai? ieoaiiy aoee
cae?eoeie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oie aea /an aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noeee
aaaeeea? oaeoe, ni?eyee iiaeaeueoiio aea/aiith i?iaeaie.

A oe?eiio a i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo oa caei?aeiiieo a/aieo i?iaeaia
i?aaiaiai noaoono ? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee noiniaii ia?anaeainueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XV??? —
ia ii/aoeo XX no. ia ciaeoea iiaiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy ? oiio iaiiaeeeai
ciaeoe ?aeeii? eiioeaioe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. A aeine?aeaeaiiyo iiaeathoueny eeth/ia? oaeoe
? ie?ai? aeai?, ye? ia noai?ththoue ?aeeio aca?iica’ycaio nenoaio, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei /eneaiieo iiieeie o ?icoi?ii? ?noi?e/ii? ?ie? canaeaiiy
??cieie ia?iaeaie oa?eoi??? iaoi? aea?aeaae.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe c?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano iaoeiaeo e?e
aei i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai noaoono ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae a Oe?a?i?. Ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa a ia??iaee/i?e
i?an? ii?eethaeiththoueny aei?iaee oao?aoe?a i?aaiciaaoe?a oa ?noi?ee?a.
Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ?ic?iaee eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee
noiniaii iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei iathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o/eciyieo a/aieo
A.I. Aoeaia, A.Ae. Aii/a?aiea, A.A. ?aoooa, E.I. Caeoeaaa, A.I. Caeoey,
A.A. ?aaiianueeiai, I.?. Ea?ia/iai?, A.A. Eii?e/eeiaa, ?.O. Eo?ana,
N.E. Eenaieiaa, I.I. Ie?iiaiea, A.?. Iaoeea, A.I. I?eeothea,
I.?. Inaoeaiea, A.O. Iai?aoaeueeanee, O.?. Ieeeiaiea, I.I. ?aa?iiae/a,
TH.?. ?eia?aiea, I.O. Neaeoi, I.A. Ne?eiithea, I.I. No?aoiaa,
N.I. Oei/aiea, O.A. Oo?/aiea, A.A. *aoiae/a. I?aoe? oeeo a/aieo
noaiiaeyoue oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee iaoa??aee ?yaeo oeaio?aeueieo ?
i?noeaaeo a?o?a?a, a oiio /ene? Oeaio?aeueiiai a?o?ao I?i?noa?noaa
Iai?iie ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??, Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai
a?o?ao Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao E?eio, Aea?aeaaieo
a?o?a?a Oa?niinueei?, Iaeanueei? ? Caii??cueei? iaeanoae.

Cia/io a?oio aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue iioae?eiaai? ca??ieee
aeieoiaio?a, ui aeaeaaaeenue o X?X-XX no., a oiio /ene? “Iieiia
nia?aiiea caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee n 1649 aiaea”, “Naiae caeiiia 1857
aiaea”, aea i?noyoueny oeace ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo i?i i?aaa oa i?eueae
ia?anaeaioe?a, “Onoaa i eieiieyo eiicaioeaa a eiia?ee” oa ?io?.

Aei a?oie aeei?enoaieo noaoenoe/ieo aeaea?ae iaeaaeaoue “Nai?iee
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo ii Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee”, “?acoeueoaou iiaeai?iie
ia?aiene Aeenaaaoa?aaeneiai oacaea 1883-1885 aiaeia”, “Noaoenoe/aneia
iienaiea Aanna?aaee” oa ?io?, ye? ?noioii caaaaoeee ?iaioo noaoenoe/ieie
aeaieie.

Aaaeeeaeie aeaea?aeaie ? iaoeia? ocaaaeueiaiiy A.?. Cauoea,
A.I. Neaeueeianueeiai, A. Eaiiaia oa ?ioeo aaoi??a, ye? aoee no/anieeaie
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiae?e oa aaciina?aaeiuei a?aee o/anoue o i?aeaioiaoe?
noaoenoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue aeey o?yaeo.

Aeieoiaioaeueia aaca aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie cia/ii ?icoe?eeanue
caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith ca??iee?a aeieoiaio?a, ye? noinothoueny
ae?yeueiino? I.?. Eooociaa, I.?. Aaa?ao?iia, aeieoiaio?a c ?noi???
Iieaeiae oa ?ioeo.

E??i a?o?aieo, noaoenoe/ieo, iaioa?ieo aeaieo aeey iaienaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee, io?eiai? i?ae /an iieueiaeo
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a naeao eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy
ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei E??iaia?aaenueei?, Caii??cueei?,
Ieeiea?anueei?, Iaeanueei?, iaeanoae oa E?eio o 1990-1995 ?ieao.
Niiaaaee noa?iaeee?a, e?a?ciaaoe?a, /eai?a eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo
oiaa?enoa a?ae?a, aieaa?, ?a?a?a Caii??aeaey, a oaeiae ?io? iaoa??aee
cia/ii ?icoe?eee niaeo? aeaea?ae, caaaaoeee i?aoeth oaeoe/iei
iaoa??aeii.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ocaaaeueiaii?, aea/aii? e
aiae?c? iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaiio ia??oiooaaii? oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a, ?ic?iaoe? i?aeoe/ieo i?iiiceoe?e oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aaoi? ea?oaaany ae?aeaeoe/iei iaoiaeii iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy, nie?ath/enue ia iniiai? canaaee oai??? i?i aea?aeaao ? i?aai,
nioe?ieia?/i? oa noaoenoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaiaoeee. sse aacia? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaa,
?noi?eei-aiae?oe/ia, nenoaiia, eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/ia oa
oi?iaeueii-eia?/ia iaoeia? iaoiaeeee. Ia iniia? iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa
iaoiaee/ieo iniia i?iaiaeeeenue i?aea??, nenoaiaoecaoe?y io?eiaiiai
iaoa??aeo. Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ??oioothoueny ia
aiae?c? ae?th/iai a ??ci? ia??iaee caeiiiaeaanoaa, aeine?aeaeaii?
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, aea/aii? i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
aaoi??a, a oaeiae ia io?eiaieo i?ae /an iieooaaiiy ianaeaiiy ?aeii?a
eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei
iaoa??aeao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e ia aac? aecia/aieo
oai?aoe/ieo canaae aia?oa i?iaiaeeoueny eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie th?eaee/iiai aieeao aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ia oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo Oe?a?ie aecia/aiiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ianeao iaiioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o,
cia/ia /anoeia c yeeo aeeth/aia aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aia?oa,
?icaeyaea?oueny iie?oe/ia, i?aaiaa ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noi?iie
i?ioeano, ?iaeoueny aieiaiee aeoeaio ia oiio, ui ia oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie
i?ioyaii XV???-X?X no. ia?anaeyeenue ia ie?ai? a?oie ethaeae, a aaeee?
i?aai?ciaai? n?euenuee? a?iiaaee ?in?yi, iieaeaaai, i?ioe?a, aieaa? oa
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo aoiin?a, iaoith yeeo aoea iiaeeea?noue a?eueii?
i?aoe? ia caieyo I?e/i?iiii?’y, ui niono?ee i?ney ia?anaeaiiy ca?aeoe
oaoa? oa e?ea?aeaoe?? Caii?icueei? N?/?. Noaoon ia?anaeaioe?a aoa
caeiiiaeaa/i aecia/aiei o ?yae? th?eaee/ieo aeo?a ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo.

