Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee

IANAE?O?IA IEAIA NAIAI?AIA

OAeE 371.263

IAAeAAIA?*I? OIIAE CANOINOAAIIss OANO?A

AeEss EIIO?IETH IAA*AEUeII-I?CIAAAEUeII? Ae?ssEUeIINO? NOA?OIEEANIEE?A

13.00.01-OAI??ss OA ?NOI??ss IAAeAAIA?EE

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

Eiciaa Aaeaioeia ?aai?aia,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith iaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ao?ye Aieiaeeie? Einoyioeiiae/,

E?eai??cueeee aea?aeaaiee

iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

?e/eiaa Ea?ena Aieiaeeie??aia,

na?aaeiy caaaeueiiina?oiy ?-??? nooiai?a

oeiea ? 36 i.Oa?eiaa,

a/eoaeue.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee
oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “20” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 13 00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.04 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee ca aae?anith:
310068, i.Oa?e?a, aoe.Aethoa?a, 2, 221 aoae.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee (310168, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe.Aethoa?a, 2)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 14 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee N.O.Cieiooo?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. O no/anieo oiiaao
?aoi?ioaaiiy noa?e ina?oe iaeiei ?c iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieo ieoaiue
caeeoa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a. Ae??oaiith aeaiiai ieoaiiy o cia/i?e i??? ni?ey?
canoinoaaiiy oano?a aeey aeyaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aiiy.

Aea/aiiy i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy eiio?ieth iia’ycaii c ieoaiiyie
aecia/aiiy e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee, iaae?eiino?,
noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co oni?oiino? oeiey??a /O.I.Aiiiaoa?e?, A.A.Aiaiue?a,
TH.E.Aaaainueeee, Oe.O.Aaa?aoa?e?, A.?.Aacaa?oa, I.O.A?eieo?,
I.N.A?eaoeaoia, ?.?.Aoeao, I.I.Iie?ia, I.I.Iao?aiei, A.I.Iieiinueeee,
O.A.Nieiaeea, ?.?.Oeoiiia, I.A.Ooa?i oa ?i./. Oea niiioeaei aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy oanoiaeo iaoiaeee eiio?ieth oa iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o
aoaeoeaiino? /A.N.Aaaiania, A.I.Aaciaeueei, N.I.Ainea?/’yi, E.I.Ao?aae/,
O.A.?eue?ia, A.TH.Eiyc?aa, N.I.Noai?ia, I.O.Oaeec?ia oa ?i./.

Iaoiaee oanooaaiiy i?e aeeaeaeoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiiio ?o canoinoaaii?
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue: a)caaacia/oaaoe ia’?eoeai?noue eiio?ieth;
a)?aae?ciaoaaoe i?eioeei ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? oa aoiai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy;
a)iia?aoeaii iaea?aeoaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th ye o/eoaeyie, ea??aieeaie oe?e,
oae ? naieie oeiey?aie i?i canai?iiy ci?noo ina?oe. Oae, aieaooaaiiy 514
o/i?a, aan?aee c ieie iieacaee, ui 78% o/i?a aaaeathoue aa/eoe
??ciiiai?oi? iaoiaee eiio?ieth ciaiue ia o?ieao, o oiio /ene? ?
oanooaaiiy, ca oiiae eiai oaeineiiaeaiiy: canoinoaaiiy eiii’thoa??a o
i?ioean? iaa/aiiy (47%), iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy oano?a c oaea ?nioth/eie
a oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe? iaoiaeaie eiio?ieth (32%). ?ioa?an noa?oieeaniee?a
aei oano?a iia’ycaiee oaeiae c ?o naiiaecia/aiiyi i?ney cae?i/aiiy
oeiee: anooiii aei aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, iiaeeea?noth o/ano? a
i?aeia?iaeieo i?ia?aiao iai?io oeiey?aie ? nooaeaioaie, ye? aoaathoue a
Oe?a?i? ui?ieo.

Aea/aiiy ieoaiue canoinoaaiiy oano?a aeey eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a o iaaeaaia?/i?e iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? iieyaa? ia o?eueee a iciaeiieaii? a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a,
o/eoae?a c ?nioth/eie iaoiaeaie oanooaaiiy o ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao, aea e
iia’ycaii c aaeaioaoe??th aaea ai?iaiaaieo iaoiaeee canoinoaaiiy oano?a
aei no/anieo oiia, ui coiiaeth? ?ic?iaeo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a. Naia oiio, iacaaaeath/e
ia /eneaii? iiceoeai? yeino? oanooaaiiy, aiii ia ciaeoei oe?ieiai
canoinoaaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe? ye o 30-o? ?iee, oae ? a 90-o?.
Ioaea, aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, ?? iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaea coiiaeee oaio
aeine?aeaeaiiy: “Iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae canoinoaaiiy oano?a aeey eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a”.

Iac?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ioean eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a o na?aaei?o caaaeueiiina?oi?o iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao ca aeiiiiiaith oano?a oni?oiino?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy
oano?a oni?oiino? ye caniao eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? o/i?a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??eoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy oanoiaiai
eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a.

O aeine?aeaeaii? ca ia?aiith oaiith aeoiaeeee c ianooiii? a?iioace:
oanoiaee eiio?ieue ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie o/i?a aoaea ni?eyoe
i?aeaeuaiith yeino? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a i?e
aeio?eiaii? ianooiieo oiia: a)canoinoaaii? ??cieo oei?a oano?a
oni?oiino? c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a (c i?ia?aeiei
eiiiiiaioii “iniiae iaoe” aai “caniae ae?yeueiino?”); a)caaacia/aii?
iiaeeeaino? aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy c iaoith ?aae?caoe?? iniaeno?nii
ci???ioiaaiiai i?ioeano iaa/aiiy oa i?aeaioiaee o/i?a aei canoinoaaiiy
oano?a.

Iac?eo , i?aaeiao ? iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeee ianooii?
caaaeaiiy:

-ia iniia? aea/aiiy, aiae?co no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc?
aeeaeaeoeee, ineoieia??, oanoieia?? aecia/eoe nooue, aeaee, ooieoe??
oanoiaiai eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a;

-oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy
oanoiaiai eiio?ieth o oeie?;

-aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe oaoiieia?th caaacia/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo
oiia canoinoaaiiy oano?a oni?oiino? a oeie?.

