EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

?INOEOOO I?AEIA?IAeIEO A?AeIINEI

OA?AIAAEUeAe A?IIEUeAe A?EUeAAEUeI A?INO AAAONO

OAeE — 341.91 : 347. 77. 043 (4 — 191.2)

IAOAIOII-E?OeAIC?EI? OAIAeE A AIAE?ENUeEIIO,

O?AIOeOCUeEIIO OA ?OAE?ENUeEIIO I?AA?

12.00.03. — oeea?eueia i?aai ? oeea?eueiee i?ioean; n?iaeia i?aai;

i?aeia?iaeia i?eaaoia i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?eaaoiiai oa ieoiiai i?aaa

?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Aeiaaa?o Aiaoie?e Noaiaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeiiai

i?eaaoiiai oa ieoiiai i?aaa

?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,

I?aeii?eai?a Iiaian Aiae?iiiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e oeea?eueiiai i?aaa

th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Ion?yea A?eoi? Eaa?aio?eiae/,

Aieiaiee eiinoeueoaio
Iaoeiai-aenia?oiiai

oi?aae?iiy Nae?aoa??aoo Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y

?i. ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny « 10 » aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 12:00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.001.06 a Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252001, Ee?a — 1, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee « 4 » na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aiaeia? O.A.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie iaoee ? oaoi?ee
o na?o? ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith e?eueeino? iaoaioieo aeiaoiae?a. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i c?inoath/o caoe?eaaeai?noue i?eaaoieo in?a oa
i?aai?caoe?e ia o?eueee aei noeioethaaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, aea e aei
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aiaeii/an o?aaa caoaaaeeoe, ui aeaye? ieoaiiy, iniaeeai oae?, ui
iia’ycai? c ia?aaea/ath iaoaio?a, ia a?aaoeueiaai? iaeaaeiei /eiii o
no/aniiio caeiiiaeaanoa?.

Iaeiei ?c oaeeo ieoaiue ? i?iaeaia i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy e?oeaic?eieo
aeiaiai??a. E?oeaic?ei? aeiaiai?e iathoue aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy a
eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao. Aiie oe?iei canoiniaothoueny aieiae?eueoeyie
iaoaio?a, eio?? ia caoe?eaaeai? a naiino?eiiio aeei?enoaii?
?acoeueoao?a oai?/i? ae?yeueiino?. E?oeaic?eiee aeiaia?? aea?
iiaeeea?noue aieiae?eueoeyi iaoaio?a caiia?aoe o?oaeiiu?a, ye? iiaeooue
aeieeiooe a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa caiaoaioiaaiiai aeiaoiaeo oa ?ioeo
ae?e, iia’ycaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaioo. E??i oiai, oeae aeiaia?? aea?
iiaeeea?noue aieiae?eueoeyi iaoaio?a io?eioaaoe aeaiaeo a ?acoeueoao?
aeei?enoaiiy caiaoaioiaaiiai aeiaoiaeo o?ao?ie iniaaie.

Cia/aiiy e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o iieyaa? oaeiae o oiio, ui a?i ?
iaea?eueo iioe?aiei caniaii ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?e, a oea —
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaee oaeoi? aeey ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano
a noni?euenoa?. Iaiao?aeii oaeiae iaaieineoe, ui oiiaa aeiaiai?o,
ca?aeii c yeith e?oeaic?a?o niea/o?oueny aeiaai?iaea ca aeei?enoaiiy
iaoaioo, iiia?aaeaeo? iiaeeea?noue aaciieaoiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoaioo ?,
a naith /a?ao, ? iaoa??aeueiei noeioeii aeey oai?/i? ae?yeueiino?
aeiao?aeieea.

Ia aeaiee /an a /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia??
aeaoaeueii ia a?aaoeueiaaiee. A Caeiiao Oe?a?ie “I?i ioi?iio i?aa ia
aeiaoiaee ? ei?eni? iiaeae?” a?ae 15 a?oaeiy 1993 ?ieo oa Caeiio Oe?a?ie
“I?i ioi?iio i?aa ia i?iieneia? c?acee” a?ae 15 a?oaeiy 1993 ?ieo i?i
e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia?? eeoa caaaeo?oueny. Ia a?aaoeueiaaiee oeae aeae
aeiaiai?o ? a I?iaeo? Oeea?eueiiai Eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie i?eeiyoei Aa?oiaiith
?aaeith Oe?a?ie o ia?oiio /eoaii? 5 /a?aiy 1997 ?ieo.

Iiae?aia neooaoe?y ?nio? ? a caeiiiaeaanoa? Aiae??, O?aioe?? oa ?oae??,
aea e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia?? oaeiae ia io?eiaa iaeaaeii? i?aaiai?
?aaeaiaioaoe??.

Inoaii? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee a/aieo i?aaiciaaoe?a e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, a
oaeiae Aee?aeoeae ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco ?ice?eaathoue iaai? aniaeoe
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a, aea oe?e?niiai oyaeaiiy
uiaei oeueiai ieoaiiy ia aeathoue.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiaeii oaeiae i?ioeanii ?ioaa?aoe??
a e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? caeeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?aaiaeo nenoai c iaoith noai?aiiy ni?eueiiai ?eieo. Ia no/aniiio aoai?
??cieoey aeiaia??iiai i?aaa oa i?aaa i?iieneiai? aeaniino? ??cieo
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i noai?th? iac?o/iino? aeey aeei?enoaiiy
iaoaioiaaieo aeiaoiae?a.

Iaoith caeeaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa ? ciaioaiiy oeo ?ica?aeiinoae, ye?
ooai?ththoue ia?aoeiaee aeey ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? ye?
iaiiaeeeai onoiooe, iineeath/enue o?eueee ia aeiaia?? i?i ?a?iiaenueea
ni?aoiaa?enoai. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii aeyaeoe o? iieiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ye? nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny, ? aaeineiiaeeoe ?o. Oea
iiaeia c?iaeoe o?eueee oeyoii ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co, yeee aeicaiey?
aeyaeoe oe? ?ica?aeiino?.

Oi/a ni?iae ocaiaeaeaiiy iaoaioiiai i?aaa a ?a?ii? inoaii?ie ?ieaie aoee
aeineoue oni?oieie, ??cieoey a iaoe?iiaeueieo nenoaiao aeiaia??iiai oa
iaoaioiiai i?aaa iiaea ?noioii aieeaaoe ia e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia??.
Iai?eeeaae, ??cieoey a iaoiaeao oeoia/aiiy aeiaiai??a i?ae e?a?iaie
aiaei-naeniinueei? oa ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? nenoaiaie i?aaa coiiaeth?
??cia cia/aiiy aeayeeo iieiaeaiue aeiaiai?o, iacaaaeath/e ia iiaeeeao
?aeaioe/i?noue oaeno?a.

