Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 324 /47.74/

AAC?A

Aaneeue Aiae??eiae/

IA?O?? A IIE?OE*I?E NENOAI? IA?AO?AeIIAI IA??IAeO:

OE?A?INUeEA I?AEOEEA ? NA?OIAEE AeINA?Ae

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? iie?oieia?? o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?ei?a Ieaa ?aaiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Oeey? Eaii?ae ?aaeieeiiae/, aeieoi?

iie?oe/ieo iaoe (?inoeooo iie?oieia?? ?

aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI

Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a)

Aaeiae/ei ?ai? ss?ineaaiae/, eaiaeeaeao

iie?oe/ieo iaoe (Euea?anueea eiia?oe?eia

aeaaeai?y)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.O.Oaa/aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ________________ i 15 aiae. 00 oa. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae.35.051.02 i?e Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.?.O?aiea ca aae?anith: 290602, i.Euea?a,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.O?aiea (i.Euea?a,
aoe.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii_____________________ ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe A.I.Aeaienaiei

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny iio?aaaie iieioe/iiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie iiney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiinoi a 1991 ?ioei, ui
aeiaaa? oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy no/aniiai ia?oi?oai?aiiy, ii?iaiyiiy
eiai c aiaeiai/ieie i?ioeanaie a iioeo e?a?iao, yei ia?aoiaeeee i
ia?aoiaeyoue aiae oioaeioa?iiai aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aaeeio.
Aeeiaii/iinoue iieioe/ieo i?ioeania c ia?iaeei iaia?aaeaa/oaaieie
ianeiaeeaie ciooo? iinoieii aiaeicoaaoe ?o o eiioaenoi ieiioiueiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. Ioaea, aeineiaeaeaiiy oei?? i?iaeaie caa?iaa? naith
aeooaeueiinoue iii?e cia/ia /enei i?aoeue, yei c’yaeythoueny a iaoie
aea?aeaai.

O?aaa cacia/eoe, ui ia aiaeiiio aiae aaaaoueio noniaeiio e?a?i i iaaioue
iieiaeeo aea?aeaa ia oa?eoi?i? eieeoiueiai N?N? Oe?a?ia noi?oue ia?aae
?ica’ycaiiyi neeaaeieo aioo?ioiio nioeiaeueieo i iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai,
?acoeueoaoe yeiai ia iaiaaeothoueny ?aieaie iaoi? aea?aeaae, a
aaciina?aaeiuei noinothoueny ?icaeoeo iiaeie o Noiaeiie i Oeaio?aeueiie
?a?iii. Ia ieiioiueiio ia?oi?oai?aiii a Oe?a?ii aiaeaeaathoueny
iniaeeainoi ia eeoa aioo?ioiueiai iieioe/iiai, nioeiaeueiiai,
aeiiiii/iiai e aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo, a e aaiiieioe/ia noaiiaeua iaoi?
e?a?ie ia iaii naioo. Ia?aeiieeaee aeieac – i?ia?aiii aeieoiaioe
iieioe/ieo ia?oie c i?ioeeaaeieie i?i?ioaoeiyie. Iaeii ia?oi?
iia’ycothoue iaeaooi? Oe?a?ie c ?? ia?ai?i?ioaoei?th ia ?a?iio, oiaoi c
iiaa?iaiiyi aei ieoeeaeaioaeueiiai aeooiaiiai eiea, iioi – ooeathoue
i?e/eie ieiioiuei? e?ece a oiio, ui iiney ?iciaaeo N?N? aoee ?ici?aaii
ca’ycee c ?ini?th. sse ianeiaeie — ia?oieia i?ioenoiyiiy, aac
iiaeeeainoi eiii?iiinieo iiaeoiaeia i?e ?ica’ycaiii i?iaeai, ui
aeieeaathoue c aaiiieioe/iiai noaiiaeua e?a?ie. Iiaeia?oieii aca?ieie
??cieo iieioe/ieo nee ia iaiaaeothoueny ?oiiie ?aieaie, a ca/iiathoue
iioa?ane oe?ieeo nioeiaeueieo aa?noa.

Niaoeeoiea ia?oi?oai?aiiy a iacaeaaeiie Oe?a?ii aiaeoai?th? ?oaeeiaioe
naiaeiiinoi oioaeioa?iiai ?aaeeio, ui ia? ni?eyoeeai ia’?eoeaii oiiae.
I?iaieinoaaaoe ia anaia?iaeiiio ?aoa?aiaeoii 1 a?oaeiy 1991 ?ieo ca
iacaeaaeiinoue Oe?a?ie, oe?iei ia?iaeii iane niiae?aaeeny ia oaeaeei
ciiie naiai aeeooy a aea?aeaai c aaeeeei i?e?iaeiei i aeiiiii/iei
iioaioeiaeii. ?acoeueoaoe ?aoa?aiaeoio canaiae/eee, ui ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
ciaai?eeiny ia eeoa a iieioeoei canoieieo /ania, a i a ia?niaeoeaao
ia?aaoaeiae, yea ua aieueoa iineeeea e?eciaa noaiiaeua.

Iinooioaeioa?ia aeieniinoue cioneea ia?aioeiieoe eieeoii niiaeiaaiiy,
yei aiaeooiaooaaeenue aiae ni?iuaieo oyaeaiue i?i aeeooy a iacaeaaeiie
Oe?a?ii, ui i?iiaaoaaeeny eiaea?aie ianiaeo a?iiaaenueei-iieioe/ieo
i?aaiicaoeie i iiainoai?aieo iaoeiiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?oie, eio?i
ia ciaee ?aaeueiiai aeiiiii/iiai noaiiaeua eieeoiuei? ?aaeyinueei?
?anioaeiee i ?aeeaioaaee aeanii ?iiaioe/ii i?iaeoe. E?ii oiai,
aaniethoia aieueoinoue oaeeo eiaea?ia, yei aeeoee ic aoiaiioa?ii?
iioaeiaaioei?, iieacaea naith iaiiaeaioiaeaiinoue aei aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.
E?eoe/ia noaaeaiiy aei iaaieo inia aoei ia?aianaii ia oi iaea?, c yeeie
iia’ycoaaeany ?oiy aeiyeueiinoue, ai ca /ania oioaeioa?ecio cia/ia
/anoeia oe?a?inueei? ethaeiinoi ao?aoeea inoi?e/io iai’youe ? ia?aaoaaea
a iieii? iaeaieiai/ii? oaeueneoieaoei? ieioeiai.

Ii?iaithth/e iei?oi? aeaethaiaeia noaiiaeua c ieioeeie /anaie, ianaeaiiy
ii/aei aeyaeyoe iiaeo?eieo oei neeai, yei iano?eeeai aeaeathoue naaa
ai?oeai ca eieeoith nioeiaeueio ni?aaaaeeeainoue. sse ianeiaeie —
ciaaeieaii aa?noae Oe?a?ie iiiaee a ca/a?iaaia eiei: ciaai?aii a
ieiioiueiio noaiiaeui, aiie i?i?ioothoueny ia ia iaeaooi?, a ia ieioea.
Caiaene – ?acoeueoaoe aeai?ia aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie 1998 ?ieo.
Noi?iiaaiee ia?eaiaio c i?ioeeaaeieo iieioe/ieo nee iieacaa naith
iani?iiiaeiinoue ?ica’ycaoe aeooaeueii ieoaiiy iieioe/iiai,
aeiiiii/iiai, nioeiaeueiiai i aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo, iiaeiiiea
caeiiioai?/o ?iaioo iioeiaiaith aeaiaaiai?th.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ia?oi?oai?aiiy a Oe?a?ii coiiaeaia ua e oei, ui
aiii caeaaeeoue aiae iniaeeainoae inoi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ??cieo ?aaiiiia,
ianeiaeeii /iai ? iaiaeiaeiaee ?iaaiue iaoeiiiaeueii? naiaeiiinoi
ianaeaiiy. sseui a Noiaeiiio ?aaiiii ianaeaiiy noeey?oueny aei
eiioiinoe/iiai aa?iaioo aeoiaeo c e?eciaiai noaio, oi a Caoiaeiiio –
iaaio iiaeo?eieo ia? i?ioeeaaeia, iaoeiiiaeueia i???ioaoe?y, ai a
ethaeae ua caa?aaeany iai’youe i?i iaoeiiiaeueii-aecaieueio ai?ioueao a
ia??iae a?eie ? ia?oi ?iee iiai?iiiai ia?iiaeo i oiaeioii noaeiinueei
?ai?ani?, aiae yeeo iino?aaeaeaea cia/ia /anoeia ianaeaiiy.

Caa?iaiiy aei i?ioeania ia?oi?oai?aiiy aeooaeico?oueny oaeiae iio?aaith
ciaeoe aeanii aa?iaioe aeoiaeo c e?eciai? neooaoei?, ia ia?aiiny/e ia
oe?a?inueeee a?oio iiaeaeae, yei aeathoue iiceoeaii ?acoeueoaoe a
caoiaeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao, aea a iaoeo oiiaao ia ii?aaaeiaothoue
niiaeiaaiue. Iaiaaaiiy no?oeoo?aeicoaaoe noniieuenoai, ii/eiath/e c
ia?oieii? no?oeoo?aeicaoei? caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aaio, aeiaaei oeaiinoue
oaeeo i?iaeoia. Caiaene – aeieiia/iinoue ia i?inoi ii?iaiyeueiiai
aiaeico ia?oieieo nenoai o iaoie aea?aeaai e ?icaeiooeo
caoiaeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao, a iaiaeiiiiinoue nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaeo,
uia oieeiooe o?aaiaioa?iinoi, caoiieaiiy ianeiaeeaie aac anaai/iiai
aiaeico i?e/ei.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ia?oi?oai?aiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy
iieioe/ieo ia?oie a iacaeaaeiie Oe?a?ii aeicaiey? aeieoe ocaaaeueiaiue
oai?aoe/iiai cia/aiiy, caiiaiaoe aaniethoecaoei? ie?aieo oaiiiaiia,
i?iieeiooe a nooue i?ioeania.

Nooiiiue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiinoi i?iaeaie. I?i ia’?eoeaia aeineiaeaeaiiy
inoi?i? oe?a?inueeiai ia?oi?oai?aiiy ca /ania oioaeioa?iiai ?aaeeio ia
iiaei aooe iiae. I?i ii/aoie oaeiai iiaeoiaeo iiaeia aiai?eoe,
ii/eiath/e c 1990 ?ieo, eiee aeeoee ia?o? i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? iieioe/iei
ia?oiyi. Aiie aeaaaee oyaeaiiy i?i iiai oaiaeaioei? ?icaeoeo iieioe/ii?
nenoaie Oe?a?ie, yea ua ia?aaoaaea o neeaaei N?N?.

