Aeaaeai?y ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e

IEOAEEEOEI Ieueaa Eaii?ae?aia

OAeE
72.0 (477.8) : [728.83+712.25]

Iaeaoeiai — ia?eia? ainaiae? Aieei?

2 — ? iie. OVIII — XIX noie?oue

(ia?aaeoiiae, iai?yie, caeiiii??iino? a?o?oaeoo?iiai ?icaeoeo)

18.00.01. — Oai??y a?o?oaeoo?e,

?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie
a?o?oaeoo?e

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aiaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio,

?E*EIA Iao?i Aiaoie?eiae/,

?AeOO, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

«A?o?oaeoo?a aoae?aaeue oa
a?ae?inii?oae»

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani?,

OEIIO??IEI Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,

?i-o ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,
oieueeei?enoeee

oa aoiieia?? ?i.I.O.?eeuenueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie,

eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio,

IO*EIA Aiae??e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

IAe? oai??? oa ?noi??? a?o?oaeoo?e ?

i?noiaoaeoaaiiy, a/aiee nae?aoa?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e
I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «26» aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.103.01 a Aeaaeai?? ia?acioai?/iai
ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (252053 i.Ee?a, aoe.Aicianainueeee oca?c, 20)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeaaeai??
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (252053, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Aicianainueeee oca?c, 20)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 23 aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee AAE?*EI
TH.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeaoeiai-ia?eia? ainaiae? ia Aieei? 2-?
iie. XVIII-XIX co. caeiathoue iaeia c /?eueieo i?noeue o a?o?oaeoo?i?e
?noi??? ?aa?iio — ca ianooaaaie oa e?euee?noth ia’?eo?a oa noeoii?noth
?aae?ciaaiiai a ieo oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo, ? ia’?iiei iaoa??aeii aeey
iaoeiaiai aiae?co. A ?noi??? aieeinueeiai ciae/anoaa oe? i?aoi?a
noie?ooy yaeythoue niaith /aniaee a?aae, a iaaeao yeiai
i?ine?aeeiao?oueny «iiaiee oeeee» ?icaeoeo oaeeo ia’?eo?a: a?ae
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iai?iiieo nii?oae (caie?a) o iaeaoeia? ainaiae?, /a?ac
?icaeoie oa ooaa?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo eiiiiceoe?eieo noai oa i?eioeei?a
ieaioaaiiy iiaeo eiiieaen?a aei iiiaioo caiaiaaeo ? ao?aoe ia?a?niiai
cia/aiiy a ca’yceo c? ci?iaie noni?eueieo oiia o e?ioe? XIX no. A
i?inoi?iaiio a?aeiioaii? aeine?aeaeoaaiee ?aa?ii a?aeiia?aea?
?noi?e/iiio ?icoi?iith Aieei?, ui ca no/aniei
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiei iiae?eii ioiieth? oa?eoi???
Aieeinueei?, ??aiainueei?, i?ai?/i? /anoeie Oa?iii?euenueei? ?
Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanoae, cao?aeio /anoeio AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?.

A?o?oaeoo?ia niaaeueia Aieei? i?eaa?oaea aei naaa oaaao aeine?aeiee?a ye
o XIX no., oae ? i?ioyaii onueiai OO no. Ca oeae /an oe?a?inueeeie oa
iieuenueeeie iaoeiaoeyie (aeey ieo aeaiee ?aa?ii aeeeeea? ni?eueiee
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iee ?ioa?an) iaeiie/aia aaeeea e?euee?noue
niaoe?aeueieo ?ia?o ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai oa a?o?oaeoo?iciaa/iai iai?yi?a o
aaeoc? aea/aiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy naaeea aieeinueei? a?enoie?ao??.
Aaeeea e?euee?noue iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a, ui caa?aaeeny, io?eiaee
noaoon iai’yoie a?o?oaeoo?e oa caiia?aeieo cii. Iaeiae, cia/ia /anoeia
?aceaeaioe?e iaaiao?a, na?aaeiueiai oa ae??aiiai aeai?yinoaa o iaaaeeeeo
i?noa/eao, naeao, o?eueaa?eao, oae caai? «aeai?aee» aai n?euenuee?
iaeaoee o nai?e a?eueoino? ia aoee ua iaoa??aeii aeey aea/aiiy.
A?eueo?noue c ieo ca a?aenooiino? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i a?o?oaeoo?io oa
?noi?e/io oe?ii?noue ci?ieee ooieoe?th, ia?a?niee aeaeyae aai cian?i
ia?anoaee ?nioaaoe. Naia ao?a/ai? ainaiae? ia?aaaaeathoue na?aae
aeyaeaieo i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaco?oueny ia o?eueee ia noai?aii? oe?e?nii? ea?oeie ?icaeoeo
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia Aieei?, a iieyaa? oaeiae o
iiaeeaeaii? ?noi?e/ieo ciaiue o ca’yceo c iio?aaaie no/aniino?.
I?aai?/ia aeeth/aiiy aeaiaio?a ?noi?e/ii? caaoaeiae o no/anio no?oeoo?o
ianaeaieo ioieo?a, iio?aaa ?aeiino?oeoe??, ?aaaia?aoe??, no/aniiai
aeei?enoaiiy ainaiae?a, i?iaeooaaiiy iiaeo eiiieaen?a, ei?enooth/enue
aeina?aeii ciae/anoaa ieioeeo noi??/, — ia?ac? aeooaeueia i?iaeaia, ui
iio?aao? naiai iiaeaeueoiai ii?aoethaaiiy ca iei?oi?o oiia.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiii i?aeaioiaee iaoeiaeo eaae??a eaoaae?e
«A?o?oaeoo?a aoae?aaeue oa a?ae?inii?oae” OAeAAA.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — aeyaeoe oa
i?ine?ae-

