Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

Eiaa?ia-Aee Oaoyia Aiaoie??aia

OAeE 371.31+371.21+372.857

Iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a na?aaei?o ?
noa?oeo eean?a

/ ia i?eeeaae? i?aaeiao?a a?ieia?/iiai oeeeeo /

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

ae e n a ? o a oe ? ?

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.
I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IANEIA Aaeaioei ?aaiiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

ss?IOAIEI Ieueaa A?eai??aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaaiaa,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i oa ioi?iie i?e?iaee.

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

IAOssO Iaae?y TH???aia,

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi??? iaoiaeeee a?ieia?? ? o?i??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie , i.Caii??aeaey.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “11” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 14.30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee E 26.053.02 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa 252601, i. Ee?a,
aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I. I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i. Ee?a, aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 5 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aeieeinueea E.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. 90-o? ?iee OO noie?ooy iicia/eeenue
?noi?e/ieie, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie iiae?yie o noni?eueiiio aeeoo?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. ?icaoaeiaa noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae aeiaaa? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe. ?nioth/a a
Oe?a?i? nenoaia ina?oe ia caaeiaieueiy? iio?aae, ye? iinoathoue ia?aae
iath a ia??iae aeiei??iieo ci?i nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo
a?aeiinei o noni?euenoa?, a oiiaao eoeueoo?iiai oa aeooiaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. ?? aeiei??iia ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aecia/aia Caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo” oa Aea?aeaaiith iaoe?iiaeueiith
i?ia?aiith “Ina?oa» (“Oe?a?ia OOI noie?ooy”) .Iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo
na?eicieo iaaeie?e?a caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee aoea aeoaea neaaea
ci???ioiaai?noue ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie iniaenoino? o/iy, eiai
??ciiiai?oieo iaoee?a ? cae?aiinoae, iaaea?oaaiue oa ?ioa?an?a.

?aeay ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a o
i?ioean? iaa/aiiy iaeaaeeoue aei iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?eioeei?a,
iaiao?aei?noue ?aae?caoe?? yeiai a oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe? coiiaeaia oei,
ui oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? aeeoeie, canai?iiy ciaiue oa ai?iue c on?o
iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i oa ae?iaeaiiy a ia? i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie,
?icaeoie ?? cae?aiinoae oa iaaea?oaaiue iiaeia caaacia/eoe eeoa oeyoii
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? iaa/aiiy .

A oiiaao aoiai?caoe?? a?ieia?/ii? ina?oe i??i?eoao iaaea?oueny iaoeiaei
ciaiiyi ? iaieiae?iith ieie ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? i?ciaiiy, yea ni?ey?
aeeaoiio canai?iith iniia a?ieia?? ? aieeaa? oeei naia ia oi?ioaaiiy o
oeiey??a i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiai? ea?oeie na?oo . Oea aeicaieeoue oni?oii
?ica’ycaoe caaaeaiiy aeoiaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo o/i?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy.
Inoaii? coiiaeth? iaaaeueio iio?aao aeine?aeaeoaaoe iniaeeaino?
ina?oiuei-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oiiaao aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy,
ine?eueee e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueii – aeoiaii? ?iaioe iiaeii?
aeinyaoe an? ae?oe. Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iaa/aiiy – a?aooaaiiy a?aei?iiinoae
i?ae aiiiaaiieie aai aaoa?iaaiieie a?oiaie o/i?a ca ??cieie ?ioa?anaie,
??aiai ?icaeoeo, ciaiue oiui. ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y iaa/aiiy — a?aooaaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? eiaeiiai o/iy ye aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae a ??
iaiiaoi?iino?, oi?eaeueiino?, nai???aeiino?.

I?iaeaia ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaa/aiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaeanue o ??cieo aniaeoao, a naia: caaaeueiioai?aoe/i?
ieoaiiy ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a?aeia?aaeai? a i?aoeyo
E. Ae. Ooeinueeiai, I. E. E?oinueei?, N. O. Oaoeueeiai,
I. I. Aeiinueeiai, I. I. Aeaieeiaa, ?. O. Iai?iaei?eiaa, A. I. ?n?iiaa,
TH. E. Aaaainueeiai oiui. A?eueo aeaoaeueii ieoaiiy ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??
i?ciaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae o/i?a aeine?aeaeoaaeenue TH. E. Aaaainueeei,
I. I. Aoaea?iei, I. I. Oaoia?aei. Ieoaiith aoaeoeaiiai ii?aeiaiiy
caaaeueiieeanii?, a?oiiai? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ?iaioe o/i?a i?enay/aii
i?aoe? A. I. Aa?aaaoa, O. I. I?eiea?ai?, ?. I. *a?aaeiaa, ?. A. *o??eiaa
oiui. Aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? i?ae ?ioi?iaoe?eieie ? ineoe/ieie yaeuaie oa
ineoieia?/iee aniaeo i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeoaaee A.A.Aiaiueaa, Aeae.
A?oia?, E.N. Aeaionueeee, Ae.A. Aeueeii?i ,I.A. Caii?iaeaoeue, A.N.
Einothe, I.I. Eaiioueaa, N.E. ?oa?iooaei. I?iaeaio ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??
oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaa/aiiy ye can?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaee ?.?. Oio; aena?oeaiiy ??ai?a , oi?i ? aeae?a
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa ?? iaa/aeueii – iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy ( TH.E.
Aaaainueeee, I.?. Aoaaeia, TH.C. A?eueaoo, E.A. Caieia, A.A. Aeaaeaeia,
A.A. E?ooaoeueeee, A.I. Iieuoe, A.O. Iaeaia?/oe); i?ciaaaeueio
aeoeai?noue oa naiino?ei?noue ( ?.N. ?aaoinueeee, ?.A. *o??eia, O.?.
Oaiiaa oa ?i.). ?ic?iaeo ci?noo oa iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee ?icaeoeo ae?oae
aeine?aeaeoaaee I.ss. Aaeueia??i, C.?. Eaeieeiaa oa ?i. A.I.
E?ooaoeueeee, I.N. Eaeoan, I.I. Eaiioueaa oa ?i., i?iaeaio
?icaeyaeaee ye can?a ?icaeoeo niaoeeo?/ieo cae?aiinoae o/i?a,
iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? onoiaiiy iaoni?oiino? aeine?aeaeoaaee A.?.
Caaayc?inueeee, I.?.Iaoiooia, I.I.Iai/einueea. Na?aae iaeaaaii?oeo
caeiaooe?a a ?ic?iaoe? ineoieiai – iaaeaaia?/ii? oai??? ?icaeoeo
cae?aiinoae iniaenoino? aeae?eythoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
A.O.Iaeaia?/oe – a?aeiia?aei?noue ??aiy canai?iiy ciaiue ??aith ?o
a?aeoai?aiiy, A.?.Aiiaea?y — oi?aae?inueea ae?yeuei?noue iaaeaaiaa, A.?.
Ianeiaa — iaaeaaia?/iee iaiaaeaeiaio o nenoai? ina?oe , I.A.Ii?ica —
oai?/ee i?aeo?ae aei iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa ?i.

I?iaeaia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o aea/aii? a?ieia?? ciaeoea nai?
a?aeaeooy a i?aoeyo a?ieia?a-iaoiaeeno?a A. ?. ?aeeiaa,
I. ?. Ai?iaeoeueeiai, I. A. ?eeiaa, ?. I. A?oiiao, ?. Ae. Ca???aa,
Ae. ?. O?aeoaea, I. I. E?a?ii?, Ae. I. Aieuei?ai?, I. A. ?ooa,
A. E. Neiiiiai?, A. A. Ian?/ieea, I.TH. Iaoyo. O.?. Oaiiaa, O.I.
Aeaaeaeaiei, I.A. ?iaa/aaa aaaaeathoue, ui a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy a?ieia??
i?e aea/aii? iiaiai iaoa??aeo oeaio?aeueia i?noea iiaeiia caeiaoe
naiino?eia ?iaioa o/i?a, a/eoaeue iiaeiai o?eueee eiinoeueooaaoe e
i?aai?ciaoaaoe o/i?a ia an?o aoaiao iaa/aiiy : a?ae iinoaiiaee iaoe,
i?aeai?o ci?noo, iaoiae?a oa oi?i iaa/aiiy aei iaea?aeaiiy e?ioeaaeo
?acoeueoao?a, ?o aiae?co e aecia/aiiy caaaeaiue, oaeineiiaeaiiy
ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?. A.I. Iyaeiaa oa A.?. Neaiaeacia i?e
neeaaeaii? caaaeaiue c a?ieia?? a?aoiaothoue caoiieaiiy ie?aieo o/i?a,
ia?aaeaa/athoue ??ci? aeaee ?ia?o. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie a?ieia?/ii?
ina?oe eiiieaenii ?icaeyaeathoue A.N. Eae?iiaa , A.I. I’yaeiaa —
oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo a?ieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo; A.A. O??ieiaa, Ae.?.
O?aeoae, A.C. ?aci?eiaa, A.N. Eaaeiueia -noaiaea?o a?ieia?/ii? ina?oe;
A.N. Eo/iaiei, E.I. Aianoaniaa — noai a?ieia?/ii? ina?oe; A.?. Ooeaeee
aeine?aeaeo? iaa/aeueio ae?yeuei?noue ??cieo oeiieia?/ieo a?oi o/i?a,
A.I. Io?oac?i ?ic?iaea caaaeaiiy c a?ieia?? ??cieo nooiai?a
neeaaeiino?: aeey an?o o/i?a; aeey oeo, ooi aieiae?? aenieeie
i?ciaaaeueieie iiaeeeainoyie; oneeaaeiai? aeey oeo, ooi caoiieth?oueny
a?ieia??th ? i?aoeth? a ao?oeao, a?aea?aeo? oaeoeueoaoeai? caiyooy.
Aiaeii/an iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?y ni?ai?aoe? a/eoaey e o/iy,
i?eioeei ?iciiae?eo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ??ci? oi?ie iaa/aiiy o/i?a,
oeiieia?/ia a?oioaaiiy o/i?a, cae?eniaiiy cai?ioiiai ca’yceo i?ae o/iyie
oa a/eoaeai, iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iaa/aiiyi o/i?a c a?ieia?? a oeie?. ?acii c oei, aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeoeee c a?ieia?? iieacaa iaaeinoaoith oai?aoe/io e iaoiaee/io
i?aeaioiaeo a/eoae?a a?ieia?? c ieoaiue aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?iaioe oeiey??a
ia o?ioe?, a?aenooi?noue eiie?aoieo iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa
aeeaeaeoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a c oai ie?aieo ?icae?e?a, a?aenooi?noue iiaeae?
iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi c a?ieia??;
iaaecia/ai?noue e?eoa???a ? niinia?a aea/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
iniaeeainoae aeey oeiieia?/iiai a?oioaaiiy o/i?a c iaa?oiooaaiiyi oiai,
c yeiai eeano aeioe?eueii aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe ci?no a?ieia?/ii? ina?oe.