Aiaeii/an o?aaa cacia/eoe, ui iica iaaeaie Oe?a?ie aeineiaeaeaiith
i?iaeai ia?o??oai?aiiy i?eae?eyeany oaaaa iinoieii. sse a?oioiaia
ocaaaeueiaiiy oeeo i?ioeania iaiao?aeii iacaaoe i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo
a/aieo c ae?anii?e ?.Aaa?yiiai, I.Aaeay, ?.Iaeno?aiea, ?. Ianoa?iaea oa
?ioeo, a yeeo aeineiaeaeo?oueny i?ioean oe?a?inueeiai ia?o??oai?aiiy
aiae ia?iiaeo iaoeiiiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue aei i?eieiaiiy oeueiai
i?ioeano iiney anoaiiaeaiiy ia caoiaeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo eiiia?o?eiiai
?aaeeio. Aacoiiaii, oe? i?aoe? oi?iaeiaae oeieeo aeanyoeeioue ia
aeioiaeeee ia eeoa aei oe?iei? aoaeeoi?i? oe?a?inueeeo /eoa/ia, a e aei
iaoeiaoeia ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

Iiney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiinoi Oe?a?ie c’yaeeeny aeineiaeaeaiiy, yei
aeathoue iiaiioa oyaeaiiy i?i i?ioean ia?o??oai?aiiy o iiney?aaeyinueeee
ia?iiae. Na?aae i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo iieioieiaia aaciina?aaeiuei
noinothoueny i?iaeaie iaoiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iiiia?aoi?, iiae?o/ieee i
noaooi A.Aiae?ouaiea, A.Aieiona, ?.Aa?ca?a, N.Aiaeaie/a, ?.Aieiaaoe,
I.Aieiaaoiai, I.A?eiiaa, A.AEo?aanueeiai, A.Caeoeaaa, A.Eieiaeie,
I.E?anianueeiai, A.E?aiaiy, I.Eoaooyea, A.Iieioaea, A.Iiooeueieoeueeiai,
A.?iiaithea, I.Nethna?aanueeiai, I.Oiiaiea, A.O?eiieuenueeiai,
A.Oiaeueea, I.*a?ieo, TH.Oaiiaaea, TH.Oaaaee, E.Oeey?a, I.sseoae oa
iioeo. Iaeii c ieo aeicaieythoue noi?ioaaoe oyaeaiiy i?i i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy aaaaoiia?oieiinoi a Oe?a?ii , a iioi — aiaeicothoue ?ieue
iieioe/ieo ia?oie o iieioe/iie nenoaii noniieuenoaa ia?aoiaeiiai
ia?iiaeo. O?ainoi?iaoeieii ia?aoai?aiiy oe?a?inueeiai noniieuenoaa, ui
iia’ycaii ic noaiiaeaiiyi iiai? iieioe/ii? nenoaie, aeineiaeaeothoueny
ye ia caaaeueiiiaoeiiiaeueiiio, oae i ia ?aaiiiaeueiiio ?iaiyo.

Aeey aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeai ia?oi?oai?aiiy aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue
iaoa?iaee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei? «Iieioe/ia iiiceoeiy: oai?iy
oa inoi?iy. Naioiaee aeinaiae oa oe?a?inueea i?aeoeea», yea aiaeaoeany a
1996 ?ioei. Ia iie ii?oooaaeeny i?iaeaie iieioe/ii? iiiceoei? a Oe?a?ii
a inoi?e/iiio ? ?aaiiiaeueiiio aniaeoao, ?? i?aaiai iniiae, cia/aiiy
aeinaiaeo ca?oaiaeieo e?a?i i o.ii.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ? ia?oi? a ia?iiae ia?aoiaeo
aiae oioaeioa?iiai aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aaeeio.

I?aaeiao aeineiaeaeaiiy – iniaeeainoi noaiiaeaiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy
aaaaoiia?oieiinoi a ia?aoiaeiiio ia?iiaei oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy o eiioaenoi naioiaiai aeinaiaeo.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o oiio, uia aecia/eoe
aaiaco iieioe/ieo ia?oie a Oe?a?ii oa iaa?oiooaaoe niaoeeoieo ia?oieii?
no?oeoo?aeicaoei? ia ia?eaiaionueeiio ?iaii.

Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a? ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

-nie?ath/enue ia ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue oe?a?inueeeo i caei?aeiiieo
a/aieo, i?iaiaeicoaaoe ?ieue ia?oie o ?icieo noa?ao noniieueiiai aeeooy
i?e oioaeioa?iiio i aeaiie?aoe/iiio ?aaeeiao;

-aeineiaeeoe aaiaco ieiioiio iieioe/ieo ia?oie a Oe?a?ii oa iaa?oiooaaoe
?o aaiaoe/io oeiieiaith;

-aeyaeoe niaoeeoieo aeaiiiiiieicaoei? ?iei EI?N o noaiiaeaiii
aaaaoiia?oieiinoi a Oe?a?ii, ni?iae ?? aaeaioaoei? aei iiaeo oiia i
oaeoeeo aeai?/i? ai?ioueae i?e caaino?aiii iieioe/ii? neooaoei?;

-c’ynoaaoe iniaeeainoi iieioe/ii? i?i?ioaoei? aeaeoi?aoo a ?icieo
?aaiiiao Oe?a?ie, eiai ni?eeiyooy iaaieo aeai?/eo ia?oieieo i?ia?ai,
i?ii?eoaoe iaoeiiiaeueieo /e nioeiaeueieo oeiiiinoae;

-i?iaiaeicoaaoe iniaeeainoi ia?eaiaionueei? aeiyeueiinoi ia?oie, ?o
niiai?aoeth i?e ?icaeyaei aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue aea?aeaaiiai i noniieueiiai
aeeooy;

-ai?iaaaeeoe a oe?ieee iaoeiaee iaia a?oiai? iaoa?iaee e ocaaaeueieoe
noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i iniaeeainoi ia?oi?oai?aiiy a Oe?a?ii a
ia?aoiaeiee ia?iiae, a oaeiae aeiyeueiinoue ia?eaiaionueeeo o?aeoeie.

Iaoiaeieiai/ia i oai?aoe/ia iniiaa oa aeaea?aeueia aaca aeineiaeaeaiiy.
Iaoiaeieiai/io iniiao aeena?oaoei? noaiiaeyoue
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeiiiaeueiee, ii?iaiyeueiee i i?iaiinoe/iee iaoiaee.
Aeei?enoaii i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiinoi oa inoi?ecio ye iaoiaeieiai/ii
canaaee iaoeiaiai iiciaiiy. Aeena?oaoeiy nie?a?oueny ia caaaeueio
oai?ith nenoai. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue oaei iaoiaee oai?aoe/iiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy, ye aiaeic, neioac, aiaeiaiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy, iaoiae
i?eeiyooy ?ioaiue. Ci niaoeiaeueieo iaoeiaeo iaoiaeia canoiniaaii aiaeic
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo i ?acoeueoaoia eiie?aoii-nioeiieiai/iiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iaeayo oai?aoeeia
naioiai? oa oe?a?inueei? iieioe/ii? iaoee, i?aoeyo no/anieo aio/eciyieo
? caei?aeiiieo iaoeiaoeia, cie?aia oeo, a yeeo aiaeicothoueny i?iaeaie
iaoiaeieiai? oa iaoiaeeee iiciaiiy noniieueii-iieioe/ieo i?ioeania.

I?e aiaeici ia?eaiaionueei? aeiyeueiinoi ia?oie aeena?oaio
aeei?enoiaoaaa ii?iaoeaii aeoe Oe?a?ie, Iiia//eie oa aeayeeo iioeo
aea?aeaa, aenooie eiaea?ia i?iaiaeieo iieioe/ieo ia?oie, aea?aeaaieo
aeiy/ia, aiaeioe/ii iaoa?iaee c ia?iiaee/ii? i?ane. Uia i?iaiaeicoaaoe
i?ioean ia?aoiaeo aiae iiiiia?oieiinoi aei aaaaoiia?oieiinoi ia iaaei
80-o – 90-o ?ieia, aeineiaeaeaii iaoa?iaee Eueaianueeiai iaeaniiai
aea?aeaaiiai a?oiao, a yeeo aiaeia?aaeaii oiae?oi? iiaei? ia eeoa a
iaeanoi, a e a onie Oe?a?ii. Aia?oa ia aeena?oaoeieiiio ?iaii
ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ia 1998 ?ieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoei? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iie ia iniiai iiaeo
a?oiaieo i noaoenoe/ieo iaoa?iaeia, aiaeico ?o o eiioaenoi naioiaiai
aeinaiaeo aeineiaeaeo?oueny ia?aoiae aiae iiiiia?oieiinoi aei
aaaaoiia?oieiinoi a Oe?a?ii o i?ioeani noaiiaeaiiy iiai? iieioe/ii?
nenoaie. Nie?ath/enue ia ieo, noi?ioeueiaaii aiaeiiaiaeii aeniiaee, ui
noaiiaeyoue iaoeiaee aianie aeena?oaioa i aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

-aia?oa ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaoeiaee iaia a?oiaiee iaoa?iae i?i oaeoeeo
ea?iaieoeoaa EIO a oiiaao iineeaiiy iieioe/iiai i?ioeai?noaa i ao?aoe
aieeao ia i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ia ?oaaaei 80-o – 90-o ?ieia;

-aeaeieaii i’youe a?oi eieeoiuei? eiiia?oieii? iiiaieeaoo?e caeaaeii
aiae aa?iaioia aaeaioaoei? aei iiaeo oiia: 1) aeoiaeoei c EI?N —
ieiioii iaoeiiiae-aeaiie?aoe i iaoeiiiaeinoe, yei i?aaiooue
a?iiaaenueei-iieioe/ii? naii?aaeicaoei?; 2) iioaeaeooaeueia /anoeia,
eio?a aaconiioii aeei?enoiao? noa?i i?aaeea a?e aeey aeaiie?aoecaoei?
iieioe/iiai aeeooy; 3) iiiaieeaoo?a c aaeiiiino?aoeaiiai aia?aoo,
caaaa/aia a oiaei i?eaaoecaoei?; 4) iiiaieeaoo?a c nioeiaeinoe/ii?
aeiiiiiee, yea niiae?aa?oueny ia aiaeiiaeaiiy noa?eo iaoiaeia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy; 5) i?oiaeienaeueia /anoeia iaeaieiai/ieo i?aoeiaieeia;