eoaaoe iniiai? ia?aaeoiiae, iai?yie ? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia Aieei? o 2-?e iie. XVIII-XIX no.,
ocaaaeueieaoe oaeoia?ao?th oa ie?aneeaoe niaoeeo?eo
a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iaeo ae??oaiue. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe a
aeena?oaoe?? ae??oothoueny ianooii? caaea/?:

1) aecia/aiiy ?noi?e/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a, ui coiiaeee ci?ie
oa?aeoa?o aoae?aieoeoaa ?aceaeaioe?e ia Aieei?;

2) c’ynoaaiiy i?noiaoae?aaeueii? ?ie? ainaiae?a o oi?ioaaii?
ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e ianaeaieo ioieo?a;

3) aiae?c iniiaieo eiiiiceoe?eieo caeiiii??iinoae noai?aiiy
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a;

4) aeyaeaiiy aieiaieo iciae ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/ii? nai???aeiino?
aieeinueeeo ?aceaeaioe?e;

5) a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueiee aiae?c ia?eiaeo cii ye
oi?iaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eieo oa ia?acii-ci?noiaeo aeaiaio?a ainaiae?a.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia ?noi?eei-a?o?oaeoo?ieo
ii?aoethaaiiyo aeinooiieo ia?oiaeaea?ae oa ia iaoo?iiio ianoaaeaii? oeo
iai’yoie, ui caa?aaeeny. Aaaeeeaei aeey aeyaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa ? ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee
iaoiae o ii?aeiaii? c oeiieia?/iei iaoiaeii. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ao?a/aieo
ainaiae?a ae?ae iaiao?aeia aeey c’ynoaaiiy oeiieia?/iiai ?yaeo oa
a?aeoai?aiiy oe?e?nii? ea?oeie ?icaeoeo ainaiae?a, ia?aaeaa/aii
aaoi?nuee? a?ao?/i? ?aeiino?oeoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ianooiiiio: aia?oa
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a ia Aieei?
i?ine?aeeiaaiee a eiioaeno? iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo,
na?oiaeyaeieo ci?i o noni?euenoa?; aia?oa aeaia eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?ie?
ainaiae?a o i?inoi?ia?e oa ieaioaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? ianaeaieo ioieo?a
??ciiai nooiaiy o?aai?caoe??; aia?oa aeine?aeaeai? caeiiii??iino?
eiiiiceoe?eiiai oi?ioaaiiy ainaiae?a Aieei? i?ae aieeaii ??ciiiai?oieo
noni?eueieo oa i?ioan?eieo oaeoi??a; aia?oa aeine?aeaeaia aaiethoe?y
i?aeaeaiaioieo ca’yce?a oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo aca?iiae?e o na?aaeiaeu?
ainaiae?a; aia?oa aei aaea a?aeiiiai oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo c ?noi???
?aceaeaioe?iiaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia Aieei? aeiaeaii ? aaaaeaii a
iaoeiaee ia?a cia/io e?euee?noue ?ai?oa ia aea/aieo aeieoiaioaeueieo
ia?oiaeaea?ae c a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a?o?aieo ca??ie; aia?oa ia
iniia? io?eiaieo o oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaia na??y
a?ao?/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e ainaiae?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey?
a?aeoai?eoe caaaeueio ea?oeio ?icaeoeo iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
ia Aieei? i?ioyaii 2-? iie. XVIII-XIX no. A i?ioean? ?iaioe aoee
aeae?eai? iaea?eueo oe?eaa? c?acee ainaiae?a c oi/ee ci?o ?o aaiethoe??,
eiiiiceoe?eiiai, noee?noe/iiai, i?inoi?iaiai ae??oaiiy. Oiio
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue nooo?ai aeiiiaiththoue a?aeiia?aei? ?icae?ee
?noi??? a?o?oaeoo?ii? niaaeueie Oe?a?ie. ?acoeueoaoe aeooeoaaiue
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a eo?nao eaeoe?e aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a c
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? a?o?oaeoo?e aeey nooaeaio?a a?o?oaeoo?ieo,
