?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AII OE?A?IE

Naeei Iaoae?y Aiae???aia

OAeE 371/2 (301)(09)

Iaaeaaia?/i? oa aoiinioe?ieia?/i? canaaee

?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? o
1905-1938??.

13.00.01. — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. sse?nii iiaa ina?oiy oa aeoiaia
neooaoe?y, yea neeaaea?oueny a oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?, aeeeeea?
c?inoath/ee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei ?noi??? ?icaeoeo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei, caaaeii, oa iieuenueei? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie cie?aia, — ye
neeaaeiai? /anoeie oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa oa /eiiee oi?ioaaiiy eiai
iie?eoeueoo?ii? iiaeae?. Ia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeacothoue ianooii? /eiieee:

1. ?noi??y ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? ?
iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee Oe?a?ie, c iaeiiai aieo, oa
?noi??? ina?oe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a iie?aoi?/iiio i?aai?ci? — c
?ioiai.

2. Iieuenueea aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia iaioeia ia Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo a ?aa?ii?: ca iioiaeaeaiiyi, aeecuee?noth c
?noi???th oe?a?inueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa o iaai? ia??iaee eiai ?icaeoeo,
niaoeeo?eith aoi?/ii-?ae?a?eii? oioiaeiino?.

3. Ia iniia? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aiae?co oa i?e caeo/aii?
eaoaai??eii-iiiyo?eii? aace aoiinioe?ieia?? oa nioe?ieia?? ina?oe o
aeine?aeaeaii? c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee uiaei ina?oe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei o
iie?aoi?/ieo i?aai?ciao.

Ia?aia oaia aaea aenooiaea i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo aaoi??a. ?o
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia e?eueea a?oi. Ia?oa ioiieth? ia??iae
O?O-ii/.OO noie?ooy ? ? aeineoue ?noi?e/ii oaiaeaioe?eiith: ?icaeoie
iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei? ?icaeyaea?oueny c oi/ee ci?o eiai
?ie? o ieaoiee/aii? e?ath (A?ao/eeia A., Ea?aoieeia N., Iaeeoaanueeee
?., Iao?ia I., Oaiaei?iae/ I.). O iieuenueeiiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo,
iaaiaee, aaniethoeco?oueny ?ieue iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o
?icaeoeo ina?oe a ?aa?ii? (Caeanueeee E., ?ieea I., Noaoeueeee E.).

Ae?oaee ia??iae iiaeia iaiaaeeoe 1920-1989??.; a?i oaeiae
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiey?ieie ioe?ieaie i?noey ? ?ie? iieuenueeiai
oe?eueieoeoaa a nenoai? ina?oe Aieei?. ?aaeyinuee? ?noi?e/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai /ano ?icaeyaeathoue a iniiaiiio
i?ina?oeoaeuenueeo ae?yeuei?noue o/aniee?a iieuenueeeo iianoaiue 1831 oa
1863 ?ie?a (Ei?iethe A., Eauaiei I., Ia?aoia A.). Iieuenueeiiiai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeineoue aeaoaeueii iienothoue ?icaeoie iieuenueeiai
oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei?, aeathoue aaaaoee e?a?ciaa/ee iaoa??ae
(E?naoeueeee E., Ei?iaoeueeee ss.).

O i?neyai?iiee ia??iae ?yae aeine?aeaeaiue o nioe?ae?noe/i?e Iieueu?
iiaeia aecia/eoe ye eiinoaooth/? (Aooei E., Iieaiaea ss., Oiiieuenueeee
?., Oieueca? A., Eaaaoeueea E., N??ioeueea E.). Iaea?eueo ?noi?e/ii
aeinoia??ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie oeueiai /ano iiaeia aaaaeaoe iiiia?ao?th
Ae.Aaaoa «Iieyee ia Oe?a?i?. Iieuenueea oeyooa ia Aieei?, Iiae?ee? ?
Ee?auei?» (Ia?eae, 1988) oa niiaaaee A.Aaeueoi?nueeiai «Oe?a?inuee?
caie? ?a/? Iiniieeoi?. ?noi?e/iee ia?en.» (Eiiaeii, 1959).

O?ao?e aoai aeine?aeaeaiue ?icii/aany a ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeii?
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae (c 1990?.); oe? aeaea?aea noinothoueny a ia?oo
/a?ao caiiaiaiiy «a?eeo ieyi» a ?noi??? iieye?a ia Oe?a?i? oa
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo eoeueoo?ieo a?aeiinei (??aiaiei O., ?aaiia I.,
Eiiae?aoeueeee A., No?iinueeee A.).