-cai?iiiiiaaii aaiaoe/io oeiieiaith ieiioiio iieioe/ieo ia?oie a
Oe?a?ii, ui aeicaieeei aeaeieeoe ?o nii oeiia: ia?oi?, yei cayaeythoue
i?i naith niaaeei?iiinoue c iaeiieiaiieie iiia?aaeieoeyie aei
ooaa?aeaeaiiy oioaeioa?iiai ?aaeeio; ia?oi? iaoeiiiaeinoe/ii?
i?i?ioaoei?, nii?iaeiaii c IOI; ia?oi? aieueoiaeoeueei? i
i?ieiioiinoe/ii? i?i?ioaoei?; ia?oi? iaoeiiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii?
i?i?ioaoei? ye aeoiaeoei c ianiai? a?iiaaenueei-iieioe/ii? i?aai?caoei?
I?O; ia?oi? iieiaeeo i?aaiaoeeia; ia?oi? ca eeaiiaeie iioa?anaie; ia?oi?
iaeiiaeoioeia oa?eciaoe/iiai eiaea?a;

-iaa?oioiaaii iioiaeiinoue ia?oieii? no?oeoo?aeicaoei? ia?eaiaioo aiae
?iaiy iieioe/ii? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy, ui, c iaeiiai aieo, ni?inoiao? ye
oeaia iaiaaaiiy iaaieo iieioe/ieo ia?oie, ianaiia?aae, ?oi?o eiaea?ia
?icii/aoe iieioe/io no?oeoo?aeicaoeith noniieuenoaa c ia?oieii?
no?oeoo?aeicaoei? ia?eaiaioo, a c ?ioiai aieo, aeicaiey? c oai?/ei
i?aeoiaeii aeei?enoaoe aeina?ae cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i o oe?e
noa??;

-ia iniiai noaoenoe/iiai iaoa?iaeo i?i aeai?e 1998 ?ieo aeie?aieaii
ia?oi? ?aaiiiaeueiiai aieeao, iieacaii iani?iiiaeiinoue noai?eoe
iinoieii iieioe/ii eiaeioei? ia i?eioeeiiaie ieaooi?ii a ia?eaiaio?,
iiaeiiio ?o oei/aniaeie neooaoeaieie aeieaie i?e caiao iaaieo eiie?aoieo
iioa?ania, ianeiaeeii /iai ia?iaeei ? ae?ioaeueia ?ieue aeiaaeeiainoi
i?e ?icaeyaei aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue aea?aeaaiiai i noniieueiiai aeeooy.

Oai?aoe/ia i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoei?. Aeniiaee ia iniiai
oaeoieiai/iiai (a?oiaiiai i noaoenoe/iiai) iaoa?iaeo, ia?ainieneaiiy
uiaei oiia ia?aoiaeiiai ia?iiaeo a Oe?a?ii ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue i
iieioe/iiai aiaeico caei?aeiiieo a/aieo i aea?aeaaieo aeiy/ia iathoue ye
oai?aoe/ia, oae i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Aiie aeicaieythoue iiaeeaeoe
ciaiiy i?i ia?oi?oai?aiiy ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ?icoe?eoe oyaeaiiy
i?i ia?eaiaionueeo aeiyeueiinoue ye oaiiiai ia?oieii? aeiyeueiinoi a
iieioe/iie nenoaii noniieuenoaa, aeeoa?aioeieiaaii iiaeieoe aei aiaeico
iieioe/ieo i?i?ioaoeie aeaeoi?aoo a ?icieo ?aaiiiao, ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
ieiioi? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?ii o eiioaenoi iieioe/ieo i?ioeania o
caoiaeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaaao. Ioaea, ?o iiaeooue aeei?enoaoe ye
iieioieiae, oae ? nioeiieiae, eoeueoo?ieiae i i?aaieee a
iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueeie i iaaeaaiai/iie ?iaioi.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? ia iaiaaeothoueny ?aieaie oai?i?, a aeoiaeyoue
aaciina?aaeiuei a i?aeoe/io aeiyeueiinoue. Ocaaaeueiaiee noaoenoe/iee
iaoa?iae aeiiiiaaa? c?icoiioe iniaeeainoi ieiioiueiai iieioe/iiai
?icaeoeo a Oe?a?ii i iaaiith ii?ith i?iaiicoaaoe eiai oaiaeaioei? ia
iaeaeeae/a iaeaooi?. Iiae oaeei eooii ci?o aeniiaee aeena?oaoei? oeieaai
aeey ia?oie, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aaiicaoeie, i?aaiia caeiiiaeaa/i? i
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, iinoeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy i?e iiaeoiaei aei
iieioe/ieo i?ioeania ye ia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio, oae i ia
?aaiiiaeueiiio ?iaiyo. Aiaeii/an, io?eiaii o aeineiaeaeaiii ?acoeueoaoe
aeiiiiaaathoue oaeiae caniaai ianiai? iioi?iaoei? i???iooaaoeny a
iniaeeainoyo ieiioiueiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ianaiia?aae, i?e aiaeici
aeiyeueiinoi ia?eaiaioo Oe?a?ie, iiaeia?oieieo aca?iei i aioo?ioiueiai
?icaeoeo naieo iieioe/ieo ia?oie.

Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? iiaeooue ni?eyoe ae?iaeaiith no?aoaai? i oaeoeee
iieioe/ieo ia?oie ye o caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio ianooaai, oae i a
?aaiiiao. Aiie iathoue aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ia?aaiao
aeai?/eo eaiiaiie, ii?aoethaaiiy iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaii? i?ia?aie
iiaeaeuaiiy iieioe/ii? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoa?iaee, oai?aoe/ii
?acoeueoaoe i i?aeoe/ii aeniiaee aeena?oaoei? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a
aaciina?aaeiie i?aeoe/iie ?iaioi aaoi?a. Aiae ae?oai? iieiaeie 80-o
?ieia aiie ioaeieoaaeeny a ia?iiaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, cie?aia o aacaoao
«?iaioie/a aacaoa», «Iieiaeue Oe?a?ie», «Ca aieueio Oe?a?io»,
«Oe?a?inueeee oeyo» oa iioeo. Aaoi? iaa iiaeeeainoue ai?iaoaaoe ?o,
i?aoethth/e aeaiooaoii Eueaianueei? iaeanii? ?aaee ia?iaeieo aeaiooaoia
i a i?aaiao aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, aeey noai?aiiy iaoaiicio iieioe/ii?
niiai?aoei ?icieo ia?oieieo i?aaiicaoeie, a?iiaaenueeeo i
iaoeiiiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo ia’?aeiaiue ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?.

I?i ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue aaoi? aeiiiaiaeaa ia oai?aoe/ieo
eiioa?aioeiyo o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao iinoa Eueaiaa oi?iaeiaae
1997-1999 ?ieia, cie?aia a Eueaianueeiio aea?aeoiiaa?neoaoi iiaii
?.O?aiea, Aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi «Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea»,
Eueaianueeie oiei? Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeaii? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aaeiiiy i?e
I?aceaeaioiai Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae a ?inoeoooi ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie,
?inoeoooi oe?a?iiciaanoaa ii. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie. I?aeoe/ii
aeniiaee aeei?enoaii o aeiiia?aeyo ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo
eueaianueei? e?aeiai? i?aaiicaoei? Eiia?ano oe?a?inueei? iioaeiaaioei?,
??cieo ia?oieieo i?aaiicaoeie i iaoeiiiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oiaa?enoa
Eueaiaueie.

O 1998-1999 ?ieao i?i/eoaii o Eueaianueeie oiei? Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeaii?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aaeiiiy i?e I?aceaeaioiai Oe?a?ie niaoeeo?n «Ia?oi? ye
noa’?eoe aea?aeaaioai?aiiy», yeee ?ic?iaeaii ca iaoa?iaeaie
aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy

ioaeieaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeaaeaii a 4 iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo (3 a?ioo?e ? 1 noaooy) caaaeueiei ianyaii 9,4 ae.a. Ia
iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeaii aeaa oiie
iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/ieo i?aoeue «Oeyo c ?aanoaa» (Eueaia: Naio, 1999).
??ci? aniaeoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?oooaaeeny a
ia??iaee/i?e i?an?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei? coiiaeaia iniiaiith iaoith i caaaeaiiyie
aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icaeieia,
aeniiaeia i nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??,
ie?aneth?oueny i?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeth?oueny eiai
iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, aecia/a?oueny ?? iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

O ? ?icae?e? «Ia?o?? i?e oioae?oa?iiio ? aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aaeeiao
(oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee)» cacia/a?oueny, ui aioo??oi?i
ci?noii ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ? nenoaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y, oiaoi ia?ao?ae
aei iiai? yeino? noni?eueii? i?aai?caoe??. Ine?eueee i?aaeiaoii
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?o?ei? nenoaie, oi aeieiia/ii
ii??aiyoe iniaeeaino? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e i?e aeaiie?aoe/iiio e
oioae?oa?iiio ?aaeeiao. I?e ?o iiey?i?e a?aei?iiino? aacoiiaiei ? oa, ui
a iaeaeaio iie?oe/ieo ?aaeeiao ia?o?? ? eeth/iaeie /eiieeaie
i?aai?caoe?? aeaaee. Ca?aene — iini?oia ia?aianaiiy e?eoa???a oa
oai?aoe/ieo onoaiiaie, ?ic?iaeaieo cao?aeiith iie?oieia??th ia?aiao??a o
aeine?aeaeaii? oaiiiaia iie?oe/ii? ia?o??, ia caaaeaee neoao?
ia’?eoeaiiio i?ciaiith ?noeie.

Iinooioae?oa?iee na?o, o yeiio ia?aaoaa? iei? oe?a?inueea
noni?euei?noue, o oiio /ene? e iie?oeeoi, oaea ia a ieioeiio
oioae?oa?eci? ? ia a iaeaooi?e aeaiie?ao?? iio?aao? iniaeeaeo i?aeoiae?a
o i?ioean? eiai i?ciaiiy. A iaaeao aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie aeiyoeiai
aaaeeeai, ia?aaeian?i, cina?aaeeoeny ia aecia/aii? aca?iiae?? eieeoiuei?
oioae?oa?ii? ? iaeaooiuei? aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?eieo nenoai, ine?eueee o
iioi/iee ?noi?e/iee iiiaio aiie oai?youe noia?a/eeaee neia?ic, ui
i?ecaaei aei iie?oe/ii? noaaiaoe??, yea ia?ae?co? aanue niaeo?
aea?aeaaioai?/eo, a oiio /ene? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a. sse
/anoeia nenoaie ia?o?y — oea iaeei c iaeii??aeieo neeaaeiee?a, eio??
ni?a?niothoue ia canaaeao eiieo?aioe?? ? oai?youe aeaiie?aoe/iee
iie?oe/iee i?ioean. sseui oae? ia?o?? oi?iothoueny ia ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
canaaeao aeaiie?aoe/iiai i?aae?iiy, oi EI?N, yea ?ai?acaioo? oioae?oa?ia
noni?euenoai ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny an?ia eiai ?iaeiaeie iciaeaie,
a?oioo?oueny ia cian?i ?ioeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaaeao, aaeaea ??
iiiiiie?th ooaa?aeaeaii eiinoeoooe?eii. sseui Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco ? iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye /anoeia ia?o?eii? nenoaie
noni?euenoaa, oi oea /anoeia, yea ??aia oe?eiio. O cao?aei?e iie?oieia??
aaea o?eaaeee /an ia?aaaaea? aeoiea i?i oiiaia icia/aiiy EI?N ye ia?o??.

Iioiaeaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy EI?N aea? an? i?aenoaae aeey oiai, uia
ia iaceaaoe ?? ia?o??th o eeane/iiio ?icoi?ii?. Iniaeeaee oei ia?o??,
noai?aii? ca eai?inueeeie ianoaiiaaie, oiiaeeeaea noai?aiiy iniaeeaiai
ea??aiiai eeano, yeee i?aeoe/ii aoa ni?aaaei?i yae?ii oioae?oa?ii?
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie ?aaeyinueeiai c?acea.

A oiiaao ieth?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa oa aaaaoiia?o?eii? nenoaie eiaeia
c ia?o?e ciooaia aeai?thaaoe aeaaeo a oiiaao eiieo?aioe??. Iaoii?noue
oioae?oa?ia ia?o?y oaei? eiieo?aioe?? ia cia?. Iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai,
yeei oeyoii aiia i?eeoea aei aeaaee — ia?eaiaionueeei, ye iaoeenoe o
I?ia//ei?, /e ca?ieiei, ye a?eueoiaeee a ?in??, ?? aeaaeia noaiiaeua
caa??aa?oueny aei oiai /ano, aeiee ?nio? naia nenoaia oioae?oa?ecio,
na?oeaaeio yei? aiia noaiiaeoue.

I?e iaeiiia?o?eiiio oioae?oa?eci? i?ooi i?eiio ia cae?a?oueny
ia?aaeaaaoe aeaaeo‚ ioaea, aeai?e ao?a/athoue aoaeue-yeee nain, ai ?o
?acoeueoaoe a?aeii? cacaeaeaa?aeue.

Oeei coiiaeth?oueny noaaeaiiy aei aeai??a cia/ii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy a
oiiaao iei?oiueiai iinoeiioi?noe/iiai ?icaeoeo‚ eiee aeai?/a i?ioeaaeo?a
e iaaeae? ?icoe?ith?oueny‚ ye oi?iaeuei?noue‚ yea ia ia? aieeao i? ia
e?euee?niee oa ye?niee neeaae aeaaee‚ i? ia ??aaiue aeeooy. I?euaieaiiy
ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? onoaiiaee aeaiie?aoe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo‚ yea
iieyaa? o oiio‚ ui ia aeai?ao aeai?oe? ?aaeueii iae?athoue ye aeaaeo‚
oae ? caao?aoi? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae aeaniiai ?nioaaiiy‚ — iaeia
c eeth/iaeo i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy ye a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa‚ oae ?
naii? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie aea?aeaae.

Oi?ioaaiiy aeaaee ia canaaeao ciaaaeueiino? ia?o?e — ia ?aeeia caii?oea
ca?eueiaiiy a?ae na?aeiiino? /an?a oioae?oa?ecio. I?e iiiaieeaoo?iiio
oioae?oa?eci? on?ia noa?aie aeeooy noni?euenoaa ia oi?aaeythoue‚ a
eiiaiaeothoue ia eaa?oeii? aea?aeaai?‚ a iaeaa?oeii? ia?o?ei? i?aaie.

sse eiaeia aaoiiiiia iaeeieoey o iie?oe/i?e nenoai? noni?euenoaa‚
iie?oe/ia ia?o?y ooieoe?iio? ca ?? aioo??oi?ie caeiiaie. Noaoooi?
canaaee ae?aaeathoue nooue yaeua. Iaae?eyth/e ia?o?th oaeeie aenieeie
iiaiiaaaeaiiyie o i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai niiniao
aea?aeaaiiai i?aae?iiy‚ noni?euenoai aeiaaa? caaacia/eoe yeiaeaeuee
??aaiue aeaiie?aoe/iino? aioo??oiuei? naiii?aai?caoe?? ? i?eioeei?a
i?aae?iiy naii? ia?o??.

Oioae?oa?eci ?icii/eia?oueny c oioaeueii? aeaaee a ?aeaieia?/i?e noa??,
a aaea a?aeoae — iaae cia?yaeaeyie ? caniaaie ae?iaieoeoaa oa an?ia
?ioeie noa?aie noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Aac iiooaeii? ia eeoa ?ai?aneaii?,
a e ?aeaieia?/ii? iaoeie i?eiono ?nioaaiiy oioae?oa?ii? iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie, ye ? oioae?oa?ii? ia?o??, aoei a iaiiaeeeaei.O iie?oe/i?e
nenoai?, yeo iiaoaeiaaii ia oai?aoe/i?e eiioeaioe?? ia?enecio-eai?i?cio,
eiaeai a?iiaaeyiei iiaeiai iino?eii ia?aae niaith aa/eoe ia?ac ai?iaa,
ye oaeoi? ia?iaiaioii? iiiie?oiino?.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui caniiaieee oai?i? aeio A. Iinea ? Ae.
Aaee noi?ioethaaee o?e oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy aeio: «aeioa e?iai», yea
iaieiaeiaa? aeaaeith caaaeyee neei — aiaeiiaiaea? ?iaith
aeiiiaeono?iaeueiiai noniieuenoaa; «aeioa aaaaonoaa», yea iaieiaeiaa?
aeaaeith caaaeyee a?ioai — aiaeiiaiaea? ?iaith iiaeono?iaeueiiai
noniieuenoaa; «aeioa ciaiue», yea iaieiaeiaa? aeaaeith caaaeyee ?icoio —
aiaeiiaiaea? ?iaith iinoiiaeono?iaeueiiai noniieuenoaa.

sse aeieeaa? c oaeiai aiaeico, Oe?a?ia ia noa?oi o?ainoi?iaoei?
iieioe/ii? nenoaie io?eiaea aiae iiia?aaeiuei?, oioaeioa?ii? iieioe/ii?
nenoaie i?eoaiaiio ?e ia?oo c o?ueio iacaaieo aeio. O oeueiio iieyaa?
iniaeeainoue i neeaaeiinoue o?ainoi?iaoeieieo i?ioeania a Oe?a?ii, ye,
c?aooith, o anueiio iinoeiioiinoe/iiio naioi. Uia aeyaeyoe iiaiaioii
canaaee oi?ioaaiiy no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo ia?oie, aeioe?eueii caa?iooeny
aei no?aoeo?eaoe?? iiiaieeaoo?e, yeo iiaeia iiaeieeoe ia i’youe oiiaieo
eaoaai?ie. Ia?oa — oea oi oaia??oi? aeaiie?aoe i iaoeiiiaeinoe, yei
aeeoee c EI?N ua a 1990 ?ioei. Iioea ?oiueiai ia?aaoaaiiy o aeaaeiiio /e
aeecueeiaeaaeiiio iie? iieyaa? ia no?eueee o i?aaiaii? aeaaee, ne?eueee
o iio?aai a?iiaaenueei-iieioe/ii? naii?aaeicaoei?. Oey /anoeia i?aeoe/ii
niiaia «ia?a?iaeaia» aeaiie?aoi?th i iiaea neoaeeoe eaae?iaei iinoii i?e
ia?aoiaei aiae oioaeioa?ii? aei aeaiie?aoe/ii? iieioe/ii? nenoaie.
Ae?oaa — iioaeaeooaeueia /anoeia iiiaieeaoo?e, na?oeaaeia ?? aia?aoo c
eiai aeeaiaeaeiith caeaoiinoth i?enoinoaainoaa ? c o?eaaeei aeinaiaeii
ia?oieiiai oi?aaeiiiy. Aiia aeineiiaei iaieiaeiea iiaith aeaiie?aoe/iith
?eoi?eeith, aea aaiaoe/ii ia ni?iiiaeia ciiithaaoe i?aaeea aia?aoiiai
ienoaoeoaa i aioiaa iinoaaeoe ?o ia neoaeao aeaiie?aoi?, oi/a oea
i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai. O?aoy — oae caaiee «ei?ion caai?aia», yeee
aeei?enoiao? ae?iaeaii a ia?oaia?aoi aeieiai iaae/ee o i?ioeanao
i?eaaoecaoei?, ?aoi?ioaaiiy, iniaeeai o noa?i ae?iaieoeoaa. Aiia
iaiaaa?oueny canoinoaaoe aeinaiae aaeiiiino?oaaiiy o i?eaeaniaiie a
oiaei i?eaaoecaoei? aeiiiiioei, aea oeueiio ia?aoeiaeaea? ?eieiaa
noeoiy, yea ia i?aeaea?oueny eaiaiaeiei iiioeuenai. Inai?iiy caoiaeieo
canaae ia?eaoeiao oa iaiaaeaeiaioo i?ioiaeeoue aeoaea aieinii oa
iecueeiaoaeoeaii. *aoaa?oa — oae caaiee «/a?aiiee aee?aeoi?ao», eieeoiie
ae?oaee aoaeii iiiaieeaoo?e, yeee i?aaenoaaeya «iiaee eean»
aaciina?aaeiuei o noa?i ae?iaieoeoaa. A?i ooaeeoue ca noa?eie /anaie,
eiee caiinoue oiai, uia ca?iaeyoe a?ioi /e ?ano?ne, ?o iiaeia aoei
cia/ii iaioith oeiiith «aeaeoe» o Aea?aeieaii /e OeE EI?N. Ia?aoo?,
i’yoa eaoaai?iy — i?oiaeienaeueii eiioiinoe, ia?aaaaeii nae?aoa?i c
iaeaieiai?, yei o ia?oi aeai a?oie anooieoe ia iaaaaeeeeny, a o aeaio
inoaiiio, eoaee aiie ?aaeeny, ?i ia aenoa/eei iinoey. Aeoiaey/e c
?oiueiai oaia?ioiueiai noaiiaeua, ?i iiee ui iiaeoiaeeoue eaiiinueea
iaeaieiaiy c ?? eaiioanaioei?th — «ana aiaeia?aoe i iiaeieeoe».