O aeine?aeaeaii?, ia i?eeeaae? ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o?yaeo
noiniaii ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, cae?eniaii ni?iao
?ic?iaee iaoeiai? eiioeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
ca nai?th no?oeoo?ith noni?euenoaa i?ioyaii a?eueo i?ae
aeaionoie?oiueiai ia??iaeo.

?ice?eoi caeiiii??iino? ? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iniiaieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
ni?eueiio, aea/a?oueny ?ieue ? cia/aiiy ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeeo ai?i
XV???-X?X no. o i?ioean? inai?iiy I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y.

Aaaeeeaei ? eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, yeee
i?iyaey?oueny o ?icaeyae? iaoa??aeo i?aaiaiai, ?noi?e/iiai ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o a noeoiiino?, oa aeine?aeaeaii?
aca?iica’yceo i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a c ?ioeie /eiieeaie i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaoiiaeth?oueny iiaeeea?noth
aeei?enoaiiy ?? ?acoeueoao?a oa iaoa??ae?a:

a) o iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e noa?? — i?e ?ic?iaoe? caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c aecia/aiiyi i?aaiaiai noaoono i?aaenoaaiee?a
??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, ui iaoeathoue a Oe?a?i?;

a) o i?aaioai?/?e ae?yeueiino? — i?e aianaii? ci?i oa aeiiiaiaiue aei
?nioth/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa ?ic?iaoe? Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie noiniaii
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei oa ei??iieo ia?iae?a Oe?a?ie, ?i?oe?eiaaii?
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie E.Ae. Eo/iith;

a) a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? — i?e aeeeaaeaii? caaaeueieo oa niaoe?aeueieo
eo?n?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie, iniia
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?yae aniaeo?a aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie ai?iaiaai? o iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a a iaoeiaeo oa
iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo ca??ieeao; a i?noeaaeo ? anaoe?a?inueeeo ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiiyo; o aenooiao ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa i?aaia? aniaeoe aea?aeaaioai?aiiy
a Oe?a?i?” (Iaeana, 1996), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e iai’yo? i?io. Oaaei?iaa E.A. (Caii??aeaey,
1996), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? “I?aaa ethaeeie ? oi?ioaaiiy
i?aaiai? aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i?” (Oa?e?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii a 1 iiiia?ao??, 5 noaooyo oa 2 oacao aeiiia?aeae
eiioa?aioe?e, c ieo 4 aac ni?aaaoi??a, 4 noaoo? o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo
iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeaie aaiethoe?? i?aaiai?
aace noiniaii ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei ia oe?a?inueeeo
caieyo o neeaae? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? o XV??? — ia ii/aoeo XX no.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia caaaeaiiyie oa aioo??oiueith eia?eith
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 157 noi??iie. Nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeaea?ae 259 iaeeieoeue, ianya aeiaeaoe?a 26
noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia SYMBOL 180 \f «Times New Roman Cyr» \s 12 ?oioiaaii
aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aeacaii ia ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie,
?icaeyiooi noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, aecia/ai? iaoa oa caaaeaiiy,
ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacaii eiai iaoiaeieia?/io
e oai?aoe/io iniiao, ?ice?eo? iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, a oaeiae
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeei?enoaii? aii??e/ii? aace: e?oa?aoo?e, a?o?aieo oa
?ioeo iaoa??ae?a, iiaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ai?iaaoe?th ? ioae?eaoe?th
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ”Aoiinioe?aeuei? canaaee oa iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy ia i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo
aei XV??? no.” ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy iia’ycai? c i?ioeanii oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ia?o? ni?iae
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aoiinioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a,
i?iaiae?ciaai? i?aaia? iniiae ia?anaeaiiy ia oe?a?inuee? caie?
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

Noiniaii ia?anaeaioe?a a iiaeaeueoiio aieiaiei /eiii aoaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue oa?i?i “?ii?a?aio”. ?ii?a?aio [a?ae eao. ?mm?grans
(?mm?grant?s) — oie, ui anaey?oueny] — ?iicaiaoeue, yeee inaeeany a
ye?enue e?a?i? ia iino?eia i?iaeeaaiiy. ?ii?a?aoe?y ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie
ye a’?cae aei /oaei? e?a?ie ia iino?eia aai aeineoue o?eaaea i?iaeeaaiiy
iaaii? eiie?aoii? iniae c iaoith ?? aeaoooaaiiy, i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy,
“aoa/?” a?ae aeene?ei?iaoe?? ia?ane?aeoaaiue, oiui. Uia noaoe
a?iiaaeyieiii e?a?ie, a yeo aiia i?eaoea, oey iniaa ia? caaacia/eoe nia?
iaoo?ae?caoe?th, oiaoi i?eeiyoe i?aeaeainoai o??? aea?aeaae o ye?e aiia
ia? aaaeaiiy caeeoeoenue ia i?iaeeaaiiy.

I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy ia oa?eoi???
no/anii? Oe?a?ie ?icii/aany ua a na?aaeei? ? oeny/ie?ooy aei iaoi? a?e.
I?ae aeaai?i ianaeaiiyi ?nioaaee o?ni? aoi?/i? ? iie?oe/i? ca’ycee. Naia
oea ianaeaiiy noaei iniiaith aeey aoiiaea?aeaaieo i?ioean?a ye?
a?aeaoaaeenue o ianooiieo noie?ooyo.

Iania? i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane, ei??iiy yeeo ?aea ua aei /an?a “Aaeeeiai
ia?anaeaiiy ia?iae?a” i?iaeiaaeoaaeenue ? a e?ioe? ? — ia ii/aoeo ??
oeny/ie?oue. Aiie iaee aeeaieee ca’ycie c oi?ioaaiiyi aea?aeaaiino? o
no?aeieo neia’yi — iiyaith ? ?icaeoeii Ee?anueei? ?on?. Ee?anueea
aea?aeaaa iaea i?oei? iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? ca’ycee c non?aei?ie
ia?iaeaie. Aiie ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeaea?aeao oeo /an?a, iai?eeeaae o aeiaiai?ao aaeeeeo ee?anueeeo eiyc?a
?c a?caio?enueeeie ?iia?aoi?aie. A aeiaiai?e, ie??i ?ioiai, aoee
aeeth/ai? noaoo? ye? noinoaaeenue i?aa eoioe?a oa i?aaenoaaiee?a iaio
noi??i ui oeeaaeaee aeiaiai?e, a oaeiae noaoo? uiaei aeaea/? ao?ea/?a.

Ia?o? ni?iae i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aoiinioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ia
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo c aieo aea?aeaae a?aeiinyoueny aei XV?? no. eiee
caeiiiaeaa/i cae??ieththoueny cia/i? i?ea?ea? ?ai?nie/i-eoiaoeueeeo
a?iiaae a?ae?a ? aieaa? Ee?aa, I?aeeia, Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueea ? Iooeaey.
Caii?icueea N?/ o ??ci? ia??iaee naiai ?nioaaiiy i?aeo?eioaaea o?ni?
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i? oa oi?aiai-aeiiii?/i? ca’ycee c? nai?ie non?aeaie.
A XV?-XV?? no. ia caii?icuee? caie? ao?eathoue o/anieee aecaieueiiai
?ooo aaeeainueeeo ia?iae?a, ye? iiiiaeththoue eaae Ieciaiai Oiaa?enoaa.
Caii?iaeoe? yaeyee niaith noni?euenoai noai?aia c aei?ineeo aeo?aeoe?a
c? an?o e?ioe?a Oe?a?ie, Iieueu?, Iieaeaa?? ? Oo?a//eie, iia’ycaieo
nithcii a?enueeiaiai a?aoa?noaa ? iiaaae aei nai?? noa?oeie ?
noni?euenoaa.