Oaeei /eiii, ?iaioa a ye?e aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy
e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o ia i?aenoaa? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co
caeiiiaeaanoaa o?ueio i?ia?aeieo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i, ia? aaeeea
oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ye aeey oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa, oae ? aeey
caeiiiaeaanoaa ?ioeo e?a?i, iniaeeai aeey e?a?i ?a?iiaenueeiai
ni?aoiaa?enoaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Oaiaoeea aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeth?
iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yi?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe
eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeiiai i?eaaoiiai i?aaa, iia’ycaiee c ieoaiiyie
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ca o/anoth
?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue a aeeaieiio
oa anaa?/iiio aiae?co caeiiiaeaanoaa Aiae??, O?aioe?? oa ?oae?? c
ieoaiue e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a; o aeyaeaii? oeyoii ii??aiyiiy aeyaeoe
ni?eueieo oa a?aei?iieo iciae; a ocaaaeueiaii? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa
noai?aii? ia ?oi?e iniia? oeiiaiai iiaeaeueiiai caeiio i?i
iaoaioii-e?oeaic?ei? aeiaiai?e, yeee ae ni?eya aa?iii?caoe?? oa
oi?o?eaoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa a ?aieao ?a?iiaenueeiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe aaoi? iinoaaea ia?aae niaith oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— aiae?c aioo??oiueiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Aiae??, O?aioe?? oa ?oae?? c
ieoaiue e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a c o?aooaaiiyi noaeiai? i?aeoeee;

— ?ic?iaea caaaeueii? iiiyo?eii? oa?i?iieia?? aeey aeaiiai aeaeo
aeiaiai??a;

— ?ic?iaea caaaeueii? eiino?oeoe?? e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o, c
o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeaino? eiai canoinoaaiiy a caeiiiaeaanoa? ??cieo e?a?i.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeaieo i?iaeai aaoi? ea?oaaany iaoiaeii ?noi?e/iiai,
nenoaiiiai, oi?iaeueii-eia?/iiai, oai?aoe/iiai oa iniaeeai,
ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaiai aiae?co.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith ?iaioe ? i?aoe? a/aieo i?aaiciaaoe?a: I.Aiaiaeiea
(?oae?y), O.Anea?aee? (?oae?y), AE.Acaia (O?aioe?y), I.Aiai (Aiae?y),
A.Ain?i (?oae?y), AE.Aa?no (O?aioe?y), E.Aaein (Aiae?y), O.Aaeueaaii
(?oae?y), I.A??i (Aiae?y), A.Aoo??aeae (Aiae?y), ?.Aeaa?ae (O?aioe?y),
A. Ae? Eaoaeaaei (?oae?y), ?.AEthea (O?aioe?y), TH.Eai?oea (Oe?a?ia),
AE.Ea?aiiue? (O?aioe?y), A.Eao?a (Aiae?y), A.Ei?i?o (Aiae?y),
Ae.Eoi?iaaei (Aiae?y), I.Eaeno?aeae (O?aioe?y), A.Eocaooi (?oae?y),
A.Iai/?i? (?oae?y), A.Ia?eain?n (Aiae?y), I.Iaoe? (O?aioe?y), O.Ioeueoii
(Aiae?y), Ae.Iieueaeaii (Oaaeoea??y), AE.Iiae??ii (O?aioe?y), A.Ion?yea
(Oe?a?ia), A.Ina? (O?aioe?y), I.I?aeii?eai?a (Oe?a?ia) A.Ioeao
(O?aioe?y), A.?aaa (?oae?y), A.N?iinii (Aiae?y), A.Noa?e (O?aioe?y),
Ae.Oaeii (O?aioe?y), A.Oieoii (Aiae?y), Ae.*ao?? (Aiae?y), A.Oooiio
(Aa?iai?y).

Aaaeeeaeie aeaea?aeaie aeena?oaoe?? ? iaoe?iiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai c
ieoaiue iaoaioii-e?oeaic?eieo oaiae Aiae??, O?aioe?? oa ?oae??.
Aeei?enoaii oaeiae noaeia? oa a?a?o?aaei? ??oaiiy oeeo e?a?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa?, ia?o ca ana, o oiio, ui aiia ?
eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy e?oeaic?eieo
aeiaiai??a ia i?eeeaae? caeiiiaeaanoaa o?ueio e?a?i, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei
??cieo i?aaiaeo nenoai. Ii-ae?oaa, a aeai?e ?iaio? noi?ioeueiaai?
aeniiaee caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, a oaeiae eiie?aoi? i?aeoe/i?
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei noai?aiiy ?aeeiiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeoo, yeee ?aaoeth?
e?oeaic?ei? aeiaiai?e.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno ?::

Oae? oa?i?ie aeiaia??iiai i?aaa ye “eaoca”, “i?aaeiao”, “cono??/ia
caaeiaieaiiy”, “iiieeea”, “ia?i?noue”, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?aa?
Aiae??, O?aioe?? oa ?oae?? aeeiiothoue ??ci? ooieoe?? o a?aeiia?aeieo
i?aaiaeo nenoaiao, ? oiio c iaoith oi?o?eaoe?? oa aa?iii?caoe??
caeiiiaeaanoaa cia/aiiy oaeeo oa?i?i?a iiaeiii aooe c’yniaaii oa
ocaaaeueiaii.

O o?aioeocueeiio oa ?oae?enueeiio i?aa? iaae?eni?noue iaoaioo
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaae?eniino? aeiaiai?o /a?ac c a?aenooi?noue “eaoce” oa
“i?aaeiaoa”, o oie /an ye a aiae?enueeiio i?aa? iaae?eni?noue iaoaioo
i?ecaiaeeoue ia aei iaae?eniino? aeiaiai?o, a aei ca?eueiaiiy noi??i
a?ae aeeiiaiiy nai?o aeiaia??ieo ciaia`ycaiue ca?aeii c oaeeie
iieiaeaiiyie aiae?enueeiai aeiaia??iiai i?aaa ye “cono??/ia
caaeiaieaiiy”, “iiieeea” oa “ia?i?noue”.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o ye “iaiieiaiiaaiiai” aeiaiai?o o
O?aioe?? oa ?oae?? icia/a?, ui aei oeueiai aeiaiai?o iiaeooue aooe
canoiniaai? ?iia?aoeai? oa aeeniiceoeai? ii?ie, ye? ia?aaeaa/ai?
caeiiiaeaanoaii aei iiae?aieo “iieiaiiaaieo” aeiaiai??a.

O o?aioeocueeiio oa ?oae?enueeiio i?aa? oeoia/aiiy e?oeaic?eieo
aeiaiai??a cae?enith?oueny c iineeaiiyi ia ?iia?aoeai? oa aeeniiceoeai?
ii?ie, ui ia?aaeaa/ai? aeey iiae?aieo “iieiaiiaaieo” aeiaiai??a, a a
aiae?enueeiio i?aa? oeoia/aiiy e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a cae?enith?oueny
ia i?aenoaa? /?oei aecia/aii? aie? noi??i.