Oey i’yoeeaoaai?ieia, ana ua aeioa?ia ieiueia iaeeaaea?oueny ia
aoiiiciaaio aaaaoiia?oieio nenoaio. Ia oeueiio aoaii o?ainoi?iaoei? aiia
iaiaaa?oueny i?enoinoaaoeny aei aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aaeie. ?? iniaeeaee
niinia aaeaioaoei? iieyaa? o oiio, ui aiia iaiaaa?oueny aeeoe o iiaeo
oiiaao, naia ii nooi ia ciiithth/enue. ?? aeaoooaaa ae niinia oi?aaeiiiy
aeaiie?aoe/iee ca oi?iith, aea iiiaieeaoo?iee ca ciinoii. Oiio
aca?iiaeiy iieioe/ieo ia?oie o i?ioeani o?ainoi?iaoei? iieioe/ii?
nenoaie — oea, ia?aaeianii, aca?iiaeiy oi?aaeiinueeeo, nioeiaeueieo,
iaeaieiai/ieo, ii?aeueii-ineoieiai/ieo aeaiaioia iaeaeaio iieioe/ieo
nenoai — o???, ui aoea, i o???, aei yei? eaeaii. O iei?oiueiio
ia?ao?aeiiio ia?iiae? niinoa?iaathoueny ?icii oi?ie i?iya?a oei??
aca?iiaei?: aiaeoi?aiaiiy, iiaeeiaiiy, neio?iiicaoeiy, aca?iiaeieoaaiiy.
Aiae oaiiia aa?iiiicaoei? oeueiai i?ioeano i aeinyaiaiiy iioeioio
caeaaeaoeia ia oieueee aeeiaiiea o?ainoi?iaoei? iieioe/ii? nenoaie, a e
oa?iii ? oa?aeoa? i?ioiaeaeaiiy ia?aoiaeiiai ia?iiaeo caaaeii ca aniia
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieie oa noniieueii-iieioe/ieie ia?aiao?aie.

O ?? ?icae?e? «Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? a Oe?a?i?, ?o aaiaca ? oeiieia?y a
no/anieo oiiaao» aeine?aeaeothoueny aeaea?aea oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e. Iniaeea?noth oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai ?ooo a OO no. ? oa, ui c
naiiai ii/aoeo a iueiio /?oei i?inoaaeothoueny aea? i???ioaoe??: iaeia —
ia iaoe?iiaeueia aecaieaiiy, a ?ioa noaaeoue ia ia?oa i?noea ?ica’ycaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai. Iaeiae o Aaee/ei? aei ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo ?
iaoe?iiaeueieo ieoaiue i?aeoiaeeee ye aei ?aeeiiai i?ioeano c aeaiia
a?aiyie, a a Iaaeaei?i?yiuei? ii?yae c oaeei i?aeoiaeii i?ae aieeaii
?in?enueeeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a i?iyaeeany iaaaoe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy. Niaoeeo?ea ia?o?eiiai ?icaeoeo a aeaio /anoeiao ?ic’?aeiaii?
e?a?ie aeaeany aciaee o ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
1917-1920 ??., a aeae? — o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae. Ia no?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo ia?o?eia aeeooy a no/aniiio ?icoi?ii? caii/aoeiao? o 1900 ?ioe?
?aaiethoe?eia oe?a?inueea ia?o?y.

Ia?o?eia aeeooy ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo caciaei cia/ieo ci?i i?ney
ii?acee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue. Iaea?eueoa oea noino?oueny
no?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ye? aa?eoee aei neeaaeo N?N?. Iie?oe/i?
ia?o?? nioe?ae?noe/ii? i???ioaoe??, cie?aia Oe?a?inueea
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y e Oe?a?inueea ia?o?y
nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a niiae?aaeeny ia aaiethoe?th
a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ?aaeeio, aaaaeath/e oa?i? ca oei/aniaa yaeua,
ni?e/eiaia ai?iiei /anii. Ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ye? ieoioaaea
Iieueua, noaiiaeua aoei ?iaeoa, oi/a Aaee/eia ? Aieeiue iaee iaai?
iniaeeaino?. A oe?a?inueeiio iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? oeeo caiaeue i?iyaeeeny
o?e iniiai? i???ioaoe??: ?aaeyiio?euenueea, c iii?ith ia aeani? neee —
iaaeciaiiy i?aa ieoiaoe?eii? iieuenueei? aeaaee, o 1929 ?. aeieeea
I?aai?caoe?y oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a, yea aeoiaeeea c oiai, ui eeoa
noaa?aiia aea?aeaaa caaacia/eoue anaa?/i? ?ioa?ane iaoe??.

Aaiaco oe?a?inueei? aaaaoiia?o?eii? nenoaie iiai?iiiai ia??iaeo
aeioe?eueii ?icii/eiaoe c e?ioey 50-o ?ie?a, eiee aeieeea i?aei?eueia
a?oia, yea noaaeea ia?aae niaith iaoo noai?eoe Oe?a?inueeo
?ia?oie/i-naeyinueeo ni?eeo ye eaaaeueio i?aai?caoe?th. Aei aiae?co
oiae?oiueiai oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio «I?iaeo i?ia?aie O?NN» i?aeoiaeea c
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeeo iiceoe?e, caa?oath/e oaaao ia oa, ui oaeoe/ii
Oe?a?ia ia?aoai?eeany a eieii?th Iineae c aeayeith eoeueoo?iith
aaoiiii??th. Ioaea, o neeaae? N?N? Oe?a?ia ia ia? iiaeeeainoae aeey
ii?iaeueiiai iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo. *a?ac
i?iiaaaiaeo na?aae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo O?NN noaaeea ia?aae niaith iaoo
aeiaeoeny aeoiaeo ?c N?N?. sse naiino?eia nioe?ae?noe/ia aea?aeaaa
Oe?a?ia iaea caeeoeoeny a ni?aae?oaeiino? nioe?ae?noe/ieo aea?aeaa. O?NN
noaaeea ia?aae niaith ye ia?oa caaaeaiiy caaithaaoe aeaiie?aoe/i?
naiaiaee, uia i?aai?coaaoe aanue oe?a?inueeee ia?iae ia ai?ioueao ca
noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Oey ia?aae?ciaaia ?aeay a?ae?iaeeeany iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ?ie?a o
ae?yeueiino? Oiaa?enoaa oe?a?inueei? iiae ?i.O.Oaa/aiea (1989?.). Naia
eiai aeieeiaiiy aoei ia?oei na?eiciei aeeeeeii oioae?oa?iiio ?aaeeiia?,
yeee aaea ia i?a ae?yoe noa?eie iaoiaeaie: aiii aenooieei ye ca?iaeie
ia?o?? c aecia/aiith i?aai?caoe?eiith no?oeoo?ith, iaeiei c ooiaeaoi??a
ianiai-iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? i?ae iacaith «Ia?iaeiee ?oo Oe?a?ie».

Noai?aiiy ?ooo — oea aaea iiaee e?ie ia oeyoo noai?aiiy aaaaoiia?o?eii?
nenoaie. Aenooiath/e ca ia?aaeyae aca?iei Oe?a?ie c ?ioeie nithcieie
?anioae?eaie N?N? ia i?aenoaa? iiaiai Nithciiai aeiaiai?o, I?ia?aia I?O
oaeoe/ii iaa?oiooaaea ia?aaoaeiao N?N? ia canaaeao eiioaaea?aoe??. I?O
oi?ioaaany ye i?aai?caoe?y, yea ae?aaeaea ?ioa?ane ia eeoa oe?a?ioe?a, a
e iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a Oe?a?i?, aenooiaea ca ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e an?o iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, ye? ianaeythoue O?N?. Ca ei?ioeee /an
?oo caeiaoa iniaeeao iiioey?i?noue na?aae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, oi/a eiai
aieea o ??cieo ?aa?iiao ia aoa iaeiaeiaee. Ia i?ioeaaao ?ooia? noaaeaiiy
aei EIO caciaei cia/ieo ci?i. Ua c 1986 ?ieo ?icii/aany aeo?ae c EI?N,
niinoa??aaeiny iino?eia ca?eueoaiiy /enea oaeeo aeo?aeoe?a. I?ioeae?yoe
oeueiio i?ioeania? eiiia?o?eia ea??aieoeoai aeyaeeiny iani?iiiaeiei.
Iai?ee?ioe? 1989 ?ieo oae caai? (ca io?oe?eiith oa?i?iieia??th)
«iaoi?iaeuei?» i?aai?caoe?? (I?O, OAN, OIAeE oa ?io?) anooieee o aeai?/o
eaiiai?th c eiioeaioe??th ? oaeoeeith ai?ioueae i?ioe eaiaeeaeao?a o
aeaiooaoe a?ae EI?N. EIO a iiaeo oiiaao ?aeiiaiaeoaaea nai?i
eaiaeeaeaoai o aeaiooaoe anooiaoe a oae? a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??, ye
I?O ? Oiaa?enoai oe?a?inueei? iiae ?i.O.Oaa/aiea, noai?thaaoe nia?
iie?oe/iee ?i?aeae ?aaeeeaeueieie aenooiaie ia i?oeiaao ?c eiie?aoiith
ia?aaeaeai?iith i?ia?aiith. I?ney aeai??a aeyaeeiny, ui 42,9% iieoaieo
aenooiathoue ca ?icione EI?N, a 35,8% ia i?aeo?eioaaoeiooue ?? ia
ianooiieo aeai?ao.

Aaea a na?aaeei? 1990 ?ieo ?icii/eia?oueny oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoiia?o?eii?
iie?oe/ii? no?oeoo?e O?N?. C ?ooo nii/aoeo aeeiith?oueny Oe?a?inueea
?anioae?eainueea ia?o?y, a i?ney ia? — Aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y Oe?a?ie.
Iacae aeaio ia?o?e cana?ae/othoue iaiaaaiiy eii?thaaoe ia?o?eio nenoaio
NOA aac anaa?/iiai a?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae nioe?aeueiiai ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Neeaaeia iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y cioneea eiiia?o?eia ea??aieoeoai
i???iooaaoeny ia oa, uia noai?eoe EI?N ?i?aeae «ia?o?? nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ethaeae». sseui i?e oae?e ?iaio? ia?o?eii? i?aai?caoe?? a
o?oaeiaiio eieaeoea? a?ae/o? ei?enoue eiaeai i?aoe?aiee, a a ?aa?ii? —
eiaeia n?i’y, oiae? ianaeaiiy ia aeiionoeoue aei aeaaaeaiiy
ia?oi?aai?caoe?? c i?aei?e?inoaa /e onoaiiae. Ioaea, eoeiny i?i oa, ui
iaaeae? EI?N aoaea nie?aoeiaoueny ia ia neeo caeiio, a ia naiii?aai?noue
ioeie?ao??.