Ia?aa??ea aenoiooi? a?iioace ? ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue
cae?enithaaeeny oeyoii canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeno iaoiae?a iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

-oai?aoe/ieo: aiae?co ineoieia?/ii?, iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aea/aiiy oa
oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy aeina?aeo a/eoae?a oe?e;

-aii??e/ieo: niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth oeiey??a,
aan?aee, aieaooaaiiy a/eoae?a oa o/i?a, aea??eiaiai ?ioa?a’th,
aenia?oieo ioe?iie, aiae?co ienueiiaeo ?ia?o o/i?a oa ?o a?aeiia?aeae ia
aecaiaiao;

-iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo, ye?niiai ? e?euee?niiai aiae?co eiai
iane?aee?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Iaoiaeieia?/io ? oai?aoe/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
neeaaeathoue ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? eiioeaioe?? iaa/aiiy ? ?icaeoeo
oeiey??a, ye? iaa?oioiaaii a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo O.I.Aiiiaoa?e?,
A.A.Aiaiue?aa, TH.E.Aaaainueeiai, E.?.Aiaeiae/, A.I.Aaciaeueea,
A.A.Aeaaeaeiaa, ?.N.Eiia, ?.ss.Ea?ia?a, ?.?.Ia?ianueeiai,
A.I.Iieiinueeiai, A.?.Uoe?ii?, a oaeiae o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo
oa ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a o aaeoc? oanooaaiiy /A.N.Aaaianiaa,
A.Aianoac?, A.?.Aacaa?oe, A.I.Aaciaeueea, ?.?.Aoeao, N.I.Ainea?/’yia,
E.I.Ao?aae/a, A.A?ia, ?.Eaaei, *.Ni??iaia, ?.Oi?iaeaeea oa ?i./.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia oa oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o
oiio, ui aia?oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino?
canoinoaaiiy oanooaaiiy: a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee i?ia?aeieo eiiiiiaio?a
iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a oa caaacia/aiiy aa??aoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy oano?a
o caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeueieo iaa/aeueieo iiaeeeainoae oeiey??a. ?ice?eoi
oaoiieia?th caaacia/aiiy a iaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo oiia canoinoaaiiy oano?a oa aecia/aii aoaie i?aeaioiaee
oeiey??a aei ?iaioe c ieie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a uiaei canoinoaaiiy oano?a o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean?. Iaea?aeai? aeai? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa neeaaea? oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia canoinoaaiiy oano?a, ?ic?iaeo oaoiieia?? ?o
?aae?caoe??, ye?niee oa e?euee?niee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo.

A??ia?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeth?oueny a?aeiia?aei?noth iaoeiaiai
aia?aoa ia’?eoo, i?aaeiaoo oa iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoiae?a, a?aeiia?aeieo iinoaaeaiei caaaeaiiyi, ii?aeiaiiyi e?euee?niiai
oa ye?niiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a, iiaeeea?noth ia?aa??ee iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

1.Iaaeaaia?/ieie oiiaaie canoinoaaiiy oano?a aeey eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a ?: a)a?aooaaiiy
i?ia?aeiiai eiiiiiaioa iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a; a)canoinoaaiiy
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy iniaeno?nii ci???ioiaaii?
iiceoe?? oeiey?a o iaa/aii?.

2.Oaoiieia?y caaacia/aiiy a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?
oeiey??a iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia aeei?enoaiiy oano?a oni?oiino? ia?aaeaa/a?
aeio?eiaiiy oaeeo aoai?a: i?aeaioia/iai, i?ioeanoaeueiiai oa
ei?eaoaaeueiiai.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
cae?enithaaeinue o i?ioean? aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy a
noa?oeo eeanao na?aaeiuei? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? ?-??? nooiai?a oeiee ? 62
oa e?oeath ? 174 “I?ioan?iiae” i. Oa?eiaa.

Caaaeaiiy, ci?no oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (Iieoaaa, 1997 ?., Oa?e?a,1999 ?.).

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai? ?iaioe a?aeaeoi o 7
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a (an? iaeiiin?ai?).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (249
iaeiaioaaiue), 3 aeiaeaoe?a (13 n.). Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeaii ia 144 noi??ieao, yeee aeeth/a? 1 noaio, 12 oaaeeoeue, 3
ae?aa?aie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy, a?iioaco aeine?aeaeaiiy, aena?oeaii iaoeiao
iiaecio, oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue ?iaioe, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy,
ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iiaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Eiio?ieue iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
oeiey??a ye eiiiiiaio i?ioeano iaa/aiiy” ?ice?eoi nooue, iaoo, ooieoe??,
no?oeoo?o eiio?ieth ye iaa?ae’?iii? eaiee i?ioeano iaa/aiiy, eiai
iniiai? aeaee ? oi?ie; eiie?aoeciaaii caaaeaiiy oanooaaiiy ye iaoiaeo
eiio?ieth o oeie?; aecia/aii eiiiiiaioe oa aoaie oanoiaiai eiio?ieth ?
aeyaeaii iniiai? niiniae i?iaaaeaiiy oanooaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoe,
oa?aeoa?o ? ci?noo oanoiaeo caaaeaiue.

Aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo aeaea?ae c ieoaiue oanooaaiiy aeiaiaeeoue, ui
aeieeiaiiy oanoiai? iaoiaeeee aoei aeeeeeaii iaiao?aei?noth ciaeoe
iaoaiaoe/i? aaee/eie, ye? a ia’?eoeaii oa iia?aoeaii a?aeaeaaee
?acoeueoaoe iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Ieoaiiy ?ic?iaee oai??? oa
i?aeoeee oanooaaiiy iia’ycai? c i?aoeyie a/aieo: A.A?ia, ?.Eaooaea,
Aeae.O?oa?a, E.Ni??iaia oa ?o iine?aeiaiee?a.

I?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?? oano?a, ?o iniiaieo ia?aiao??a, aeae?a, iaoiae?a
oanooaaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo ye ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo
/E.Aa/iaia, Aeae.A?aoia, ?.Eaaei, Aeae.Ieea?a, A.Iaeia?a, I.Ii?oaea,
?.Oi?iaeaeea oa ?i./, oae ? a?o/eciyieo /A.N.Aaaianiaa, E.A.Aaieaae/a,
I.N.Aa?ooaeia, A.I.Aaciaeueea, ?.?.Aiiae?, N.I.Ainea?/’yia,
N.I.Noai?iaa, ?.A.Oeaoo?iai? oa ?i./. Ocaaaeueiaio eeaneo?eaoe?th a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoe, ci?noo, no?oeoo?e iiaoaeiae caaaeaiue,
ia??iaee/iino? aeeiiaiiy oano?a, e?euee?niiai neeaaeo o/aniee?a
i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 1.

Aiae?c no/anii? a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie
oanooaaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iniiaieie aeiiaaie aei
iaaeaaia?/ieo oano?a ? aae?aei?noue, iaae?ei?noue oa aoaeiii? iieacieee.