Ioaea, c iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a ia oa?eoi??? I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ii?o/ c
oe?a?ioeyie iaoeaee i?aaenoaaieee ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae. Aeaye? c ieo
c aeaai?o-aeaaai aoee non?aeaie oe?a?ioe?a, iai?eeeaae, oae? ei/ia?
ia?iaee ye oai?oe?, iieiaoe?, iiaaeoe?, oaoa?e, a oaeiae ia?iaee
E?einueeiai i?aino?iaa: oaa?e, e?ei/aee, ea?a?ie, ? i?aaenoaaieee
neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a: ?in?yie, a?ei?one, iieyee, aieaa?e, a oaeiae
i?aaenoaaieee oeo ia?iae?a, ye? ia?anaeyeenue ia niieiia?/i? aoi?/i?
oe?a?inuee? caie?: ?a?a?, oeeaaie, a?oceie, a??iaie oa ?io?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “I?aaia? iniiae iie?oeee ?in?enueei? ?iia??? o XV??? —
ia ii/aoeo X?X no. noiniaii a?enueeiaeo ia?anaeaioe?a” i?enay/aii
aiae?co i?aaiaeo ia?aaeoiia ia?anaeaiue ? canioaaiiy a?enueeiaeo ie?oa?a
o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?, aecia/aiith aieeao ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeeo ai?i
ae?oai? iieiaeie XV??? no. ia ci?ie a caeiiiaeaa/?e iie?oeoe? noiniaii
a?enueeiaeo ia?anaeaioe?a.

O XV??? — ia ii/aoeo X?X no. ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo aeieeei ?yae
a?enueeiaeo iinaeaiue ?ii?a?aio?a c e?a?i ye? caciaee ieu?aii?
oo?aoeueei? aa?an?? ? a yeeo ia aeiaaee /an i?eieieeenue aea?aeaaioai?/?
i?ioeane. Noaoon a?enueeiaiai ia?anaeaioey io?eioaaee ?iicaioe?, ye?
inaeyeenue o i?aaeaiieo ?aa?iiao ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ca oiiae ianaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae, aiie aoiaeeee aei naeyinueeiai noaio, aea iaee
aeaye? i?eueae. Oaeeie ae?yie o?yae ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ae??ooaaa
aaaeeeaa no?aoaa?/ia caaaeaiiy: noai?aiiy i?oeieo oe??ieaieo ?aeii?a,
ye? iiaee caoenoeoe ?iia??th a?ae ianiiae?aaieo iaiaae?a ? noaoe
iaae?eiei ieaoeaea?iii, a i?e iaiao?aeiino? oeeii, aeey iiaeaeueoiai
i?inoaaiiy ia i?aaeaiue. ?ioei caaaeaiiyi, ui noiyei ia?aae ?in?enueeei
o?yaeii o iiaeo iie?oe/ieo oiiaao, aoei canaeaiiy aaaaoeo, ?iaeth/eo
caiaeue I?aaeiy c iaoith noai?aiiy ia eeoa iiooaeiiai a?enueeiaiai,
neeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai ieaoeaea?io aeey iiaeaeueoiai i?inoaaiiy ia
i?aaeaiue. C oe??th iaoith o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? noai?thaaeenue
a?enueeia? ie?oae Iiaina?a?y, Neia’yiina?a?y, Aocueea eicaoeueea
a?enueei oa ?io?. Caie? ie?oa?a canaeyeenue a?enueeiaeie ia?anaeaioeyie,
aieiaiei /eiii aieaa?nueeeie ? iieaeaanueeeie ?ii?a?aioaie.

Iie?oeeo noai?aiiy a?enueeiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a c ?iicaiieo ia?anaeaioe?a
?in?enueeee o?yae i?iaeiaaeea o O?O no. I?ae /an a?enueeiaeo ae?e
aieiaiieiiaiaeoth/? Aeoiaenueeith a?i??th I.?. Aaa?ao?ii,
I.I. Eaiainueeee, I.?. Eooocia, o iaeacao ii a?i?? aeiaaaee
iaeoaaaei?oiai noaaeaiiy aei i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, iaaeaiiy eiio
an?eyei? aeiiiiiae. 10 /a?aiy 1811 ?ieo I.?. Eooocia aeaea? “I?aea?” i?i
noai?aiiy “Aieaa?nueeiai a?enueea”. Eiai i/ieea aaia?ae-iaei?
?.I. ?icia. I?ney cae?i/aiiy a?eie iaeaea an? aieaa?nuee? aeia?iaieueoe?
c? nai?ie ?iaeeiaie in?ee ia oa?eoi??? Aanna?aa??, yea ca Aooa?anonueeei
ie?iei aeiaiai?ii a?ae?eoea aei ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Aiie aa?eoee aei
naeyinueeiai noaio, a iiaeaeueoiio, i?e iaaeaii? i?euea “caaeoiaenueeei
ia?anaeaioeyi”, eieeoi? eicaee Aieaa?nueeiai a?enueea ?acii c ?ioeie
ia?anaeaioeyie io?eiaee noaoon eieii?no?a. ?acii c aieaa?nueeeie
aeia?iaieueoeyie o a?eiao a?aee o/anoue aieiioa?e na?ae, iieaeaaaie,
i?aaenoaaieee ?ioeo ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. Iane?aeeii
ai?i noaee — aaaeeee aeiiii?/iee noai, iacia/iee i?e??no ianaeaiiy,
iecueeee ??aaiue aeeooy.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue o aecia/aii? noaoono i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo aoi?/ieo a?oi
Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XV??? — X?X no. a?ae?a?aaaee
?in?enueei-oo?aoeuee? ie?i? aeiaiai?e, a yeeo iaoiiaethaaeenue oiiae
ia?anaeaiue, i?aaiaee noaoon ia?anaeaioe?a ye i?aeaeaieo ?in?enueei?
?iia???, a oaeiae noaaeaiiy o?yaeo aei ianaeaiiy i?aeaeaaeieo oa?eoi??e,
yea ciaoiaeeeinue i?ae iie?iaeoaeuenoaii ?ioi? aea?aeaae, ye iai?eeeaae,
ionoeueiai a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? ? o?enoeyi a Iniainuee?e. O
?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeeo ie?ieo aeiaiai?ao i?iaiaeeeanue iine?aeiaia
iie?oeea cae??ieaiiy ?in?? o I?e/i?iiii?’? oa ca?eueoaiiy ?? aieeao ia
Aaeeaiao. Iaeiei ?c cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy aaoi?eoaoo ?in?enueei? ?iia???
na?aae aaeeainueeeo ia?iae?a aoei iaaeaiiy caiaeue aeey canaeaiiy ?
aaeeeeo i?euea aeey aaaeath/eo ia?anaeeoeny aei I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie.