aoae?aaeueieo oa ienoaoeoaiciaa/eo niaoe?aeueiinoae, i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo, e?a?ciaa/eo oa iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo aeaeaiue.
Aeena?oaoe?y ? iaiao?aeiei iaoeiaei i?aea?oioyi aeey i?aeoe/ieo iio?aa
?aeiino?oeoe?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a ainaiae?a ? eiiieaen?a a oe?eiio. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae no/anieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa anoaoe/ieo aeiia, o
aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iiaea aooe cae?eniaia ?aaaia?aoe?y ia’?eo?a c
iiaa?iaiiyi ?i ia?a?niiai a?o?oaeoo?iiai ia?aco.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iniiao ?ic?iaeaiiai ?
i?i/eoaiiai o 1997-1998 i.?. aeena?oaioii niaoeeo?no «A?o?oaeoo?ia
niaaeueia Aieei?» o ??aiainueeiio ?inoeooo? neia’yiiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai
neia’yinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo aeey nooaeaio?a niaoe?aeueiino?
«Ienoaoeoaiciaanoai» (7.020504) aeaiiai aoco (?199 a?ae 4.06.98 ?.);
noaiiaeyoue ie?aiee ?icae?e eo?no «?noi??y a?o?oaeoo?e», i?i/eoaiiai o
1997-1998 i.?. aeey nooaeaio?a niaoe?aeueiino? «I?iieneiaa oa oeea?eueia
aoae?aieoeoai» (1202) OAeAAA (? 052-785 a?ae 30.10.98 ?.), ? neeaaeiaith
eiiieaeno iaoeiai-aeooeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ?iniaeoe?? c ioi?iie iai’yoie
a?o?oaeoo?e oi?aae?iiy i?noiaoaeoaaiiy oa a?o?oaeoo?e ??aiainueei?
iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?? (?01-224 a?ae 10.06.98 ?.). ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?iaeo? aeaaiono?ith ?ae?aaoe?eii? ciie
ia oa?eoi??? Ino?icueei? Aeaaeai?? (?215 a?ae 21.09.98 ?.).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue aaoi?ii ia 6, 8-e iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/eo eiioa?aioe?yo
“Ino?ia ia ii?ic? 900-??//y (Ino?ia, 1995, 1997), ia 2, 3-e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
ani??aio?a ? nooaeaio?a OAeAAA (??aia, 1996, 1997), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ae?yeuei?noue a?ae?ioae ii
caa?aaeaiith eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie ? a?ae?iaeaeaiith aeooiaiino?
ia?iaeo” (AEeoiie?, 1996), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aieeinueea Iie?nny a eiioaeno? neia’yicueei? eoeueoo?e
(??aia, 1997), i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo “A?o?oaeoo?a ye
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?aeaieia??” (Euea?a, 1996 ?.) oa “?noi??y ?ae?a?e a
Oe?a?i?” (Euea?a, 1999), iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue” (AEeoiie?, 1997) oa
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aa?aee/?anueea caiey a eiioaeno? ?noi???
Oe?a?ie” (Aa?aee/?a, 1999). I?ia?aia ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue aaoi?ii ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
“A?o?oaeoo?a aoae?aaeue oa a?ae?inii?oae”, ia can?aeaii? a/aii? ?aaee
aoae?aaeueiiai oaeoeueoaoo OAeAAA (1994-1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? o
5-oe ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 8-ie ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a ? oac
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y i?aaenoaaeaia o aeaeyae? aeaio
oii?a. Ia?oee oii neeaaea? iniiaiee oaeno caaaeueiei ianyaii 146 noi?.,
ui neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a. Aei neeaaeo
ia?oiai oiio aoiaeyoue oaeiae ia?ae?e oiiaieo nei?i/aiue oa nienie
aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo oa a?o?aieo aeaea?ae (300 iaeiaioaaiiy).
Ae?oaee oii i?noeoue aeiaeaoee, ui neeaaeathoueny c oaenoiai? /anoeie
(45 i?ae?icae?e?a), aeiiii?aeiiai ?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo (359
?enoie?a).