E??i cacia/aieo iniiaieo aeiia aei yeino? oano?a, aeaye? aeine?aeieee
/A.I.Aeaianaae/, A.TH.Iaein, Ae.I.Iao?iaa/ iaceaathoue oaeiae oae? ?o
oa?aeoa?enoeee: noeeue, oai?/ee ii/a?e, iia?aoeai?noue oiui. Oaeei
/eiii, aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c ieoaiue oanooaaiiy a nenoai?
eiio?ieth na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui oanoe ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye iaeei ?c
cania?a iiia?aaeiueiai, iioi/iiai, ia??iaee/iiai oa i?aenoieiaiai
eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a, yeee
canoiniao?oueny o ii?aeiaii? c ?ioeie oi?iaie oa iaoiaeaie iae?eo ciaiue
o/i?a, ye? aaea neeaeeny o a?o/eciyi?e oeie?. I?ioa i?e aea/aii?
aaeeeiai oa ??ciiiai?oiiai aeina?aeo, yeee iaeiie/aii a ca?oa?aei?e
oeie? a aaeoc? oanoiai? ia?aa??ee ciaiue, a oaeiae oeo oai?aoe/ieo aeiia
oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ye? caeeaaeai? a iniiao ?ic?iaee oano?a, iaiao?aeii
e?eoe/ii i?aeoiaeeoe aei oeueiai ieoaiiy, a?aoiaoth/e niaoeeo?eo
a?o/eciyieo oe?e oa iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae canoinoaaiiy naieo oano?a.

C iaoith ia?aa??ee eiie?aoieo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oanoiaiai
eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a aoei i?iaaaeaii
iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio?.

Iiia?aaei? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?

Ia??iaee/i? a?oiia?

Oaiaoe/i? o?iioaeuei?

i?aenoieia?

I?ino? noaiaea?oeciaai?

Neeaaei? ianoaiaea?oeciaai?

iiiaeeiiiai aeai?oiiaea?eiiai aeai?oia ciaoiaeaeaiiy aiaeia?eia
aei?aaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeia c?noaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeia i?aaeeueio
iine?aeiai?noueia ae?? c a?oioaaiiyieia aeiiiaiaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeneooaoeai?aiiiaaii?aaoa?iaaii?

?en. 1. Noaia eeaneo?eaoe?? oano?a oni?oiino?

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea aoaeoeaiino?
canoinoaaiiy oano?a o i?aeoeoe? oe?e” ?ice?eoi caaaeuei? ieoaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? aenia?eiaioo, iaoiaee, o?ae aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aaenoaaeaii
?acoeueoaoe aiae?co ia?aa??ee aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia??
oanoiaiai eiio?ieth a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo oiia
canoinoaaiiy oano?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiith ?iaioith aoei ioiieaii 131 o/aiue noa?oeo eean?a
na?aaeiuei? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? ?-??? nooiai?a oeiee ? 62 oa e?oeath ?
174 “I?ioan?iiae” i.Oa?eiaa. Aeey c?o/iino? iieno ?acoeueoao?a
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aeey eiaeiiai eeano aaaaeaii oae? iicia/aiiy:
A1-ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oanooaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi oeio iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoa;
A2–canoinoaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy; A3-cae?eniaiiy
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi oeio iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoa;
E1-ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oanooaaiiy aac o?aooaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia;
E2-canoinoaaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a eiio?ieth. A aenia?eiaioaeueieo
oa eiio?ieueieo eeanao oanoiaee eiio?ieue i?iaiaeeany ia o?ieao a?ieia??
oa ?iicaiii? iiae.

Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy oano?a aoee: ye?noue
ciaiue (ia’?i, aeeaeia), ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue (?aeiino?oeoeaiee,
?ai?iaeoeoeaiee, oai?/ee); ??aaiue naiino?eiino? o/i?a (aenieee,
na?aaei?e, iecueeee), aiioe?eii-ioe?ithaaeueia noaaeaiiy oeiey??a aei
oanoiaiai eiio?ieth (iiceoeaia, iaaaoeaia, iaeo?aeueia), oa?aeoa?
naiiioe?iee.

Ia iniia? aiae?co iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, iieooaaiiy oeiey??a
(278 /ieia?e) oa a/eoae?a (230 /ieia?e), aan?ae c ieie aoei aecia/aii
oae? aeiiae oni?oii? i?aeaioiaee o/i?a aei canoinoaaiiy oano?a:
?aaoey?i?noue oanoiaiai eiio?ieth, aieiae?iiy i?eeiiaie i?aeaioiaee aei
aeeiiaiiy oano?a, aeio?eiaiiy ?aaeeio /ano, ?ioa?an aei iaa/aeueiiai
i?aaeiaoa, iiceoeaia aiioe?eii-ioe?ithaaeueia noaaeaiiy aei iaa/aiiy,
iaaeaiiy i?aaa a?eueiiai aeai?o oano?a oa ?i. ?aiaeoaaiiy ?o ca nooiaiai
cia/ouino? aeicaieeei aecia/eoe oae? aeiiae: aieiae?iiy i?eeiiaie
i?aeaioiaee aei aeeiiaiiy oano?a (51%), iaaeaiiy i?aaa a?eueiiai aeai?o
oano?a (46%), ?ioa?an aei i?aaeiaoa (39%) oa nenoaiaoe/ia canoinoaaiiy
oano?a (10%).

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui oiiaith aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy
oano?a ? a?aeiia?aei?noue aeae?a oanooaaiiy oeio iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoa,
ai i?ia?aeiee eiiiiiaio iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoa (?.E.AEo?aaeueia,
E.ss.Ci??ia) aeiaaa? aaeaeaaoii? i?aai?caoe?? ye i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie, oae ? ?o ia?aa??ee. Oae, oanoe aeey
iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a, ye? iathoue i?ia?aeiee eiiiiiaio “iaoeia?
ciaiiy” (1-e oei), iiaeii? aeyaeyoe ??aaiue aieiae?iiy oeiey?aie
nenoaiith iaoeiaeo ciaiue, /iio ni?eythoue oanoe, ni?yiiaai? ia
a?aeoai?aiiy oa?i?i?a, iiiyoue, eeaneo?eaoe?e, nenoai, ui aeinyaa?oueny
ia?aaaaeii o oanoao ia iiiaeeiiee aai iiaea?eiee aea??, ia i?aaeeueio
iine?aeiai?noue a?aeiia?aeae, ia aei?aaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeae. Ia?aa??ea
yeino? ciaiue cae?enithaaeany ia ??aiyo ?ici?ciaiiy, caiai’yoiaoaaiiy,
?icoi?iiy.

Iaoith oanooaaiiy i?aaeiao?a 2-ai oeio ? aeyaeaiiy ??aiy iaieiae?iiy
oeiey?aie caniaaie ae?yeueiino?, ui aeinyaa?oueny o i?ioean?
canoinoaaiiy oano?a ia aiaeia?th a?aeiia?ae?, ia ae??, iia’ycai? c
eiino?othaaiiyi ?a/aiue, ia ciaoiaeaeaiiy /anoei iiae, aeei?enoaiiy
/eai?a ?a/aiue, cae?eniaiiy a?aiaoe/iiai ?icai?o. Eiino?othaaiiy
oanoiaeo caaaeaiue aeey i?aaeiao?a ae?oaiai oeio iaei ?ai?iaeoeoeaiee,
?aeiino?oeoeaiee aai oai?/ee oa?aeoa?.