Aeae?ey?oueny o?e a?oie oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaaee ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii ae?oai?
iieiaeie XV??? — ii/aoeo X?X no. Ii-ia?oa, oea ciai?oi? oaeoi?e, aei
yeeo iaeaaeaoue iie?oe/i? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaaeenue o ?a?ii? oa Iae?e
Ac??, iaeia?oa a?enueeia? eiioe?eoe i?ae /ioe?ia aea?aeaaaie: E?einueeei
oainoaii, ??//th Iiniieeoith, ?in?enueeith oa Oo?aoeueeith ?iia??yie.
Aiane?aeie ai?i oa ie?ieo aeiaiai??a i?ae o/anieeaie eiioe?eo?a,
oa?eoi??y Oe?a?ie, yea ciaoiaeeeany a ai?oeaio?? iiae?e, aoea
no?aoaa?/ii aaaeeeaei ieaoeaea?iii aeey an?o noi??i, ui ai?ieenue ca
aeii?ioaaiiy o ?a?ii?, iniaeeai ia *i?iiii?nueeiio ocaa?aaeae?. Ae?oaa
a?oia oaeoi??a — aioo??oi?, ye? aaaaoi a /iio aeieeaathoue c
iiia?aaeiuei? a?oie, ine?eueee naia ciai?oiy iie?oeea o?yaeo
coiiaethaaea noaaeaiiy aea?aeaae aei nai?o i?aeaeaieo ? a?aeiia?aeii c
?o i?aaiaei noaoonii ia i?aeei?aieo caieyo. O?aoy a?oia oaeoi??a
iia’ycaia c i?e?iaeiuei-aaiethoe?eieie i?ioeanaie ?icaeoeo iaoe?e,
oi?aiai-aeiiii?/ieie ? i?a?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie, aca?iii?iieeiaiiyi ?
aca?iicaaaa/aiiyi eoeueoo?. Nai?ie ae?yie o?yae ?in?enueei? ?iia???
noai?ea i?aaia? iniiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo
ianaeaiiy I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace noiniaii
?iicaiieo eieii?no?a o XV??? — ia ii/aoeo X?X no.” ?icaeyaea?oueny
i?eueaiaa iie?oeea o noaaeaii? aei ?iicaiieo ia?anaeaioe?a, o?ae oa
aoaie ia?anaeaiue cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo eieii?no?a ia oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie
oa i?aaia? iniiae ooai?aiiy eieii?e “caaeoiaenueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a” o
I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?.

Na?aae ?ii?a?aio?a, ye? inaeyeenue ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, aeae?ey?oueny
aea? iaea?eueo /enaeuei? a?oie: ii-ia?oa, oea ia?anaeaioe? c e?a?i
Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa, oae caai? “caaeoiaenuee? ia?anaeaioe?”, ?
ii-ae?oaa — ia?anaeaioe? c e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, oae caai? “?iicaii?
eieii?noe”. Iaeaea? a?oie iaeiaeiai neeaaeaeenue ?c caei?aeiiieo
ia?anaeaioe?a, i?ney ia?anaeaiiy noaaaee i?aeaeaieie ?in?enueei?
?iia???, iaeiae iaee ?yae a?aei?iiinoae o naiio i?aaiaiio noaoon?, ye o
ii??aiyii? c i?noeaaei ianaeaiiyi, oae ? i?ae niaith.

A iniia? eieii?caoe?eii? iie?oeee ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo aeaiiai ia??iaeo
iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe /?oei noi?iiaai? ?ioa?ane uiaei ?ii?a?aio?a. Aiie
aecia/aeeny, a iniiaiiio, iaiao?aei?noth canaeaiiy iiaeo caiaeue;
iio?aaith noai?aiiy ia aac? ia?anaeaioe?a nioe?aeueii? iii?e; aaaeaiiyi
cae??ieoe nai? iiceoe?? ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?, iniaeeai ia Aaeeaiao.
Oe? caaaeaiiy oea?nueeiai o?yaeo aaea c naiiai ii/aoeo iaoiiaeee noaoon
aeo?aeoe?a ?c-ca Aeoiath (?ii?a?aio?a, a?enueeiaeo ia?anaeaioe?a), ye
iniaeeai? eaoaai??? caiea?ianueeiai ianaeaiiy, a?iiaaeyi ?in?enueei?
?iia???, i?aeaeaieo “?iia?aoi?nueei? aaee/iino?”. Iaeiae, ?o
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaa noaiiaeua aoei th?eaee/ii cao?eniaaia eeoa o 1819
?ioe?. O aeueo eieao ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae i?ioyaii aaaaoueio ?ie?a
iaaiai?thaaeinue ieoaiiy i?i i?aaiaee noaoon ia?anaeaioe?a, noai?aiiy
?aa?iiaeueii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?anaeaioeyie ? ??ciiiai?oi? ieaie ?o
aeaoooaaiiy.

Ia oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie, a iniiaiiio aei ?? i?aaeaiii? /anoeie, i?ioyaii
XV??? — X?X no. ia?anaeyeenue ia eeoa iiiaeeiie?, ?ic??ciai? a?oie
a?aeaioe?a, a ?, aieiaiei /eiii, aaeee? n?euenuee? a?iiaaee, ye?
ooai?thaaee iia? iinaeaiiy. I?aaiaee noaoon, i?aaa ? i?eueae
ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei aecia/aeeny oe?eith ieceith oe?eei
?yaeii th?eaee/ieo aeo?a ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo — i?aea??a, oeac?a,
iai?oano?a oa caeii?a. Ia?anaeaioe?, i?eaoaath/e aei I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie,
i?eeiaee i?aeaeainoai ?in?enueei? ?iia???. I?ioyaii iaaiiai /ano
anoaiiaeaiiai i?aeia?iaeiith oaiaeith (ie?i? aeiaiai?e i?ae ?in?enueeith
oa Oo?aoeueeith ?iia??yie) ?ii?a?aioe naiino?eii aeae?aee a?iiaaeyinoai.
I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a o I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? c
aieo aea?aeaae ae?aaeaeiny o noai?aii? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace aeey
ia?anaeaiue ?iicaioe?a, i?eeiyooy ieie i?aeaeainoaa ?in?enueei? ?iia???
oa cae??ieaiiy ?o i?aaiaiai noaoono; noai?aiiy iniaeeaeo
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?aai?a aeey i?aai?caoe?? ia?anaeaiue ? “ii?ee”
ia?anaeaioe?a.

Ioaea ca nai?i i?aaiaei noaoonii eieeoi? ia?anaeaioe? aoee i?aeaeaieie
?in?enueei? ?iia???, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue o naeyinueeiio noai? aea iaee
ie?ai? i?aaa ? i?eueae i?eoaiaii? eeoa ?i.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ”Nenoaiaoecaoe?y caeiiiaeaanoaa noiniaii
ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei o ia?o?e iieiaei? X?X no.”
aeine?aeaeo?oueny aieea a?enueeiaeo ?aoi?i ia?oi? iieiaeie X?X no. ia
i?aaiaee noaoon ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. ?ice?eoi ieoaiiy,
iia’ycai? c o/anoth i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei
o ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeeo a?eiao O?O no. a eiioaeno? i?ioean?a, ui
i?ioiaeeee ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie, i?iaiae?ciaaia caeiiiaeaanoai ?in?enueei?
?iia??? uiaei ?iicaiieo eieii?no?a.