An? aeacai? aeine?aeaeaiiy , iaeiae, iinyoue caaaeueii?noi?e/iee (ca
no?oeoo?ith) oa?aeoa?, ia ?icaeyaeathoue ?noi??th iieuenueeiai
oe?eueieoeoaa a ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiio eiioaeno?, c
aiae?cii ia i?e?i??ai? oa caeo/aiiyi oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? aace
?ioeo iaoe.

Oaeei /eiii, a?aoiaoth/e ia?ic?iaeai?noue i?iaeaie, a oaeiae ??
aeooaeuei?noue, iaie aoea aecia/aia oaia aeine?aeaeaiiy: «Iaaeaaia?/i?
oa aoiinioe?ieia?/i? canaaee ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia
Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? o 1905-1938??.»

Caycie c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie, i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie.

Ia?aia oaia aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — aoi?/i? oa eoeueoo?i? canaaee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
iieuenueei? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie ia Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — nenoaia iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia
Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? o 1905-1938??.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae 1905-1938??., ui
coiiaeaii ?yaeii i?e/ei:

1) a oeae ia??iae iieuenueea oe?eueieoeoai ia Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei?
?icaeaaeiny ia ?inoeooae?ciaaiiio (a a?eueo?e /e iaio?e i???) ??ai?, ia
a?aei?io a?ae O?O noie?ooy — /ano ia?aae?noi???;

2) ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy a?aeaoeiny ?iciaaeoaaiiy nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a ina?oe ? ?ae?a??, ui ae??oaeueii aieeioei ia aeaoi?iaoe?th
oioiaeiino? «eaoieee=iieye»;

3) 1938 ??e noaa a?aie/iith iaaeath ?nioaaiiy iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a ia oa?eoi??? ?aa?iio, — aae aei a?aeiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
iieuenueeeo ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e o iacaeaaei?e oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?.

Aaia?ao?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue Aieeiue-AEeoiie?ueio,
oiaoi oo /anoeio ?noi?e/ii? Aieei?, yea oaia? iaeaaeeoue aei
AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee oa nioe?ieiaiina?oi?e
aiae?c iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia
Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? o 1905-1938??.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy :

— oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa nioe?ieiaiina?oiuei?
e?oa?aoo?e, iaoeiaeo i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a;

— nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c ?icaeoeo iieuenueei? ina?oe o ??cieo
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oiiaao;

— iaoiae iiaeaethaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie o
iie?aoi?/iiio i?aai?ci?;

— iaoiae eeaneo?eaoe?? eaoaai??e ? iiiyoue aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— iaoiae ocaaaeueiaiiy aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeathoue eiai iniiai? caaaeaiiy, ye?
iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa a
oiiaao ??cii? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee ia oa?eoi???
Aieei?-AEeoiie?ueie o O?O-na?aaeei? OO noie?ooy;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ??aaiue ?ioaineaiino? nioe?ae?coth/i? ooieoe??
iieuenueei? ina?oe o ?aa?ii? a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae;

— ?icaeyiooe iniaeeaino? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano o iieuenueeeo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao caeaaeii a?ae oiia nioe?oio;

— ?ice?eoe caeiiii??iino?, aioo??oi? oa ciai?oi? noia?a/iino? ?icaeoeo
iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei?;

— ?ic?iaeoe ia??iaeecaoe?th ?icaeoeo iieuenueei? ina?oe a ?aa?ii? o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae;

— iiaoaeoaaoe aa??aioe oeiiaeo iiaeaeae nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee o
iie?aoi?/iiio i?aai?ci? oa iiaeae? ?ioaineaiino? nioe?ae?coth/i?
ooieoe?? ina?oe aeey aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue: oai??y iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy c ?? aeiiaaie ia’?eoeaiino? oa ?noi?ecio; oai??y neia?aaoeee
aeei?enoaia aeey i?ciaiiy caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae, ui eaaeaoue a
iniia? i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo nenoai; no?oeoo?iee
ooieoe?iiae?ci ye iniiaa aeey ?icaeyaeo aca?iica’yce?a ? aca?ii?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a o iiai?noth ?inoeooae?ciaaieo nenoaiao; oai??y
eiioe?eo?a ye ?ino?oiaio ?icoi?iiy aioo??oi?o iaoai?ci?a ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueieo nenoai.