Iaa/aeuei? i?aaeiaoe c iniiaiei eiiiiiaioii “ooaeiaeiy ina?oa ?
ii?aeueii-anoaoe/ia aeoiaaiiy” (3-e oei), ni?yiiaai? ia aeyaeaiiy
?icoi?iiy oeiey?aie oai??a ienoaoeoaa, ?o ioe?iee, ia aoee i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?aa??ea aecia/aii? oiiae i?eaaea aei aeniiaeo, ui oni?oi?noue
i?aai?caoe?? oanoiaiai eiio?ieth caeaaeeoue a?ae aeei?enoaiiy
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy oa i?aeaioiaee oeiey??a aei aeai?o oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue. I?ae “aeueoa?iaoeaiei oanooaaiiyi” ?icoi??ii iaoiae eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a, ui coiiaeth? iaaeaiiy
oeiey?ai i?aaa a?eueiiai aeai?o oi?i eiio?ieth oa oano?a ??ciiai ??aiy ?
caaacia/o? ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?th eiio?ieth ca?aeii c ?ioa?anaie o/i?a.

Iaaeaiiy o/iyi i?aaa a?eueiiai aeai?o o iaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino? a
iaai?e i??? ae??oo? ieoaiiy cieaeaiiy ineoieia?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy o/i?a,
caaacia/o? oiiae aeey naiino?eiiai i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy, ni?ey? i?iyaai
i?eoiaaieo iiaeeeainoae o/i?a, ?o naiiaeooae?caoe??. A?eueiee aea??
aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe iniaeno?nii ci???ioiaaiee i?aeo?ae o iaa/aii?:
a/eoaeue noai?th? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo o/iy a
neooaoe?yo, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue eiai a?eiaei iio?aaai, oiaoi
cae?enith? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th iaa/aiiy, aaaea aei naii?aae?caoe??
iniaenoino?.

Aiae?c i?aeoeee cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a (i?iaiae?ciaaii 189 o?ie?a) aeicaieea
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui: a)oeiey?ai ia iaaea?oueny iiaeeea?noue aeai?o
??cieo oi?i eiio?ieth; a)i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? oanoiaiai eiio?ieth
canoiniaothoueny, a iniiaiiio, oanoe ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o; a)i?e
canoinoaaii? oano?a ia cae?enith?oueny
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae o iaa/aii?. O/i? ia
aieiae?thoue i?eeiiaie i?aeaioiaee oa ?iaioe c oanoaie (69,7%), o
iaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino? ia ea?othoueny i?ciaaaeueieie iioeaaie
(77,8%).

C iaoith cae?eniaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aoei
canoiniaaii aeueoa?iaoeaia oanooaaiiy, yea ia?aaeaa/aei iaaeaiiy
oeiey?ai i?aaa a?eueiiai aeai?o oi?i eiio?ieth oa oano?a ??ciiai ??aiy.
Nooue aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy iieyaaea a oiio, ui oeiey?ai
i?iiiioaaeeny eiiieaeoe c o?ueiia aeaeaie oano?a: ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o; oanoe, ye? aeiaaaee a?ae o/i?a canoinoaaiiy iaaooeo ciaiue,
oi?iue oa iaae/ie, oiaoi ia?aaeaa/aee ?aeiino?oeoeaio ae?yeuei?noue, oa
oanoe, ?ic?aoiaai? ia canoinoaaiiy ciaiue o iiaeo neooaoe?yo, aeoeaiee
iiooe o ae??oaii? caaaeaiue.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey i?aaeeueiiai
cae?eniaiiy oanooaaiiy c a?eueiei aeai?ii iaiao?aeia nenoaia
i?aeaioiaee oeiey??a aei iueiai. C oe??th iaoith a caeaaeiino? a?ae
?aaeueieo iaa/aeueieo iiaeeeainoae aoei aeae?eaii o?e a?oie o/i?a. Aei
ia?oi? a?oie (aenieee ??aaiue i?aeaioiaee) a?aeianee oeo o/i?a, ui iaee
aenieee ??aaiue naiino?eiino? oa aeoeaiino?, a yeeo ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino?
aoee aeu? ca na?aaei?; eiio?ieuei? caaaeaiiy aeeiioaaee aac aeiiiiiae
a/eoaey; oeiey?? aoee caeaoi? iiai?noth neiioeaio?oaaoe naith oaaao ia
ia’?eo? i?ciaiiy; nenoaiaoe/ii aiooaaeeny aei eiio?ieueieo ?ia?o;
oa?aeoa? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? — ?aeiino?oeoeaiee c aeaiaioaie
oai?/ino?; o/i? nenoaiaoe/ii ei?enooaaeeny i?eeiiaie naiieiio?ieth, iaee
aaeaeaaoio naiiioe?ieo; a ieo ia?aaaaeaee i?ciaaaeuei? iioeae. Aei
ae?oai? a?oie a?aeianaii oeo, ooi iaa na?aaei?e ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino?
aeoeaiino? oa naiino?eiino?; eiio?ieuei? caaaeaiiy aeeiioaaee c
/anoeiaith aeiiiiiaith a/eoaey, aea ?iaeee oea nenoaiaoe/ii; a
iniiaiiio, oeiey?? aiooaaeeny aei eiio?ieueieo ?ia?o; oa?aeoa? ?o
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? — ?aeiino?oeoeaiee; ei?enooaaeeny i?eeiiaie
naiieiio?ieth; ia?aaaaeaee iioeae aeinyaiaiiy oni?oo. Aei o?aouei? a?oie
(iecueeee ??aaiue i?aeaioiaee) iaeaaeaee o/i?, ye? iaee iecuee?
iaa/aeuei? iiaeeeaino?: iiaaii i???iooaaeeny a iaa/aeueiiio iaoa??ae?;
a?aeoai?thaaee iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae o?eueee i?ae ea??aieoeoaii o/eoaey;
iio?aae oa ai?iiy eiio?iethaaoe naaa ?icaeioo? neaai; ia?aaaaeaea
caieaeaia naiiioe?iea; oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino?-?ai?iaeoeoeaiee, ??aaiue
aeoeaiino? oa naiino?eiino?-iecueeee.

C o/iyie aeae?eaieo o?ueio a?oi i?iaiaeeeanue i?aeaioia/a ?iaioa aei
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy. Aiia ia?aaeaa/aea: iaa/aiiy i?eeiiai
ei?enooaaiiy oanoaie aeey oiai, uia o/i? iiaee ?aaeueii a?aoiaoaaoe nai?
iiaeeeaino? oa i?aoethaaoe c i?aenoieiaeie oanoaie; ?icaeoie oi?iue
ieaioaaoe naith iaa/aeueio ae?yeuei?noue, oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie
naiieiio?ieth, ui ni?eyei iiaeieaiith i?ioe??//y i?ae aaaeaiiyie,
?ioa?anaie oeiey??a oa ?o ?aaeueiei aeai?ii, oiaoi i?aaiaiiyi iae?aoe
oanoe oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o ? ?aaeueiei aeai?ii oano?a, a iniiaiiio,
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Canoinoaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy ia?aaeaa/aei oaeiae
i?aeneeaiiy aeiiiiiae o/iyi c ??cieie ?aaeueieie iaa/aeueieie
iiaeeeainoyie ia ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy ia’?io iaoa??aeo a oanoao aeey
??cieo a?oi o/i?a, a oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue, iaae/ie ei?enooaaiiy
oanoaie ??cieo aeae?a. I?e canoinoaaii? aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy
aeio?eioaaeeny oaeeo iiiaio?a: a)a?aoiaoaaee caaaeueio i?aeaioiaeo o/i?a
aei iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? oa aei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oanooaaiiy;
a)ia?aaeaa/aee o?oaeiiu?, ye? iiaeooue aeieeaoe a o/i?a ia i?aeaioia/iio
aoai? i?ioeano oanooaaiiy oa a oiae? aeeiiaiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue;
a)canoiniaoaaee aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? oanoe ? aecia/aee ??aaiue iaaeaiiy
aeiiiiiae ??ciei a?oiai o/i?a; a)cae?enithaaee ia?niaeoeaiee aiae?c
ae?yeueiino? ia an?o aoaiao canoinoaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo oano?a,
a?aoiaoth/e c?iaeai? iiieeee oa o?oaeiiu? o aeeiiaii? oano?a.