Aei ieo iaeaaeaee i?aaenoaaieee ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae: i?ioe?,
aieaa?e, a?aee, aeaaioe? ? iieaeaaaie. Eiaei?e a?oi? ?iicaiieo
eieii?no?a i?aaa iaaeaaaeeny ie?aiei caeiiiaeaa/ei aeoii. Eeoa o 1842
?ioe? an? iieiaeaiiy iai?oano?a oa oeac?a noiniaii ?iicaiieo eieii?no?a
aoee nenoaiaoeciaai? e neiioeaio?iaai? a ie?aiiio aeieoiaio? “Noaooo?
i?i eieii?? ?iicaioe?a a ?iia???”, yeee i?ci?oa aa?eoia aei Caiaeo
caeii?a 1857 ?ieo. Caiaeii aei “Noaoooo i?i eieii?? ?iicaioe?a a
?iia???” aiineeeny iacia/i? ci?ie, ye iai?eeeaae o 1861 ?ioe? noiniaii
iiaeaoe?a, aea a oe?eiio a?i caa??aaa naith /eii?noue aei 1871 ?ieo.
Eieii?noe noaiiaeee iniaeeao, iai?ai?ea?eaeiaaio eaoaai??th n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy oa ca nai?i noaiiaeuai aoee iaaeeaeai? aei aea?aeaaieo naeyi,
aeae?eyth/enue eeoa aeayeeie i?eueaaie. Aeey ieo aoa ni?iuaiee ae?cae ca
ei?aeii. Eieii?noe iaee i?aai a?eueii ia?aoiaeeoe aei ?ioeo noai?a,
aeoiaey/e c eieii?nonueeiai aai caeeoath/enue a iueiio. A inoaiiueiio
aeiaaeeo aiie iiaeii? aoee niea/oaaoe iiaeaoee ? a?aeaoaaoe iiaeiiino?
ca iaeaeaa noaie. A iaeiiaiio a?aeiioaii? cia/iith i?eueaith aoa aaeeeee
caiaeueiee iaae?e.

Aei 1871 ?ieo aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ono??e eieii?e aoei aeaooiaaii ia
canaaeao, cacia/aieo a “Noaooo? i?i eieii?? ?iicaioe?a a ?iia???”.
Caaaeueia oi?aae?iiy iiaeie eieii?yie ia?anaeaioe?a cae?enithaaa
Ii?eoinueeee Eii?oao ?iicaiieo iinaeaioe?a I?aaeaiiiai e?ath ?in??, yeee
ciaoiaeeany a Iaean?, a i?noeaaa a?iiaaenueea a?yaeoaaiiy noai?thaaeiny
ca?aeii c? cae/ayie ia?anaeaioe?a. Aaei?i?no?aoeaia aa?oeeaeue
oi?aae?iiy iaea oaeee aeaeyae: eieii?? ia’?aeioaaeeny a ie?oae, iaaeyae
ca ae?yeuei?noth n?euenueeeo oa ie?oaeieo i?eeac?a cae?enithaaa
niaoe?aeueiee /eiiaiee — aeiaeyaea/ eieii?e, yeee, iaieiath/e iia?oia?
oa aoaa?inuee? onoaiiae, aoa i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee aaciina?aaeiuei
Ii?eoinueeiio Eii?oaoo, a oie, a naith /a?ao, i?i?noa?noao aea?aeaaiiai
iaeia. Ii?eoinueeee Eii?oao cae?enithaaa caaaeueia ea??aieoeoai an?ia
noa?aie aeeooy eieii?e I?aaeaiiiai e?ath. Eiai ooieoe?? iieyaaee o
i?eeiyoo? aei noaio eieii?no?a, ?o ?icnaeaii?, iaaeyae? ca caieyie,
ioi?ii? i?aa eieii?no?a — iaaeyae? ca aeeiiaiiyi iaia’yce?a,
iie?oeaenueeeie ? noaeiaeie oi?aaaie a eieii?yo, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
iaaeyaeo, i?eeoaaiiy i?i aeia?iaoo oiui. O 1864 ?ioe? iiaiiaaaeaiiy
Ii?eoinueeiai eii?oaoo aoee aeaui iaiaaeai?: c eiai a?aeiinoaa aoee
aeeo/ai? noaeiai-ne?ae/? ni?aae, a oaeiae ieoaiiy, ui i?aeeyaaee
aaaeaiith cainoa. Aiie ae??ooaaeenue ca “Noaoooii ea?iiai noaei/einoaa”
i?eeiyoiio a oeueiio ?ioe?. Aeey iaaeyaeo ca eieii?yie Eii?oao i?ecia/aa
aeiaeyaea/?a e aecia/aa ?oi? iiaiiaaaeaiiy.

I?aaiii a?iiaaenueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy a eiaei?e eieii?? aoa n?euenueeee
ie?nueeee noiae. Ieoaiiy, ye? i?aeeyaaee eiai ae??oaiith, aoee oaeeie:
n?euenuee? aeai?e, ia?aa?ae eieii?no?a a ?io? noaie, ii?ooaiiy
eeiiioaiue, ?iceeaaeea iiaeaoe?a oa iiaeiiinoae, aeeeth/aiiy /eai?a c?
naiai na?aaeiaeua, ainiiaea?nuee? ieoaiiy. N?euenueeee noiae a?ae?a?aaaa
aaaeeeao ?ieue o aioo??oiueiio aeeoo? eiaeii? eieii??.

I’yoee ?icae?e “Ci?ia i?aaiaiai noaoono ia?anaeaioe?a oa c??aiyiiy c
i?aeaeaieie ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? X?X — ia ii/aoeo
XX no.” i?enay/aiee aea/aiith eiea i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c? noaiiaeuai
ia?anaeaioe?a o neeaae? i?aaeaiieo iinaeyi oa aea?aeaaieo naeyi,
?aoi?iith ?iicaiieo eieii?no?a 1871 ?ieo, aieeaii ?icaeoeo
eai?oae?noe/ieo a?aeiinei ia e?ea?aeaoe?th noaiiaeo i?ea?ea?a oa
ae??aithaaiiy i?aaiaiai noaoono ia?anaeaioe?a a ae?oa?e iieiaei?
X?X no., oa iaoe?iiaeueiith iie?oeeith ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo uiaei
i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a e?ioe? X?X — ia
ii/aoeo XX no.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? X?X no. ?noioii ci?ieany noaoon a?enueeiaeo
ia?anaeaioe?a — o?yae ianiai ia?aaiaeea ?o c iaeiiai aei ?ioiai noaio,
ia ui aiie iaiaeii?aciai aeacoaaee o nai?o eenoao-nea?aao aei aeaae
aea?aeaae. A 1857 ?ioe? a?enueeia? iinaeaiiy aoee neaniaaii ? c 1-ai
n?/iy 1858 ?ieo ia?anaeaioe? noaee “i?aaeaiieie iinaeyiaie”. Ca nai?i
noaoonii aiie i?e??aithaaeenue aei aea?aeaaieo naeyi, iaae?eyeenue
iiaeaoiith caieath ca yeo ieaoeee iicaiaeueiee iiaeaoie. Iaae?eaiiy
caieath i?iaiaeeeinue ia ca e?euee?noth /eai?a n?i’?, a ca iayaieie
caniaaie aeey ?? ia?ia?oeo.

14 eeiiy 1866 ?ieo i?aaeaii? iinaeyie io?eiaee noaoon iinaeyi-aeaniee?a.
Ia aieinieo noiaeao iina?aaeieee ca/eoaee iaeaeua caoaa?aeaeaiee
18-ai n?/iy 1866 ?ieo oeac Aea?aeaaii? ?aaee i?i ia?aaea/o iinaeyi o
aaaeaiiy caaaeueieo aoaa?inueeeo ? iia?oiaeo, a oaeiae i?noeaaeo ii
naeyinueeeo ni?aaao onoaiia ? iiynieee, ui ?o iaae?euei? caie? ?
oa?aeaey caeeoathoueny a ?oiueiio ei?enooaaii? iaaeae? aac anyei? ci?ie
aei inoaoi/iiai iicaiaeueiiai aeaoooaaiiy. Aiie ciaia’ycai? aoee
niea/oaaoe an? eieeoi? a?ioia? cai?e ? a?aeaoaaoe iaoo?aeuei?
iiaeiiino?. Aieini? aieiae aoee ia?aeiaiiaai? a noa?oei.