Eaoaai??eii-iiiyo?eiee aia?ao aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaiee eiai iaoith ?
caaaeaiiyie. Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny ia noeeo e?eueeio
iaoeiaeo aeenoeeie?i, a naia : ?noi??? oa nioe?ieia?? ina?oe,
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa, e?a?ciaanoaa.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iai??ii iaeaaiaeaeaiiy iae?i?eieo ca’yce?a
i?ae aeacaieie oai??yie. I?e oeueiio aea/aiiy iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa
ia Aieei? ye i?e?i??aaiue ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai ciaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny
ia aac? aeanii? nenoaie ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo aen?ii, ui ?aae?ciaothoue
caaaeoaai? iae?i?ei? ca’ycee. I?e oeueiio iieuenueea oe?eueieoeoai ye
neeaaeiaa eieaeueii? oeea?e?caoe?? aeyaey?oueny iaeeieoeath caaaeueiiai
i?ioeano ?icaeoeo ina?oe o iniaeeaeo ?aa?iiaeueieo oiiaao.

Aeei?enoaiiy eaoaai??e ? iiiyoue o aeine?aeaeaii? a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
iaoiaeii iaoa?oaaiiy, eiee caaaeueiio?einionueea eaiaa noa? iniiaith
aeey iaaeaaia?/ieo, nioe?ieia?/ieo, aoiieia?/ieo aeniiae?a a ?acoeueoao?
aiae?co ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e. E??i oeueiai, aeaye? nioe?ieiaiina?oi?,
iaoaiaoe/i? oa noaoenoe/i? eaoaai??? a?ae?a?athoue
?ethno?aoeaii-?ino?oiaioaeueio ooieoe?th.

Aieiai? aeaea?aea aeena?oaoe??:

1. Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ?noi?ee?a: I.A?ooaanueeiai
(«?noi??y Oe?a?ie-?one»- E, 1991), I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa («Aa?ae e iieyee a
THai-Caiaaeiii e?aa» — E, 1992), I.?oeiaiei («?noi??y Oe?a?ie oa ??
ia?iaeo»- E,1992); ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiaothoue ?noi?e/i? iiiia?ao??
I.Iao?iaa oa ?.Iaeeoaanueeiai «Aieuiue. Enoi?e/aneea noaeueau
THai-Caiaaeiiai e?ay.» (NIa, 1888), N.Ea?aoieeiaa «Aieuineay aoaa?iey.
Aaia?aoe/aneee, enoi?e/aneee i/a?e aoaa?iee» (Ii/aaa,1912).

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a, a ia?oo /a?ao Ae.Aaaoa «Iieyee ia
Oe?a?i?. Iieuenueea oeyooa ia Aieei?, Iiae?ee? ? Ee?auei?»(Ia?eae,1988),
I.?aaiiaa «Ia?oee iiea?aiee ia?iae. Iieyee a N?N? o
1921-1939??.»(Aa?oaaa-A?ioeeaa, 1991), ss.Ei?iaoeueeiai «Iieuenueea
ina?oa ia ?on? i?ae /an na?oiai? a?eie» (Aa?oaaa, 1937).

3. Iaioa?ia oa ai?noiey?ia e?oa?aoo?a, cie?aia, niiaaaee oa eenooaaiiy
TH.E?aoaanueeiai, A.?aaiuenueeiai; niiaaaee «C aeeooy a?iiac?eii?
iieiae? o AEeoiie?? o inoaiiueiio aeanyoee?oo? ieioeiai noie?ooy»
E.E?naoeueeiai (Aa?oaaa, 1939);

4. A?o/eciyia ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a, i?enay/aia ?icaeoeo
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. Ia ia?oi/a?aiao oaaao
caneoaiaothoue aeine?aeaeaiiy Aecthae I. «I?inaauaiea ia Oe?aeia e aai
?ieue a oe?aieaiee naycae oe?aeineiai ia?iaea n ?onneei e
aaei?onneei»(E,1987); ca??iee «Ia?ene ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
oe?eueieoeoaa» (ca ?aae. Nooiieeinueei? I. -E,1996); «?icaeoie ia?iaeii?
ina?oe e iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia Oe?a?i? (O-ii/.OOno.)» ss?ia/aiea I.,
Aii/a?aiea N., Eaeeie/aiei I. oa ?i.(E,1991).

5. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc? aoiinioe?ieia?? , aoiieia??, aoiia?ao??,
nioe?ieia?? ina?oe. A ia?oo /a?ao, oea «Nioe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea»
I.Iaoi?ia (NIa.1911), «Nioe?ieia?y ina?oe » A.Ia/a?aa (I,1980); «Aoiin ?
aoiia?ao?y» TH.A?iieay (I,1973); «Aoi?/i? iaioeie No?aeii? oa
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie: eiiia?aoeaiee aiae?c noaiiaeua oa ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo» (ca ?aae. A.?aoooa — E,1994), «Aoiinioe?aeueia eoeueoo?a ye
naii?aaoeueiaaia nenoaia» A.Neo?ao?anueeiai (E,1993). Ia iniaeeao oaaao
caneoaiao? iiiia?ao?y iieuenueeiai aeine?aeieea I.Aaa?oa?aeoa
«Iaoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie a Oe?a?i? o OO noie?oo?» (Aa?oaaa, 1994).

6. E?oa?aoo?a c oai??? oa iaoiaeieia?? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia «Eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee ?icaeoeo
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee» Nooiieeinueei? I.(E,1998) oa «No?oeoo?a
no/aniiai ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai ciaiiy» Aiaoneaanueeiai I.(E,1998).

7. Iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao o i.Ee?a?,
Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?.

8. Oe?a?inueea, iieuenueea oa ?in?enueea ia??iaee/ia i?ana;
aeia?aeieeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/ia e?oa?aoo?a, ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a;
aaoi?aoa?aoe aeena?oaoe?e oa aeena?oaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Ii/aoeiaee aoai (1991-1992??.) — aea/aiiy ?ic?iaeaiino? ia?aii?
i?iaeaie a ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe?.

2. Iiooeiai-aiae?oe/iee aoai (1992-1995??.) — ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c
i?iaeaie; aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?e, a?o?aieo aeaea?ae.

3. Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iee aoai (1996-1997??.) — ?ic?iaea
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai oe?e?nii?
eiioeaioe??; ei?eaoaaiiy ?aeae ? iieiaeaiue; a?aea??, aiae?c ? neioac
aeaea?aeueii? aace; ?ic?iaea niaoeeo?no «Iieuenueea oe?eueieoeoai ia
Aieei? o OV???-ii/.OOno.»

4. Aoai iiaeaethaaiiy (1997-1998??.) — ocaaaeueiaiiy ? inieneaiiy
oai?aoe/iiai oa oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo; iiaoaeiaa aa??aio?a
nioe?ieiaiina?oi?o iiaeaeae; ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. Io?eiaii iiaa ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ia ciaiiy i?i ?icaeoie ina?oe ia
Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? o O?O-ia?o?e iie.OO noie?ooy; aia?oa ?icaeyiooi
nenoaio ina?oe iieuenueei? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie c o?aooaaiiyi
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? niaoeeo?ee ?aa?iio.

2. I?iaiae?ciaai? oeyoe noaiiaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo oa caiaiaaeo ina?oe
iieuenueei? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie a ?aa?ii?, aeeeaaeaii
o?iiieia?caoe?th oeueiai i?ioeano.

3. Ia iniia? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aiae?co iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa
ia Aieei?-AEeoiie?oei? noai?aii oeiia? iiaeae? ?icaeoeo ina?oe aeey
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie o iie?aoi?/iiio i?aai?ci?.

4. Noi?ioeueiaaii ? aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a oa?i?ie «ina?oiy
aeaoi?iaoe?y» oa «eaac??inoeoooe?eia nenoaia ina?oe», ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?icaeoie iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa a ?aa?ii? o iaaieo
oiiaao.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a: nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiio
aiae?c? ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa, ii/eiath/e c 1608?.;
caeo/aii? iaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?ieia?? ina?oe oa aoiinioe?ieia??
aei aea/aiiy ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?iaeai; eiino?othaaii? oa aaaaeaii?
a iaoeiaee ia?a iiaeo eaoaai??e; iiaeaethaaii? c?ace?a nenoaie ina?oe
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a iie?aoi?/iiio i?aai?ci?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, i?iaiae?ciaai? aeieoiaioe ?
iaoa??aee ni?eyoeiooue caaaa/aiith iaoiai ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai oa
aoiinioe?ieia?/iiai ciaiiy. C?a?ai? ? ocaaaeueiai? a aeena?oaoe??
iaoeia? aeai? aeicaieythoue caaaaoeoe ci?no eo?no ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee oa
nioe?ieia?? ina?oe aeey iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a oa oi?aa?neoao?a; iieiaeaiiy
? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o ?iaio?
nooaeaionueeeo iaoeiaeo ao?oe?a ? oaeoeueoaoea?a; iaoa??aeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue oaeiae nei?enoaoeny a/eoae? ?noi??? oa
e?a?ciaaoe?.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue oa a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/o?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo iao? ? caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy; iaoeiaei aiae?cii ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoieia?/iiai
iaoa??aeo o ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiio, nioe?ieiaiina?oiueiio,
aoiinioe?ieia?/iiio aniaeoao i?iaeaie.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeinyaioo? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? iiaeia
noi?ioethaaoe o aeaeyae? iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Ocaaaeueithth/a oa?aeoa?enoeea ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia
Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? ?acii ?c cai?iiiiiaaiith ?? eeaneo?eaoe??th.