INIIAIEE CI?NO

Ia?oee ?icae?e — «?noi??ia?ao?y iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa Aieei?
2-? iie. XVIII-XIX nono. : aeina?ae ? eaeoie» — i?enay/aiee
ocaaaeueiaiith iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.
Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue i?aoe? O?O no., ui ?ice?eaathoue niaoeeo?eo
noni?eueiiai ono?ith oa ?noi?e/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe
a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. Iaea?eueo
aaaeeea? — ?iaioe I.N.A?ooaanueeiai, I.I.Aaothoeiaa, A.A?ao/eeiaa,
N.I.Ea?aoieeiaa, A.A.Aioiiiae/a oa ?i. A aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi???
ianaeaieo ioieo?a, iai’yoie eoeueoo?e oa a?o?oaeoo?e Aieei? iii?oi?
?iaia ?noi?ee?a-e?a?ciaaoe?a I.?.Oaiaei?iae/a, E.?aoaeuenueeiai,
A.Naiaeoeuenueeiai, I.A.Oioeinueeiai oa ?i. Nooo?aei ? cia/aiiy i?aoeue
N.?onniaa oa A.Ai?ii?ia, ye? aena?oeththoue nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia
i?aea?oioy i?inoi?iaiai no?oeoo?oaaiiy i?nueeeo iinaeaiue Aieei?,
o?aaiaioa?ii oi?eath/enue iaeaoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Ie?aii a?aecia/ai? i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo-no/aniee?a, oae /e ?iaeoa
iia’ycaieo ?c aeine?aeaeoaaiith oaiaoeeith: TH.N.An??aa, A.?.Aa?aiiae/a,
I.I.Aiaeiaaithe, I.A. Eaneea, ?.I.Eiaaeia, A.A.Ia?e?ii?,
TH.TH.Iaeueaianueeiai, I.I.Ieaeiee, ?.I.Ie?eieea, I.A.?e/eiaa, ?.Ae.
?iaee/e?ia, I.?.?iaee/e?ii?, A.?.Oeiio??iea, O.I.O?aaoaiai?,
A.?.ssn??ae/a oa ?i. I?noiaoae?aaeueieo oa ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueieo
aniaeo?a o ?aceaeaioe?iiaeueiiio aoae?aieoeoa? Oe?a?ie oi?eathoueny ?yae
aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ia?o, cie?aia A.A.Caaieioiiai, I.?.E?anaeueiiai,
A.A.Eicthe?ia, TH.TH.Iaeueaianueeiai oa ?i. Eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y
TH.TH.Iaeueaianueeiai «I?eioeeiu ainnoaiiaeaiey e nia?aiaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey aeai?oeiai-ia?eiauo ainaiaeae Oe?aeineie NNN?» (1990 ?.)
aeecueea ca ia’?eoii aea/aiiy aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaiith. Iaeiae,
caaaeaiiy, iinoaaeai? a ?iaio?, ae??ooaaeenue o ieiuei? ?aeiino?oeoe??
oa iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy ainaiae?a ?, iniiaia — ia?e?a ye ?o
no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a, ioiiethth/e oa?eoi??th on??? ?anioae?ee. Aaoi? ia
noaaea ca iaoo i?iaanoe eiiieaeniee aiae?c ?aa?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee
i?noiaoae?aaeueieo ? a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iaeo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo
ainaiae?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo nooi ia?eiaeo eiiiiceoe?e cae?eniai?
o ?iaioao oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a A.Ae.AEe?iiaa, ?.I.Eina?aanueeiai,
A.E.Eeie, ?.Ae.?iaee/e?ia oa ?i., ?in?enueeeo — I.N.?aaiaoeiai?,
A.A.Ai?ioiaa, A.I.Aa?aoiiaa, I.A.Aeieo/a?ai?, ?i., iieuenueeeo-
A.*ieaea, A.ssieianueeiai, ?i. Ca aeiyoeii iaeeie/ieo i?eeeaae?a,
aieeinueea naaeiai-ia?eiaa ienoaoeoai ooo i?aeoe/ii ia i?aaenoaaeaia.

Iaia?an?/ieie ca cia/aiiyi ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca aeaiith oaiaoeeith,
cae?enithaai? iieuenueeeie ?noi??ia?aoaie, a?o?oaeoo?i- oa
e?a?ciaaoeyie. Aaaaoee oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae i?noeoueny o iaioa?i?e
e?oa?aoo?? oa iioae?eiaaieo iiaei?iaei?o iioaoeao (O?O no.), na?aae
aaoi??a yeeo A.Aiaeaeaeianueeee, A?ueiaeue-Ieyoa?, ss.Eicueiyi,
ss.Ae.Ioioeueeee, ?i. Niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny
I.Aae?iuenueeei, O.E?i?iuenueeei, TH.?.E?aoaanueeei, ?.Iia?oeueeei,
A.Ioacaeaoeueeei oa ?i. Iniaeeai aaaeeeaeie ? i?aoe? c aeaea?aeiciaanoaa
oa ?noi??ia?ao?? ?aa?iio Aieei?, aeeiiai? O.?.Noaoeueeei oa
A.ssaeiiianueeei, aea iaeiei c aniaeo?a ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeoiia
aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Caneoaiaothoue
ia oaaao /eneaii? i?aoe?, iioae?eiaai? ia ii/. XX no. ? a i?aeai?iiee
ia??iae: TH.Aeoi?i-Ea?aeoeueeei, ss.A?aeeoeueeei, N.Ea?aeaoaae/ai,
I.I?eiae/ai, O.Iaiueeianueeei, O.Ia?eianueeei, N.Eicith, ss.Aioiaiii, c
iaeyaeo ia iayaio a ieo oaeoia?ao?th. O i?neyai?iiee ia??iae
a?aecia/athoueny ?iaioe c ?noi??? o?aai?noeee oa a?o?oaeoo?e, aeeiiai?
I.Aiaooeueeith, ?.Nainiiiae/ai, A.Ooaa?inueeei, ?.Eiaaeue/eeii,
I.Ea?iia?/ai, O.Ca?aianueeith, A.Ae?ia?oai,
C.Eoeaeianueeith-Oiiieuenueeith, A.E?anianueeei, A.I?eiaaiaenueeei,
C.Iaoeianueeei, ?i. Noee?noeea ? oeiieia?y iaeaoeiaeo ainaiae?a,
oai?/?noue ie?aieo ciae/eo a?aeia?aaeaia o i?aoeyo I.Eayoeianueeiai,
N.Ei?aiooea, A.?iooa?ioiaea, A.Oaoa?eaae/a, O.N.ss?ioaanueeiai, ?i.
Iaeiae, i?aeoe/ii ia i?aaenoaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieuenueeeo a/aieo ia
i?aaeiao a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iaeo iniaeeainoae iaeeo naaeea Aieei?.
I?ciaaaeueia cia/aiiy iathoue iioae?eiaai? ?eiiia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee
XVIII-XIX no., aaoi?e yeeo — A.Eyiaa, I.I?aea, A.Iae??,
TH.A?eue/einueeee, A.??ooa? oa ?i. Iaaieioaii ia iiioey?ecaoe??
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa a iieuenueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo: «Tygodnik ilustrowany», «Klosy», «Wies
ilustrowana», «Ziemia», «Noieeoea e onaaeueaa» («AEo?iae e?aneaie
aeecie») oa ?i.