O ca’yceo c ??cieie iaoiaeaie oeoia/aiiy e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a o
o?aioeocueeiio oa ?oae?enueeiio i?aa?, c iaeiiai aieo, oa a
aiae?enueeiio i?aa? c ae?oaiai aieo, nooue i?aa oa iaia’yce?a noi??i
nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui oaenoe aeiaiai??a
iiaeooue aooe ?aeaioe/ieie.

C iaoith oi?o?eaoe?? oa aa?iii?caoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa c ieoaiue
e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a aaoi? i?iiiio? eiioeaioe?th i?iaeoo oeiiaiai
caeiio i?i iaoaioii-e?oeaic?ei? aeiaiai?e. A ?? ia?o?e /anoei?
ia?aaeaa/ai? caaaeuei? i?eioeeie aeiaia??iiai i?aaa, ye? iiaeooue aooe
canoiniaai? aei ?ioeo aeae?a aeiaiai??a. Ae?oaa /anoeia eiioeaioe??
i?noeoue iniiai? iieiaeaiiy uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy i?aa oa iaia`yce?a noi??i
a e?oeaic?eiiio aeiaiai??. A o?ao?e /anoei? i?iiiio?oueny aeaye?
iieiaeaiiy aioeiiiiiieueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ye? ni?eeiathoueny
caeiiiaeaanoaii aaaaoueio e?a?i.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? ??
aeei?enoaiiy i?e oaeineiiaeaii? caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i e?oeaic?ei?
aeiaiai?e. Aeniiaee, ui i?noyoueny a aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? o i?aaicanoiniai?e ae?yeueiino?. ?iaioa iiaea noaoe a
i?eaiae? oaeiae i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a oa iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, i?e /eoaii? eo?no oeea?eueiiai i?aaa oa i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?eaaoiiai i?aaa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aena?oeththoueny a iaoeiaeo noaooyo, aeiiia?aeyo ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, 22 i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, aeiaeaoeo oa ia?ae?eo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe neeaaea? 176 noi??iie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ? aena?oeth?oueny ??aaiue
aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie aeena?oaoe??, aecia/ai? ?? iaoa oa caaaeaiiy,
iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaoiaeieia?? ?iaioe, oi?ioeththoueny iaoeiaa
iiaecia oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaa?oioiaai?
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ??aaiue eiai
ai?iaaoe??, oa?aeoa? ioae?eaoe?e oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeiaia??iiai i?aaa” — aeey
ii??aiyeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o a ??cieo e?a?iao
aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? aea? iiyniaiiy aeayeei oa?i?iai aeiaia??iiai i?aaa,
oaeei ye “i?aaeiao”, “eaoca”, “cono??/ia caaeiaieaiiy”, “iiieeeia?noue”,
“ia?i?noue”. Aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? aeai? iiiyooy a iaaeao, iaiao?aeieo aeey
?icoi?iiy ooieoe??, yeo aiie iiaeooue aeeiioaaoe a ?aieao e?oeaic?eieo
oaiae.

Aecia/ath/e oa?aeoa?enoeeo oaeiai iiiyooy ye “i?aaeiao”, aeena?oaio
caa?oa? oaaao ia oa, ui o o?aioeocueeiio ? aiae?enueeiio oeea?eueiiio
eiaeaen? iaia? oeoia/aiiy oeueiai oa?i?io. I?ae oa?i?iii “i?aaeiao”
o?aaa ?icoi?oe noeoii?noue ae?e, ye? noi?iie ciaia’ycaeeny cae?enieoe,
aai aacae?yeuei?noue /e a?aeiiaa a?ae iai?/aieo ae?e. ?acii c oei,
oa?i?i “i?aaeiao” /anii ?iiae? ?icoi?thoue ye “??/”, noeoii?noue
iineoa, ui neeaaeathoue ia’?eo i?aaia?aeiioaiue. *anoi a ?oae?enueeiio ?
o?aioeocueeiio i?aa? “i?aaeiao” aecia/a?oueny a?aeiia?aeaeth ia
caieoaiiy: “ui iio??aii c?iaeoe” noi?iiith, yea acyea ia naaa
ciaia’ycai?noue. Aeena?oaio caa?oa? oaaao ia oa, ui a aiae?enueeiio
i?aa? “i?aaeiao” ia ? naiino?eiei aeaiaioii aeiaiai?o.

Aena?oethth/e iiiyooy “eaoce”, aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui oeae oa?i?i oaeiae
ia ?ice?eoee o o?aioeocueeiio oa ?oae?enueeiio i?aa?. I?ae “eaocith”
?icoi??oueny iaeaeeae/a iaoa, ca?aaee yei? oeeaaea?oueny aeiaia??, aai
iayai?noue i?aenoaae aeey oeeaaeaiiy oaeiai aeiaiai?o. Eeane/ia
o?aioeocueea aeieo?eia aecia/a? “eaoco” ye aaciina?aaei?e iai??, ui
niiioea? noi?iio oeeanoe aeiaia??. Oaeei /eiii, a n?eiaiaoe/iiio
aeiaiai?? oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei i/?eoaaiiai cono??/iiai caaeiaieaiiy.
No/ania ?oae?enueea aeieo?eia cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia iniaeeainoyo ?ioiai
aniaeoo “eaoce”: ia oiio, ui aeaia oaiaea ? aea?aeia ye aeey eiie?aoii?
iniae, oae ? aeey noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio.

Aeena?oaio aecia/a? aea? ooieoe?? “eaoce”: ii-ia?oa, — oea ia?aa??ea,
/e yaey? niaith aeiaia?? th?eaee/iee ciaia’ycoth/ee aeieoiaio (aeiaia??
? iaae?eniei, yeui a iueiio a?aenooiy “eaoca” ); ii-ae?oaa, ooieoe?y
“eaoce” iieyaa? a ?? aeanoeaino? ye ?ino?oiaio? eeaneo?eaoe?? ie?aieo
aeae?a aeiaiai??a, ine?eueee aiia eeaneo?eo? aeiaiai?e caeaaeii a?ae
ianyao i?aa ? iaia’yce?a noi??i.

Ui aei cono??/iiai caaeiaieaiiy a “caaaeueiiio i?aa?”, oi aaoi?
a?aei?/a?, ui eiai iniiaia ?aeay a oiio, ui aiii yaey? niaith
a?aeiia?aeio iineoao, yeo iniaa, ui ia?oey?, oio?ea a io?eiaoe.

Aeey aeieeiaiiy cono??/iiai caaeiaieaiiy iaiao?aeii uia noi?iie
aeiiiaeeenue i?i aeeiiaiiy ieie ciaia’ycaiue aai iai?iyeenue
a?aeiia?aeieie ia?oeyieaie.

Noaeiaith i?aeoeeith iai?aoeueiaaii ?yae i?eeeaae?a, yeei iiaeii?
a?aeiia?aeaoe cono??/i? caaeiaieaiiy:

Ii-ia?oa, cono??/ia caaeiaieaiiy ia iiaea aooe aeaai?i.