2. O?iiieia?caoe?y oa aoiinioe?ieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea eiaeiiai c aoai?a
?icaeoeo iieuenueei? ina?oe a ?aa?ii?.

3. Iiaeae? ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei?
?acii ?c cai?iiiiiaaiith ?o eeaneo?eaoe??th.

4. Oa?i?ie «ina?oiy aeaoi?iaoe?y» oa «eaac??inoeoooe?eia nenoaia
ina?oe», ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaai? aoaie ?icaeoeo iieuenueei? ina?oe a
e?a?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee AEeoiie?nueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i.?.O?aiea, ia can?aeaiiyo
eaai?aoi??? oai??? oa ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie. ?acoeueoaoe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
??ciiai ??aiy (1993-1998??.) ? io?eiaee noaaeaiiy. Ia V eo?n?
AEeoiie?nueeiai iaae?inoeoooo aoei i?i/eoaii niaoeeo?n «?icaeoie
iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei? o XVIII — ii/. OO noie?ooy» ca
iaoiaee/ieie aeac?aeaie, ?ic?iaeaieie a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a, c ieo 3 noaoo? o iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo
aeo?iaeao, 2 noaoo? o ca?oa?aeieo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y ianyaii 144 noi??iee neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ei?ioeeo aeniiae?a aei eiaeiiai ?icae?eo,
caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (244 iaeiaioaaiiy, c
ieo 63 ?iicaiiith iiaith), 18 oaaeeoeue oa 14 ?enoie?a, a oaeiae 10
aeiaeaoe?a ia 23 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, nooi?iue
?? ?ic?iaee, aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy; i?iaiae?ciaaii oai?aoeei-iaoieia?/io aaco oa
eaoaai??eii-iiiyo?eiee aia?ao aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?icaeyiooi eiai
oa?eoi??aeuei? oa o?iiieia?/i? iaae?; aecia/aii oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io
cia/ou?noue ?iaioe; noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno; ?ice?eoi aeaea?aeiciaa/o aaco.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «Noaiiaeaiiy iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei? o
1608-1905??.» — ?icaeyaea?oueny aaiethoe?y iieuenueeeo ina?oi?o
?inoeoooe?e ia oa?eoi??? ?aa?iio i?ioyaii o?ueio noie?oue. Ia?oith
oi?iith i?aai?caoe?? iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ia Aieei? noaee
?co?onuee? oeiee oa eieaa?oie. O aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaii no?oeoo?o oeeo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o ?aa?ii?, i?iaiae?ciaaii iniaeeaino? ci?noo
iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, aecia/aii ?ieue ? i?noea eaoieeoeueeeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a o nenoai? ina?oe Aieei?.

I?ney caai?iie ae?yeueiino? i?aeaio ?co?o?a (1773?.) ?o ina?oi?
?inoeoooe?? aoee ia?aaeai? ?ioei eaoieeoeueeei (o?aioeeneaioe?, i?yae?)
oa oi?aonueeei (aanee?aioe?) i?aeaiai. Caaaeueia ea??aieoeoai
ae?yeuei?noth iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ia?aeoei aei Eii?n??
Ia?iaeii? Ina?oe (1773-1793??.), yea ?ic?iaeea /ioe?enooiaiaao no?oeoo?o
oe?eueieoeoaa: aieiaiee iaa/aeueiee caeeaae ie?oao, a?aeae?eia?,
i?aea?aeae?eia? oa ia?ao?yeuei? oeiee. Oaeei /eiii, aoei c?iaeaii ni?iao
ii?aeiaiiy nooi ?ae?a?eii? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe c? na?onueeith na?aaeiueith
oa aeuith. Iai?ana?onueeee oa?aeoa? oa iiaeeaeaiiy oeaio?ae?caoe?eieo
i?ioean?a a ina?o? ii/aoeo O?O noie?ooy i?ecaaee aei ?icai?oaiiy oe?iei?
ia?aae? iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, aeaaaeaiiy e?eueeio ina?oi?o
ai?eciioaeae, — aae aei i?aeaioiaee aeanieo iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a o E?aiaiaoeueeiio (Aieeinueeiio) e?oea?.