Iaea?eueo ia’?iiith oaeoia?ao?/iith i?aoeath inoaiiueiai aeanyoee?ooy,
iaeo?ni?oa iia’ycaiith c oaiith aeaii? aeena?oaoe??, ? aaaaoioiiia
aeaeaiiy iieuenueeiai aeine?aeieea ?.Aooaiace «Maoa??aee aei ?noi???
?aceaeaioe?e», aea aieiaiei aenooia? ?noi?e/iee eiioaeno oa ?aoaeuei?
?icooee ia?oiaeaea?ae. Iaeiae, a?o?aae??, ui ? iaaeaaiiyi ioca?a,
a?ae?ioae, a?o?a?a, Oe?a?ie aeine?aeieeii iaeaea ia a?aeia?aaeai?.

Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei a iaiiaeeeaei aac ii?aoethaaiiy oiiae?a, ui
i?noyoueny o Oeaio?aeueiiio Aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie (i.
Ee?a, Euea?a), iaeanieo Aea?aeaaieo a?o?aao Aieeinueei?, AEeoiie?nueei?,
??aiainueei? iaeanoae, Ino?icueeiio oa Aeoai?anueeiio
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo caiia?aeieeao, oiiaeao Aieeinueeiai,
AEeoiie?nueeiai, ??aiainueeiai, Oiaeueieoeueeiai e?a?ciaa/eo ioca?a,
Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a), iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? AI Oe?a?ie (i. Euea?a), iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.O?aiea. C /enea ca?oa?aeieo aeei?enoai?
iaoa??aee ca??ie a?ae?ioaee oa iocath *a?oi?eenueeeo o i.E?aeia?
(Iieueua), eaa?iaoo a?aath? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iocath, a?aeae?eo a?ao?/ieo
ca??ie oa ?oeiien?a iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ssaaeeiinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao E?ae?anueeiai ai?aiaenoaa ? i. E?aeiaa (a?aeae?e ia
Aaaae?) oa ?eiiia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee Eaa?iaoo a?aath? a?ae?ioaee
Aa?oaanueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa ?i.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e — «?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa ia Aieei? o 2-?e iieiaei? XVIII-XIX nono.» i?enay/aiee
aiae?co iniiaieo ci?i o noni?eueiiio aeeoo?, ye? ni?eyee aaoiiii?caoe??
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai ciae/anoaa ye naiino?eiiai a?aaeo a?o?oaeoo?ii?
oai?/ino?.

Nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ia niaoeeo?ea ?aa?iio iieyaaea o eiai aea?aeaai?e
iaeaaeiino? iine?aeiaii aei ?a/? Iiniieeoi? (aei 1795 ?.) oa ?in?enueei?
?iia??? (a?ae 1795 ?. ? aei e?ioey aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo) Iie?oe/i?
ci?ie i?ecaaee aei ci?i o nioe?aeuei?e no?oeoo?? ianaeaiiy aieeinueeeo
i?no, na?oiaeyaei?e ia?ai???ioaoe?? ae?oe noni?euenoaa. Aieeinuee?
caie? ii/aee ?ioaineaii «inaithaaoe» iia? iaaiaonuee? ?iaeeie, a ca ieie
— na?aaeiy oa ae??aia oeyooa. ?io?eueo?aoe?y oeyooe aei i?no oa iaaeaiiy
?e an?eyeeo i?ea?ea?a o ii??aiyii? c i?uainoaii ciaiooaaea noeioee o
?icaeoeo eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai i?noa, i?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

I?eaaoia iaeaaei?noue i?no Aieei? o XVII-XVIII nono. iaeeaea na?e
a?aeaeoie ia o?aai?caoe?ei? i?ioeane. ?icaeoie ainiiaea?ee ni?eya
aeiiii?/iiio i?aeeiio ?, ye iane?aeie — o?iainiaiio ? iaeiiaiio
ci?oeiaiith aeanieea. Ca?aene, iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe eieaoe?ei?,
eoeueoo?ieoeuee? aeoe??, iia’ycai? ?c i?inoi?iaei ?icaeoeii i?no ?
caeeaaeaiiyi ?aceaeaioe?e. Eii?aeeioth/ei oeaio?ii o aeeoo? i?noa a
na?aaeei? XVIII no. noaea ?aceaeaioe?y, ui ao?ethaaea
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iee noaoon, ?a?iiaenueeee niae oa iaeaaei?noue aei
eaoeinueei? a??e ?? aeanieea. Ca nai???aeio iiaeaeue o noni?eueieo
a?aeiineiao 2-? iie. XVI-I iie. XVIII no. aoee acyo? a?aeiia?aei?
noi?iie aeeooy Aiae??, ?oae??, I?ia//eie, O?aioe??, ca?aeoe ae
caiice/oaaeenue aeaiaioe o?einio?? I?ina?oieoeoaa, eoeueoo?ii-aoe/i?
ii?ie, canaaee a?o?oaeoo?iiai oi?iioai?aiiy. Ianooaaia iaeaoeiaa
aoae?aieoeoai, caii/aoeiaaia ua o I iie. XVIII no. ia?aaaaeii oeyoii
ia?aiaeaaeiaiiy iai?iiieo caie?a, aei e?ioey noie?ooy aeeoei ia ??aaiue
oeiieia?/ii naiino?eii? a?oie.