Ana aeuaneacaia ? iaoiiaeei aea?? oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:
“Iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiy o/i?a na?aaei?o
? noa?oeo eean?a ( ia i?eeeaae? i?aaeiao?a a?ieia?/iiai
oeeeeo)”.Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniaii a?aeiia?aeii aei
oaiaoe/iiai ieaio aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa
(i?ioieie ?7 a?ae 31.03.94 ? ) oa ??oaiiyi ?aaee c eii?aeeiaoe??
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? a Oe?a?i?
(i?ioieie ?6 a?ae 14.10.98 ?.)

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai??y oa oaoiieia?y aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
iaa/aiiy o/i?a a nenoai? caaaeueii? ina?oe.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — oai?aoe/i? iniiae, iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy oa
oaoiieia?y iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa c canoinoaaiiyi
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aiiy o/i?a na?aaei?o ? noa?oeo
eean?a o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy a?ieia??.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?iaiae?coaaoe ??aaiue oai?aoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy
oa i?aeoe/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a na?aaei?o
oa noa?oeo eean?a i?e aeeeaaeaii? a?ieia??. ?ic?iaeoe
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaio nenoaio iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi a?ieia?? o/i?a c aeei?enoaiiyi a?oiiai?
?iaioe o/i?a.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aoei ia?aa??aii a?iioaco: a iniiao aoei iieeaaeaii
i?eiouaiiy, ui a o/i?a 6 – 11 — o eean?a iiaeia aoaeoeaii oi?ioaaoe
nenoaiaoeciaai?, iaoeiai — a?ieia?/i? oa ina?oi? oyaeaiiy, ciaiiy oa
ai?iiy, yeui a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy o/i?a
aoaeoaaoe iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ia iniia? iiaeae? iaaeaaia?/iiai
ea??aieoeoaa i?ioeanii aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiyi o/i?a, yea
neeaaea?oueny c ae?aaiinoeei–iiaeaethth/iai,
?aaoeyoeaii–i?ioeanoaeueiiai, ioe?ii/ii–ei?eaoth/iai aoai?a, oa
oaoiieia?? iaaeaaia?/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioa iaa/aiiyi o/i?a o neeaae?
aiiiaaiieo iaeeo aeeiai?/ieo a?oi.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe ??aaiue oai?aoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy oa i?aeoe/iiai
ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy o/i?a a
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeie?.

2. ?ic?iaeoe a?iioaoe/io iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii o na?aaei?o oa noa?oeo eeanao
i?e aeeeaaeaii? a?ieia??.

3. Cae?enieoe aenia?eiaioaeueio ai?iaaoe?th a?iioaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?e
aea/aii? i?aaeiao?a a?ieia?/iiai oeeeeo, c’ynoaaoe e iienaoe ?? ye?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oa aoaeoeai?noue.

4. I?inoaaeeoe aieea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy ia canai?iiy
a?ieia?? o/iyie, iaa?oiooaaoe aeeaeaeoe/i? i?eioeeie
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy.

5. ?ic?iaeoe iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o na?aaei?o oa noa?oeo eeanao ia o?ieao
a?ieia??.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue:

1. Eiioeaioe?y ?icaoaeiae ia?iaeii? ina?oe ia iniia?
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??, aoiai?caoe?? e aeaiie?aoecaoe??, ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iaa/aiiy (E.Ae. Ooeinueeee, TH.E. Aaaainueeee, I.I. Aeaieeia, I.I.
Eaiioue?a, A.I. ?neiia, N.O. Aii/a?aiei. 2. Oai??y i?ciaiiy —
aca?iica’ycie oai??? oa i?aeoeee, aenie?eaoe?y aii??e/ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo
??ai?a i?ciaiiy, i?ciaiiy ye aeoeaia ia?aoai?thaaeueia e
a?aeia?aaeoaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue, iieiaeaiiy ineoieia?? i?i
i?aai?caoe?th iaa/aeueii – i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? (N.E.?oa?iooaei,
A.N.Einothe, A.A.Aeaaeaeia, Ae.A.Aeueeii?i, A.N.Na?aaea oa ?i.). 3.
Oai??y iniaeno?nii – i???ioiaaiiai iaa/aiiy (I.O. Oaeec?ia, ?.N.
sseeiainueea); 4. Nenoaia iaoeiaeo ciaiue i?i caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? o i?ioean? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (E.?.Aioeeoa?iaa,
I.I.Eaiioueaa, A.O.Eiiia, A.A.Iao?ianueeee, N.E. ?oa?iooaei). 5.
Eiioeaioe?y iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e (?.ss. Ea?ia?, A.O.
Iaeaia?/oe, I.I. Iai/einueea, E.N. Aeaionueeee). 6. Oai??y nioe?aeueiiai
oa iaaeaaia?/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae (A.I. Aaciaeueei,
?.N. Aa?aciye, A.N. Eiaca?ue, TH.A. Eiia?aeaanueeee, A.?. Ianeia, A.?.
Aiiaea?ue, I.I. Iioaoiee, A.O. Iaeaia?/oe).

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: aea/aiiy e aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e
iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie; aii??e/i? iaoiaee –
oe?eani?yiiaai? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iaa/aeueii–aeoiaiei i?ioeanii
(aea??eiaa e nenoaiaoe/ia), aieaooaaiiy oa ?ioa?a’thaaiiy aea/aiiy
ci?noo iaoa??aeueieo iin??a ?ioi?iaoe?? (iaaeaaia?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? ,
ieai?a – eiiniaeo?a o?ie?a o/eoae?a a?ieia??, o/i?anueeeo cioeo?a);
iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio (eiinoaooth/ee, oi?ioth/ee ? eiio?ieueiee);
iaoaiaoeei–noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee (ia?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo).
Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo aeaea?ae o aaeoc?
aeeaeaeoeee, iaaeaaia?/ii? ineoieia??, iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy a?ieia?? oa
?ioeo i?e?iaeie/eo aeenoeeie?i aeaei iai iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe e?ie aeey
iine?aeiaiiai ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai aiae?co noaio i?iaeaie, aeyaeaiiy
aeooaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy iiooeo, eiie?aoecaoe?? a?iioace aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a aiae?co iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo, niinoa?aaeaiiy,
aan?aee, oanooaaiiy ? aieaooaaiiy aeaei iai iiaeeea?noue aena?oeeoe
i?iaeaie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo i?e iaa/aii? a?ieia??.
Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a iiaeaethaaiiy a ii?aeiaii? c nenoaiiei i?aeoiaeii
aeaei iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaeoe iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi, iaa?oiooaaoe ?? a i?ioean? iaaeaaia?/iiai
aenia?eiaioo ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a e?euee?niiai ? ye?niiai aiae?co
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoeiai–iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei i?aeoiaeii o i?ioean? aea/aiiy a?ieia??.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iniiaiith aeine?aeieoeueei-aenia?eiaioaeueiith aacith aoee
caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?5, ?6, ?24 i?noa Iae?oiiiey, NO ?1
n. Einoyioei?aea ? NO ?1 naeeua Ie?ia Iae?oiiieuenueeiai ?aeiio
Caii??cueei? iaeano?. Eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany oaeiae a
Iae?oiiieuenueeeo NO ?1, 4, 7, 9, 14, 16, 25.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue c 1992 ii 1998 o /ioe?e aoaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaeeee oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie canoinoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ciaiue ia oai?/iio
??ai?. Noai?aia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi, yea
aeeth/a? ae?aaiinoeei-iiaeaethth/ee, ?aaoeyoeaii-i?ioeanoaeueiee oa
ioe?ii/ii-ei?eaoth/ee eiiiiiaioe, iaoiaee/io nenoaio cania?a oi?ioaaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue ? oe?ii?niiai noaaeaiiy aei ieo o/i?a, ni?yiiaaii? ia
ai?iiy anoaiiaethaaoe aca?iica’ycee i?ae oai?aoe/ieie oa aii??e/ieie
ciaiiyie, ocaaaeueiaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy, ia?aoai?aiiy iaaooeo ciaiue a
iniaeno?nii cia/ou?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii? iiaeae? iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iaa/aiiyi o/i?a 6-11-o eean?a i?e aea/aii? a?ieia??, iaa?oiooaaii?
iaiao?aei?noth iino?eiiai niaoeeo?/iiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ye iniiae oi?aae?iiy aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th, ca?aeii c
?ic?iaeaiith iiaeaeeth iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iaa/aiiyi a?ieia?? oeiey??a 6-11-o eean?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy a?ieia??, iii?ieo eiiniaeo?a oa ni?ai?aoe? oeiey??a
o neeaae? aiiiaaiieo aeeiai?/ieo a?oi i?ioyaii iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo, ye?
aeicaieythoue ?aae?coaaoe i?eioeeie aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaa/aiiy,
a?aoiaoth/e ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue eiaeiiai o/iy, ui ni?ey? i?ciaaaeuei?e
caoe?eaaeaiino? ia o?ieao oa i?aeaeuaiith yeino? iaa/aiiy oa ciaiue
o/i?a, ye? aei??thaaee e?euee?noth canai?ieo aeaiaio?a ciaiue c
a?ieia??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?ic?iaeai?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey a/eoaey a?ieia??, ye?
aeicaieythoue ?aae?coaaoe i?eioeei aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy o/i?a c
a?ieia?? o 6-11 eeanao, cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ae?aaiinoeee
??aiy noi?iiaaiino? ciaiue oa a?ieia?/ieo oyaeaiue o/i?a aiiiaaiieo a?oi
? aa??aioieo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a/eoaeai a?ieia??, nooaeaioaie a?ieia?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae,
aeeeaaea/aie iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a oa iaaeo/eeeu, ye? aeeeaaeathoue
iaaeaaia?eo, iaaeaaia?/io iaenoa?i?noue, a oaeiae iaoiaeeeo iaa/aiiy
a?ieia??, ea?othoue iaaeaaia?/iith i?aeoeeith nooaeaio?a o oeieao, ia
eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a oe?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a: 1. Aeyaeaii i?e/eie, ye? no?eiothoue
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th iaa/aiiy o/i?a. 2. C’yniaai? e?eoa??? aeey ?iciiae?eo
o/i?a ia aeeiai?/i? aiiiaaii? a?oie. 3. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?iciiae?e o/i?a
noiniaii ?o ??aiy ciaiue ia a?oie, aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea eiaeii? c 4-o
a?oi. 4. Oai?aoe/ii e aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii iiaeaeue
iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a c
a?ieia??. 5. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy ciaiue oa ai?iue o/i?a
??cieo a?oi, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ii?aaee uiaei i?aai?caoe??
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy o/i?a a oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/aia
iaoiaeieia??th eiai aeo?aeieo iiceoe?e, a?aeiia?aei?noth iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai iao? e caaaeaiiyi, e?euee?niei ? ye?niei aiae?cii
cia/iiai ianyao oai?aoe/iiai oa aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo,
?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ee, iiaiioith ? noaoenoe/iith cia/ou?noth
caeiaooiai a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??aeo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Iaoiaee/i? oiiae aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iiaoaeiae
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano i?e aea/aii? ??cieo ?icae?e?a a?ieia?? oa
iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo aeae?a iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe o/i?a 6 — 11-o
eean?a (ae?yeuei?noue o/iy ia? aooe eiio?ieueiaaia ? ea?iaaia;
cae?eniaiiy cai?ioiiai ca’yceo i?ae o/iyie e a/eoaeai; canai?iiy o/iai
ciaiue a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio oaii?, ia ??ciiio ??ai? neeaaeiino? o?eueee
/a?ac aeanio ae?yeuei?noue o/iy; i?ioean canai?iiy ciaiue o/i?a iiaeiai
aooe iioeaiaaiei, a iaa/aeuei? caaaeaiiy iaeneiaeueii eiie?aoeciaai?).

2. Iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa i?ioeanii aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
iaa/aiiy o/i?a i?e aea/aii? a?ieia?? a na?aaei?o oa noa?oeo eeanao, yea
neeaaea?oueny c ae?aaiinoeei-iiaeaethth/iai,
?aaoeyoeaii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai oa ioe?ii/ii-ei?eaoth/iai aoai?a.

3. Iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy iaa/aeueieo a?oi oeiey??a c a?aooaaiiyi ??aiy
?oiuei? i?aoeacaeaoiino? a i?ioean? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy
(??aaiue ciaiue, iayai?noue ?ioa?ano aei a?ieia??, ?acoeueoaoe
ineoieia?/iiai oanooaaiiy ca iaoiaeeeaie “ Iia??aoeaia iai’youe”,
“Iaoiaeeea Ithinoa?aa?aa “, “?ioaeaeooaeueia eaa?euei?noue”, ??aiy
iao/oaaiino? o/i?a).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. An? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ieoee i?aeoe/io ia?aa??eo a
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao ?5, ?6, ?24 i?noa Iae?oiiiey, NO ?1
n. Einoyioei?aea ? NO ?1 naeeua Ie?ia Iae?oiiieuenueeiai ?aeiio
Caii??cueei? iaeano?. Aaoi? aenooiaea ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo:
“Oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?” (E?eaee ??a,
1998); “Iai?a?uaiinoue ?acaeoey i?ioanneiiaeueii-oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae
o/aueony e nooaeaioia a nenoaia ia?aciaaiey” (Eeaa-Iaeeoiiieue, 1997);
“I?aeaioiaea iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ? ae?yeuei?noue iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
iiaiai oeio a nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe: aeina?ae ? ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo” (*a?i?aoe?, 1998); “Iia? iaaeaaia?/i? oaoiieia?? c i?iaeai
aoiai?caoe?? oa aeaiie?aoecaoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a
ina?oi?o caeeaaeao” (*a?eane, 1998); ia Anaoe?a?inueeeo oa
i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “Oeieu iiaiai oeia:
iiuo noaiiaeaiey, oaoiieiaee e ia?niaeoeau” (Caii?iaeuea, 1993);
?Ineoieiae/aneay iaoea e nia?aiaiiia o/?aaeaeaiea ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey? (Caii?iaeuea, 1994); “Iaaeaoc nueiaiaeaiiy: noai ?
ia?niaeoeae iaa/aiiy e iaoee” (Iae?oiiieue, 1995).

Aaoi? ia? 21 ioae?eaoe?th, c yeeo 14 — iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, a o. /. 4 ia i?aeia?iaeieo 7 noaoae, c
yeeo 4 noaoo? — o oaoiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo aeaeaiiyo.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aena?oethaaeenue ia i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo
“Oe?eueiee eo?n a?ieia?? oa iaoiaeeea eiai aeeeaaeaiiy” aeey nooaeaio?a
IV ? V eo?n?a i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/iiai, o?i?ei-a?ieia?/iiai,
aoiai?oa?iiai oaeoeueoao?a, nooaeaio?a cai/ii? oi?ie iaa/aiiy
Iae?oiiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo, ia iaoiaee/ieo
nai?ia?ao a/eoae?a a?ieia?? i. Iae?oiiiey oa Iae?oiiieuenueeiai ?aeiio.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??: ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
caaaeueiiai aeniiaeo, nieneo iniiaii? aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, ui
aeeth/a? 218 e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. Ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii
ia 176 noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 7 oaaeeoeue, 6
naeoi?ieo ae?aa?ai, 12 iaethie?a, 5 noai , caaaeueiei ianyaii 14
noi??iie.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny ?? aeooaeuei?noue, aecia/a?oueny
iaoa, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, ?iai/a a?iioaca ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaeaii ia?ae?e aeei?enoaieo iaoiae?a, aecia/aia
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa, iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
iaa?oioiaaia a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa no?oeoo?o ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iaa/aiiyi ye iaoeiaa i?iaeaia ” — ?icaeyiooi ?noi??th aeieeiaiiy
i?iaeaie, a?aooaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaenoinoae oeiey??a, noai
oai??? oa iaoiaeeee i?aai?caoe?? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy a
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao, oeiieia?/ia a?oioaaiiy o/i?a aeey ?iaioe ia
o?ioe?, aiae?c yeino? oi?aae?iiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi a o?i/iee
oa iicao?i/iee /an. I?iaeaia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a ia iiaa. A noa?iaeaai?o oeieao a/eoae? caa?oaee
oaaao ia oa, ui o/i? ii-??ciiio caiai’yoiaothoue, ni?eeiathoue ?
canaiththoue iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae, aeyaeythoue ??cia noaaeaiiy aei
caiyoue (Ia?e Oaa?e Eaaio?e?ai, ssi Aiin Eiiainueeee, Aeaeii Eiee).
A.A. Aae?inueeee, I.A. *a?ieoaanueeee, I.I. Aeia?iethaia aaeeeo oaaao
i?eae?eyee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei iniaeeainoyi o/i?a. I.?. Ie?iaia, I.O .
Aoiaeia, A.?. Aiaeiaicia, I.O. Eaioa?aa ?icaeaaee, caaaa/oaaee ?aea?
E.Ae. Ooeinueeiai, yeee aia?oa ia iaoeia?e iniia? ?icaeyaeaa ieoaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a. I.I. Aeiinueeee iiae?eya
an?o iaanoeaath/eo o/i?a ia 4 a?oie, aeacoaaa i?e/eie iaoni?oiino? oa
aeaaaa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c ieoaiue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a
aeey iiaeieaiiy e iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaoni?oiino?. A iaaeaaia?oe? aeoeaii
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue oae? ieoaiiy, ye i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy
(I.Ae. Nii?i, A.?. Aeaaeeeo), i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino? oa naiino?eiino?
(?.N. ?aaoinueeee, I.A. I?iiioi?iaa, ?.?. Oio), i?eeiie i?aai?caoe??
o?iioaeueii?, a?oiiai? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ?iaioe o/i?a (E.I. Eieo,
O.I. I?eiea?aa, A.?. Caaayceinueeee), aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aiiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a (A.A. ?aaiia, A.I. Eiiae?aoaiei, A.A. Aoeoi oiui),
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee noeeue ae?yeueiino? (A.N. Ia?e?i, TH.A. Naia?ei,
?.A. Eeeiia). A 60-o? ?iee ieoaiiy aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy
ae??ooaaee E.I. A?enoiaa, ?.O. Iai?iaei?eia, I.I. Aeaieeia. A 70-80-o?
?iee iineeth?oueny oaiaeaioe?y oe?e?niiai i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a (TH.E.
Aaaainueeee, E.A. Caieia). Ieoaiith aecia/aiiy nooiaiy aeioe?eueiino?
ii?aeiaiiy ? aca?iica’yceo ??cieo oi?i iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe i?eae?eyee
oaaao aeine?aeieee A.?. Caaayceinueeee, O.I. I?eiea?aa, ?.N.
?aaoinueeee, ?.I. *a?aaeia, A.I. Eieo, ?.A. Naieaoe?i. Aena?oeaiiy
??ai?a, oi?i ? aeae?a aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa ?? iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ia
caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaee TH.E. Aaaainueeee, A.I. Iieuoe,
A.O.Iaeaia?/oe. A/ai? anaa?/ii iaa?oiooaaee iaiao?aei?noue ?
iiaeeea?noue iioei?caoe?? iaa/aiiy oeiey??a, cae?eniaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo. Iaoa
aeeoa?aioe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo a iaa/aiiy — ?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
/an ia o?ioe?, noai?thaaoe iaiao?aei? oiiae aeey i?iaeoeoeaii? ?iaioe
o/i?a ??ciiai ??aiy ciaiue, nai?/anii aeyaeyoe i?iaaeeie a ciaiiyo ?
iiia?aaeaeoaaoe a?aenoaaaiiy, a?aoiaoaaoe ?icoiia? cae?aiino? o/i?a,
ineo?/i? iniaeeaino?. Iniiaith aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy ? aeeaiea
ciaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ae?oae ? iaa/aeueieo iiaeeeainoae,
??aiy ?o ineoieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia aeaiiio aoai?. O iaaeaaia?/i?e
ineoieia?? oa aeeaeaeoeoe? ? ??ciiiai?oi? i?aeoiaee aei a?aeae?eaiiy
e?eoa???a aea/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ? neeaaeaiiy ia ?o
iniia? oeiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee o/i?a. Aeey cae?eniaiiy
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue a?aenooiy ?aeeia
oeiieia?y oeiey??a, oiio ?? ?ic?iaea i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoenue
aeooaeueiith. A ?? iniia? iiaeii? aooe oeiia? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
a?aei?iiino?, i?eoaiaii? o/iyi ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi e aoaeue-yeiai ??aiy
oni?oiino? (a?aoiaoth/e iniaeeaino? oaiia?aiaioo, ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
a?aei?iiino? ineo?/ieo i?ioean?a , iioeae iaa/aiiy, ?icaeoie
i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, i?aoeacaeaoi?noue, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee noeeue
iaa/aiiy).