Aeai?e aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee O?N? ? i?noeaaeo ?aae ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
(1990?.) cana?ae/eee, ui EI?N caciaea iaaaea/?, iniaeeai o cao?aeieo
iaeanoyo, a yeeo oaeoe/ii aeaaea ia?aeoea aei aeaiooao?a a?ae
Aeaiie?aoe/iiai aeieo.

Iei? a Oe?a?i? ?nio? a?eueoa 70 iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e. O aeena?oaoe??
iaa?oioiao?oueny aaiaoe/ia oeiieia?y oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e, oi/a aeaye? c
ieo ia a?aeiia?aeathoue iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai. Aeae?eaii 7 oei?a
ia?o?e. Ia?oee oei — oea ia?o??, ye? cayaeythoue i?i naith niaaeeia?noue
c oe?a?inueeeie ia?o?yie, ui ae?yee ia iao?e oa?eoi???, cie?aia a
cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii?, aei 1939 ?ieo. Ae?oaee oei — ia?o??
iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? i???ioaoe??. O?ao?e oei — ia?o?? a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?
i?ieiioi?noe/ii? i???ioaoe??. *aoaa?oee oei — ia?o??
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? i???ioaoe??, ye? oaeoe/ii iioiaeyoue a?ae
I?O ye ianiai? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe??. I’yoee oei — ia?o??,
ye? ia’?aeiothoue iieiaeeo i?aaiaoee?a. Oinoee oei — ia?o??, ye?
noai?ai? aeey caaeiaieaiiy ?ioa?an?a iaaiiai eeaio. Nueiiee oei —
ia?o??, ye? ao?oothoue i?eoeeueiee?a e?aea?a, eio?ee caaithaaa aieea
aioe?aaeeiiith ae?yeuei?noth aai i?aaia aeeoe ia ia?oi?yaei? ?ie? a
iei?oi?e neooaoe?? i?aeia?o?eii? ai?ioueae.

Ioaea, ia?o?eia nenoaia iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie eeoa ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny,
ui i?iyaeeiny i?ae /an ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a 1998 ?ieo.

O ??? ?icae?e? «Ia?eaiaionueea ae?yeuei?noue ia?o?e: i?iaeaie ia?o?eii?
no?oeoo?ae?caoe??» aeine?aeaeothoueny iniaeeaino? o/ano? iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e ye ae?aciee?a iie?oe/ii? aie? a?iiaaeyi o aeai?ao aei Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie ia iniia? ci?oaii? nenoaie. Aiae?c i?aaiai? ii?ie i?i
i?iii?oe?ei? aeai?e ca ia?o?eieie nieneaie aeicaiey? ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui
a i?e ii?ooo?oueny eiinoeoooe?eiee i?eioeei ??aiii?aaiino? a?iiaaeyi, a
oaeiae iaiaeiaeiaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a ia?aae
aeai?oeyie.

Iaaeie?ee ci?oaii? nenoaie aeai??a aoee i/aaeaei?. ?? i?aeo?eiaee o?
iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ye? iaee iaea?eueoee aieea na?aae aeai?oe?a,
iacaeaaeii a?ae ?oi?o i???ioaoe?e: a oeueiio ieoaii? ? EIO, ? I?O aoee
iaeiinoaei?. I?eoeeueieee oaei? nenoaie aeai??a iineeaeeny ia aeina?ae
cao?aeieo e?a?i, oi/ oi?ioaaiiy iei?oiuei? ia?o?eii? nenoaie a ieo
ioiieei o?eaaeee ia??iae /ano. I?ei??ii, a I?ia//ei? /ioe?e iai?yie
ia?o?eii? nenoaie (eiina?aaoeci, e?aa?ae?ci, iie?oe/iee eaoieeoeeci ?
nioe?ae?ci) aeie?aieeeny ua a 60-o ?ieao ieioeiai noie?ooy, a ia?o?eia
no?oeoo?ae?caoe?y caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aaio O?I ia? e?eueea aeanyoee?oue.

sse na?ae/eoue ?iaioa iei?oiueiai neeaaeo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie,
canoinoaaiiy ci?oaii? aeai?/i? nenoaie aeyaeeiny ia?aae/aniei ? ia
ni?eyei aaeaeaaoiiio a?aeia?aaeaiith noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a o iaeaeuiio
caeiiiaeaa/iio i?aai? aea?aeaae, aieiaiei /eiii, /a?ac iac??e?noue
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? ianoi?iiaaio ia?o?eio nenoaio. Aiaeii/an, ii??aiyiiy
aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? O?I ia?aeiio?, ui ia?o?eio
no?oeoo?ae?caoe?th Aa?oiaii? ?aaee iiaeia aoei ae cia/ii iie?ioeoe, yeae
aaeaiooaaoe aei iaoeo oiia iniaeeaino? i?iaoeueei? aeai?/i? nenoaie.

Ii??aiyiiy ia?eaiaionueei? ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e a Oe?a?i? oa
cao?aeieo aea?aeaaao aeicaieeei ae?eoe aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui ia
?acoeueoaoe aieinoaaiiy iaoeo aeai?oe?a aieeaa? iecueeee ??aaiue
iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e. I?e oioae?oa?iiio ?aaeei? oaeoe/ii aeiioneaeany
i?aei?ia iiiyoue: i?ae aeai?aie ?icoi?einy aieinoaaiiy ca iaeiiai
eaiaeeaeaoa, oiio ianaeaiiy iaei ?eooaeueii aeaiiino?oaaoe a?aeaeai?noue
?aaeeiia?. Ca?aene — neeaaei?noue ia?aoiaeo a?ae iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e
oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie aei cao?aeii? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e. Aeai?aoeue ia
iiaea ca ei?ioeee /an ia?ai???iooaaoeny c iaoai?/iiai iioneaiiy
atheaoaiy aei aeai??a ca ci?oaiith nenoaiith, eiee ia i?noey a
ia?eaiaio? i?aoaiaeoaaei o?e aeanyoee ia?o?e ? aeie?a. Ia ciath/e ?o
i?ia?ai ? aeai?/i? ieaooi?ie, aeai?aoeue, ye i?aaeei, a?aeaea? aiein ca
o? ia?o??, ye? eiio a?aeii?, oi/a aoaathoue ? aeiyoee.

I?eoeeueieee i?iii?oe?eii? aeai?/i? nenoaie nie?aeeny ia oa, ui
aieinoaaiiy ca ia?o?eieie nieneaie aeiiiiaaa? iie?oe/iiio ?icaeoeia?
e?a?ie, yeee aeieiia/iee aeey oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaeueiiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai ?
iie?oe/iiai noni?euenoaa. Iaeiae eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieacaee, ui iaeaea 40% aeai?oe?a iaia?aaeiaei? aeai??a aei ia?eaiaioo
ia i???iooaaeeny o aeai?ao ca ia?o?eieie nieneaie. Aei oiai ae, aeai?oe?
iaaeathoue iniaeeai? aaae i?ioan?? aeaiooaoa (27%) ? iniaenoino?
(25-28,3%), a iniaa ia?o?eiiai e?aea?a oe?eaaeoue a?ae 4,6 aei 5,9%
iieoaieo.

Aieinoaaiiy ca iie?oe/i? ia?o?? a oiiaao iaoi? aea?aeaae iani?aaae?
icia/a? aieinoaaiiy ca in?a, ye? aoiaeyoue o ia?oo «i’yo??eo», oiio
eiaeia ia?o?y iaiaaa?oueny ?ai?acaiooaaoe naaa oe?iei a?aeiieie
ae?y/aie, eio?? ia??aeei aeaeae? a?ae iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ai
i?ioan?eii caeiathoueny nii?oii, e?oa?aoo?ith, ienoaoeoaii oiui. I?ney
aeai??a aiie iathoue i?aai a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae iaiaeaoa — ? a?i
ia?aoiaeeoue aei iniae, yea iaa?aeiia oe?ie?e a?iiaaenueeino?. E??i
oeueiai, aeai?e ca ia?o?eieie nieneaie iathoue ia??aeei aeaeae? a?ae
ii?ae? ae?? ie?aieo ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a. Ca?aene — oaiiiai nai???aeieo
«ia?o?eieo ia?aa?ae/ee?a», ye? ea?othoueny ia iie?oe/ieie i?eioeeiaie ?
canaaeaie ii?ae?, a eii’thieoo?ith.

Aiae?coth/e ?acoeueoaoe inoaii?o ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a, aeena?oaio
aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui ia ieo aieeioee aaciina?aaeiuei oae? /eiieee:
??aaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, iia??oaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy
ianaeaiiy, ye iane?aeie neeaaeii? aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??, ??aaiue
iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e, iciaeiieaiiy /e iaiciaeiieaiiy c i?ia?aiiaeie
oe?eyie ia?o?e, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaieo aaaeae?a. Oaeee
aeniiaie i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?acoeueoaoe aieinoaaiiy o ??cieo ?aa?iiao
Oe?a?ie.

O Cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? iaea?eueoee aieea caeiaoa I?O ye ia?o?y
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? i???ioaoe??, a aieea EIO, ii??aiyii c
?ioeie ?aa?iiaie, ooo iaeieae/ee. Aiaeii/an, eeoa aeanyoa /anoeia
aeai?oe?a i?iaieinoaaea ca aeie «Iaoe?iiaeueiee o?iio», oi/ oaea
?aeaieia?y iaea ooo iaea?eueoee aieea o 40-o ?ieao. E?aei? i?aa? ia?o??
ia caeiaoee iaa?oue 1% aiein?a. Oe?eeii eia?/ii noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i
aeineoue iii??eiaaio e aeaaaeaio iiceoe?th aeai?oe?a oeueiai ?aa?iio,
yea ia aeoaea caeaaeeoue a?ae eii’thieoo?e. I?i ?ieue aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
aaaeae?a na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe aieinoaaiue o aeaio ??cieo iaeanoyo:
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e — ca AI «A?iiaaea» ? Caea?iaonuee?e — ca NAeIO(i).

Neiioiiaoe/iee oni?o ia oeueiio oe? oaeiae Ia?o?? caeaieo Oe?a?ie. A?i
cana?ae/o?, c iaeiiai aieo, ?ic/a?oaaiiy a ni?iiiaeiino? iei?oi?o
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ci?ieoe aeeooy ia e?aua, a c ?ioiai, i?aaiaiiy
ianaeaiiy aei ci?i. sse iane?aeie — aeai?oe? aieinoaaee ca ia?o?th, yea
i?/ei naaa ua ia i?iyaeea, a aeeoea ia iie?oe/io a?aio ye aioeiiae ?ioeo
ia?o?e, i?ioenoaaeaoe ?i ia?aeiieeao i?ia?aio. Oaeee oni?o «aiii?iiino?»
iiynith? e oa, ui an? nai? iaiaeaoe ICO caeiaoea ca ia?o?eiei nieneii ?
aeiaeiiai a iaaei?eoa?iiio ie?oc?.