Iinooiia? ci?ie o no?oeoo?? aeaniino? o I-?e iie. XIX no., ?ioeo noa?ao
noni?eueiiai aeeooy ni?e/eieee ? aei ci?ie ci?noo iiaeo ?aceaeaioe?e, ui
o oie ia??iae aoee iieeeeai? ci?oeithaaoe iao??ioeci iieuenueei? iaoe??,
c iaeyaeo ia iiooaeiee ?aeaieia?/iee ianooi ?in??. 2-a iie. XIX no. o
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? iicia/aia caiaiaaeii cia/ii?
e?eueeino? ainaiae?a, ui iia’ycoaaeinue ?c iaaoaeoeai?noth o?eueaa?eiai?
oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? o?iainiaith iani?iiiaei?noth aeaniee?a
oo?eioaaoe nai? ?aceaeaioe??. Caaaeaiiy iiaeo aoae?aaeue aoei
oi?eaeueiei yaeuai. A?eueo iioe?aiith iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. aoea
iiaea?i?caoe?y noa?eo naaeea a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeo aeiia eiioi?oiino?.
Iniaeeao ?ieue o ?icaeoeo iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa i?ioyaii 2-?
iie. XVIII-XIX nono., ye ? a iiia?aaei? noie?ooy, a?ae?a?aaaei
eoeueoo?o?aaa?noai e?oiii? a?enoie?ao??, ui ao?eeeinue o aoae?aieoeoa? ?
iniauaii? aeanieo ?aceaeaioe?e, cae?enithaaiiio ca o/anoth ciae/eo,
ooaeiaeiee?a, neoeueioi??a, o ooiaeaoe?? /eneaiieo eoeueoiaeo
aoae?aaeue, iaeiie/aii? o iaeaoeao ienoaoeueeeo ca??ie, oe?iieo
a?o?aae?e oa a?ae?ioae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «Iniiai? /eiieee oi?ioaaiiy iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo
ainaiae?a» — aena?oeth?oueny eiiieaen iniiaieo oaeoi??a, ui coiiaeee
eiie?aoi? oeyoe aeeth/aiiy ainaiae?a o i?nueeo ieaioaaeueii-i?inoi?iao
no?oeoo?o, a oaeiae caeaaei?noue ?o eieaoe?? a?ae i?noeaaeo oiia.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ?aceaeaioe?e Aieei? o 2-?e iie. XVIII no.
oi?ioaaeenue ia oa?ai? ?noi?e/ieo i?no oa i?noa/ie. ?icaeyaeathoueny
iniiai? aa??aioe ?icoaooaaiiy ?aceaeaioe?e o ?o i?inoi?ia?e no?oeoo??.
Ia ia?oiio aoai? ?icaeoie iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a Aieei?
a?aeaoaaany ia iniia? na?aaeiueia?/ieo caie?a, oi?ioth/e
ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eio ia?o «ainaiaeue-caiie». Aeae?eaii o?e
iiaeae? aaciaiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy: ceeooy aeaiaio?a ia?e o eaoaai??th
«?aceaeaioe?y» (Ieeea, Ei?aoeue oa ?i.); aaiaoe/ia ii?aeiaiiy i?noey
eieeoiueiai oe??ieaiiy oa iiainoai?thaaiiai ainaiaeth (??aia,
Aeoi?aaoeue, Caneaa oa ?i.); i?inoi?iaa «?icaeai?iiy» caieo,
aiane?aeie yeiai ia iia?e oa?eoi??? cae?enithaaeinue caeeaaeaiiy iiaiai
ainaiaeth (Oo/ei, Ethaiieue oa ?i.). Iniaeeai iaaieioo?oueny ia
i?noiaoae?aaeueiiio cia/aii? eieaoe?eieo aeoe?e, i?iaaaeaieo o Caneaa?
oa Iieiiiiio. ?icaeyioo? iaaaaaoi/eneaii? aeiaaeee oi?ioaaiiy
naaeeae-«aeoaea?a» ia oa?eoi??? ianaeaiiai ioieoo oa /eiieee, ui
aeeeeeaee iiae?aio neooaoe?th. Ie?aii i?iaiae?ciaaii nooi?iue eiioaeo?a
ainaiae?a ?aceaeaioe?e c iniiaieie ia’?iii-i?inoi?iaeie aeaiaioaie
i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua, cie?aia aa??aioe eiiiiceoe?eiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
«?aceaeaioe?y — ?eieiaa ieiua»: a?aee?eoino? ainaiaeth ia ?eiie
(Eaaoiue); ni?ainiiai ?icoaooaaiiy ainaiaeth ? ?eieo (Ei?aoeue);
i?eieeaiiy ainaiaeth aei iaei??? c aieiaieo aoeeoeue (*oaei?a oa ?i.).