O i?ioean? aenia?eiaioo aeey o/i?a ia?oi? a?oie cacia/aeanue eeoa iaoa,
a oeyoe ?? aeinyaiaiiy aiie ooeaee nai?. O/iyi ae?oai? a?oie
i?iiiioaaeenue iniiai? iai?yie cae?eniaiiy iaoe, aeey o?aouei? a?oie
oi?ioaaeany iaoa oa aeaiiino?oaaeeny oeyoe ?? cae?eniaiiy. Ooai?ai?
a?oie oeiey??a ia aoee iino?eieie.

O oiae? iaa/aiiy i?eeiiai ?iaioe c oanoaie canoiniaoaaeenue i?iai?
oanoe, aea iiaoaiii ia i?eeeaae? iaeiiai oanoo aeaiiino?oaaeeny an?
iaiao?aei? iia?aoe?? eiai aeeiiaiiy. Iio?i aeaaaany aiaeia?/iee oano
aeey cae??ieaiiy. Aeey ia?oi? a?oie o/i?a ea??aieoeoai c aieo a/eoaey
i?iyaeyeiny eeoa o aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeiino? aai cian?i ia a?aeaoaaeinue.
Aeey ae?oai? a?oie oaea ea??aieoeoai iaei i?noea eeoa oiae?, eiee o
oeiey??a aeieeaee ye?nue oo?oaeiaiiy. Aeey o?aouei? a?oie cae??ieaiiy
cae?enithaaeiny i?ae ea??aieoeoaii o/eoaey. Oaeei /eiii, oa?aeoa?
aeiiiiiae o/iyi c iecueeeie ?aaeueieie iaa/aeueieie iiaeeeainoyie aoa
?ino?oeoeaiee, aeey ae?oai? a?oie — ni?yiiaoth/a-noeioethth/ee, a aeey
o/i?a c aenieeie iaa/aeueieie iiaeeeainoyie-noeioethth/ee.

Aeey cae?eniaiiy nenoaiaoe/ii? iioi/ii? ?iaioe c oanoaie
canoiniaoaaeenue ??ci? iaoiaee ? oi?ie, ye? ia?aaeaa/aee ia?o ca ana
?aaoey?i?noue i?iaaaeaiiy oanoiaiai eiio?ieth (3-4 ?ace ia i?nyoeue);
aeaoaeueiee aiae?c iiieeie o/i?a; iiaoi?ia canoinoaaiiy oano?a, ye?
aeeeeeaee iaea?eueo? i?iaeaie, ia?aa??eo ?iaioe iaae iiieeeaie
(aeiiaoi?o caaaeaiue); iaaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo eiinoeueoaoe?e, a
oaeiae i?iaaaeaiiy eiinoeueoaoe?e. Iniiaieie noeioeaie aeey iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a, ye? i?aoethaaee ia?aaoey?ii aai iaaeinoaoiuei,
aoei caioi/oaaiiy, noai?aiiy neooaoe?e oni?oo. O/i? ia?oi? a?oie (c
aenieeie iaa/aeueieie iiaeeeainoyie) cae?enithaaee naiiaiae?c aeiiouaieo
iiieeie; o/i? ae?oai? a?oie (c na?aaei?ie iaa/aeueieie iiaeeeainoyie)
i?iaiaeeee aiae?c iniiaieo oeiiaeo iiieeie, ye? aoee aeae?eai? a/eoaeai;
o/i? o?aouei? a?oie aeeiioaaee aeieeaaeiee aiae?c on?o c?iaeaieo
iiieeie, ye? aoee cacia/ai? a/eoaeai.

?iaioa iaae iiieeeaie ia?aaeaa/aea aeeiiaiiy oano?a ye aeiiaoiueiai
caaaeaiiy, ui aeiiiiaaaei oi?ioaaiith naiieiio?ieth, iaieiae?iith
caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieie iaae/eaie, aeoiaoaaei a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
noa?aii?noue, ?aoaeuei?noue, aeicaieyei ?iaeea?aeoae?coaaoe iaa/aeueio
ae?yeuei?noue oeiey??a. O oiae? aeiiaoiuei? ?iaioe o/i? iiaee aeeiioaaoe
oanoe aac noai?iai a?aooaaiiy /ano, iae?ath/e iioeiaeueiee oaii ?iaioe.
Oae, o/i? ia?oi? a?oie iaea?aeoaaee caaaeaiiy oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o c
iiaaaeaiiyie oi/ii aeio?eioaaoeny /aniaeo ?aiie aeeiiaiiy oanoo, o/i?
ae?oai? a?oie iaee oanoe ?aeiino?oeoeaii-oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o c
aeio?eiaiiyi /ano ii iiaeeeaino?; aeey o?aouei? a?oie o/i?a
i?iiiioaaeenue oanoe ?ai?iaeoeoeaii-eiino?oeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o aac
noai?iai aeio?eiaiiy /ano.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui o/i? an?o a?oi aaaaeaee
iaea?eueo oe?eaaeie oanoe aeey aeiiaoi?o ?ia?o, ye? iaee iaoa??ae aeey
naiino?eieo noaeaeaiue (61,8%), ae??oaiiy i?iaeai (54,3%), i?aeoe/i?
caaaeaiiy (oano ia aei?aaeaiiy iiieeie (48,7%), neooaoeai? oanoe
(46,3%), oano ia ciaoiaeaeaiiy aiaeia?e a?aeiia?aeae (42,4%). Ia
aeeeeeaee ?ioa?ano oeiey??a oanoe ia cae/aeia a?aeoai?aiiy iaoa??aeo
(oanoe aeai?o a?aeiia?aeae) — 32,1%.