?aeeia i?aaioeaio?enonueea ia?o?y, yea caeiaoea ia ia?eaiaionueeeo
aeai?ao ae?oaa i?noea ca /eneii aiein?a, — Ia?iaeiee ?oo Oe?a?ie. A?i
aeeoia ia aeai?e c i?ia?aiith «Iiaee oeyo Oe?a?ie», a ye?e aaaaoine?a’y
ia?aaaaea? iaae eiie?aoieie caaaeaiiyie ? eiino?oeoeaieie i?iiiceoe?yie.
O ia?aaeaeai?i?e eaiiai?? ea??aieoeoai oe??? ia?o?? i?aoaiaeoaaei ia
?ieue ?aeeiiai noia?ieea EIO ? e?aeo nee acaaae?, ui ia?aioe?ithaaei
iiaeeeaino? I?O. Naia aeai?/a aa?oaoe?y ia??aeei a?aea ia ia ei?enoue
oe??? ia?o??, ai caiaeeeany aei aeaeea?aoeaieo aanae ia eooaeo «Iio??ai?
ci?ie». Ine?eueee iniiaiee aeaeoi?ao I?O a Cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii?, a yeiio
ia?aaaaea? caaaeaia iiceoe?y, oi oai iiae?ai? aanea ia iiaee iaoe
oni?oo.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe i?e/eie oni?oo ? iaaaea/ iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ia inoaii?o
ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ao, aeena?oaio ii??aith? iinooioae?oa?iee ia?o?eiee
?icaeoie Oe?a?ie e I?ia//eie, ui aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe iaai? iniaeeaino?.
Ii-ia?oa, oi?ioaaiiy ia?o?eii? no?oeoo?e ia?eaiaioo a O?I iieaaooaaeiny
oei, ui a i?e aoei caai?iiaii ae?yeuei?noue oioae?oa?enonueei?
iaoe?iiae-nioe?ae?noe/ii? ia?o??. A Oe?a?i? caai?iia ae?yeueiino? EIO ye
i?ia?ioe?eii? i?aai?caoe?? EI?N noaiiaeea eeoa ei?ioeee ia??iae, ca yeee
aiia ciiaea ?aai?ioaaoeny, noai?eaoe ?yae ia?o?e eiioi?noe/ii? ?
i?ieiioi?noe/ii? i???ioaoe??, o?e c yeeo (EIO, INIO, ? NIO a aeioe? c
NaeIO) iiaeieaee 4-a?aenioeiaee aa?’?? ia ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ao.
Ii-ae?oaa, i?eieiaiiy ae?yeueiino? iaoe?iiae-nioe?ae?noe/ii? ia?o??
a?aee?eei oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ?aoi?i o
an?o noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy, a a Oe?a?i? oae? ?aoi?ie
aaeueiothoueny. Ii-o?ao?, i?iaoeueeee ia?iae iaa iiia?aaei?,
aeioioae?oa?i? o?aaeeoe?? iie?oe/iiai aeeooy a ieth?ae?noe/iiio
noni?euenoa?, a a Oe?a?i? iiae?aiee aeina?ae iaee aeeoae? eeoa
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ye? o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae ia?aaoaaee i?ae
Iieueuath ? *aoi-Neiaa//eiith. Ii-/aoaa?oa, aeai?e ca ia?o?eieie
nieneaie a O?I iieaaooaaeeny oei, ui a i?e i?iyaeeany oaiaeaioe?y
nei?i/aiiy /enea iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, aiane?aeie /iai ia iie?oe/i?e a?ai?
caeeoeeeny o?e iniiai? noa’?eoe (o?enoeyinuee? aeaiie?aoe,
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe ? e?aa?aee). A Oe?a?i? a ia?aaeaeai?iee ia??iae /enei
ia?o?e ca?eueooaaeiny, ui oneeaaeithaaei nai? aeai?e, oiio ia?ao?ae aei
aeai??a ca ci?oaiith nenoaiith ia i?ea?a aei iie?ioaiiy iie?oe/ii?
no?oeoo?ae?caoe?? ia?eaiaioo.

Caaaeeaoe oa, ui iniiaiee aiaei?icae?e i?ae ia?aaeaeai?ieie ia?o?eieie
i?ia?aiaie coiiaeth? noaaeaiiy aei ?aoi?i, aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie
ia iniia? a?aeiia?aeieo eiie?aoii nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?o
?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?ioeaieee ?aoi?i
i???ioothoueny ia ethaeae noa?oiai ? iioeeiai a?eo, c ieae/ei ina?oi?i
??aiai. ?o aeaeoi?ao , a iniiaiiio, a I?aaeaiiiio ? No?aeiiio ?aa?iiao.
Ioaea, i?e ai?e?e i?aai?caoe?? aeai??a ? iaeaaei?e i?ina?oieoeuee?e
?iaio? ?aoi?i?nonueee i???ioiaai? ia?o?? iathoue aeia?? oaine, ye? ia
inoaii?o ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ao ia aoee aeei?enoai?.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa noi?ioeueiaaii i?aenoiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?e a?aei?iiinoyo ? i?ioeeaaeiinoyo oioae?oa?iiai ? aeaiie?aoe/iiai
?aaeei?a iie?oe/i? ia?o?? aenooiathoue ye iniiai? /eiieee i?aai?caoe??
aeaaee. Iaeiae, iini?oia ia?aianaiiy e?eoa???a ? oai?aoe/ieo onoaiiaie,
ia?aiao??a o aeine?aeaeaii? ia?o?e, ye? ?ic?iaeea cao?aeia iie?oe/ia
iaoea, ia caaaeaee ni?ey? ia’?eoeaiiio aiae?co iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, a yeiio ia?aie?oathoueny ?oaeeiaioe
oioae?oa?ecio ? iiaaoe?? aeaiie?ao??.

Oioae?oa?ia ia?o?y ia cia? eiieo?aioe?? a ai?iouea? ca aeaaeo, ai oaeo
eiieo?aioe?th aeo?nieea iiiiiie?y. sse iane?aeie aeai?e i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ia?aoai?ththoueny o cae/aeio oi?iaeuei?noue. C oeei
iia’ycaiee ?oaeeiaio o?aeooaaiiy aeai??a o iinooioae?oa?iiio
noni?euenoa? ye oi?iaeueiino?, ia?icoi?iiy aaae naiai aieino ? a?aeiiaa
a?ae o/ano? o aeai?ao.

Iiiiia?o?eia aeeeoaoo?a, yea iaioaaea n?iaeanyo ?ie?a ia iniiai?e
/anoei? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ia?a?aaea i?ioean ia?o??oai?aiiy, ui
?icii/aany iai?ee?ioe? O?O noie?ooy. Oiae?oi?e ia?o?eiee ?oo ao?ethaaa
aea? i???ioaoe??, eiaeia c yeeo aeciaaaea ye i??i?eoao aai
iaoe?iiaeueia, aai nioe?aeueia aecaieaiiy, ui aeicaiey? iaaiith i??ith
c?icoi?oe e iei?oi? ia?o??oai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?.

Aaiaco iei?oiuei? aaaaoiia?o?eii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i? aeioe?eueii ii/eiaoe
c e?ioey 50-o ?ie?a, eiee aeieeea i?aei?eueia a?oia, yea iinoaaeea
ia?aae niaith iaoo noai?eoe Oe?a?inueeo ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueeo ni?eeo aeey
eaaaeueii? ai?ioueae ca aeo?ae O?N? c? neeaaeo N?N?. Oey ia?aae?ciaaia
?aeay a?ae?iaeeeany iai?ee?ioe? a?n?iaeanyoeo ?ie?a, eiee iiainoai?aiee
Ia?iaeiee ?oo Oe?a?ie a caaoaeueiaai?e oi?i? aenooiea ca ia?aaoaeiao
N?N? ia canaaeao eiioaaea?aoe??.

I?ioa I?O ia ni?ii?any noai?eoe ia nai?e iniia? iiooaeii? iie?oe/ii?
ia?o??, yea ae i?ioenoiyea EIO. Eiai ioiieea ia?o?eia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y.
Caiaeii nai I?O ia?aoai?eany c ianiai? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii?
i?aai?caoe?? a iaeio iie?oe/io ia?o?th, aea a?i ia ci?a eiieo?oaaoe c
a?aeiiaeaiith EIO, aieeao yei? ni?eyei iineeaia coaiae?iiy aaeeei?
/anoeie ianaeaiiy.

Iaia?aaeiaei? aeai??a aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie a 1998 ?ioe? a
aea?aeaa? iae?/oaaeiny 52 ca?a?no?iaai? ia?o??. ?oi? iioiaeaeaiiy ia
iaeiaeiaa, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aaiaoe/ia oeiieia?y, yea cai?iiiiiaaia a
aeena?oaoe??. Ia ?acoeueoaoao aeai??a a?aeaeca?eaethaaeeny iniaeeaino?
ia?ao?aeiiai oa?aeoa?o iaoiai noni?euenoaa, ui aeicaiey? ii??aithaaoe
?icaeoie ia?o?eii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i? ? iinooioae?oa?i?e O?I. Iaeiae
aeina?ae oe??? e?a?ie, ye e ?ioeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa, aa?oi
aeei?enoiaoaaoe oai?/i, caaaeeaoe niaoeeo?eo Oe?a?ie.

Niiae?aaiiy iaaieo iie?oe/ieo nee ia oa, ui aeai?e ca ci?oaiith
nenoaiith aeiiiiiaeooue eiino?oeoeai?e ae?yeueiino? no?oeoo?ae?ciaaiiai
ia?eaiaioo ia i?aeoeoe? ia ii?aaaeaeeny. Oaea ooo/ia ia?aianaiiy ia
oe?a?inueeee a?oio cao?aeiiai aeina?aeo ia caaaeoaaei oiai, ui a
aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?iao Caoiaeo ia?eaiaionueeee ?icaeoie ia eeoa
ni?a?oueny ia aeanio i?aeoeeo, a e a?aeiia?aea? iie?oe/i?e eoeueoo??
ianaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, i?ioean ia?o?eii? noaa?e?caoe?? a Oe?a?i? aeiaaa?
eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo, caaaeaiiy ia eeoa iie?oe/ieo, aea e
nioe?aeueieo, aeooiaieo oa ?noi?e/ieo /eiiee?a, a ia i?inoiai
eii?thaaiiy aeina?aeo cao?aeieo aea?aeaa /e iaiaaaiiy i?ae?aiaoe
ia?o??oai?aiiy i?ae yeeenue ?aa?ii, ?icaeyaeath/e eiai ca iiaeaeue aeey
on??? aea?aeaae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo
(caa.ianya — 11,76 ae?.a?e.):

1.Aac?a A.A. Ia?o?? i?e oioae?oa?iiio ? aeaiie?aoe/iiio ?aaeeiao
(oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c). -Euea?a: Na?o, 1998, — 2,3 ae?.a?e.