Iaea?eueo iiooaei? ? noaa?euei? ieaioaaeueii-i?inoi?ia? ca’ycee
cao?eniaaii i?ae ainaiaeyie ?aceaeaioe?? ? eoeueoiaeie nii?oaeaie.
Aecia/aiee nooi?iue ?ioaineaiino? ca’yce?a ainaiae?a c eoeueoiaeie
nii?oaeaie i?aaineaaii?, eaoieeoeueei? oa ?oaeaenueei? eiioan?e.
Oi?ioaaiith a?aeiia?aeieo ineoieia?/ieo ianoaiia o i?nuee?e ni?eueiio?
oa iineeaiith aiioe?eii-anoaoe/iiai ni?eeiyooy na?aaeiaeua ni?eyea
aca?iii iaoiiaeaia eieaoe?y eaoieeoeueeeo eoeueoiaeo ? iaeaoeiaeo
aoae?aaeue o Caneaa?, ??aiiio, Aeoi?aoe?, *oaeiia? oa ?i.

Iacaeaaeii a?ae /ano canioaaiiy ?aceaeaioe??, ni?a?nioaaiiy ainaiaeth ?
eaoieeoeueeiai o?aio ? iniaeeai o?niei ? i/aaeaeiei, aea eiaeiiai ?aco
nooi?iue i?inoi?iaiai eiioaeoo nooi ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee (Eaaoiue,
Aeoa?iaeoey oa ?i.). O ?-?e iie. XIX no. ia’?eoe naia eaoieeoeueeiai
eoeueoo, ye i?aaeei, noathoue aeaiaioaie aioo??oiuei? ooieoe?iiaeueii?
oa ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e eiaeiiai iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai ainaiaeth.
O?aaeeoe?y noai?aiiy eiiieaeno ainaiaeth ?aceaeaioe?? ? eoeueoiai?
nii?oaee o aio/eiiiio ia?oeo aeaee ii/aoie ? oa?aeoa?iiio aeey ?aa?iio
Aieei? oeio n?euenueei? naaeeae — «aeai?aea», oi?iaeueii yaeyth/e
niaith iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeaiaio?a na?iaoecio, ye ?aeaieia?? oa
niiniao aeeooy cia/ii? /anoeie na?aaeiuei? oeyooe ia Aieei? (Iaeaiei,
Aaeeoeuee, Eaooaea).

Aaciina?aaei?e eiioaeo ainaiaeth ?aceaeaioe?? ? aieiaieo aoeeoeue aoa
iano?eueee o?aaeeoe?eiei, iane?eueee /anoi aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia’?eo
?icoaoiaoaaany ii?yae c oeaio?aeueiith ieiuath (Aeoaii oa ?i.);
aeoeaioaoe?y ?o ieaioaaeueii? ?ie? cae?enithaaeany oeyoii caaa?oaiiy
aoee/ii? ia?niaeoeae eiiieaenii iaeaoeiaeo aoae?aaeue (Aaeee? Iaaee??/?
(Ei?aoeuee?). Eieae?caoe?y ?aceaeaioe?? a?aeiinii ciai?oi?o aei??a o?nii
iia’ycaia c oaiaeaioe??th e?ioey XVIII-I-i? iie. XIX nono. aei aeianaiiy
ainaiae?a ca i?nuee? iaae? ia ia?aaei?noy, ye? oi?ioaaeeny iaaeiei
aieiaieo i?ae’?cieo eiioi?eaoe?e (??aia, Neaaooa). A?aecia/aia
no?oeoo?iooai?thth/a ?ieue oe??? a?oie ?aceaeaioe?e. ?icaeyiooi aa??aio
aca?iiiai ?icoaooaaiiy naaeeae ? ianaeaiiai ioieoo ca i?eioeeiii
«?aceaeaioe?y ii?yae», iaea?eueo iioe?aiee o iaaaeeeeo i?eaaoieo
i?noa/eao (Ai?aiaeue, Ieei?a). A?aecia/aia aeiyoeia?noue iiae?aii?
eieaoe?? a naeao.