?aoi?ia ?iicaiieo eieii?no?a ciaoiaeeeanue o caaaeueiiio ?one? ?aoi?i
50-70 ?ie?a X?X no. Aiia i?iaiaeeeanue c iaoith iioe?aiiy ia eieii?no?a
ae?? Caaaeueiiai iieiaeaiiy i?i naeyi 1861 ?ieo c aeayeeie
aeiiiaiaiiyie, iia’ycaieie c iniaeeainoyie ?o iiaooo. I?ney ?icaeyaeo
iiaiai caeiio a Aea?aeaai?e ?aae? a?i 4 /a?aiy 1871 ?ieo aoa
caoaa?aeaeaiee ?iia?aoi?ii o i?no? Ain?. Oeae aeieoiaio ae?noaa iacao
“I?aaeea i?i ono??e iinaeyi-aeaniee?a (o ieioeiio eieii?no?a), iinaeaieo
ia eacaiieo caieyo a aoaa?i?yo N.-Iaoa?ao?cuee?e, Iiaai?iaenuee?e,
Naia?nuee?e, Na?aoianuee?e, Ai?iiacuee?e, Iieoaanuee?e,
Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e, Oa?niinuee?e, Oaa??enuee?e ? a iaeano?
Aanna?aanuee?e”.

Ca “I?aaeeaie” oaeoe/ii aoa neaniaaiee noai ?iicaiieo eieii?no?a, ye?
oaia? io?eiaee iacao iinaeyi-aeaniee?a ? ia?aeoee o i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
caaaeueiei onoaiiaai o naeyinueeeo ni?aaao. Aiie iiaeii? aoee aeeiioaaoe
an? iaeaaei? a?ioia? ? iaoo?aeuei? iiaeiiino?, ia ieo
?iciianthaeaeoaaeanue ae?y caaaeueieo caeii?a, ui aoee aeaeai? noiniaii
naeyi. C ?ioiai aieo, ca iinaeyiaie-aeanieeaie oei/aniai caa??aaeeny
aeaye? i?eueae. Oae, aei i?iaaaeaiiy iaeaooiuei? a?enueeiai? ?aoi?ie ca
ieie caeeoaeiny ca?eueiaiiy a?ae ?ae?oonueeiai iaai?o, a ia 10 ?ie?a —
a?ae a?enueeiai-iinoieii? iiaeiiino?. E??i oiai, ai?iaeiaae 10 ?ie?a ca
ieie caa??aaeiny i?aai ia?aoiaeeoe a ?io? noaie, caeeoaoenue o
iiia?aaeiueiio, a oaeiae iiaeeea?noue caeeoeoe ?in?enueea i?aeaeainoai e
ae?oaoe ca ei?aeii aac aianaiiy a eacio /anoeie iaaooiai ieie eai?oaeo.
Iaeiae oe? oei/ania? iinooiee eeoa i?aee?anethaaee aaciiai?ioi?noue
ci?i, ui a?aeaoeeny a aeeoo? eieii?no?a.

?aoi?ia 1871 ?ieo aianea ci?ie ? a ii?yaeie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Eieii?noe
a?aeiei? iaee niea/oaaoe iiaeaoee ia caaaeueieo canaaeao. ?acii c oei
aiie, ye ? an? naeyie, iiaeii? aoee niea/oaaoe ca?? ia oo?eiaiiy
i?noeaaeo onoaiia o naeyinueeeo oi?aaao ? aeiaeaoeiai i?ioyaii aeayeiai
oa?i?io i?iaeiaaeoaaoe aeieaoo niaoe?aeueieo eieii?nonueeeo iiaeaoe?a.
Oea icia/aei, ui aeayeee /an eieii?noe iaee ieaoeoe iiaeaoe?a a?eueoa,
i?ae ?io? naeyie. O?aaa caaaeeoe ua e ia oie oaeo, ui ?aoi?ia 1871 ?ieo
ni?aiaea ?c cae?i/aiiyi i?eueaiaiai ia??iaeo aeey a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy
eieii?e. Oaea ??cea iaeii/ania ca?eueoaiiy iiaeaoe?a ? iiaeiiinoae
aeyaeeiny aeineoue /ooeeaei aeey ia?anaeaioe?a.

Aiane?aeie ?aoi?ie 1871 ?ieo ci?ieeanue noaiiaa iaeaaei?noue
eieii?no?a — aiie aoee ca?aoiaai? aei noaio iinaeyi-aeaniee?a. ?aoi?ia
i?ecaaea aei neanoaaiiy ie?aiiai oi?aae?iiy eieii?noaie. C cae?i/aiiyi
oa?i?io i?euea ia eieii?no?a iiai?noth noaee ?iciianthaeaeoaaoeny
caeiiiaeaanoai ? ii?yaeee, ui ?nioaaee a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???. Ioaea, a
e?ioe? X?X — ia ii/aoeo XX no. aea?aeaaia iie?oeea noiniaii
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae Oe?a?ie cacia? cia/ieo ci?i. Oea aoei iia’ycaii c oei,
ui caaaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai inai?iiy aoee aeeiiai? ? ia ia?oee ieai aoee
aenoioo? iie?oe/i? ? iaoe?iiaeuei? ieoaiiy.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE IAOEIAIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaco?, ui no/aniee aoi?/iee neeaae ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie — ? ?acoeueoaoii o?eaaeiai ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. Aaaeeeao ?ieue
o eiai oi?ioaaii?, iniaeeai i?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio, a?ae?a?aea
ia?anaeainueea iie?oeea, yea cae?enithaaeanue i?ioyaii XV??? — X?X no.

Aei ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei iaeaaeaee a?oie i?aeaeaieo
?in?enueei? ?iia???, ye? ia aoee ?in?yiaie /e oe?a?ioeyie ca
iaoe?iiaeuei?noth, aeyaeyee ii/oooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiona?aeiieaiiy oa
ni?eueiino? i?ae niaith.

I?aaiaee noaoon ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei o ?in?enuee?e
?iia??? — oea noeoii?noue i?aa oa iaia’yce?a iaaii? ni?eueiino?
i?aeaeaieo (?ii?a?aio?a), ye? aeieeee c i?eaiaeo ?aae?caoe?? a?aeiinei,
iia’ycaieo c iaeaaei?noth aei a?aeiia?aeii? eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy
(a?enueeiaeo ia?anaeaioe?a, eieii?no?a), ui iaea ?yae a?aei?iiinoae a?ae
?ioeo i?aeaeaieo. Iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy iacaaieo i?aa oa iaia’yce?a a
ia?oo /a?ao aoea ?aae?caoe?y iie?oe/ieo caaaeaiue, ye? noaaea ia?aae
niaith o?yae ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

I?aaiaee noaoon ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei aecia/aany
noeoii?noth i?aaiaeo ii?i, ye? cae??iethaaee iieiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei o i?aaia?e nenoai? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? o XV??? — ia ii/aoeo
XX no. ?aaoethaaee ?o a?aeiineie c o?yaeii, aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie oa
?ioeie a?oiaie ianaeaiiy.

O no/aniiio ?icoi?ii?, iniae ye? iaeaaeaee aei ia?anaeainueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, iaee aeaye? iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i? oa
eoeueoo?i? i?aaa oa naiaiaee. Aei iaia’yce?a ia?anaeainueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei iiaeia a?aeianoe aeiiao iiaaaeaoe ?in?enuee?
caeiie, aooe aa?ieie ainiiaea?yie, aeeiioaaoe nai? aeiiii?/i?
ciaia’ycaiiy.