I?iaeaia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a aeine?aeaeoaaeanue o
aeena?oaoe?yo A.?. Ooeaeeea, N.N. Iao?iai?, I.?. N?ei?neiai, I.A.
ss?ioaiei oa ?i. A/ai? anoaiiaeee, ui iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie oaeoi?aie
?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a,
ica?i?iiy ?o no/anieie i?ia?aneaieie ?aeayie, iaeiia?oeie iaoiaeeeaie oa
i?aeoiaeaie, i?aai?caoe?y iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa o a?aeiia?aeiino?
c oaoiieia??th nenoaiiiai oi?aae?iiy. Aeey oiai, uia ?iaeea?aeoae?coaaoe
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean, iaiao?aeii noai?eoe i???ioiaai? iaa/aeuei?
oaoiieia??, ye? caaacia/oaaee a oiiae aeey ?aae?caoe?? ina?oi?o
caaaeaiue eiaeiiai o/iy.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui i?iaeaia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ua iaaeinoaoiuei
aea/aia ? ? i?aeoe/i? o?oaeiiu? a ?? ?aae?caoe??, aaaaoi a/eoae?a
aeeoa?aioe?ththoue iaa/aiiy naiiooaeee, ?o i?aeoe/i?e aeina?ae ?
iaioe?iaiei aeey iiaeeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. O a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a a/eoae? aeei?enoiaothoue eeoa aeaiaioe aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
iaa/aiiy (aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aeiiiiiae o/iyi, aeiia aei canai?iiy ciaiue,
o??ciiiai?oiaiiy aeiiaoi?o caaaeaiue, naiino?eieo oa eiio?ieueieo
?ia?o). Ie noaaeee ca iaoo aeyaeoe ?aaeueiee noai aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
iaa/aiiy a no/anieo oeieao, iniaeeaino? ?iaioe o/i?a a a?oiao ia o?ioe?.
Iane?aeee eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui c a?aea?aeaieo
iiiaae 500 o?ie?a a 6-11 eeanao c a?ieia?? a?oiiaa ?iaioa ia o?ioe?
caeiaea i?eaeecii 10% iaa/aeueiiai /ano. Aeaye? a/eoae? a?ieia?? a?oiiao
?iaioo aaaaeathoue iaaoaeoeaiith ? ia o?ieao ia aeei?enoiaothoue.
Aieaooaaiiy, i?iaaaeaia na?aae a/eoae?a i. Iae?oiiiey,
Iae?oiiieuenueeiai ?aeiio Caii??cueei? iaeano? iieacaei, ui 23% iieoaieo
a/eoae?a aaaaeathoue, ui aeei?enoaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo caaaeaiue
iiaeaaey? ?i?oe?aoeao ae?oae, aeeeeea? no?aniaee noai, 48% iaaeaaia?a ia
ciiaee /?oei aecia/eoe iniiai? iciaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai iaa/aiiy oa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a, 32% o/eoae?a ia ?icaeaathoue
i?ciaaaeueio aeoeai?noue o/i?a, iniiaiei aeaeii ?iaioe ia o?ioe? ?
iiiieia o/eoaey ca oaaeiiii. Aiae?c a?aeiia?aeae o/i?a ia o?ieao
iieacaa, ui a/eoae? ia caaaeaee aoaeoeaii i?aai?ciaothoue i?ciaaaeueio
ae?yeuei?noue o/i?a ia o?ioe?, ia caaaeaee /?oei e eia?/ii oi?ioeththoue
i?ciaaaeuei? caaaeaiiy, ia o??ciiiai?oiththoue oi?ie e iaoiaee canai?iiy
iiaiai iaoa??aeo, ia cae?eniththoue cai?ioiiai ca’yceo i?ae o/iyie e
o/eoaeai, ia eiio?ieththoue ae?yeuei?noue o/i?a o i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy
ieie iaa/aeueieo caaaeaiue. Iaea?aeai? aeai? eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai
ea??aieoeoaa i?ioeanii aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy ? oeyoii
aenia?eiaioo ia?aa??eoe ?? aoaeoeai?noue. E?eoa??yie iiae?eo o/i?a ia
aeeiai?/i? oeiieia?/i? a?oie c a?ieia?? aaaaea?ii: ??aaiue ciaiue o/i?a
c i?aaeiaoa, iayai?noue ?ioa?ano aei a?ieia??, yeee aeyaeyee ca
aeiiiiiaith aieaoe “Noaaeaiiy o/i?a aei a?ieia??”, ??aaiue
iao/oaaiiino?, ?acoeueoaoe ineoieia?/ieo oano?a. Aea/aiiy ?iaioe o/i?a
iieacaei, ui a?eueo aoaeoeaiith aaaaea?oueny ae?yeuei?noue a?oi c 5-6
o/i?a i?e aea/ai? a?ieia??, ine?eueee eiaei?e a?oi? aea?oueny
?iaeea?aeoaeueia caaaeaiiy ca ea?oeaie , aa?aa??yie, i?aia?aoaie ?
a/eoaeue iiaea i?ieiio?iethaaoe o?ae oa aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe o/i?a. A oiae?
iaa/aiiy neeaae aiiiaaiieo ca oni?oi?noth a?oi o/i?a ci?ith?oueny, a
ia?aae a/eoaeai iino?eii noi?oue caaaeaiiy oaei? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy,
uia eiaeai o/aiue ia aeaiiio aoai? iaa/aiiy nie?aany a ia iaeaeuo iaaeo
nai?o ?ioaeaeooaeueieo iiaeeeainoae i?e caa?aaeaii? i?eioeeio
aeinooiiino?.

Iaie ?ic?iaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y iaa/aiiy a ?aieao
eeanii-o?i/ii? nenoaie, yea aeeth/a? /ioe?e aoaie: 1. I?aai?caoe?eiee oa
?ioi?iaoe?eiee anooi. 2. ?iaioa o/i?a a iaeeo aeeiai?/ieo a?oiao. 3.
Ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoa??aeo, i?eaaaeaiiy ciaiue a nenoaio. 4. Eiio?ieue
ciaiue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ie ?icaeyioee oaeiae iniiai? aoaie iaaeaaia?/iiai
ea??aieoeoaa iaa/aiiyi ia o?ioe? oa a iicao?i/iee /an, a naia:
ae?aaiinoeeo ??aiy ?icaeoeo o/i?a, iniaeeaino? ?ic?iaee iaoiaeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?o aeei?enoaiiy oa ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a; i?iaiicoaaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaa/aeueieo oe?eae; ?ic?iaeo ?iai/eo iiaeaeae
aeeaeaeoe/ieo oe?eae; i?aeaioiaeo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai oa iaa/aeueieo
oaiaoe/ieo ieai?a; ca?? aaieo ?ioi?iaoe??, ui caaacia/o? aeeaeaeoe/io
iaoo; caaacia/aiiy iaoa??aeueii? aace; ?iciiae?e o/i?a ia a?oie;
?ino?oeoaae a?oi, ?o i???ioaoe?y; aaciina?aaei? iaa/aiiy (i?aai?caoe?y,
?aaoethaaiiy); ioe?ieo iioi/ieo ?acoeueoao?a; ieaioaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo; ioe?ithaaiiy aoai?a, aianaiiy ei?aeoea o ci?no; iaoiaeeeo oa
i?aai?caoe?th iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano; noeioethaaiiy o/i?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iaa/aiiyi o/i?a o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
oeiee” iaa?oioiaaii i?aai?caoe?ei? iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae i?ioeano iaa/aiiy,
yeee ni?yiiaaii ia ?icaeoie i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino? o/i?a, ?ice?eoi
o?ae aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie ??cieo ??ai?a ciaiue c
a?ieia?? ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith ? i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe
oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino? a o/i?a na?aaei?o ? noa?oeo eean?a
ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? oa ai?iaiaaii? iiaeae? iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a i?e aea/aii? a?ieia?? . Ca oeae /an
iaaeoi nooo?ai ci?ieeenue iaa/aeuei? ieaie oa i?ia?aie na?aaei?o
caeeaae?a ina?oe Oe?a?ie. I?ioyaii naie ?ie?a aeeoei o?e i?ia?aie c
a?ieia?? (1992, 1996, 1998 ??.) oa ca?aeii c aaciaeie i?ia?aiaie aoee
?ic?iaeai? e ia?o? oe?a?inuee? i?ae?o/ieee c a?ieia?? (6, 7, 8-9 eeane),
ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? oe?e c 1996 ?ieo
iiaoaiii.