Ii-ae?oaa, cono??/ia caaeiaieaiiy iiaeiii aooe ?aaeueiei, aiii ia?
i?aaenoaaeyoe yeonue oe?ii?noue aeey noi??i.

Ii-o?ao?, cono??/ia caaeiaieaiiy iiaeiii eoe a?ae e?aaeeoi?a, oiaoi
aooe i?aaenoaaeaii ai?aeieeii.

Noiniaii oaeiai oa?i?io, ye “iiieeeia?noue”, aaoi? noaa?aeaeo?, ui aiii
iiaea iaoe i?noea oiae?, eiee a iniae aac oieneo c ?? aieo /e a ?ioeo
in?a aeieeathoue iaa?aeiia?aei? ae?eniino? oyae i?i aeaye? oaeoe oa
ianoaaeie. Uiaei cia/aiiy oa?i?io “ia?i?noue” — i?ae oeei oa?i?iii
?icoi??oueny iaiiaeeea?noue aeeiiaiiy aeiaiai?o, aea oea ia icia/a?
iaae?eni?noue aeiaiai?o.

?icaeyioaoe aeuaiaaaaeai? iiiyooy, aaoi? ae?eoia oaeeo aeniiae?a:

A?aenooi?noue a aiae?enueeiio i?aa? iiiyooy “eaoce” eiiiaino?oueny
iayai?noth oaeeo oa?i?i?a ye “cono??/ia caaeiaieaiiy”, “ia?i?noue”,
“iiieeea”.

“I?aaeiao” ? “eaoca”, ui yaeythoueny iaiao?aeieie aeaiaioaie aeey
oeeaaeaiiy e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a ca caeiiiaeaanoaii O?aioe?? oa
?oae??, caeiiiaeaa/i ia cae??ieai?, aea aeaoaeueii i?aaenoaaeai?
iaoe?iiaeueieie aeieo?eiaie.

Oa?i?i “i?aaeiao” ? iaia’yceiaei aeey oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai??a ? o
o?aioeocueeiio i?aa?, oiae? ye ?oae?enuee? th?enoe noeeuei? aaaaeaoe
oea iiiyooy ia caaaeaee iaia’yceiaith oiiaith aeiaiai?o.

Oa?i?i “eaoca” ? iaia’yceiaith oiiaith aeiaiai?o ca?aeii c
o?aioeocueeei oa ?oae?enueeei i?aaii ? a?aeiia?aea? oa?i?iia? “cono??/ia
caaeiaieaiiy” a aiae?enueeiio i?aa?. Iieiaeaiiy, ye? ia?aaeaa/ai? a
aeieo?eiao o?ueio aea?aeaa, a?aeia?aaeathoue iaeio caaaeueio ?aeath aeey
an?o, ?aeath iai?io ia?oeyieaie aai ciaia’ycaiiyie.

Ii??aithth/e iaea?eueo nooo?a? aeaiaioe caaaeueiiai aeiaia??iiai i?aaa,
aaoi? eiinoaoo?, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia aeaye? a?aei?iiino?, ?icaeyioo?
oa?i?ie a?aeia?aaeathoue iiae?ai? yaeua. Oea ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii
eio?ee aea? iiaeeea?noue ae?iaeoe ?aeeio caaaeueio th?eaee/io
eiino?oeoe?th, yeo iiaeia aoaea ia o?eueee aeei?enoaoe c iaoith
oi?o?eaoe??, aea e canoiniaoaaoe a ??cieo aea?aeaaao c ??cieie i?aaiaeie
nenoaiaie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “E?oeaic?ei? aeiaiai?e a aiae?enueeiio i?aa?” —
?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy e?oeaic?eieo oaiae a
caeiiiaeaanoa? Aiae??.

Aaoi? aiae?co? oae? ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ye Caeii “I?i iaoaioe” (1977 ?.),
Caeii “I?i iaiaaeaiiy naiaiaee oi?a?ae?” (1976 ?.), Caeii “I?i
eiieo?aioe?th” (1980 ?.), Caeii “I?i oe?ie ia?ai?iaeaaeo” (1976 ?.) oa
aeaye? ?io? ii?iaoeai? aeoe, a oaeiae i?eeeaaee ?c noaeiai? i?aeoeee.

Aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui ?inoeooo e?oeaic?eieo oaiae aeiee a Aiae?? a OO??
noie?oo? ? ui nueiaiaei? oey e?a?ia ia? iaea?eueoo noaeiao i?aeoeeo c
ieoaiue iaoaioii-e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a.

O aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeththoueny oae? iniaeeaino? aiae?enueeiai
iaoaioiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ye io?eiaiiy e?oeaic?? ia o?eueee ia
i?aenoaa? aeiaiai??a, aea e ia i?aenoaa? “anoiiiaey”, aai ca “i?aaii
ni?aaaaeeeaino?”. E?oeaic?y ia i?aenoaa? iieiaeaiue “anoiiiaey” iiaea
aooe ae?eniith, eiee iaoaioiaeaniee nai?th iiaaae?ieith aea?
iiaeeea?noue c?icoi?oe, ui iniaa, yea aieiae?oeia oe??th e?oeaic??th, ?
oiiaiiaaaeaiith ia caeiii?e i?aenoaa? aeei?enoiaoaaoe oeae iaoaioiee
aeiao?ae.

E?oeaic?y ca “i?aaii ni?aaaaeeeaino?” iiaea aooe aeaeaia a ?ac?, yeui
oaea iniaa ia? i?aai ia oeth e?oeaic?th, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaia naieoe??th
a?aeiia?aeiiai eiiiaoaioiiai i?aaio.

A?aeiia?aeii aei aiae?enueeiai aeiaia??iiai i?aaa, o/anieee
e?oeaic?eieo oaiae iathoue ciiao a?eueii aecia/aoe iaae? ciaia’ycaiue
ca aeaiei aeiaiai?ii. Aeena?oaio caoaaaeo? oaeiae, ui th?eaee/ia
i?aeoeea neeaaeaiiy iaoaioii-e?oeaic?eieo oaiae a Aiae?? a?eueo
?icaeiaia, i?ae a oeo e?a?iao, aea caeiiiaeaaaoeue iicaaaea noi?iie
iiaeeeaino? naiino?eii aecia/aoe oiiae aeiaiai??a, aeeth/eaoe aei
oeea?eueieo eiaeaen?a iaea?eueo iioe?ai? oiiae ??cieo aeae?a aeiaiai??a.

A aiae?enueeiio i?aa? oeoia/aiiy e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a
cae?eniththoueny a?ae oiai, ye noi?ioethaaoe o? /e ?io? iieiaeaiiy
e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a. Oea nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iaoiae?a
oeoia/aiiy e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a a e?a?iao ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? nenoaie
i?aaa, aea aiii cae?enith?oueny ia i?aenoaa? ?iia?aoeaieo oa
aeeniiceoeaieo ii?i, ia?aaeaa/aieo aeey iiae?aieo “iieiaiiaaieo”
aeiaiai??a.