O oiae? canoinoaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo oano?a cae?enithaaeinue
noeioethaaiiy iiceoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? oa
oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo iioea?a, ui ni?eyei aeoea?caoe?? ?ioa?an?a
oeiey??a. Oeueiio ni?eyei: ?ic’ynithaaeuei? aan?aee, ?iaioa c
eiii’thoa?ii o oi?i? a?e, aeaiiino?aoe?y iaa/aeueieo a?aeaio?euei?a ?
ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo oanooaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy oano?a o aeaeyae?
aoii?enoe/ieo ea?oeiie (eii?en?a), e?inai?ae?a, caaaaeie, a?aeaio?euei?a
oiui. I?e oeueiio ?ioa?an aei oaeiai oanooaaiiy oi?ioaaany ia oeyoii
a?aeoiaeo a?ae ci?noo iniiaiiai iaoa??aeo, a caaaeyee i?acaioaoe?? oeo
aie?a oanooaaiiy, aei yeeo oaaaa o/i?a ia? aooe i?eaa?iooa a ia?oo
/a?ao, cie?aia: caeaoiino? o/i?a neiioeaio?oaaoeny ia iaiao?aeiiio
ia’?eo?; ai?iiy nieaioaaoe naith ae?yeuei?noue ia iaaiee /an; oi?iiy
a?aeoiaeeoe a?ae noaiaea?oieo iaoiae?a aeeiiaiiy oano?a oa ?i., oiaoi
aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaee, oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? oanoiaiai eiio?ieth, ye?
niiioeaee o/i?a aei naiino?eii? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?. C oe??th
iaoith canoiniaoaaeeny oaeiae: aca?iia oanooaaiiy oa aca?iiia?aa??ea,
a?oiiaa aeeiiaiiy oano?a, ?ieueia? ?a?e, aaciina?aaei? aeeth/aiiy
eiaeiiai o/iy a i?ciaaaeueio ae?yeuei?noue oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o, noai?aiiy
iiceoeaii? aiioe?eii? aoiinoa?e i?e aeeiiaii? oano?a.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaiaeeoue
caeaaei?noue i?ae aeiaea?aeaiiyi iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia canoinoaaiiy oano?a
aeey eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a ?
iniiaieie iieacieeaie eiai aoaeoeaiino?. A aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao
aeyaeaii, ui a ia?aaaaeii? e?eueeino? o/i?a ia?aaaaeaea iiceoeaia
iioeaaoe?y, i?aeaeueany eiao?oe??io ??aiy iaieiae?iiy
caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieie oi?iiyie, iaae/eaie oa ??aiy naiino?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, noi?iiaaii aaeaeaaoio naiiioe?ieo. ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai aenia?eiaioo a?aeaeoi o oaae.1.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo aeaee iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe iiceoeai? ci?ie
oa?aeoa?o iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a: o/i?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a /ano?oa aeae?aee oanoe, caaaeaiiy yeeo
aeiaaaee oai?/iai iiooeo, i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino?; aeneiaethaaee
caaeiaieaiiy ia’?eoeai?noth eiio?ieth. Canoinoaaiiy oano?a noeioethaaei
?aaoey?i?noue oa oe?eani?yiiaai?noue naiino?eii? ?iaioe o/i?a oa
cieaeaiiy ??aiy ?o oaeethaaiiy.

Ia iniia? oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy i?iaeaie oa i?iaaaeaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo c?iaeaii aeniiaee:

1.Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo
oa ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a aeicaieea aeyaeoe iniiai? iiceoeai? noi?iie
canoinoaaiiy oanooaaiiy ye iaoiaeo eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a, ui caaacia/o? ia’?eoeai?noue,
iia?aoeai?noue eiio?ieth ? aeicaiey? aeaaaoe iiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
i?aeaioiaeo o/i?a c iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoa, cae?enithaaoe ae?aaiinoeeo
??ai?a iao/oaaiino? oeiey??a ? ia oe?e iniia? ?iaeea?aeoae?coaaoe
i?ioean iaa/aiiy.

Oaaeeoey 1

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe (i?e??no o %)

Iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy oano?a, ?o
??ai?EeaneA1A2A3E1E2sse?noue ciaiue

· ia’?i

· aeeaeia

+20,5

+11,3

+23,4

+15,9

+24,9

+16,3

+7,4

+7,2

+4,1

+6,8Caaaeueiiiaa/aeuei? oi?iiy

a)ieaioaaoe

· aenieee

· na?aaei?e

· iecueeee

·

a)naiieiio?ieue

· aenieee

· na?aaei?e

· iecueeee

+ 17,3

+ 1,8

-19,1

+17,3

+8,4

-25,7

+21,2

+15,3

-15,8

+20,3

+19,3

-39,6

+28,3

+9,6

-18,7

+26,2

+12,2

-38,4

+10,7

+7

-3,7

+6,9

+14,8

-7,9

+4,4

+6,1

-1,7

+4,1

+1,8

-5,9

Oa?aeoa? naiino?eii? ae?yeueiino?

· ?ai?iaeoeo.

· ?aeiino?oeo.

· oai?/ee

-6,7

+4,5

+2,2

-21,7

+16,5

+5,2

-20,7

+18,1

+7,8

-8,4

+6,3

+2,2

-6,4

+5,2

+1,2Noaaeaiiy aei iaa/.ae?yeueiino?

· iiceoeaia

· iaeo?aeueia

· iaaaoeaia

+24,5

-3,3

-21,2

+27,7

-8,8

-18,9

+28,6

-2,9

-25,7

+7,8

-10

-17,2

+3,9

-14,1

-18Aeaee naiiioe?iee

· caaeuaia

· aaeaeaaoia

· caieaeaia

-37,3

+59,3

-12

-14,2

+32,8

-18,2

-19,4

+19,6

-30,2

-11,6

+13,1

-1,5

-7,3

+13,4

-6,1

2.Aea/aiiy a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e aeiiiiiaei
ocaaaeueieoe a?aeiiino? i?i aeaee oano?a, cae?enieoe ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th
ca iaoith, nooiaiai neeaaeiino?, e?euee?niei neeaaeii o/aniee?a, ca
noaoonii, no?oeoo?ith iiaoaeiae caaaeaiue o oano?.

3.Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui
canoinoaaiiy ??cieo aeae?a oano?a aeey eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a iio?aao?:

a)a?aooaaiiy i?ia?aeiiai eiiiiiaioa iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoa a caeaaeiino?
a?ae eiai iniiaii? ooieoe??;

a)aeueoa?iaoeaiino? oanooaaiiy, ui caaacia/o? a?eueiee aea?? oano?a
noa?oieeanieeaie a?aeiia?aeii aei ?o iio?aa, oe?eae, ?ioa?an?a,
?aaeueieo iaa/aeueieo iiaeeeainoae.