A?oiiaa ?iaioa o/i?a cae?enithaaeanue a aiiiaaiieo oa aaoa?iaaiieo (ca
??aiai ciaiue o/i?a) a?oiao. ?.I. *a?aaeia i?iiiio? ?iciiae?eyoe o/i?a
ca iaa/aeueieie iiaeeeainoyie, ui aecia/athoueny ii?aeiaiiyi ??ai?a
iaa/aeueiino? e i?aoeacaeaoiino? ia 4 a?oie: o/i?a c aeuei, aenieeie,
na?aaei?ie oa iecueeeie iaa/aeueieie iiaeeeainoyie. I.I. Aoaea?iee ca
iniiao eeaneo?eaoe?? o/i?a ia a?oie aaaaea? aeaa e?eoa???: ??aaiue
?icaeoeo cae?aiinoae aei iaa/aiiy oa i?aoeacaeaoi?noue. TH.E.
Aaaainueeee i?iiiio? i?iaiaeeoe a?aea?? ae?oae aeey aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
iaa/aiiy ca?aeii c ia?aiao?aie: iaa/ai?noue ? iaa/aeueia
i?aoeacaeaoi?noue, aea/a? 4-5 oeiieia?/ieo a?oi aeey aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
iaa/aiiy. A.E.Ao?ye i?iiiio? ye iniiai?: oaii iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe,
ye?noue aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue ? iioeaaoe?th iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?.
?. N. ?aaoinueeee aeey eeaneo?eaoe?? o/i?a aeae?ey? o?e e?eoa???:
??aaiue oni?oiino?, ??aaiue i?ciaaaeueii? naiino?eiino? oa ?ioa?ane, a
oaeiae o?e ??ai? i?aai?ciaaiino?: aenieee, na?aaei?e ? iecueeee ? oi?io?
15 a?oi (4 neeuei?, 6 na?aaei?o, 5 neaaeeo). C.?.Neaieaiue ? A.ss.
Caa?ainueeee aeae?eythoue oae? e?eoa??? aeey i?aai?caoe??
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy a 5-6 eeanao: oaii iaa/aiiy ? iaa/ai?noue,
??aaiue i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a.

I?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeee aniaeo iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
oi?aae?iiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth oeiey??a o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeoaaee oe?a?inuee? a/ai? I.A. *a?ieinueeee, E.O. Eioey?iaa,
I.A.Iineaeaiei, a?oiiao iaa/aeueio ae?yeuei?noue oeiey??a – I.I.
Ie?ioie/aiei, I.A. ss?ioaiei, I.?. N?ei?nueeee oa ?io?.
I?aai?caoe?th ae?yeueiino? o/i?a ? ea??aieoeoai i?ioeanii ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie ie?aii acyoi? oaie iaceaa?ii oaeoeeith aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
iaa/aiiy. Iine?aeiai?noue “o?aaiaio?a” iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie iiaeia
iacaaoe no?aoaa??th iaa/aiiy. A ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio ieai? oi?aae?iiy
cae?enith?oueny oeyoii iiaoaeiae iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, no?oeoo?ith
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui ?aoe?iiaeueii iiaoaeiaaia
iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a
iiaeiia aeeth/aoe i???ioiaio, aeeiiaa/o e eiio?ieueio /anoeie. A
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?iiiio?ii oaeo iiaeaeue, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ianooiieie iciaeaie: ca aeaeii-aeeiai?/ia; ca oi?iith
a?aeia?aaeaiiy-eia?/ia; ca i?e?iaeith yaeu-nioe?aeueia, ineoieia?/ia; ca
caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy-i?iaiinoe/ia;ca nooiaiai oi/iino?-aeinoia??ia;
ca ianyaii-iiaia; ca niiniaii a?aeia?aaeaiiy-a?ao?/ia; ca aeanoeainoyie
a?aeia?aaeaiiy-ooieoe?iiaeueia, nenoaiaoe/ia. Aaeocue aeei?enoaiiy
iiaeae? — iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean.

Iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a
ia?aaeaa/a?: ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c ??aiy ?icaeoeo o/i?a,
oiiaiee ?iciiae?e o/i?a eeano ia aeeiai?/i? a?oie; aiae?c ci?noo
i?ia?ai, i?ae?o/iee?a oa iin?aiee?a, aecia/aiiy nooiaiy ?o neeaaeiino?
aeey canai?iiy ??cieie a?oiaie o/i?a; ?ic?iaea caaaeueii? iiaeae?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ? eiai ?iciiae?e ca
/anii, oi?iaie ? iaoiaeaie ?aae?caoe??; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeae?
iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a; ioe?iea
?acoeueoao?a ? ei?aeoe?y ciaiue oa ai?iue o/i?a. Iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai
ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi i?e aea/aii? iaaieo oai c
a?ieia??:

— ae?aaiinoeei-iiaeaethth/ee aoai: ae??oaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueii?
aeeaeaeoe/ii? iaoe a?aeiia?aeii aei eiie?aoii? oaie; aeia?? iaoa??ae?a c
oaie oa ?o aiae?c a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie, aea??
iaoa??ae?a aeey aaciina?aaeiueiai aeei?enoaiiy a iaa/aii?;
no?oeoo?oaaiiy ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ca?aeii c ?ioaeaeooaeueieie
??aiyie ?icaeoeo o/i?a, aecia/aiiy oi?i ? /ano, iaiao?aeieo aeey ?o
?aae?caoe??; noai?aiiy iiaeaeae o?ie?a, oaeoeueoaoea?a, i?iaaaeaiiy
ao?oeiaeo caiyoue, aeneo?n?e oiui, a?aeiia?aeii aei i?ia?aiiai? oaie c
o?aooaaiiyi ??aiy ?icaeoeo o/i?a.

— ?aaoeyoeaii-i?ioeanoaeueiee aoai: aecia/aiiy iaoe ? caaaeaiue
eiie?aoiiai caiyooy, oi?ie eiai i?iaaaeaiiy; aeia?? iniiaieo ?
aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoa??ae?a ca ci?noii, a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiae?a ?aae?caoe??
caeaaeii a?ae ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ??aiy o/i?a; ?ic?iaee aa??aio?a (ieai?a)
i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy;
iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy:
i?aeaioiaea iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a, eaa?iao?a, eean?a; noai?aiiy
ineoieia?/ieo oiia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy ia o?ioe? (i???ioaoe?y
ca oaiith, ?iciiae?e caaaeaiue ca nooiaiyie o?oaeiiu?a, iioeaaoe?y
ae?yeueiino?, ?ino?oeoaae, noeioethaaiiy o/i?a); i?aai?caoe?y ni?eueii?
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? c o/iyie a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio ? no?oeoo?e
o?ieo; ioe?iea iane?aee?a o?ieo, i???ioaoe?y ia aeiiaoi? caieoaiiy oa
caniae eiai aeeiiaiiy; i?iaaaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo eiinoeueoaoe?e;
caeo/aiiy o/i?a aei aeiaeaoeiaeo caiyoue o oaeoeueoaoeaao ? ao?oeao c
i?aaeiaoo.

— ioe?ii/ii-ei?eaoth/ee aoai: i?iaaaeaiiy i?aenoieiaeo ?ia?o i?ney
cae?i/aiiy aea/aiiy oaie, ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? o/i?a;
nenoaiaoecaoe?y ? ei?aeoe?y ciaiue oa a?aeiia?aeieo oi?iue o/i?a c
aea/aii? oaie; cae??ieaiiy ? ?ai?iaeoeoe?y ciaiue oa ai?iue o/i?a c
aea/aii? oaie c a?ieia?? a iicao?i/iee /an; ?ic?iaea iiaeo iiaeaeae
iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ie aea?ii ei?ioeo oa?aeoa?enoeeo o/i?a
aiiiaaiieo aeeiai?/ieo a?oi, aeae?eaieo iaie ia iniia? e?eoa???a :??aiy
ciaiue, iayaiino? i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei a?ieia??, ??aiy
iao/oaaiino?; aeaco?ii aeaee ae?yeueiino? o/i?a, oa?aeoa?i? aeey eiaeii?
aeeiai?/ii?, aiiiaaiii? a?oie.

1 a?oia “Oai?oe?”. O/i? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oai?/ei i?aeoiaeii aei
ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue, i?iyaeythoue aenieee
nooi?iue aeoeaiino?, cae?eniththoue iiooe iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo
i?eeii?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/. Iniaeeao oaaao aiie i?eae?eythoue
iiaeeaeaiiio aiae?co ci?noo caaea/?, ?? aioo??oi?e eia?oe?, ?ica’ycaiith
caaea/ ie?ii?aae oiui. 2 a?oia “Ii?ia”. O/i? oe??? a?oie caeaoi?
ni?eeiaoe iaoa??ae oe?oa e aeeaoa, i?ae o/i? III e IV a?oi. Aieiaiee
iaoiae ?oiuei? ?iaioe — iii?a ia aeina?ae ieioeiai. ssne?aai
i?iaeyaea?oueny aaaeaiiy ia?aianoe eiai oaaeiiii a iiao neooaoe?th,
aeoeaii i?aoethaaoe a oiae? o?ieo, a/eoeny ia “4” ? “5”.
Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iai?iaeoeoeaiei ? i?iaeoeoeaiei oa?aeoa?ii ieneaiiy.
I?aoeththoue ia o?ioe?, aeei?enoiaoth/e aeiaeaoeiao e?oa?aoo?o,
aeia?aeieee, o?anoiiao??. 3 a?oia “?ai?iaeoeoe” ia’?aeio? a iniiaiiio
o/i?a c ?ai?iaeoeoeaiei ieneaiiyi. Aiie neaai aieiae?thoue oai?aoe/iei
iaoa??aeii, iathoue i?iaaeeie a ciaiiyo, ioe?iea ?oi?o ciaiue a
iniiaiiio “3” ? “4”. I?aoeththoue ia o?ioe? iaae oaenoii ia?aa?aoo,
a?aeiia?aeathoue ia caieoaiiy, iciaeiieththoueny ? i?aoeththoue c?
noaiaie, oaaeeoeyie oiui. 4 a?oia “I?i?ioi” ia’?aeio? o/i?a, ye? ia
ai?thoue aoaeoaaoe noaio i??eoaaiue, ia iiaeooue eia?/ii ca’ycoaaoe
iniaeeaino? iiaoaeiae c eiai aeanoeainoyie e ooieoe?yie, anoaiiaethaaoe
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee, ia aieiae?thoue iaei?ino?oeie iaae/eaie
aiae?co. A?aeiia?aeathoue eeoa ia iaeiineeaaei? ieoaiiy. Caaaeaiiy,
iinoaaeaia ia?aae eeanii, aeey ieo ia iineeueia. Aiie i?ae aaoiiaoe/ii
aeoiaeyoue c i?ioeano iaa/aiiy, a/aoueny, ye i?aaeei, ia “2” ? “3”.