Ioaea, ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie iiaeaii
eiinoaooaaoe, ui:

1. Oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy ia oa?eoi???
no/anii? Oe?a?ie o?nii iia’ycaia c ia?oeie ni?iaaie i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy aoiinioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo ??cieie
aea?aeaaieie ooai?aiiyie.

2. ?in?enueei-oo?aoeuee? a?eie XV??? — X?X no. noaee i?e/eiith
ia?anaeaiue i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?iae?a Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa ?
Iiaeoiaa’y oa canioaaiiy a?enueeiaeo ie?oa?a o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?, a
i?aeienai? ca ?o ?acoeueoaoaie aeiaiai?e noaee i?aaiaith iniiaith
oeueiai i?ioeano.

3. A Oe?a?io, a iniiaiiio aei ?? i?aaeaiii? /anoeie, ia?anaeyeeny ia
iiiaeeiie?, ?ic??ciai? a?oie a?aeaioe?a, a ia?aaaaeii aaeee? n?euenuee?
a?iiaaee, ye? ooo ooai?thaaee iia? iinaeaiiy. I?aaiaee noaoon, i?aaa ?
i?eueae ?ii?a?aio?a aecia/aeeny oe?eith ieceith i?aea??a, oeac?a,
iai?oano?a oa caeii?a, ye? i?ieoee o nai?io ?icaeoeia? aeae?eueea
aoai?a, ui a oe?eiio ni?aiaaeathoue c cai?iiiiiaaiith no?oeoo?ith
aeena?oaoe??.

4. I?eueaiaa iie?oeea o noaaeaii? aei ?iicaiieo ia?anaeaioe?a
aecia/aeanue iie?oe/ieie caaaeaiiyie, ye? noiyee ia?aae o?yaeii ?
ni?eyea ci?oeiaiiy iiceoe?e ?in?enueei? ?iia??? o I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’?.

5. Ooai?aiiy eieii?e cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo eieii?no?a ? “caaeoiaenueeeo
ia?anaeaioe?a” o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? ni?eyei oaeaeeiio aeiiii?/iiio
?icaeoeo e?ath.

6. O ia?o?e iieiaei? X?X no. aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa nenoaiaoecaoe??
caeiiiaeaanoaa noiniaii ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. Aea ?o
i?aaiaee noaoon caeeoaany iaiaeii??aeiei aei ae?oai? iieiaeie X?X no.,
eiee i?aaeaii? iinaeyie e ?iicaii? eieii?noe c??aiyeenue c ?ioeie
i?aeaeaieie ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

7. A e?ioe? X?X — ia ii/aoeo XX no. uiaei i?aaenoaaiee?a
ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei ?in?enueeee o?yae i?iaiaeea
iie?oeeo ni?yiiaaio ia c??aiyiiy ?o i?aaiaiai noaoono c ?ioeie
i?aeaeaieie ?in?enueei? ?iia???, ui a?aeia?aaeaei caaaeuei?
caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ao?aeoaciiai i?aaa.

8. I?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo i?aaenoaaieee ??cieo
ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei Oe?a?ie ciaoiaeeeenue o
aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei?, oiaoi ia aeae?eyeeny ye?nue ?noioi? eoeueoo?i? /e
aeiiii?/i? ia?aaaae iaei??? iaoe?? iaae ?ioeie.

O ia??iae XV??? — ii/aoeo XX no. oea?eci i?iaiaeea aio/eo iine?aeiaio
iie?oeeo ni?yiiaaio ia aeei?enoaiiy ? anei?eyoe?th ia?anaeainueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? nai?o caaaeaiue o?yae noai?ea
oe?ieo aaaaoiieaiiao i?aaiao aaco noiniaii i?aaiaiai noaoono
ia?anaeaioe?a, yea a oe?eiio aoea ni?yiiaaia ia oi?o?eaoe?th ?
i?aaethaaiiy aoi?/ieo iniaeeainoae, oi/a a i?e aeiioneaeenue ?
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo ieoaiue ye?
aeieeaee o i?ioean? noinoie?a i?ae aaei?i?no?aoe??th ? ia?anaeaioeyie.
Aeei?enoaiiy ?ii?a?aio?a aeey ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee i?aaeaiieo ?aa?ii?a
aea?aeaae aoei /anoeiith caaaeueii?iia?nueei? eieii?caoe?eii? iie?oeee.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? :

1. Iaoeia N.A. Aieaa?neay aeeanii?a a Oe?aeia: i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea
(XV?? — X?X aa.).— Caii?iaeuea: TH?eaee/aneee ei-o IAAe Oe?aeiu, 1997.—
66n.

2. I?oeia N.A. I?aaia? oaeoi?e aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie // Oe?a?ia OO noie?ooy:
?noi??y oa i?aai.— Caii??aeaey: TH?eaee/iee ?i-o IAN Oe?a?ie, 1998.—
Aei.1.— N.214-223.

3. I?oeia N.A. Caeiiiaeaa/a iie?oeea ?in?enueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? o
canaeaii? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie // A?niee Caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai
?inoeoooo.— 1998.— ?1.— N.51-62.

4. I?oeia N.A. I?eueaiaa iie?oeea o?yaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? o
noaaeaii? aei “caaeoiaenueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a” o eiioaeno? no/anii?
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee noiniaii iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei Oe?a?ie // A?niee
Caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo.— 1998.— ? 2.— N.239-246.

5. I?oeia A.I., I?oeia N.A. Ieoaiiy iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie
i?aaiaiai noaoono iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a Oe?a?i? // A?niee Eoaainueeiai
?i-oo aioo??oi?o ni?aa.— 1998.— ?2.— N.44-57.

6. I?oeia A.I., I?oeia N.A. TH?eaee/i? iniiae ci?i o i?aaiaiio noaoon?
i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?anaeainueeeo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae Oe?a?ie a e?ioe?
XV??? — ia?o?e iieiaei? X?X noie?oue // A?niee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa.— 1998.— ?3.— N.3-11.

7. I?oeia N.A. Iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae Aoanueeiai eicaoeueeiai
a?enueea // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa i?aaia? aniaeoe aea?aeaaioai?aiiy
a Oe?a?i?”.— Iaeana, 1996.— N.45-47.

8. I?oeia A.I., I?oeia N.A. Aieaa?nueea eicaoeueea a?enueei //
Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa i?aaia? aniaeoe aea?aeaaioai?aiiy
a Oe?a?i?”.— Iaeana, 1996.— N.43-44.

I?oeia N.A. Ia?anaeainuee? iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo
o neeaae? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a XV??? — ia ii/aoeo XX no.
(?noi?eei-i?aaiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy).— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiino? 12.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa,
?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue.— Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny i?aaia? iniiae i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa oaeoi?e aieeao ia
iueiai; aena?oeth?oueny ieoaiiy aaiethoe?? ii?iaoeaii? aace o eiioaeno?
aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai iiey noiniaii ??cieo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae o ?in?enuee?e ?iia???, aea/a?oueny aea?aeaaia iie?oeea
?in?enueeiai o?yaeo uiaei i?aaenoaaiee?a ia/eneaiieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae,
ye? iaoeaee ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, aiae?cothoueny nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
ca’ycee i?ae ??cieie aoi?/ieie a?oiaie o XV??? — ia ii/aoeo XX noie?oue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?anaeainuee? iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie, i?aaiaee noaoon,
?ii?a?aioe, a?enueeia? ia?anaeaioe?, aaei?i?no?aoe?y, eieii??, ?iicaii?
eieii?noe, a?enueeia? iinaeaiiy, aeia?iaieueoe?, a?iiaaea.