4.Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii e aecia/aii iaiao?aei?noue aeiaea?aeaiiy
iaaieo aoai?a i?aeaioiaee oeiey??a aei oanooaaiiy: a)i?aeaioia/ee, o
i?ioean? yeiai oi?io?oueny iiceoeaia noaaeaiiy o/i?a aei oanooaaiiy,
oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue oa iaae/ie aeey ?iaioe c ??cieie aeaeaie oano?a c
i?aaeiao?a ??cieo oei?a; a)i?ioeanoaeueiee, yeee ia?aaeaa/a?
canoinoaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oanooaaiiy c i?aaeiao?a ??cieo oei?a,
ona?aeiieaiiy o/iyie oanoiaeo caaaeaiue, oiia, aeiia aei ?o aeai?o oa
ni?aa?aeianaiiy ?o ?c nai?ie ?aaeueieie iaa/aeueieie iiaeeeainoyie;
a)ei?eaoaaeueiee, ni?yiiaaiee ia aecia/aiiy oeyo?a iiaeieaiiy aeyaeaieo
iaaeie?e?a o i?ioean? canoinoaaiiy oano?a aeey eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a.

5.Anoaiiaeaii, ui oanoiaee eiio?ieue, yeee caaacia/o? a?aooaaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia canoinoaaiiy oano?a oni?oiino? oa aeiaea?aeaiiy
iniiaieo aoai?a i?aeaioiaee oeiey??a aei aeei?enoaiiy oano?a, ni?ey?:

a)oi?ioaaiith iiceoeaii? iioeaaoe?? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano, cieaeaiith e?eueeino? o/i?a c
iaaaoeaiei oa iaeo?aeueiei noaaeaiiyi aei iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
cieaeaiith aiioe?eii-iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy oeiey??a aei iaa/aiiy o oiae?
i?iaaaeaiiy eiio?ieth ?o iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?;

a)i?aeaeuaiith yeino? ciaiue o/i?a, ??aiy iaieiae?iiy
caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieie ai?iiyie oa iaae/eaie (ai?iiy aeae?eyoe aieiaia,
aiae?coaaoe, cae?enithaaoe naiieiio?ieue oa ?i.), iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny i?aaeiao?a, ye? caaacia/othoue iaieiae?iiy o/iyie caniaaie
ae?yeueiino?;

a)i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy naiino?eiino?, iniaeeai o oeiey??a c iecueeeie oa
aenieeie iaa/aeueieie iiaeeeainoyie;

a)oi?ioaaiith aaeaeaaoiino? naiiioe?iee;

ae)iia?aoeaiino? eiio?ieth, oiaoi aeiiii?? /ano ia o?ioe? ia cae?eniaiiy
eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a (c i?aaeiao?a
ia?oiai oeio aea?ao o /an? a A1-5,1 oa., A2-5,4 oa., a A3-5,8 oa., c
i?aaeiao?a ae?oaiai oeio-A1-11,3 oa., A2-11,7 oa., A3-12,1 oa.)

6.Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii aeiiae, ye? aeyaeai? o oiae? aenia?eiaioo uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? oanoiaiai eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
oeiey??a:

a)caaacia/aiiy aioiaiino? a/eoae?a aei oanoiaiai eiio?ieth:
ona?aeiieaiiy iaoe oanoiaiai eiio?ieth, caaaeaiue, aoai?a eiai
i?iaaaeaiiy, ciaiiy cania?a canoinoaaiiy oano?a ??cieo aeae?a, oi?iiy
aiae?coaaoe ?acoeueoaoe oanooaaiiy;

a)i?aeaioiaea o/i?a aei oanoiaiai eiio?ieth (ona?aeiieaiiy iaoe,
iiceoeaia iioeaaoe?y iaa/aiiy, aenieee ??aaiue aeoeaiino?, iaieiae?iiy
i?eeiiaie naiino?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa i?eeiiaie aeai?o). Iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiei ? canoinoaaiiy oano?a aeey i?aaeiao?a c i?ia?aeiith
ooieoe??th “caniae ae?yeueiino?” aeey o/i?a c iecueeeie oa aenieeie
?aaeueieie iaa/aeueieie iiaeeeainoyie.

7.Aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui a oiiaao caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
oeiee oanoiaee eiio?ieue ia iiaea aooe iniiaiei iaoiaeii ia?aa??ee
ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie o/i?a, ui coiiaeaii ye iio?aaaie oeiey??a o
ci?i? aeae?a ae?yeueiino? ia o?ioe? (?iaioa c oanoaie iio?aao?, a
iniiaiiio, iaeiioeiieo oi?i ?iaioe (/eoaiiy aai ienueia), oae ?
iaiao?aei?noth ?icaeaaoe onia iiaeaiiy o/i?a, ?o oyaeaiiy, ?i?oe?aoeao
oa ?i.

Ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o ?ic?iaoe?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo aniaeo?a canoinoaaiiy oano?a i?e aea/aii? eiie?aoieo
iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a, o ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oanooaaiiy i?ae /an aoanoaoe?? a/eoae?a ? oe?e o oe?eiio.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o ioae?eaoe?yo:

1.Ianae?o?ia I.N. Iaoiaee eiio?ieth a no/ani?e oeie? // Eiio?ieue
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a ? nooaeaio?a: Ca. iaoe.
i?. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997. — N.42-44.

2.Ianaeeoeia A.N. Iniaaiiinoe eniieueciaaiey oanoia eae oi?iu eiio?iey
o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe e eo eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea: Oacenu VI
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee o/eoaeae. — Oa?ueeia,
1999. — N.35-36.

3.Ianaeeoeia A.N.Iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey eniieueciaaiey oanoia eae oi?iu
eiio?iey o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony (ia iaoa?eaea
eiino?aiiiai ycuea) // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo:
Na??y “?iiaii-aa?iainueea o?eieia?y”. – Oa?e?a: “Eiinoaioa”, 1999. — ?
430. — N.87-91.

4.Ianaeeoeia A.N. Ineoieiai–iaaeaaiae/aneee iiuo oanoiaiai eiio?iey
o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo //
Iniaeno?noue ? o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane o noni?euenoa?.
Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie no/anii? ina?oe: Ca. iaoe. i?. A?niee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Na??y “Ineoieia?y”,
“Iaaeaaia?ea”. — Oa?e?a, 1999. — ? 493. — N.115-118.

5.Ianae?o?ia I.N. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy oano?a
ye iaoiaeo eiio?ieth iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a //
Iaoeia? caienee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo: Ca.iaoe.i?. —
Iieoaaa, 1997. — N.198-201.

6.Ianaeeoeia A.N. ?ieue eiio?iey o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
o/aueony a i?ioeanna iao/aiey // Eeoeaeneea caienee: ?aeiiiue
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneee nai?iee. — Oa?ueeia, 1998. — N.36-39.