N?/iaaa iieuenueea iianoaiiy (1831?.) ni?e/eieei neanoaaiiy ia?aae?
iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a; o i?aeiianoaii?aee (1831-1863??.) /an
aoei c?iaeaii ni?iao iiiiaeaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?. Iaeiae iianoaiiy 1863?.
noaei iiooiaoii ia eeoa neanoaaiiy nenoaie iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa,
aea e caai?iie aeei?enoaiiy iieuenueei? iiae ye iiae aeeeaaeaiiy ?
ni?eeoaaiiy a ?in?enueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Aieei?.

?icaeoie iieuenueeeo ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e na?aaeeie O?O noie?ooy
iia’ycaiee c i?ina?oieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth a?aeiieo iieuenueeeo
ina?oi?o ae?y/?a, ooiaeaoi??a, iaoeaiao?a, i?aai?caoi??a ina?oe. O
aeine?aeaeaii? iaaiaeyoueny aeai? i?i o/anoue a ?icaeoeo iieuenueeeo
ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e ia Aieei? aaia?aea iiae?euenueeeo caiaeue Aaeaia
Eacei?aea *a?oi?enueeiai; a?ceoaoi?a Eii?n?? Ia?iaeii? Ina?oe Aaeaia
?aee *a?oi?enueeiai; caniiaieea E?aiaiaoeueeiai e?oeath Oaaeay
*aoeueeiai; naiaoi?a, aeanieea ?iiai?anueei? ?co?onueei? oeiee THcaoa
?e?inueeiai; a?aeiiiai iieuenueeiai ienueiaiieea, eo?aoi?a
aeeoiie?nueei? a?iiac?? THcaoa E?aoaanueeiai; aeoiaaioey E?aiaiaoeueeiai
e?oeath, ni?aea??aieea Oiaa?enoaa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iieuenueeeo eiea
Ea?iey Ea/eianueeiai.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy iaoa??ae?a a ia?oiio ?icae?e? noi?ioeueiaaii
iieiaeaiiy i?i a?aeiinio aaoiiiii?noue nenoaie iieuenueeiai
oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei?, c iaeiiai aieo, oa caeaaei?noue a?ae
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ?in?enueei? ?iia??? — c ?ioiai; i?i iinooiiaee
ia?ao?ae nenoaie iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa a?ae ?ae?a?eii? aei
iai?ana?onueei? iiaeae?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «?icaeoie ina?oe iieuenueei? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
iaioeie ia Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? o 1905-1938??.» — i?iaiae?ciaaii
ae?yeuei?noue iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o ?aa?ii? i?ney ia?oi?
?in?enueei? ?aaiethoe?? (1905-1917??.); ?ice?eoi noia?a/iino? oa
?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo iieuenueeeo ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e o
ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae (1917-1920??.);
aecia/aii niaoeeo?eo ae?yeueiino? iieuenueeeo ?aaeyinueeeo oe?e ia
Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? o 1920-1938??.

I?ney ?in?enueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1905?. ia oa?eoi??? Aieei? ?icai?ioea
naith ae?yeuei?noue a?iiaaenueea i?ina?oieoeueea i?aai?caoe?y iieye?a
Aieei? — Iaoe?ae Iieuenueea. I?ae ?? ea??aieoeoaii a?aeaoeiny iiiiaeaiiy
ae?yeueiino? neaniaaieo i?ney eenoiiaaeiaiai (1863?.) iianoaiiy
iieuenueeeo oe?e, a oaeiae a?aee?eooy iiaeo. Oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie
ae?yeueiino? Iaoe?aee Iieuenueei? noaea ?? ?aa?iiaeueia aaoiiiii?noue,
oyae?iiy aei i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? ci?noo ina?oe, aeaiie?aoecaoe?y
oi?aae?iiy ina?oith oa ?icaeoie o/i?anueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. E??i
oeueiai, i?ae aa?aeith Iaoe?aee Iieuenueei? aoea ?icai?iooa oe?iea
iaoeiai-aeaeaaie/a ae?yeuei?noue aeey iio?aa iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee Iaoe?aee Iieuenueei? ye
niaoeeo?/iiai ina?oiueiai ooai?aiiy o aeine?aeaeaii? aaaaeaii oa?i?i
eaac??inoeoooe?eiino?. Eaac??inoeoooe?eia nenoaia ina?oe — oea nenoaia
ina?oe iaaii? nioe?aeueii? a?oie, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aioo??oiueith
caaa?oai?noth, ia? e?eueea ina?oi?o ia?aeaeae, iaae?eaia iniiaieie
nioe?aeueieie ooieoe?yie (?ioaa?aoeaiith, oe?eaaeinyaeiith,
aaeaioeaiith, ooieoe??th ?aaoethaaiiy i?eoiaaieo iai?oaeaiue nenoaie),
aea i?e oeueiio ciaoiaeeoueny iica ae??th iniiaieo nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a aoiinioe?aeueiiai i?aai?cio.