Iaoeia N.A. Ia?anaeai/aneea iaoeeiiaeueiua iaiueoeinoaa ia oe?aeineeo
caieyo a ninoaaa ?inneeneie eiia?ee a XV??? — ia/aea XX aa.
(enoi?eei-i?aaiaia enneaaeiaaiea).— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa,
enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee.— Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo aeae,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony i?aaiaua iniiau i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu e oaeoi?u aeeyiey ia
iaai; inaauathony aii?inu yaiethoeee ii?iaoeaiie aacu a eiioaenoa
i?ioeanna aeeiaie/aneiai ?acaeoey iieeoeei-i?aaiaiai iiey ioiineoaeueii
noaoona iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa a ?inneeneie eiia?ee, eco/aaony
ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea ?inneeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii ioiioaieth e
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi iaiiiai/eneaiiuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, eioi?ua i?iaeeaaee
ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu, aiaeece?othony nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea nayce
iaaeaeo ?aciuie yoie/aneeie a?oiiaie a XV??? — ia/aea XX noieaoee.

E ia?anaeai/aneei iaoeeiiaeueiui iaiueoeinoaai ioiineeenue a?oiiu
iiaeaiiuo ?inneeneie eiia?ee, eioi?ua ia auee ?onneeie eee oe?aeioeaie
ii iaoeeiiaeueiinoe, auyaeyee /oanoaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey e
iauiinoe iaaeaeo niaie.

I?aaiaie noaoon ia?anaeai/aneeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa a ?inneeneie
eiia?ee — yoi niaieoiiinoue i?aa e iaycaiiinoae ii?aaeaeaiiie iauiinoe
iiaeaeaiiuo (eiiea?aioia), eioi?ua aicieeee a nayce n ?aaeecaoeeae
ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e ii?aaeaeaiiie eaoaai?ee
ianaeaiey (aiaiiuo ia?anaeaioeaa, eieiienoia), eioi?ay eiaea ?yae
ioee/ee io inoaeueiuo iiaeaeaiiuo. Oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiey iacaaiuo i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae auea ?aaeecaoeey iieeoe/aneeo caaeaiee, eioi?ua noaaeei
ia?aae niaie i?aaeoaeuenoai ?inneeneie eiia?ee.

I?aaiaie noaoon ia?anaeai/aneeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa ii?aaeaeyeny
niaieoiiinoueth i?aaiauo ii?i, eioi?ua cae?aieyee iieiaeaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa a i?aaiaie nenoaia ?inneeneie eiia?ee a
XV??? — ia/aea XX no. ?aaoee?iaaee eo ioiioaiey n i?aaeoaeuenoaii,
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie e ae?oaeie a?oiiaie ianaeaiey.

A nia?aiaiiii iiieiaiee, eeoea eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeaee e ia?anaeai/aneei
iaoeeiiaeueiui iaiueoeinoaai, eiaee iaeioi?ua iieeoe/aneea, nioeeaeueiua
yeiiiie/aneea e eoeueoo?iua i?aaa e naiaiaeu. E iaycaiiinoyi
ia?anaeai/aneeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa iiaeii ioianoe o?aaiaaiea
oaaaeaoue ?inneeneea caeiiu, auoue oi?ioeie oicyaaaie, eniieiyoue naie
yeiiiie/aneea iaycaiiinoe.

Oi?ie?iaaiea iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey ia oa??eoi?ee
nia?aiaiiie Oe?aeiu oanii naycaii n ia?auie iiiuoeaie i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey yoiinioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia ia oe?aeineeo caieyo ni
noi?iiu Oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa.

?inneenei-oo?aoeeea aieiu XV??? — X?X noieaoee noaee i?e/eiie
ia?anaeaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia?iaeia Aaeeaineiai iieoino?iaa e
Iiaeoiaauey e iniiaaiey aiaiiuo ie?oaia a THaeiie Oe?aeia.

A Oe?aeio, a iniiaiii a aa thaeiua ?aaeiiu, ia?anaeyeenue ia oieueei
ioaeaeueiua, ?ac?iciaiiua a?oiiu aaaeaioeaa, a aeaaiui ia?acii aieueoea
naeueneea iaueiu, eioi?ua ia inaaeaaaiuo caieyo nicaeaaaee iiaua
iinaeaiey. I?aaiaie noaoon, i?aaa e eueaiou eiiea?aioia ii?aaeaeyeenue
oeaeui ?yaeii i?aea?ia, oeacia, iaieoanoia e caeiiia.

Eueaioiay iieeoeea a ioiioaiee eiino?aiiuo ia?anaeaioeaa ii?aaeaeyeanue
iieeoe/aneeie caaeaieyie eioi?ua noiyee ia?aae i?aaeoaeuenoaii e
niinianoaiaaea oe?aieaieth iiceoeee ?inneeneie eiia?ee a Naaa?iii
I?e/a?iiii?uea.

Nicaeaiea eieiiee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo eieiienoia e “caaeoiaeneeo
ia?anaeaioeaa” a THaeiie Oe?aeia niinianoaiaaei auno?iio yeiiiie/aneiio
?acaeoeth e?ay.

A ia?aie iieiaeia X?X noieaoey auea naeaeaia iiiuoea nenoaiaoecaoeee
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a ioiioaiee ia?anaeai/aneeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iaiueoeinoa. Ii i?aaiaie noaoon ia?anaeai/aneeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iaiueoeinoa inoaaaeny iaiaeii?iaeiui aei aoi?ie iieiaeiu X?X noieaoey,
eiaaea thaeiua iinaeyia e eiino?aiiua eieiienou n?aaiyeenue n ae?oaeie
iiaeaeaiiuie ?inneeneie eiia?ee.

I?aaenoaaeoaee ?aciuo ia?anaeai/aneeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa Oe?aeiu
ia i?ioyaeaiee enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea iaoiaeeeenue a aa?oeeaeueiie
ieineinoe, oi anoue ia auaeaeyeinue eaeia-eeai nouanoaaiiia eoeueoo?iia
eee yeiiiie/aneia i?aainoiaenoai iaeiie iaoeee iaae ae?oaeie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?anaeai/aneea iaoeeiiaeueiua iaiueoeinoaa, i?aaiaie
noaoon, eiiea?aiou, aiaiiua ia?anaeaioeu, aaeieieno?aoeey, eieiiee,
eieiienou, aiaiiua iinaeaiey, aeia?iaieueoeu, iaueia.

Petkov S.V. National minorities of migrants on Ukrainian lands belonging
to Russian empire in XVIII century — in the beginning of XX century (law
— historical investigation).— Manuscript.

Dissertation for a scientific degree of candidate of law sciences on
speciality 12.00.21 — theory and history of state and law, history of
political and law sciences.— University of internal affairs, Kharkiv,
1999.

In this research law basis of multinational population of Ukraine and
factors of influence on it are investigated; the question of evolution
of the context of dynamic development of political and law field
concerning different nationalities in Russian emperia is cleared up,
state politics of Russian government, especially the representations of
national minorities, who lived on the territory of Ukraine are studied
out, social and economic connection between different ethnic groups in
XVIII, in the beginning of the XX centuries are analysed.

Key words: national minorities migrants, law status, migrants, military
migrants, administration colonies, foreign colonists, military
settlements, volunteers, society.

___________________________

1. Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie. — E., 1996. — N. 2, 4, 7, 16.

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