A aiae?enueeiio i?aa? oi?iaeueii ia cae??ieaii ciaia’ycaiiy oeeaaeaoe
aeiaia?? o ienueiia?e oi?i? — oaeei /eiii, aeey oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o
aeinoaoiuei onii? caiaee noi??i.

A aiae?enueeiio i?aa? aioeiiiiiieueia caeiiiaeaanoai nooo?ai aieeaa? ia
caeiiiaeaanoai i?i iaoaioii-e?oeaic?ei? aeiaiai?e. Oea oae? ii?iaoeai?
aeoe ye Caeii “I?i iaiaaeaiiy naiaiaee oi?a?ae?” (1976 ?.), Caeii “I?i
eiieo?aioe?th” (1980 ?.), Caeii “I?i noi?aeio eiia?oe?th” (1973 ?.),
aeieo?eia “iaiaaeaiiy oi?a?ae?”.

A aiae?enueeiio i?aa? iaae?eni?noue iaoaioo iiaea aooe inii?aia, yeui
e?oeaic?a? i?yii aa?aioo? ae?eni?noue iaoaioo. O aeiaaeeo, yeui
e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia?? ia i?noeoue i?yii? aa?aio?? e?oeaic?a?a a?aeiinii
ae??a?no? iaoaioo, aiae?enueea i?aai aaaaea? e?oeaic?aoa iicaaaeaiei
iiaeeeaino? inii?thaaoe eiai ni?aaaei?noue.

Iiaeath/e oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniiaieo i?aa oa ciaia’ycaiue noi??i o
e?oeaic?eiiio aeiaiai??, aaoi? aecia/a?, ui a?eueo?noue c ieo iathoue
th?eaee/io neeo, yeui i?yii ia?aaeaa/ai? a aeiaiai??. Oae e?oeaic?a? ia
ciaia’ycaiee ia?aaeaaaoe e?oeaic?aoo aeiaeaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, iaa?oue
eiee aac ia? iaiiaeeeai aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeiao?ae, yeui oea i?yii ia
ia?aaeaa/aii a aeiaiai??.

?acii c oei, ye i?aee?aneth?oueny o aeniiaeao oe??? aeaae aeena?oaoe??,
?yae th?eaee/ieo eiino?oeoe?e, ?ic?iaeaieo aiae?enueeeie oai?aoeeaie ?
noaeiaeie i?aeoeeaie ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a cai?iiiiiaaiiio
oeiiaiio Caeii?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “E?oeaic?ei? aeiaiai?e o o?aioeocueeiio i?aa?” —
aaoi? aiae?co? aeaiee aeae aeiaiai?o ia i?aenoaa? oaeeo ii?iaoeaieo
aeo?a, ye Eiaeaen Caeii?a i?i ?ioaeaeooaeueio aeani?noue oa Oeea?eueiee
Eiaeaen O?aioe??.

O o?aioeocueeiio i?aa? e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia?? iaeaaeeoue aei oae caaieo
“iaiieiaiiaaieo” aeiaiai??a, oiaoi aei oaeeo, ye? aeaoaeueii ia
a?aaoeueiaai? caeiiiaeaanoaii, iai?eeeaae, aeiaiai?e eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo,
i?aiaee oa ?i. C oeueiai aeo?ea?, ui ci?no e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o
aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee ocaiaeaeaiith aieath noi??i, aea e
aeeniiceoeaieie oa ?iia?aoeaieie ii?iaie «iieiaiiaaieo» aeiaiai??a,
aeaoaeueii a?aaoeueiaaieie oeea?eueiei eiaeaenii oa ?ioeie caeiiaie, ye?
iaea?eueo iiae?ai? aei e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a.

Aaoi? aecia/a?, ui o o?aioeocueeiio i?aa? ?niothoue aeaye? oi?iaeuei?
aeiiae aei e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a. Ca?aeii c Eiaeaeno Caeii?a i?i
?ioaeaeooaeueio aeani?noue, e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia?? ia? aooe oeeaaeaiee o
ienueiia?e oi?i? oa ca?a?no?iaaiee a ?a?no??, yeee aaaeaoueny
Iaoe?iiaeueiei ?inoeoooii i?iieneiai? aeaniino?.

Aiae?coth/e o?aioeocueea aioeiiiiiieueia caeiiiaeaanoai, a naia Aeae?ao
“I?i naiaiaeo oe?iiooai?aiiy oa eiieo?aioe?th” a?ae 1986 ?ieo, aaoi?
iaaiaeeoue aeaa iaiaaeaiiy, ye? oeae caeii iaeeaaea? ia e?oeaic?ei?
aeiaiai?e, a naia: caai?iia aaci?aenoaaii? a?aeiiae a?ae ia?aaea/?
iaoaioo oa caai?iia aeene?ei?iaoe?eii? i?aeoeee ia ?eieo.

?icaeyaeath/e oiiae iaae?eniino? e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o, aaoi?
aecia/a?, ui ca?aeii c o?aioeocueeei caeiiiaeaanoaii iaae?eni?noue
iaoaioo ni?e/eiy? aei iaae?eniino? anueiai aeiaiai?o, ine?eueee
a?aenooi?e “i?aaeiao” aeiaiai?o.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iaia’ycee noi??i a e?oeaic?eiiio aeiaiai??, aaoi?
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caa?oa? oaaao ia aeaye? oa?aeoa?i?
iniaeeaino?.

O o?aioeocueeiio i?aa? aeeneon?eiei aaaaea?oueny ieoaiiy i?i oa, /e
ciaia’ycaiee e?oeaic?a? ia?aaeaaaoe e?oeaic?aoo iaoa??aee i?i
oaeineiiaeaiiy aei e?oeaic?eii? oaoiieia??. Noaee, iai?eeeaae,
caia?a/othoue oaeeo iaia’yce?a o e?oeaicaioa. A ie?ai? oai?aoeee i?aaa
aeciathoue i?ioeeaaeia, iaa?oioiaoth/e naith iiceoe?th eiioeaioe??th,
a?aeiia?aeii aei yei? aeiaia?? iaeeaaea? ia o?eueee /?oei aeacai? a
iueiio oae? ciaia’ycaiiy, aea e aeeiioaaoe ciaia’ycaiiy, ui aeieeathoue
?c i?aaa ni?aaaaeeeaino?, ae?eiai? i?aeoeee ? caeii?a.

O o?aioeocueeiio i?aa? iaia? oaeiae ?aeeii? aeoiee uiaei oiai, /e ia?
e?oeaic?a? iaia’ycie caoeuaoe e?oeaic?aoa o aeiaaeeo iacaeiiiiai
aeei?enoaiiy caiaoaioiaaiiai aeiaoiaeo o?aoueith iniaith. ?nio? aeoiea,
ui oaea ciaia’ycaiiy e?oeaic?a?a aeieea? c aeaea/ath iei aa?aio??
aacia?aoeiaeiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaoaioiaaiiai aeiaoiaeo.