O 1917-1920??. ae?yeuei?noth iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
Aieei?-AEeoiie?ueie ii?eoaaeeny Iieuenueeee Aeeiiaa/ee Eii?oao oa
naeoe?y eoeueoo?ii? aeiiiiiae Iieuenueeiai Oiaa?enoaa aeiiiiiae aea?oaai
a?eie. Iniaeea?noth iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aeey iieye?a o oeae ia??iae
noaei oa, ui cia/io /anoeio a/eoaeuenoaa oa o/i?a neeaee a?aeaioe? c
Iieuenueeiai Ei?ie?anoaa. O aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeai? aeai? i?i e?euee?ni?
oa ye?ni? iieacieee ae?yeueiino? ci?oaieo iieuenueeeo oe?e o ii.
AEeoiie??, Ia?o/?, ?i?eue/eiiio, Ie?iiie?, Ethaa??, ?iiaiia?;
i?iaiae?ciaaii ae?yeuei?noue Oiaa?enoaa aeiiiiiae aea?oaai a?eie a noa??
i?aai?caoe?? ina?oe ia ?inoeoooe?eiiio, iica?inoeoooe?eiiio oa
ieac?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo.

Ii cae?i/aii? ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie oa oeeaaeaii? ?ecueeiai ie?o
(1921?.) ia oa?eoi??? Aieei?-AEeoiie?ueie neeaeany i?eioeeiiai iiaa
ina?oiy neooaoe?y i?ae eiio?ieai Ia?eiiino. Nenoaia iieuenueeiai
oe?eueieoeoaa ooai?eea iniiao «iieuenueeiai ?aaeyinueeiai aenia?eiaioo»
— nenoaie caoiae?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ii ?aae?caoe?? eoeueoo?ii?
?aaiethoe?? a na?aaeiaeu? oe??? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie. O no?oeoo??
aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-iie?oe/ieo i?aai?a aoei noai?aii
niaoe?aeuei? i?ae?icae?ee aeey ?iaioe na?aae iieuenueei?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie. Aoei eaaae?ciaaii ia?ao?yeuei? oeiee ?
ia?aoai?aii ?o o ii/aoeia? aac aeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiao?a ?ae?a?eiiai
oeeeeo; caniiaaia ia?aaea na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a; a?aee?eoi
oaoi?eoie o n.Iiaee Caaiae oa i.Ia?oeaanueeo; noai?aii iia? i?ae?o/ieee
aeey iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a. O aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaiae?ciaaii
aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo nenoaie iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa, iniaeeaino?
i?ia?ai iaa/aiiy, no?oeoo?o ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e; aecia/aii oaeiae
i?e/eie neanoaaiiy iieuenueeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o 1933-1938??.

Iniaeeao oaaao o aeine?aeaeaii? caa?iaii ia ?icaeoie ina?oe o
iieuenueeiio Ia?oeaanueeiio ?aeii? ia AEeoiie?uei? (1925-1935??.) ye
oe?e?niiio aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiio ooai?aii?, aea aoea
noai?aia nenoaia eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o onoaiia aeey aeoiaaiiy ?aaeyinueeeo
iieye?a. *anoea iieuenueeiai ianaeaiiy ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio noaiiaeea
69,83%. Ca aeanyoue ?ie?a eiai oaeoe/iiai ?nioaaiiy e?euee?noue
iieuenueeeo oe?e c?inea aaea?/?, ae?yee 5 oe?e-naie??/ie oa 2 oaoi?eoie
— n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee oa iaaeaaia?/iee. Iaaeaaia?/i? eaae?e aeey
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ?aeiio aiooaaeeny o iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoi?eoiao
ii.Ia?oeaanueea oa Ee?aa, a oaeiae o Ee?anueeiio iieuenueeiio ?inoeooo?
nioe?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy oa ia iaaeaaia?/ieo eo?nao ?i.O.Eiia o i.Ee?a?.