2.Aac?a A.A. Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?: aaiaca ? oeiieia?y.
— Euea?a: Na?o, 1998, — 3,0 ae?.a?e.

Aac?a A.A. Ia?eaiaio Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae: i?iaeaie ia?o?eii?
no?oeoo?ae?caoe??. — Euea?a: Na?o, 1999. — 4,06 ae?.a?e.

Aac?a A.A. Ia?o?y — aeaaea — ae?oa a i?ioean? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie a Oe?a?i? //A?niee Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. O?einionuee?
iaoee. Aei.2 — Euea?a: Na?o, 1998. — 0,4 ae?.a?e.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeaii aeaa oiie
iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/ieo i?aoeue «Oeyo c ?aanoaa». — Euea?a: Na?o, 1999.
— 33,18 ae?.a?e.

Aiioaoe?y

Aac?a A.A. Ia?o?? a iie?oe/i?e nenoai? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo:
oe?a?inueea i?aeoeea ? na?oiaee aeina?ae. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane. —
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ia?o??oai?aiiy a iie?oe/i?e nenoai?
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? na?oiaiai aeina?aeo. Ia iniia?
aiae?co cia/iiai oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo a?o?a?a ? aea?aeaaii?
noaoenoeee, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? ia?o?e a oiiaao oioae?oa?iiai ?
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aaeei?a, aaiaca iei?oi?o iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e a Oe?a?i?,
i?iiiio?oueny ?o oeiieia?y. ?acoeueoaoe ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a ca
ci?oaiith aeai?/ith nenoaiith a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio ? ?aa?iiaeueiiio
ianooaaao ia ni?eyee iioei?caoe?? ia?o?eii? no?oeoo?ae?caoe??
ia?eaiaioo, oeyoe aei yei? aeiaaathoue aaeaioaoe?? aeina?aeo ?ioeo
aea?aeaa. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe?, a?aeoai?ai? a ioae?eaoe?yo,
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a iaaeaaia?/i?e ? a?iiaaenuee?e ae?yeueiino?
aeena?oaioa, aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iie?oe/ia ia?o?y, ia?o??oai?aiiy, oioae?oa?eci,
aeaiie?ao?y, ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae, ia?eaiaio, ia?aaeaeai?i a ieaooi?ia,
iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a, ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae.

Aiiioaoeey

Aacea A.A. Ia?oee a iieeoe/aneie nenoaia ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea:
oe?aeineay i?aeoeea e ie?iaie iiuo. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02. — iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e i?ioeannu.
Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?ioeanna ia?oeeiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa a iieeoe/aneie nenoaia ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea Oe?aeiu a
eiioaenoa ie?iaiai iiuoa.

Aiaeece?othony iniaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a oneiaeyo
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai e oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeiia.

A ia?aoiaeiie ia?eiae nouanoaoao naiaia?aciue neiaeic inoaoeia
oioaeeoa?iie e yeaiaioia oi?ie?othuaeny aeaiie?aoe/aneie iieeoe/aneeo
nenoai, /oi iaoneiaeei iieeoe/aneoth noaaiaoeeth e oi?iiaeaiea
i?ioeannia ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. Iineieueeo a oneiaeyo
iaeiiia?oeeiiai oioaeeoa?ecia i?iaaaeaiea auai?ia oa?yao niune, eai
naiaeeony e oi?iaeueiie i?ioeaaeo?a, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ianaeaiey a
ia?eiae iinoeiiioienoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ia /onoaoao nianoaaiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca enoiae auai?ia, eiaaea aeanoue oi?ie?oaony ia
i?eioeeiao ieth?aeecia e iiiaiia?oeeiinoe.

Eae aaoiiiiiue yeaiaio a iieeoe/aneie nenoaia iauanoaa iieeoe/aneay
ia?oey ooieoeeiie?oao niaeanii aa aioo?aiieo caeiiia. Ia noa?oa
o?ainoi?iaoeee iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu io iinooioaeeoa?ecia e aeaiie?aoee
Oe?aeia oianeaaenoaiaaea iieeoe/aneoth yeeoo, eioi?ay iaeaaeaea
aeanoueth neeie, /oi niioaaonoaoao o?iaith aeieiaeono?eaeueiiai
iauanoaa. No?aoeoeeaoeey auaoae iiiaieeaoo?u iicaieyao auaeaeeoue n?aaee
iaa iyoue oneiaiuo eaoaai?ee, eaaeaeie n eioi?uo naienoaaiiue
niaoeeoe/aneee niinia aaeaioaoeee e iiaui aeaiie?aoe/aneei ?aaeeyi,
eiaaea aicieeaao aoiiece?iaaiiay iaeiiia?oeeiay nenoaia. A iuiaoiai
ia?aoiaeiii ia?eiaea o?ainoi?iaoeee iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu i?iyaeythony
?acee/iua oi?iu acaeiiaeaenoaey oi?aaeai/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo,
eaeaieiae/aneeo, ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo yeaiaioia (iooi?aeaiey,
iiaeiuaiey, neio?iiecaoeee, acaeiiiai aeiee?iaaiey).

Iiieiaiea iuiaoiiai ia?oeeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a Oe?aeia o?aaoao
eco/aiey aaiacena oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee. Oaea a ia/aea OO aaea
a iieeoe/aneii aeaeaeaiee iaoae no?aiu /aoei i?ineaaeeaathony aeaa
oaiaeaioeee: iaeia — ia iaoeeiiaeueiia inaiaiaeaeaiea, ae?oaay — ia
?aoaiea nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai. Anee a Aaee/eia e ?aoaieth iaoeeiiaeueiuo
e nioeeaeueiuo aii?inia iiaeoiaeeee eae e aaeeiiio aeainoi?iiiaio
i?ioeanno, oi ia oe?aeineeo caieyo, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa ?inneeneie
eiia?ee, oaeiai aaeeinoaa ia auei nicaeaii. Yoe iniaaiiinoe — eeth/ e
iiieiaieth iuiaoieo i?ioeannia ia?oeeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a caiaaeiii e
ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao Oe?aeiu.

Ca?iaeaeaiea iuiaoiae iiiaiia?oeeiie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu a Oe?aeia
i?aaeeaaaaony ?anniao?eaaoue, ia/eiay n 50-o aiaeia, eiaaea aue nicaeai
eaaaeueiue «Oe?aeineee ?aai/a-e?anoueyineee nithc». Yoa eaeay
aic?iaeeeanue a eiioea 80-o aiaeia e aiieioeeanue a Ia?iaeiii
aeaeaeaiee Oe?aeiu ca ia?ano?ieeo (?ooa). Nicaeaiea ?ooa — aaaeiue oaa
ia iooe ?aaeueiiai nicaeaiey iiiaiia?oeeiie nenoaiu. Nouanoaothuea iuia
a Oe?aeia ia?oee aiaeece?othony ia iniiaa i?aaeeiaeaiiie aaiaoe/aneie
oeiieiaee, iicaieythuae auaeaeeoue naiue oeiia ia?oee.

Iniaaiiinoe ia?oee eae au?aceoaeae iieeoe/aneie aiee a?aaeaeai
i?iyaeythony a eo ia?eaiaioneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Niaoaiiay nenoaia
ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ia ia i?eaaea e iioeiecaoeee iieeoe/aneie
no?oeoo?aeecaoeee i?aaia caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe. Caiaaeiua no?aiu e
aiaeiae/iie nenoaia auai?ia i?eoee eiay cia/eoaeueiue iiuo
ia?eaiaioneiai e ia?oeeiiai ?acaeoey. Ianaeaiea Oe?aeiu yoiai iiuoa ia
eiaao. ?aaioa iuiaoiiai ninoaaa Aa?oiaiie ?aaeu iicaieyao naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi iiiuoee i?eiaieoue e iuiaoiei oneiaeyi Oe?aeiu iiuo
caiaaeiuo no?ai ieacaeenue i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiuie.

I?ioeann ia?oeeiie noaaeeecaoeee a Oe?aeia o?aaoao eiiieaeniiai
iiaeoiaea, acaaoeaaiey ia oieueei iieeoe/aneeo, ii e nioeeaeueiuo,
aeooiaiuo e enoi?e/aneeo oaeoi?ia, a ia i?inoiai eiie?iaaiey iiuoa
caiaaeiuo ainoaea?noa eee iiiuoie iiaeiaiaoue ia?oeeiia no?ieoaeuenoai
iiae eaeie-oi ?aaeii, ?anniao?eaay aai eae iiaeaeue aeey anaai
ainoaea?noaa.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeee ioia?aaeaiu a ioaeeeaoeeyo,
eniieueciaaeenue a iaaeaaiae/aneie e iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
aeenna?oaioa, a aunooieaieyo ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e anaoe?aeineeo iao/iuo
eiioa?aioeeyo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieeoe/aneay ia?oey, ia?oeeiia no?ieoaeuenoai,
oioaeeoa?eci, aeaiie?aoey, ia?aoiaeiie ia?eiae, ia?eaiaio,
ecae?aoaeueiay ieaooi?ia, iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a, ca?oaaaeiue iiuo.

Summary

Baziv V.A. Parties in Political System of Transitional Period: Ukrainian
Practice and the World Experience. – Manuscript.

Dissertation for scientific degree of candidate for Political Sciences
Speciality 23.00.02 – Politikal Institutes and Processes. – Lviv State
University named after Ivan Franko.

The dissertation is dedicated to party creation issues in the political
system of transitional period of Ukraine in the context of world
experience. The peculiarities of the parties in conditions of
totalitarian and democratic regimes, genesis of modern political parties
in Ukraine are studied on the basis of analysis of considerable factual
archives materials and state statistics and also on the basis of the
works of native and foreign scientists. The typology of the parties is
adduced. The results of elections to the Parliament based on mixed
voting system on a State and local scales did not facilitate the
optimization of party structuring of the Parliament, what requires
adaptation to other states’ experience. Represented in publications the
main results of the manuscript have been used in pedagogical and public
activities of the candidate for a degree, lectured during scientific
conferences.

Key words: political party, party creation, totalitarianism, democracy,
transitional period, parliament, pre-elective platform, political
culture and foreign experience.

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