Oe?iei aena?oeaii ieoaiiy i?i iaae? aa?aio??, ui iaaea?oueny
e?oeaic?a?ii. Ooo ia?aaaaea? eiioeaioe?y, ca?aeii c yeith noi?iie o
aeiaiai?? iiaeooue a?aei?ieoe aa?aio?th ae?eniino? iaoaioo. Iieiaeaiiy o
aeiaiai?? i?i a?aei?io aa?aio?? a?ae iaae?eniino? iaoaioo
aaaaeaoeiaoueny i?aaii??iei, ? a?aei?ia oaei? aa?aio?? ca?eueiy?
e?oeaic?a?a a?ae iaia’yceiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a, ui ni?e/eieeeny
o e?oeaic?aoa /a?ac aeciaiiy iaoaioo iaae?eniei.

Aeeneon?eiei ? ieoaiiy i?i i?aaii??i?noue ciaia’ycaiiy e?oeaic?a?a uiaei
iaeiieo?aioe??. Aaaaea?ii, ui oaea ciaia’ycaiiy iiaea aooe iaaeaia
e?oeaic?aoii, yeui aiii ia ia?aoeiaeaea? eiai ainiiaea?nuee?e
ae?yeueiino? ? iaiaaeaia a /an? ? i?inoi??.

Aiae?coth/e ciaia’ycaiiy e?oeaic?aoa o o?aioeocueeiio i?aa? aaoi?
iaaieioo? ? ia oae?e iniaeeaino?, ye “?nioth/a (i?eioneath/a)
ciaia’ycaiiy” e?oeaic?aoa cae?enithaaoe aenieoaoaoe?th caiaoaioiaaiiai
aeiaoiaeo. Oea icia/a?, ui iaa?oue i?e a?aenooiino? oaeiai iieiaeaiiy a
aeiaiai?? e?oeaic?ao ciaia’ycaiee aaeeoe an?o iaiao?aeieo cania?a aeey
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaoaioiaaiiai aeiaoiaeo. Ne?ae oaeiae
caoaaaeeoe i?i iaiiaeeea?noue e?oeaic?aoii naiino?eii iaaeaaaoe
caiaoaioiaaiee aeiao?ae o noae?oeaic?th.

O?aioeocueea caeiiiaeaanoai i?i e?oeaic?ei? aeiaiai?e ia? nooo?aee
iaaeie?e oiio, ui o?aioeocueeee oeea?eueiee eiaeaen, ?ic?iaeaiee ?ua ca
/an?a Iaiieaiia, ia a?aoiao? no/ani? aeaee aeiaiai??a.

Oeoia/aiiy oiia aeiaiai?o oeyoii aiaeia?? c ii?iaie noiaeeo aeiaiai??a
iac?o/ia oa iai?aeoe/ia.

Eiaeaen Caeii?a i?i ?ioaeaeooaeueio aeani?noue 1992 ?ieo i?noeoue ii?ie,
ye? ?aaoeththoue aeiaiai?e i?i aeei?enoaiiy aoae?i-, a?aeaii?iaeoeoe??
oa ia ?aaeaiaioothoue e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia??.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui cai?iiiiiaaiee i?iaeo oeiiaiai caeiio i?i e?oeaic?ei?
aeiaiai?e ciiaea caiiaieoe i?iaaeeie uiaei i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o o O?aioe??.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — “E?oeaic?ei? aeiaiai?e a ?oae?enueeiio i?aa?” —
aeey aiae?co e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o aeei?enoaii oae? ii?iaoeai? aeoe,
ye Caeii “I?i iaoaioe” (1939 ?.), Oeea?eueiee Eiaeaen ?oae??, a oaeiae
Caeii “I?i caoeno eiieo?aioe??”.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe caeiiiaeaanoai ?oae?? c ieoaiue oeeaaeaiiy e?oeaic?eieo
aeiaiai??a, i?aa oa iaia’yce?a noi??i, iaae?eniino? e?oeaic?eieo
aeiaiai??a, i?eieiaiiy aeaiiai aeiaiai?o, a oaeiae ae?th
aioeiiiiiieueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, aaoi? ae?eoia ieae/aiaaaaeaieo
aeniiae?a.

I? ?oae?enueeee Caeii “I?i iaoaioe”, i? ?oae?enueeee Oeea?eueiee Eiaeaen
ia ?aaeaiaioothoue e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia?? ye ie?aiee aeae aeiaiai?o.
Oaeei /eiii e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia?? a ?oae?enueeiio i?aa? ?
“iaiieiaiiaaiei” aeiaiai?ii, ye ? o o?aioeocueeiio i?aa?, ? uiaei iueiai
canoiniaothoueny iieiaeaiiy, ui aeey iiae?aieo “iieiaiiaaieo
aeiaiai??a”.

I?eioeei naiaiaee aeiaiai?o iaaea? noi?iiai iiaeeea?noue naiino?eii
aecia/aoe oiiae e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o, aea oae? oiiae iiaeii?
a?aoiaoaaoe ?iia?aoeai? oa aeeniiceoeai? ii?ie, ui ia?aaeaa/ai? aeey
noiaeeo “iieiaiiaaieo” aeiaiai??a, oaeeo, ye aeiaia?? i?aiaee,
eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo.

Caeii “I?i iaoaioe” a ?oae?? (1939 ?.) ia aeiaaa? iaeaaeii? oi?ie
e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o. Anoaiiaeaii, ui e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia?? iiaea
oeeaaeaoeny o aeia?euei?e oi?i?. Caeii “I?i iaoaioe” 1939 ?ieo
ia?aaeaa/a? ?a?no?aoe?th e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a o Oeaio?aeueiiio ath?i
iaoaio?a ? iaoiiaeth?, ui o?eueee ca?a?no?iaaiee aeiaia?? i?aeeyaa?
caoenoo a?ae eiai iacaeiiiiai aeei?enoaiiy eiai o?ao?ie iniaaie.

?icaeyaeath/e ieoaiiy i?eieiaiiy aeiaia??ieo a?aeiioaiue, aaoi?
cacia/a?, ui ?ic?ea aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue, ca?aeii c Oeea?eueiei
Eiaeaenii ?oae??, iiaea aooe cae?eniaii ca aeiiiaeai?noth noi??i, ia
i?aenoaa? noaeiaiai ??oaiiy aai a ?ac? ii?ooaiiy aeiaiai?o. E??i oiai,
cacia/aii, ui a ?oae?enueeiio i?aa? ca oiiae a?aenooiino? niaoe?aeueieo
iieiaeaiue o aeiaiai??, cae?i/aiiy no?ieo ae?eniino? iaoaioo icia/a?
cae?i/aiiy aeiaia??ieo a?aeiioaiue. Oiaoi, oaeee aeiaia?? ia? aecia/aiee
oa?i?i ae??. Ca?aeii c ?oae?enueeei i?aaii, ae?y e?oeaic?eiiai aeiaiai?o
i?eieiy?oueny a ?ac? iaae?eniino? iaoaioo.