Iieuenueea oe?eueieoeoai Ia?oeaanueeiai ?aeiio noaei iaenei?ciaaiei
ao?eaiiyi «iieuenueeiai ?aaeyinueeiai aenia?eiaioo». Neanoaaiiy ?aeiio o
1935?. ?icaeyaea?oueny ye caeiiii??iee ?acoeueoao ?ai?an?e, ui
a?aeaoeeny o na?aaeiaeu? ?ioae?aaioe?? Oe?a?ie.

O ia??iae 1921-1938??. nenoaia iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa caciaea ia
nia? ae?? ina?oiuei? aeaoi?iaoe??. Oeae oa?i?i aaaaeaiee o
aeine?aeaeaii? aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iaocaiaeaeaii? ae?? e?eueeio
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a, i?e /iio ci?ie a aeii?ioth/iio (ye i?aaeei,
aea?aeaae, ?aeaieia??) nioe?aeueiiio ?inoeooo? i?ecaiaeyoue aei oiai, ui
ooieoe?y ?aaoethaaiiy i?eoiaaieo iai?oaeaiue nenoaie ia a?aaoeueiao?
a?aeiia?aeieo aeioeaio?iaeo oa a?aeoeaio?iaeo oaiaeaioe?e
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie, ui, a naith /a?ao, icia/a? aeieeiaiiy
noia?a/iino? i?ae aioo??oiuei-ineo?/iith oa ciai?oiuei-neiaie?/iith
noa?aie ae?? ina?oe ye nioe?aeueiiai yaeua.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «Iiaeaethaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei a iie?aoi?/iiio i?aai?ci?» — ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aiae?co ?icaeoeo nenoaie iieuenueeiai
oe?eueieooeaa ia Aieei?-AEeoiie?uei? c?iaeaia ni?iaa iiaoaeiae oeiiaeo
iiaeaeae nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee uiaei ina?oe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei a iie?aoi?/iiio i?aai?ci? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Aeacai? iiaeae?
iiaoaeiaaii ?c caeo/aiiyi eaoaai??eii-iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo nioe?ieia??
ina?oe. I?e oeueiio iniiaieie oeiaie nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee
aecia/aii eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e e?aa?ae?ci, eiina?aaoeci oa
?iaeea?aeoae?ci. Ca i?eioeeiii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae
nioe?ae?coth/i? ooieoe?? nenoaie ina?oe iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei (?i) aei
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? (?c), — cai?iiiiiaaii /ioe?e aa??aioe iiaeaeae
?icaeoeo oe?eueieoeoaa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

1. ?i=?c (?aeaaeueia iiaeaeue). Aei oeueiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaaeeaeaeany
nenoaia iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa ia Aieei? o na?aaeei? oa ia ii/aoeo
O?O noie?ooy, aea caaaeaee caeiaea ii a?aeiioaiith aei oe??? iiaeae?
iaenei?ciaaio /e i?i?i?ciaaio iiceoe?th. Ni?iaa iiaoaeiae ?aeaaeueii?
iiaeae? a?aeaoeany oaeiae o 20-30-? ?iee OO noie?ooy (a ia?oo /a?ao o
Ia?oeaanueeiio ?aeii?). Iaeiae iiaeaeue ia aoea ?aae?ciaaia aiane?aeie
aeeniiaino i?ae oanooth/ith, naeaeoe?iioth/ith oa ?iciiae?eue/ith
ooieoe?yie ?inoeooo?a ina?oe oa ?aeaieia??. Oaeei /eiii, nenoaio
iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa Ia?oeaanueeiai ?aeiio iiaeia aecia/eoe ye
i?iaieioaio ?aeaaeueio iiaeaeue.

2. ?i>?c (ia?aaeienaeueia iiaeaeue): oe?eueieoeoai iaei??? c
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei ?ioaineai?oa aeeiio? nai? nioe?ae?coth/?
ooieoe??, ai?ae caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia nenoaia ina?oe. Ia ii/aoeo O?O
noie?ooy ia Aieei? neeaeany naia oaea iiaeaeue, ine?eueee noaoon
iieuenueeiiiaii? ina?oe a ?aa?ii? aoa aeuei o ii??aiyii? c
?in?enueeiiiaiei oe?eueieoeoaii.

3. ?i

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