A oiae? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaae aeeiai?/ieo a?oi
ci?ith?oueny, o/i? ia?aoiaeyoue ?c iaei??? aeeiai?/ii? a?oie a ae?oao,
iaea?aeoth/e caaaeaiiy a?eueo aenieiai ??aiy, i?e oiia?, ui aiie oni?oii
ni?aaeeenue c? an?ia caaaeaiiyie. A oaaeeoe? 1 iiaea?ii i?aenoiee
aioo??eeaniiai ia?aoiaeo o/i?a 6-7-8-o eean?a ?c a?oie a a?oio a iaaeao
eeano. ??cieoey a yeino? ciaiue a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao a?ae 84,4%
aei 97% (a 12,6%) aiai?eoue i?i aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae?
nenoaie iaa/aiiy. ?ioa?an aei a?ieia?? a a?oiao “?ai?iaeoeoe” e
“I?i?ioi” ie iineethaaee oeyoii i?aeaioiaee aeiaeaoeiaiai iaoa??aeo.
Oaeei /eiii, aeei?enoiaoth/e aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei o/i?a,
cai?iiiiiaaio e ai?iaiaaio iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy,
iiaeia aeiiiaoeny i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? naiino?eii? ?iaioe o/i?a ia
o?ioe? i?e aea/aii? iiaiai iaoa??aeo, i?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino?
o/i?a ii aeeiiaiith aeiiaoi?o caaaeaiue, a?eueo aeeaieiai canai?iiy
iiaiai iaoa??aeo i?e aea/aii? eiai ia o?ioe? ? a iicao?i/iee /an,
ocaaaeueiaiiy e inieneaiiy, ae?iaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo oi?iue oa iaae/ie.
A oea a naith /a?ao ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith yeino? canai?iiy o/iyie
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ??aiy ciaiue o/i?a.

Oaaeeoey 1

I?aenoiee aioo??eeaniiai ia?aoiaeo o/i?a 6-7-8-o eean?a ?c a?oie a a?oio
a iaaeao eeano

EeaneE?euee?noue

o/i?a

A?oieNeeaae a?oi aei aenia?eiai-

oo(a%)

Iaa/aeueiee ??e1994 – 19951995 – 19961996 – 1997E?euee?noue

%E?euee?noue

%E?euee?noue

% Aenia-?eiaioaeuei?

135Oai?oe?

Ii?ia

?ai?iaeoeoe

I?i?ioi2

47

39

129

88

31

77

65

23

520

90

25

—15

67

18

—16

97

22

—12

71

17

—Eiio-?ieuei?

141Oai?oe?

Ii?ia

?ai?iaeoeoe

I?i?ioi3

42

40

153

62

58

182

44

41

134

68

54

153

48

38

112

70

56

131

50

40

9

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aea? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe, ? aoaeoeaiith: a
oiae? aenia?eiaioo aeiiiaeenue ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? o/i?a 6-7-o eean?a
o a?oiao “Oai?oe?” c 2% aei 15% a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao, a a?oi?
«Ii?ia» a?ae 47% aei 67% o/i?a, a a?oi? “?ai?iaeoeoe” — cieaeaiiy /enea
o/i?a a?ae 39% aei 18%, ia?aaiaeo 12% o/i?a c a?oie “I?i?ioi” a ?io?
a?oie c aeuei ??aiai ciaiue o/i?a. Iacia/i? ci?ie a?aeaoeeny a
eiio?ieueieo eeanao, oea iiynith?oueny iniaeeainoyie aea/aiiy oai
?icae?eo “?ineeie”. A a?oi? “Oai?oe?” neeaae o/i?a caeeoeany i?eaeecii
oie aea (3%); niinoa??aa?oueny iacia/ia ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? o/i?a o
a?oi? «Ii?ia» — a?ae 42% aei 48%, neeaae a?oie “?ai?iaeoeoe” ci?ieany
anueiai ia aeaa i?ioeaioa — cieaeaiiy a?ae 40% o/i?a aei 38%.

Na?aaei? iieacieee ??aiy canai?iiy aeaiaio?a ciaiue a o/i?a 8-o
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a c?inee ia 51% (62 o/.), ia ci?ieeenue 42% (51
o/.), cieceeeny ia 7% (8o/.). A eiio?ieueieo eeanao c?inee ia 18% (24
o/), ia ci?ieeenue – 60% (80 o/.), cieceeenue-22% (29 o/.). Ia ae?oaiio
?ioe? c?inoaiiy e?euee?noue canai?ieo aeaiaio?a noaiiaeei36% (44o/.), e
2,5% (3 o/.), ia ci?ieeiny – 62% (75o/.), 39% (52 o/.), cieceeiny-2%
(2o/.), 58,5% (78 o/.) a aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa eiio?ieueieo 9-o eeanao.
*anoea a?oiiai? ?iaioe ia ??cieo aeaeao iaa/aeueieo caiyoue iaiaeiaeiaa.

C’yniaaii, ui ia nai?ia?nueeiio caiyoo? o 8-10-o eeanao aiia neeaaea?
80% /ano o?ieo (36 oa.), ia eaai?aoi?iiio-50% (23oa.), ia cae?eiaiio
caiyoo?-60% (27 oa.), ia eiia?iiaaiiio o?ioe? – 25% (11 oa.), ia eaeoe??
– 10% (5oa.),ia aeneo?n?? – 80% (36 oa.). Aeieacii aoaeoeaiino?
?ic?iaeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? iiaeae? ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iaa/aiiyi o/i?a ? ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a o aeeiai?oe?, a oaeiae
ii??aiyiiy eiao?oe??ioa ei?aeyoe??, yeee o eiio?ieueiiio eean? – 0.8,
ui na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue a?eueo no?eeiai ?ioa?ano aei i?aaeiaoo,
aeniei? i?aoeacaeaoiino? a o/i?a oa caeaaei?noue i?ae ?icaeyaeoaaieie
iciaeaie. A (aaniethoia iiieeea) aei??aith? 0,03 aai 3%, ui na?ae/eoue
i?i aeinoia??i?noue ? ?aaeuei?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? iaa/aiiy ?
cania?a aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?aeoaa?aeeee aenoiooa a a?iioac? i?eiouaiiy ?
aeaee ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaeaaaeeea?oei c yeeo ?:

1. Aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae ? aoaeoeaiei caniaii i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy
eiioeaioe?? ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? iaa/aiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a? i?aai?caoe?th
ina?oiueiai i?ioeano ia ??cieo ??aiyo neeaaeiino? ? aea? ciiao eiaei?e
aeeoei? iiai?noth ?aae?coaaoe nai? iiaeeeaino?, ?ioa?ane, iaoeee oa
cae?aiino?. Iniiaith aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy ? aeeaiea ciaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ? iaa/aeueieo iiaeeeainoae ae?oae, ??aiy
?oiueiai ineoieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia aeaiiio aoai?.

2. A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? aeaniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaie aecia/ai? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, ia iniia?
yeeo noi?ioeueiaaii i?eioeeie ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe??:
ae?yeuei?noue o/iy ia? aooe eiio?ieueiaaia ? ea?iaaia; o i?ioean?
iaa/aiiy iino?eii iiaeiai cae?enithaaoe cai?ioiee ca’ycie; eiaeai o/aiue
iiaeiai ii/oaaoe naaa eiioi?oii a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy; ciaiiy
canaiththoueny o/iai a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio oaii?, ia ??ciiio ??ai?
neeaaeiino? o?eueee /a?ac aeanio ae?yeuei?noue o/iy; i?ioean canai?iiy
ciaiue iiaeiai aooe iioeaiaaiei, a iaa/aeuei? caaaeaiiy iaeneiaeueii
eiie?aoeciaai?.

3. ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? a?ieia?/ieo oyaeaiue a o/i?a iiaeia ioe?ieoe ca
iayai?noth ciaiue oa ai?iue, ye?niith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ? ae?yeuei?noth
o/i?a i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy ieie caaaeaiue. Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie ioe?iee ?
i?aaeeuei?noue ? iiaiioa a?aeiia?ae?, oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino? o/iy a
i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue, ona?aeiieai?noue oa inieneai?noue
a?aeiia?aeae.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea iieacaea, ui noai?aia iaie iiaeaeue
iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a 6-11
eean?a ?acii c ?ic?iaeaieie caniaaie ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? aeicaiey?
?aae?coaaoe a oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe? i?eioeei aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a i?ioean? canai?iiy o/iyie a?ieia?/ieo
ciaiue. Aea?? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae iniiaii? aeeaeaeoe/ii?
iaoe e oa?aeoa?o iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ca ci?noii ? neeaaei?noth.

5. A?oioaaiiy o/i?a ia iniia? i?ciaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae o/i?a, ?ioa?ano
aei i?aaeiaoo, iao/oaaiino? oa i?aoeacaeaoiino? aeicaieeei ?iciiae?eeoe
o/i?a ia aiiiaaii? aeeiai?/i? a?oie “Oai?oe?”, “Ii?ia”, “?ai?iaeoeoe”,
I?i?ioi” oa iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeeeo ?iaioe c ??cii??aiaaeie a?oiaie ia
??cieo aoaiao o?ieo oa i?aeoaa?aeeoe, ui eiaei?e aeeoei? a eean? iiaeia
noai?eoe oiiae aeey oni?oiiai ?icaeoeo caniaaie iaa/aiiy ia aenieiio
??ai? neeaaeiino? a cii? iaeaeeae/iai ?icaeoeo aeeoeie. A iniia?
aoaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo oai?/eo cae?aiinoae oeiey??a eaaeeoue ei?eaoth/a
ao?o/aiiy a/eoae?a o i?ioean oai?/iai iiooeo o/i?a, aaeaea ii?aeiaiiy
??cieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino? o/i?a ia o?ioe?: o?iioaeueii?, a?oiiai?,
?iaeea?aeoaeueii?.