?oae?enueea aioeiiiiiieueia caeiiiaeaanoai oaeiae ia i?noeoue i?yeeo
iieiaeaiue noiniaii e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a. ?oae?enuee? th?enoe
aaaaeathoue, ui a?aeiia?aei? ii?ie caeii?a ?a?iiaenueeiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa
a?aeiinii e?oeaic?eieo oaoiieia?e iathoue aooe canoiniaai? aei
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c aeayeeie ci?iaie. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui
canoinoaaiiy oeeo iieiaeaiue ?N, noai?aieo aeey caiia?aaiiy
iaaeia?iye?ni?e eiieo?aioe??, ia caaaeaee iiaeeeai, oiio ui a aeayeeo
aaeocyo i?iieneiaino? eiieo?aioe?y a?aenooiy acaaae?.

A?eueo?noue ?oae?enueeeo th?eno?a aaaaeathoue, ui e?oeaic?a?
ciaia’ycaiee aa?aiooaaoe ae?eni?noue iaoaioo ? i?aeo?eioaaoe th?eaee/io
neeo iaoaio?a a ia??iae ae?? e?oeaic??. E??i oiai, e?oeaic?a? aa?aioo?
iiaeeea?noue eiia?oe?eii? ?aae?caoe?? caiaoaioiaaiiai aeiaoiaeo e
aeinyaiaiiy aoaeoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. E?oeaic?a? ciaia’ycaiee oaeiae
aa?aiooaaoe niie?eia aeei?enoaiiy aeiaoiaeo e?oeaic?aoii ? ciaia’ycaiee
oo?eioaaoeny a?ae ae?e, ye? iiaeooue ia?aoeiaeaeaoe ae?yeueiino?
e?oeaic?aoa.

Niaoeeo?/iith ?enith ?oae?enueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? oaeiae oa, ui
e?oeaic?ao ia? oe?ie? iiaiiaaaeaiiy i?ioe ii?ooiee?a iaoaioo. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae o?aioeocueeiai ? aiae?enueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ?oae?enueea
i?aai aecia? ca iiaeeeaa ii?ooeoe noaeiaa ia?ane?aeoaaiiy ye
e?oeaic?aoii c aeeeth/iith e?oeaic??th, oae ? e?oeaic?aoii c
iaaeeeth/iith e?oeaic??th.

?oae?enueea iaoaioia caeiiiaeaanoai ia? ua iaeio iniaeea?noue:
e?oeaic?ao ? ciaia’ycaiee ia a?aoe o/ano? a eiieo?aioe??. Oaea
ciaia’ycaiiy iiaeiii aooe cae??ieaii a ienueiia?e oi?i? a?aeiia?aeii aei
Oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno ?oae??.

A?aenooi?noue eiie?aoieo ii?i uiaei e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a i?ecaiaeeoue
aei canoinoaaiiy caaaeueieo ii?i ?oae?enueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ? oiio
?iiae? aaaeei ia?aaeaa/eoe aeaye? noaeia? ??oaiiy. Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia
oea, aeaye? iieiaeaiiy ?oae?enueeiai i?aaa c ieoaiue i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a aoee a?aoiaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
oeiiaiai iiaeaeueiiai caeiio.

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa i?iiiceoe?? aaoi?a ?
aeniiaee uiaei aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai.

Aeniiaee, c?iaeai? aeena?oaioii, iieyaathoue o oaeiio.

??ci? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaia? nenoaie i?iiiiothoue cia/io ??cieoeth i?aa
oa iaia’yce?a noi??i o e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai?ao, iaa?oue o ?ac?
?aeaioe/iino? oaeno?a.

Aieea caeii?a ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco ia iaoe?iiaeuei? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe c
ieoaiue e?oeaic?eieo aeiaiai??a aeoaea iacia/iee ? iaiaaeo?oueny eeoa
ieoaiiyie aioeiiiiiieueiiai i?aaa.

Noai?aiiy aioo??oiueiai ?eieo o ?a?iiaenueeiio ni?aoiaa?enoa? aeiaaa?
aa?iii?caoe??, a iiaeeeai e oi?o?eaoe??, oeea?eueiiai, aeiaia??iiai oa
aioeiiiiiieueiiai i?aaa, a oaeiae i?aaa, ui ?aaoeth? niaoe?aeuei? aeaee
aeiaiai??a c oei, uia iiaeia aoei noai?eoe ??ai? oiiae ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? aeey th?eaee/ieo oa o?ce/ieo in?a ia oa?eoi???
?a?iiaenueeiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa.

O aeiaeaoeo i?iiiio?oueny eiioeaioe?y i?iaeoo caeiio i?i e?oeaic?ei?
aeiaiai?e, o ia?o?e /anoei? yeiai eaeaoueny i?i caaaeuei? i?eioeeie
aeiaia??iiai i?aaa, o ae?oa?e /anoei? – i?i iniaeeaino? e?oeaic?eieo
aeiaiai??a, a a o?ao?e ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy aioeiiiiiieueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? aaoi?ii o ianooiieo
?iaioao:

Patents: diving computer, Federal supreme Court of 04.02.1992, (1992) 8
European Intellectual Property Review D-156.

Intellectual property on the space station ‘Freedom’, (1993) 9 European
Intellectual Property Review 318 — 326.

The patenting of inventions of alloys in germany: the
chrome-nickel-alloy decision of the Federal Supreme court (1993) 2
European Intellectual Property Review 64 — 68.

European patent law; in: intellectual property and the European
Community; presented by the Intellectual Property & Entertainment Law
Section of the Los Angeles County Bar and Centre Bar of Europe, Los
Angeles 1994 (31 Seiten).

Photographs and privacy in Germany, (1994) 6 Entertaiment Law Review
205-222.

Copyright im netz — urheberecht auf dem information-superhighway, mit
Claire Miskin, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Beilage Kommunikation und
Medien, 29 August 1995, B 17.

The advertising law of the European Union; (1996) 5 European
Intellectual Property Review 279 — 291.

The publishing industey faces technologikal change; (1996) 2
Entertaiment Law Review 50-61.

L’edition sur reseaux: questions morales et juridiques, Dokumentation zu
‘Table ronde’, MILIA (Marche international de l’edition et des nouveaux
media), Cannes, 09.02.1996, 24 Seiten Annex.

Caeii i?i iaoaioia e?oeaicoaaiiy o I?ia//ei? //A?niee i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei. Ee?anueeee Oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aeione 14. Ia?.
c aiae. Ee?a – 1999.– 1999. n.26-27.