7.Ianaeeoeia A.N. ?ieue oanoe?iaaiey a i?ioeanna eiio?iey
o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony // sscue e eeoa?aoo?a a
oeiea. Oe?aeineee aaniee: ?anioaeeeaineee iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneee aeo?iae.
— Oa?ueeia, 1997. — ?1-2. — N.22-24.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ianae?o?ia I.N. Iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae canoinoaaiiy oano?a aeey eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. —
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi oanoiaiai eiio?ieth
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a, iiooeo oeyo?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy, aeoea?caoe?? oa aoiai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii, ui canoinoaaiiy oano?a
aeey eiio?ieth caeaaeeoue a?ae iaaieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia: iioeiaeueiiai
aeai?o niiniao i?iaaaeaiiy oanooaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio
iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoa oa caaacia/aiiy iiaeeeaino? aeueoa?iaoeaiiai
oanooaaiiy. Oea ia?aaeaa/a? a?aooaaiiy ?aaeueieo iaa/aeueieo
iiaeeeainoae oeiey??a, ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae i?aeaioiaee o/i?a
aei canoinoaaiiy oano?a oa noeioethaaiiy ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? ia
i?aeaioia/iio aoai?, caaacia/aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai ineoieia?/iiai ee?iaoo
oanoiaiai eiio?ieth, iaaeaiiy o/iyi i?aaa a?eueiiai aeai?o.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii aecia/ai? iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oa ?ic?iaeaii
oaoiieia?th ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o o i?aeoeeo ?iaioe oeiee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiio?ieue, oano, oanooaaiiy, aoaie, eiiiiiaioe, niiniae
oanoiaiai eiio?ieth, aeueoa?iaoeai?noue oanooaaiiy, iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae
canoinoaaiiy oano?a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ianaeeoeia A.N. Iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey eniieueciaaiey oanoia aeey
eiio?iey o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe noa?oaeeannieeia. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01-oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. —
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei.
A.N.Neiai?iaeu, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oanoiaiai eiio?iey
o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe noa?oaeeannieeia, iieneo iooae
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey, aeoeaecaoeee, aoiaiecaoeee o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe oeieueieeia. A enneaaeiaaiee ia iniiaa aiaeeca
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?u ii?aaeaeaia nouiinoue oanoiaiai
eiio?iey, auaeaeaiu aai iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou, yoaiu, niiniau
inouanoaeaiey. ?ane?uoa nouiinoue oanoia a nenoaia eiio?iey
o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony, i?aaenoaaeaia
eeanneoeeaoeey iaaeaaiae/aneeo oanoia ii oeaee, noaoono, eiee/anoaaiiiio
ninoaao o/anoieeia, no?oeoo?a iino?iaiey caaeaiee a oanoa, noaiaie
neiaeiinoe.

A ?aaioa aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oanoa eae n?aaenoaa eiio?iey
o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony e aai ooieoeeyo.

A aeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee ?ane?uaathony iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e
inouanoaeaieth oanoiaiai eiio?iey, ii?aaeaeythony iniiaiua iieacaoaee
ea/anoaa oanoa. Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaii, /oi eniieueciaaiea oanoia aeey
eiio?iey o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeaoaeueiinoe o/aueony caaeneo io
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oneiaee: iioeiaeueiiai auai?a niiniaa
i?iaaaeaiey oanoe?iaaiey n o/aoii oeia o/aaiiai i?aaeiaoa e
aeueoa?iaoeaiinoe oanoia. Aeueoa?iaoeaiia oanoe?iaaiea i?aaeiieaaaao
oaeoth i?aaiecaoeeth eiio?iey o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
o/aueony, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao i?aaeinoaaeaiea oeieueieeai i?aaa
naiaiaeiiai auai?a oi?i eiio?iey e oanoia ?aciiai o?iaiy, /oi
niinianoaoao: eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee eiio?iey, nieaeaieth ineoieiae/aneiai
iai?yaeaiey ai a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey eiio?iey, naii?aaeecaoeee ee/iinoe, oi
anoue aiciiaeiinoe aeaenoaiaaoue naiinoiyoaeueii, oai?/anee, iinoiyiii
?acaeaaynue. Yoi iicaieyao ?aaeeciaaoue ee/iinoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiue
iiaeoiae a iao/aiee.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua no?oeoo?iua yoaiu eniieueciaaiey
oanoia aeey eiio?iey: a)iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue, a oiaea eioi?iai oi?ie?oaony
iieiaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea o/aueony e oanoe?iaaieth, nenoaia oiaiee e
iaaueia ?aaiou n ?acee/iuie aeaeaie oanoia ia i?aaeiaoao ?aciuo oeiia;
a)i?ioeannoaeueiue, i?aaeiieaaathuee auiieiaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo oanoia
ia i?aaeiaoao ?aciuo oeiia, iniciaiea o/aueieny oanoiauo caaeaiee,
oneiaee, o?aaiaaiee eo auai?a e niioianaiea eo ni naieie ?aaeueiuie
o/aaiuie aiciiaeiinoyie; a)ei??aeoe?othuee, i?aaeiieaaathuee
ii?aaeaeaiea iooae i?aiaeieaiey auyaeaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia a i?ioeanna
eniieueciaaiey oanoia aeey eiio?iey o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe noa?oaeeannieeia.

A enneaaeiaaiee ?ane?uoa oaoiieiaey inouanoaeaiey oanoiaiai eiio?iey i?e
auai?a niaea?aeaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea, oi?i e iaoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee
o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaiecaoeee aeiiaoiae e naiinoiyoaeueiie
?aaiou n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae a?oii o/aueony n ?acee/iuie ?aaeueiuie
o/aaiuie aiciiaeiinoyie. ?ac?aaioaiiay oaoiieiaey eniieueciaaia a
i?aeoeea oeieu. Yenia?eiaioaeueii aeieacaii, /oi eniieueciaaiea oanoia
aeey eiio?iey o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony
iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyao ia ea/anoai ciaiee, o?iaaiue iauao/aaiuo oiaiee e
iaaueia, oa?aeoa? naiinoiyoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ioiioaiea e o/aieth,
noi?ie?iaaiiinoue aaeaeaaoiinoe naiiioeaiee, oa?aeoa? iioeaaoeee o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiio?ieue, oano, oanoe?iaaiea, yoaiu, eiiiiiaiou,
niiniau oanoiaiai eiio?iey, aeueoa?iaoeaiinoue oanoe?iaaiey,
iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey eniieueciaaiey oanoia.

ANNOTATION

Masalitina O.S. Pedagogical conditions of tests’ usage for assessment of
educational and cognitive activity of senior pupils. — Manuscript.

The dissertation goes to conferring bachelor’s degree on pedagogical
sciences , speciality 13.00.01 — theory and history of pedagogics,
Kharkiv State Pedagogical University named after G.S.Skovoroda, Kharkiv,
1999.

Dissertation is devoted to questions of tests’ assessment of senior
pupils’ educational and cognitive activity, search of ways for
improvement and making more active and humanitarian educational and
cognitive activity of senior pupils. It was theoretically revealed that
tests’ usage for assessment depends on certain pedagogical conditions:
optimal choice of a method for conducting of testing depending on the
type of an educational subject, provision with opportunities for
alternative testing which presupposes taking into consideration senior
students’ real educational possibilities and giving them free choice;
pecularities of pupils’ preparation for tests’ usage and stimulation of
their activity at the preparatory stage; creating of favourable
psychological climate for assessment by tests. The designated
pedagogical conditions were experimentally proved and technologies of
their implementation were introduced into school practice.

Key words: assessment, test, testing, stages, components, methods of
test assessment, alternativity in testing, pedagogical conditions of
tests’ usage.

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