6. Aoaeoeaiei ? oaea iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iaa/aiiyi o/i?a, yea neeaaea?oueny c iine?aeiaieo e?ie?a:
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c ??aiy ?icaeoeo o/i?a, oiiaiee ?o
?iciiae?e ii a?oiao o eean?; aiae?c ci?noo i?ia?ai, i?ae?o/iee?a oa
iin?aiee?a, aecia/aiiy nooiaiy ?o neeaaeiino? aeey canai?iiy ??cieie
a?oiaie o/i?a; ?ic?iaea caaaeueii? iiaeae? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ci?noo
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ? eiai ?iciiae?e ca /anii, oi?iaie ? iaoiaeaie
?aae?caoe??; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeae? iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a ia o?ieao a?ieia??; ioe?iea
?acoeueoao?a ? ei?aeoe?y ciaiue oa ai?iue o/i?a 6-11-o eean?a. Noai?aiiy
iiaeae? iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a —
can?a ? oiiaa aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a.

Aeeeaaeaia aeiaiaeeoue, ui iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeinyaiooa, ?ica’ycai? an? eiai caaaeaiiy ? i?aeoaa?aeeeanue ?iai/a
a?iioaca.

?acii c oei , oaia iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iaa/aiiyi o/i?a ia ae/a?iaia, iio?aao? anaa?/ii? ?ic?iaee, ao?eaiiy
iiaeo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy oa ??cieo oi?i oa iaoiaee/ieo i?eeii?a ia
o?eueee c a?ieia??, a ? c ?ioeo i?aaeiao?a. Ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeea? a aeno?aiieyoe?? i?eioeei?a ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??
oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaa/aiiy, iiaeae? iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a ia ?io? i?aaeiaoe na?aaeiuei? oeiee
aai ae o aeei?enoaii? aeey aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??
iaa/aiiy eiii’thoa?a i?e aea/aii? a?ieia?? /e ?ioeo i?aaeiao?a
a?aeiia?aeii aei ?ioeo a?eiaeo a?oi c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo
ae?oae.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaiee o 21 ioae?eaoe?yo, iniiaieie
c yeeo ?:

1. Eiaa?ia–Aee O.A. Iaa/aiiy a?ieia?? oa ?icaeoie ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?
o/i?a.// A?ieia?y ? o?i?y a oeie?, 1997. — ?3. N.34-37.

2. Eiaa?ia – Aee O.A. Iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iaa/aiiyi i?aaeiao?a i?e?iaeie/iai oeeeeo o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a //Iia?
oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy :Iaoe.-iaoiae.ca. /?aaeeie.: A.I. Cae/oe. -/aie.
?aae./oa ?i.-E.: ?NAeI,1996 . — Aei. 16.- N. 160-173.

3. Eiaa?ia –Aee O.A.Oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy a?ieia??// Iaaeaaia?ea
oa ineoieia?y. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. -Aei.5. -Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997. –
N . 73 -78.

4. Eiaaeia – Aue O.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea oai?/anee aeoeaiie ee/iinoe a
nenoaia iai?a?uaiiai ia?aciaaiey //?icaeoie oai?/i? iniaenoino? a
nenoai? aacia?a?aii? ina?oe : Ca.iaoe. i?. /?aaeeie. :A.A.E?eaeei , A.?.
A?eai?aiei, E.A. A?eai?ianueea, ?.I. I?eiea?anueea oa ?i. -Aei4.
-Caii??aeaey:CI?OA , 1995.-N.126-129.

5. Eiaa?ia — Aee O.A. Iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai i?ciaaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a //Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iee oa
?ioi?iaoe?eiee aeo?iae Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie. – E . ,
1998. — ? 4. -N. 43-47.

6. Eiaa?ia – Aee O.A. Oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy a?ieia??
//Oi?aae?iiy iaoe?iiaeueiith ina?oith a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? (28-30 aeiaoiy 1998?ieo) Oe?a?ie , AII Oe?a?ie , AeAEEI,
?CII, 1998. -N. 141 — 145.

7. Eiaa?ia-Aee O.A Iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a na?aaei?o ? noa?oeo eean?a. -Ca??iee
i?aoeue I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean o aoc? ? a oeie? oa oeyoe eiai ?icaeoeo oa
oaeineiiaeaiiy “14-17 o?aaiy 1999?.-??aia: Oao?n, 1999. A ??? /ano.
-*.???. -N.70-73.

8. Eiaa?ia — Aee O.A. ?iiiaaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy a no/ani?e oeie?
//Oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? : Ca. iaoe .
no. (ca i?aenoieaie ?iaioe I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? “- 26-27
eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.) /I?ae ?aae. ae.i.i., i?io A.E. Ao?yea , ae.i.i.,
i?io. E.A. Eiiae?aoiai?. -E?ea?e ??a , 1998. — N.123-125.

9. Eiaaeia-Aue O.A. Oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannii iao/aiey – iaeii ec aeaaiuo
oneiaee ?acaeoey niiniaiinoae o/aueony //Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii – iaoiaee/aneie eiioa?aioeee . Iai?a?uaiinoue ?acaeoey
i?ioaneiiaeueii-oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae o/aueony e nooaeaioia a nenoaia
ia?aciaaiey 25 — 27 iay 1997 a. — Eeaa – Iaeeoiiieue , 1997. – N. 83 –
89.

10. Eiaa?ia – Aee O.A. Iniaeeaino? ae?yeueiino? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo
caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio //I?aeaioiaea iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ?
ae?yeuei?noue iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio a nenoai?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe: aeina?ae ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo / Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai – i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? : O 2-o /ano.-*a?i?aoe?
: I?oo , 1998. — N. 39- 43.

11. Eiaa?ia – Aee O.A. Ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy ia iniia?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a //Iia? iaaeaaia?/i? oaoiieia?? c
i?iaeai aoiai?caoe?? oa aeaiie?aoecaoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
a ina?oi?o caeeaaeao . Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai – i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? 27-28 n?/iy 1998 ?. -*a?eane , 1998 . — N.13-15.

12. Eiaa?ia-Aee O.A. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae caaacia/aiiy
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aeieia?/ii? ina?oe //Aeieia?y ? ina?oa: i?iaeaie oai???
? i?aeoeee . Oace aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? 20-21 ea?oiy 1994 ?. Oii 1. – Oiaiue,
1994. — N.37-39.

13. Eiaa?ia — Aee O.A. Aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei o/i?a //Iaaeaoc
nueiaiaeaiiy: noai ? ia?niaeoeae iaa/aiiy e iaoee. Iaoa??aee tha?eaeii?
iaoei-iaoiaee/ii? eiioa?aioe?? , i?enay/aii? 65 ??/ieoe? c aeiy
canioaaiiy IAeI? . Ca ?aae. ?aiaoaiea I.A. oa Iaoiaiea A.I. –
Iae?oiiieue ,1995. /a 3 /./ — *.3. – N. 240 – 242.

14. Eiaa?ia – Aee O.A I?iaeaie ea?oaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth
o/i?a //Iaaeaoc nueiaiaeaiiy : noai ? ia?niaeoeae iaa/aiiy e iaoee.
Iaoa??aee tha?eaeii? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 65
??/ieoe? c aeiy canioaaiiy IAeI?. Ca ?aae. ?aiaoaiea I.A. oa Iaoiaiea
A.I. – Iae?oiiieue, 1995. /a 3 /./ — *.3. — N.245 – 247.

15. Eiaaeia – Aue O.A. I?iaeaiu aeeooa?aioeeaoeee i?ioeanna iao/aiey
//Iaoeiai – iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie aeeeaaeaiiy ineoieiai – iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i . Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai – i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? 14 – 15 aa?aniy 1995 ?. / a 6 /anoeiao /.- Iae?oiiieue ,
1995. – *.1. – N.14 — 16.

16. Eiaa?ia–Aee O.A. Oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy //Iaoeiai –
iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie aeeeaaeaiiy ineoieiai – iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i /
Iaoa??aee Ae?oai? Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?? 29 aeiaoiy 1997 ?ieo /.-
Iae?oiiieue ; IAeI?, 1997. -*. 2.– N. 74 – 79.

Eiaa?ia-Aee O. A. Iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi
o/i?a na?aaei?o ? noa?oeo eean?a (ia i?eeeaae? i?aaeiao?a a?ieia?/iiai
oeeeeo). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiino? 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. —
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith oeyo?a cae?eniaiiy
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a, ?ic?iaoe? ? ai?iaaoe?? iiaeae?
iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a na?aaei?o
? noa?oeo eean?a c a?ieia??, ?iciiae?eo o/i?a ia aeeiai?/i? a?oie,
iniaeeainoyi ?iaioe o/i?a o aeeiai?/ieo a?oiao. Iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai
ea??aieoeoaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei iaa/aiiyi o/i?a aeeth/a?
ae?aaiinoeei-iiaeaethth/ee, ?aaoeyoeaii-i?ioeanoaeueiee oa
ioe?ii/ii-ei?eaoth/ee aoaie. A ?iaio? aea?ii ei?ioeo oa?aeoa?enoeeo
o/i?a aiiiaaiieo aeeiai?/ieo a?oi, aeae?eaieo iaie ia iniia? e?eoa???a:
??aiy ciaiue, iayaiino? i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei a?ieia??, ??aiy
iao/oaaiino?, aeaco?ii aeaee ae?yeueiino? o/i?a, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey
eiaeii? a?oie, a naia: “Oai?oe?”, “Ii?ia”, “?ai?iaeoeoe”, “I?i?ioi”.
?icaeyioee aa??aioe ia?aoiaeo o/i?a ?c a?oi a a?oie a iaaeao eeano.
Noi?ioethaaee oiiae, iaiao?aei? aeey cae?eniaiiy aeeoa?aioe?aoe??:
ae?yeuei?noue o/iy ia? aooe eiio?ieueiaaia ? ea?iaaia, o i?ioean?
iaa/aiiy iino?eii iiaeiai cae?enithaaoenue cai?ioiee ca’ycie ; eiaeai
o/aiue iiaeiai ii/oaaoe naaa eiioi?oii a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy; ciaiiy
canaiththoueny o/iai a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio oaii?; ia ??ciiio ??ai?
neeaaeiino? o?eueee /a?ac aeanio ae?yeuei?noue o/iy; i?ioean canai?iiy
ciaiue iiaeiai aooe iioeaiaaiei, a iaa/aeuei? caaaeaiiy – iaeneiaeueii
eiie?aoeciaai?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee
i?ioean oe?e Iae?oiiiey oa Iae?oiiieuenueeiai ?aeiio Caii??cueei?
iaeano?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeiai?/i? a?oie, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee
i?aeo?ae aei o/i?a, ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y iaa/aiiy, iaaeaaia?/ia
ea??aieoeoai i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy, iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa.