OA?AIAAEUeAe A?iieueae Aeeueaaeuei Y?ino Aaaono
“Iaoaioii-eeoeaiceiiiua niaeaoaiey a aiaeeeneii, o?aioeocneii e
eoaeueyineii i?aaa”.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.03 — a?aaeaeaineia i?aai e a?aaeaeaineee
i?ioeann; naiaeiia i?aai; iaaeaeoia?iaeiia /anoiia i?aai. — Einoeooo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeae yaeyaony ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iaoaioii-eeoeaiceiiiuo
aeiaiai?ia a aiaeeeneii, o?aioeocneii e eoaeueyineii i?aaa. Aeey
enneaaeiaaiey auee aua?aiu o?e ?acee/iuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo nenoaiu i?aaa —
Niaaeeiaiiiai Ei?ieaanoaa Aaeeeia?eoaiee, O?aioeee e Eoaeee.

Iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii ?anniio?aieth a n?aaieoaeueiii ii?yaeea
iaueo e ioee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia iaoaioii-eeoeaiceiiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ioeaiea ninoiyiey ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue e
ii?aaeaeaiey ia?niaeoea aai ?acaeoey.

?acoeueoaoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony i?iaeo iiaeaee caeiia i
eeoeaiceiiiuo aeiaiai?ao, eioi?ue iauaaeeiee aaaeiua yeaiaiou
enneaaeoaiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaiauo nenoai. Ia iniiaaiee yoiai neioaca
nicaeaaony aiciiaeiinoue aai i?eiyoey aieueoeinoaii no?ai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoaio, eeoeaicey, eeoeaiceiiiue aeiaiai?, ?iyeoe,
eeoeaicea?, eeoeaiceao, eaoca, ano?a/iia oaeiaeaoai?aiea, ie/oiaeiinoue
aeiaiai?a, oieoeeaoeey i?aaa, a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea,
eneeth/eoaeueiay eeoeaicey, iauay eeoeaicey.

OA?AIAAEUeAe A?iieueae A?eueaaeuei A?ino Aaaono “Iaoaioii-e?oeaic?ei?
oaiaee a aiae?enueeiio, o?aioeocueeiio oa ?oae?enueeiio i?aa?”.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.03 — oeea?eueia i?aai ? oeea?eueiee
i?ioean; n?iaeia i?aai; i?aeia?iaeia i?eaaoia i?aai. — ?inoeooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith iaoaioii-e?oeaic?eieo
aeiaiai??a a aiae?enueeiio, o?aioeocueeiio oa ?oae?enueeiio i?aa?. Aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ia?ai? o?e ??ci? iaoe?iiaeuei? nenoaie i?aaa —
Niieo/aiiai Ei?ie?anoaa Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?aioe?? oa ?oae??.

Iniiaio oaaao i?eae?eaii ?icaeyaeia? o ii??aiyeueiiio ii?yaeeo
caaaeueieo ? a?aei?oieo ?en iaoaioii-e?oeaic?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa,
ioe?ioe? no/aniiai noaio ? aecia/aiiy ia?niaeoea eiai ?icaeoeo.

?acoeueoaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?iaeo iiaeae? caeiio i?i e?oeaic?ei?
aeiaiai?e, ui ia’?aeio? aaaeeea? aeaiaioe aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aaiaeo nenoai. Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai neioaco
c`yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue eiai i?eeiyooy a?eueo?noth e?a?i.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoaio, e?oeaic?y, e?oeaic?eiee aeiaia??, ?iyeo?,
e?oeaic?a?, e?oeaic?ao, eaoca, cono??/ia caaeiaieaiiy, ia?i?noue
aeiaiai?o, oi?o?eaoe?y i?aaa, oeea?eueii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy, aeeeth/ia
e?oeaic?y, aaia?aeueia e?oeaic?y.

Farenvald Arnold Wilhelm Ernst August «License contracts in English,
French and Italian law».

Dissertation is a manuscript.

Dissertation for obtaining scientific degree of candidate of science in
law, specialized field 12.00.03. — civil Law and civil procedure, family
law, private international law. — Institute of International relation of
Kiev national university of T. Shevchenko, Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation is mainly focused on the research of license contracts
laws in the comparative aspects, to define the general and different
signs, to evaluate the actual law state and to detect the prospects of
development.

Aim and task are to analyze by means of methods of legal comparison the
laws of patent license contracts of England, France and Italy in order
to suggest a solution for the balancing of the different interests of
the patent license contract which offers interested legal natural and
legal security and an optimum utilization of resources.

The subject of the study is the law of patent license contracts in the
English, French and Italian law. Three national European legal systems
were chosen in order to show how municipal law responds to economic
needs under similar but not identical circumstances.

The study has the scientific result that the harmonization of the laws
of patent license contracts of different legal systems of England,
France and Italy appears desirable from the point of view of the
creation of similar economic conditions, but the approximation of the
laws requires the interference with different structure of the civil
laws of contract which developed before different historical and
cultural backgrounds.

The main propositions suggested for the promotion are:

The terms of the general principles of the law of contract such as
«causa», «object», «consideration», «mistake» and «frustration» which
are used in English, French and Italian law fulfill different functions
in the relevant legal systems and within the scope of the approximation
of laws the use of such concepts should be limited to concrete terms.

The patented invention and the invention for which a patented is applied
for are recognized subjects of intellectual property in England, France
and Italy and the nature of this explains its availability as a subject
for transactions.

Whereas the invalidity of the patent causes the voidness of the patent
license contract by the reason of the lapse of the “causa” or the object
according to the French and Italy law, whereas the reference to the
principles of “consideration”, “mistake” and “frustration” in the
English law in the case of the invalidity of the patent by reason of the
narrow scope of applicability of this rule does not lead to the voidness
of the contact.

The classification of the patent license contract as innominate in
France and Italy means that the mandatory and non-mandatory rules of
those nominate contracts which are regulated expressly in the civil
codes and laws will be applied to the patent license contract by means
of analogy.

In French and Italian law the interpretation of the patent license
contract by means of mandatory and non-mandatory rules of those nominate
contracts which are regulated expressly in the civil code and laws
whereas the interpretation of the patent license contact in English law
is oriented on the declared will of the parties.

By means of the different methods of the interpretation of contracts
the English law on the one hand and the French and Italian laws from the
other hand the scope of the contractual duties of the parties differs
considerably, even if the text of contract is identical.

In the interest of the legal security and in order to establish similar
conditions for economic activities a Model Law concerning Patent License
Contracts is proposed which contains in its first part general
principles which might also be applicable to other contractual types,
whereas the second part of the Model Law regulates the patent license
contract as a special contract and the third part contains rules
concerning antitrust law which haw met with general acceptance.

It may be stated that the differences in the legal systems lead to
considerable variations in the scope of the rights and obligations of
the parties of a patent license contract, even the text of the contracts
is identical. The establishment of the internal market of the European
Union requires the harmonization., if not the unification of the
national civil laws and contract laws., of antitrust laws and laws
concerning special contracts, if similar conditions for the economic
agents will be created. With regard to the fact that such an initiative
by the legislators can hardly be expected within the next future it is
proposed a Model Law concerning Patent License Contract.

Key words: patent, license, license contract, royalty, licensor,
licensee, cause, counter claim, invalidity of contract, unification of
law, legal regulation, exclusive license, general license.

PAGE

PAGE 16

Похожие записи