Eiaaeia-Aee  O.A. Iaaeaaiae/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui
iao/aieai o/aueony n?aaeieo e noa?oeo eeannia (ia i?eia?a i?aaeiaoia
aeieiae/aneiai oeeeea). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey
iaaeaaiaeee.– Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao  eiaie I. I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iooae inouanoaeaiey
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea e o/aueiny 6 – 11-o eeannia n?aaeiae
oeieu. Oeaeue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea a i?ioeanna iao/aiey –
?aoeeiiaeueii eniieueciaaoue a?aiy ia o?iea, nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiua
oneiaey aeey i?iaeoeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aieeia, naiaa?aiaiiia
auyaeaiea i?iaaeia a ciaieyo o/aueony, o/ao ineoieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
ee/iinoe eaaeaeiai ?aaaiea aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae o?iea,
eioi?ua niinianoaotho oinoaaiiiio e ii?aeueiiio ?acaeoeth o/aieeia.
Ii?aaeaeaiu iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee
iao/aiey e ia eo iniiaa noi?ioee?iaaiu i?eioeeiu aeeooa?aioeeaoeee.
Aeayoaeueiinoue o/aieea aeieaeia auoue eiio?iee?iaaia e oi?aaeyaia; a
i?ioeanna iao/aiey iinoiyiii aeieaeia inouanoaeyoueny ia?aoiay naycue;
eaaeaeue o/aiee aeieaeai /oanoaiaaoue naay eiioi?oii a i?ioeanna
iao/aiey; ciaiey onaaeaathony o/aieeii a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii oaiia, ia
?aciuo o?iaiyo neiaeiinoe o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea oieueei /a?ac nianoaaiioth
o/aaioth aeayoaeueiinoue; i?ioeann onaiaiey ciaiee o/aueieny aeieaeai
auoue iioeae?iaai, a o/aaiua caaeaiey – iaeneiaeueii eiie?aoece?iaaiiua.
Iiae oi?aaeaieai o/aaiui i?ioeannii iu iiae?acoiaaaai aeayoaeueiinoue
iaaeaaiaa, iai?aaeaiioth ia aeinoeaeaiea iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae o?iea /a?ac
inouanoaeaiea /aou?ao aeaeia acaeiinaycaiiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo aeaenoaee:
ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey , ?oeiaiaenoai, eiio?ieue. Oaeei ia?acii
oeeee oi?aaeaiey noaiiaeony caieiooui, aeaaiaea?y inouanoaeaieth
ia?aoiie nayce o/aueony e o/eoaeth, /oi niinianoaoao auno?iio
?aaae?iaaieth o/eoaey ia eciaiaiey ciaiee o/aueony e aianaiea ei??aeoea
a o/aaiue i?ioeann aeey aai ii?iaeecaoeee e noaaeeecaoeee.

Oi?aaeaiea aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui iao/aieai o/aueony i?aaeoniao?eaaao
neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey: inouanoaeaiea ?oeiaiaeyuae ooieoeee o/eoaey e
i?aaiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe o/aieeia; eniieueciaaiea ?aciuo oi?i
i?aaiecaoeee o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony; ?acaeoea
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo ea/anoa ee/iinoe o/aueony ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey
?aciuo iaoiaeia iao/aiey, iaoiaee/aneeo i?e?iia, oi?i iao/aiey a
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiii i?ioeanna; ?acaeoea niiniaiinoae o/aieeia iooai
?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ o?iea; eniieueciaaiea yooaeoeaiuo iiaeaeae
oi?aaeaiey o/aaiui i?ioeannii e inouanoaeaiea ia?aoiie nayce iaaeaeo
o/aueieny e o/eoaeai; iiceoeaiay iioeaaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe o/aieeia,
?acaeoea eo iiciaaaoaeueiiai eioa?ana; inouanoaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea a i?ioeanna iao/aiey. I?aaeeiaeai
iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iao/aiey iooai
nicaeaiey iiaeaee iaaeaaiae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey iao/aieai e ?ac?aaioee
n?aaenoa eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee – nicaeaiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee iao/aiey, iaoiaeeee ?aaiou o/aueony n ?aciui
o?iaiai ciaiee a ninoaaa aiiiaaiiuo, aeeiaie/aneeo, oeiieiae/aneeo
a?oii, ?ac?aaioee ?aciio?iaiaauo caaeaiee, eniieueciaaiea ia?iuo,
a?oiiiauo, eieeaeoeaiuo e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oi?i iao/aiey, eioi?ua
iaania/eaatho ?aaeecaoeeth i?eioeeiia eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee e
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iao/aiey, aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea.
Iaaeaaiae/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui iao/aieai
i?aaeoniao?eaaao: ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneee aiaeec ciaiee o/aueony, eo
eioa?an e i?aaeiaoo e ?aaioiniiniaiinoue; oneiaiia ?acaeaeaiea o/aueony
eeanna ia aeeiaie/aneea a?oiiu; aiaeec niaea?aeaiey o/aaiuo i?ia?aii,
o/aaieeia e iiniaee; ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiy eo neiaeiinoe aeey onaiaiey
o/aueieny ?aciuo aeeiaie/aneeo a?oii; ?ac?aaioea iiaeaee
iaaeaaiae/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa o/aaiui i?ioeannii ia iniiaa
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea e o/aueiny, aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
niaea?aeaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea e aai ?ani?aaeaeaiea ai a?aiaie, oi?iai
e iaoiaeai ?aaeecaoeee; aiaae?aiea iiaeaee iaaeaaiae/aneiai
?oeiaiaenoaa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui iao/aieai o/aueony; ioeaiea
?acoeueoaoia e ei??aeoeey ciaiee e oiaiee o/aieeia.

Iiaeaeue iaaeaaiae/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui iao/aieai
ninoieo ec aeeaaiinoeei-iiaeaee?othuaai, ?aaoeyoeaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai e
ioeaii/ii-ei??aeoe?othuaai yoaiia. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey iao/aiey
ninoieo ec iiaeaioiaeoaeueiiai yoaia (ninoaaeaiea caaeaiee o/aueiny,
aii?inia, iii?iuo eiiniaeoia, iiaeai? iniiaiie e iaoiaee/aneie
eeoa?aoo?u, iiaeaioiaea o?ieia ?aciuo oeiia e aeaeia) e iniiaiiai yoaia
(?aaioa o/aueony a a?oiiao, aeeth/athueo 4-6 o/aieeia, ?aaioathueo ii
i?aaeeiaeaiiie i?ia?aiia iao/aiey, iaiauaiea iaoa?eaea e ciaiee
oeieueieeia). Ia iniiaa ineoieiae/aneiai oanoe?iaaiey, o?iaiy ciaiee
o/aueony, iaee/ey iiciaaaoaeueiiai eioa?ana e iao/aiiinoe oeieueieeia
i?aaeeiaeeee eeanneoeeaoeeth aeeiaie/aneeo oeiieiae/aneeo a?oii, oeacaee
aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony a eaaeaeie ec ieo: “Oai?oeu”-oai?/aneee
iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ o?iea, “Ii?ia”-iii?a ia
nianoaaiiue iiuo, “?ai?iaeoeou”-aini?iecaaaeaiea iieo/aiiuo ciaiee,
“Ieieioi”-iaaiciiaeiinoue naiinoiyoaeueii auiieiyoue caaeaiey,
ionoonoaea i?inoaeoeo iaaueia aiaeeca, i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey aiaae?aiu a o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiue
i?ioeann oeie Iaeeoiiiey e Iaeeoiiieueneiai ?aeiia Caii?iaeneie iaeanoe
Oe?aeiu .

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeiaie/aneea a?oiiu, aeeooa?aioeeaoeey,
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae e o/aueiny, eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeey iao/aiey,
iaaeaaiae/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai i?ioeannii iao/aiey, iiaeaeue
iaaeaaiae/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa.

Logvina-Byk T. A. The pedagogical guidance of the differentiated process
of teaching of the pupils in the middle and senior classes (upper
grades) based on the example of the biological cycle. – Manuscript.

Thesis for the degree of Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences – specialty
13.00.01 – The Theory and the History of Pedagogic. — The
M. P. Dragomanov National Pedagogical University, Kyiv, 1999.

This dissertation is devoted to the problem of investigation of the ways
of differentiated approach to the pupils, the development and testing
the model of the pedagogical guidance of the differentiated teaching of
the pupils in the middle and senior classes (upper grades), forming the
dynamic groups and to the peculiarities of the pupils’ work in these
dynamic groups.

The model of pedagogical guidance of the differentiate education of
pupils includes diagnostic and model, regulation and procedure,
evaluation and amendment periods. In that work we give a short
characteristic of the pupils of homogeneous dynamic groups, which were
chosen on the basis of the level of their knowledge, their interest in
biology. We point out the types of pupils’ activity that characterizes
every group, such as «Creators», «Standart», «Reproduction», «Minimum».
We examined the results of the 6th-11th pupils’ switch — over
(transition) from one group to another in the same class. We formulated
the necessary conditions for differentiation : pupils’ activity must be
controled and governed. In the process of education the pupils must feel
comfort; they receive knowledge in their individual tempo (speed) at
different levels of complexity, only by personal activity. The process
of education must be motivated and the educational tasks be as much as
possible concrete.

The main result of this investigation are put into practice in the
teaching and educational process at schools of Melitopol and Melitopol
district, Zaporizhya region.

Key words: dynamic groups, differentiation, differentiated approach to
the pupils, individualization of training; pedagogical guidance of the
process of teaching, the model of pedagogical guidance.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 14.09.99. Oi?iao 60*90/16 Cai. 130 i?ei.

A?aeae?oeiaaii c i?ea?iae?a.

Oeiia?ao?y

I. Iae?oiiieue,

Похожие записи