Aiae?c i?e?iaeieo /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei?
eiiiiceoe?? iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a aeyaea iniaeeaino? ?o ae?? ia
eiioeaioe?th i?inoi?iaiai neoothaaiiy ? aaiethoe?? ?aceaeaioe?e a
oe?eiio. Caoeni? aeanoeaino? i?noeaaino? aecia/aee aea?? ae?eyiee i?ae
iaeaooith ?aceaeaioe?th aei na?aaeeie XVIII no., iinooiiai ci?ieee nai?
ci?noiaia iaiiaiaiiy. I?inoi?iaa aeii?ioaaiiy ?aceaeaioe??, ?icoaoiaaii?
ia i?aeaeuaii?, i?ioyaii 2-? iie. XVIII-ii/. XIX nono. i?aee?anethaaei
oi?eaeuei?noue ? /?euei?noue ainaiaeth uiaei ?ioeo ieaioaaeueieo
aeaiaio?a i?noa (i?noa/ea). Aiaeia?/io (caoenio) ooieoe?th ia iaaiiio
aoai? aeeiioaaee ia Aieei? i?e?iaei? aiaeieie. C /anii ?o o?aeooaaiiy ye
i?e?iaeieo aa?’???a a?aeoiaeeoue o ieioea, ci?ithth/enue aeoeaiei
aeeth/aiiyi o no?oeoo?o iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a o yeino? aeaiaio?a
iiai? anoaoeee ? iia’ycoth/enue c iaaiei naiaioe/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi.
Aiaei? ieana aeeth/aeenue o ciaeia? nenoaie i?eiaeaoeiaeo ia?e?a, iaee
oaeiae ainiiaea?nueei-oaeeoeiaa i?ecia/aiiy.

Iaaaaeaii ie?ai? i?eeeaaee a?aeoiaeo a?ae caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo ii?i oa
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?e oe?ioi?e i???ioaoe?? eiiiiceoe?eiiai yae?a
ainaiaeth ?, cie?aia, iaeaoeiaeo aoae?aaeue, coiiaeai? ?nioth/ith
i?noiaoae?aaeueiith neooaoe??th, ui noaei iaei??th c i?e/ei oaeaeei?
?oeiaoe?? aaaaoueio ainaiae?a. Ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiiiiceoe?ei?
aca?iica’ycee i?e?iaeiiai ioi/aiiy ? ?aceaeaioe?? iineeeeenue
iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no., aoee aeooaeueieie i?ioyaii onueiai XIX no.
Ii?aeiaiiy cae?enithaaeinue aeeth/aiiyi e?niaeo ianea?a o no?oeoo?o
ia?eiaeo cii, iineethth/e i?aai?/i?noue eiioaeoo aio?iiiaaiiiai oa
i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaoo?a.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e — «A?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iaee ?icaeoie
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a» — i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo caeiiii??iinoae
oi?ioaaiiy ?o aioo??oiuei? ooieoe?iiaeueii? oa ia’?iii-i?inoi?iai?
eiiiiceoe??, ?icaeoeo noeeueiaeo iciae eiiieaen?a a oe?eiio oa ?o
ie?aieo aeaiaio?a. Cae?eniaii ni?iao aecia/eoe ooieoe?iiaeueio iiaeaeue
nenoaie aeeoo?aeo i?ioean?a ana?aaeei? iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a.
?icaeyiooi neeaaeia? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ea?eano ?aceaeaioe?e ? ci?ie ?o
«ieoiii? aaae» i?e ?icieaioaaii? ainaiae?a, ui ??cieeeny o?iiieia?/ii.
Aeae?eythoueny ooieoe??, ui aecia/eee oa?aeoa? ciioaaiiy oa?eoi???:
?ai?acaioaoeaia, ?ae?aaoe?eia, aaei?i?no?aoeaia, ainiiaea?nueea oa
eiioi?eaoe?eia.

Aeii?ioaaiiy ?ai?acaioaoeaii? ooieoe?? a?aecia/aia o i?ciueiaa?ieiaeo oa
?aiiueieeaneoeenoe/ieo ainaiaeyo Aieei?, ui ca i?eioeeiiaeie
i?aeoiaeaie aei noai?aiiy i?inoi?iai? eiiiiceoe?? i?aeoe/ii ia
a?ae??ciyeeny. O e?ioe? XVIII-ia ii/. XIX no. i?e iiaeaeueo?e
aeii?iaoe?? ia?aaeii? ooieoe?? ??aiicia/iith noa? ?ae?aaoe?eia,
aecia/a?oueny /?oea ciioaaiiy oa?eoi??? ainaiaeth: «ia?aaeiee i?ino??»-
«iaeaoe» — «?ae?aaoe?y» (Eonoei, Oo/ei). I?ioean c?inoaiiy cia/aiiy
?ae?aaoe?eii-eaiaeoaooiiai aeaiaioo a?aeaoaaany ua ?ioaineai?oa aei 40-o
?. XIX no., i?e oeueiio ia?aaeia ciia caiaeeeany aei i?i?iaeueieo
?ici???a.

Neoothaaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? ciie o e?oiieo ?aceaeaioe?yo a?ae 50-o ?.
XVIII no. ? aei e?ioey oeueiai ae noie?ooy cae?enithaaeinue ia oa?eoi???
?ae?aaoe?? (??aia, Ai?aiaeue) aai ca ?? iaaeaie (Aeoi?aaoeue, I?ci/); o
na?aaei?o oa iaeeo naaeeaao i?ine?aeeiao?oueny oa?eoi??aeueia cieeaiiy
ia?aaeii? ? ainiiaea?nueei? cii (?ioe?, Aeueeone). Ia ?aiiueiio aoai?
(e?iaoeue XVIII no.) ainiiaea?nueeee aea?? oi?ioaaany aaciina?aaeiuei
ia?aae ia?aaeiei (Eaaoiue, Oo/ei), ia ianooiiiio — ainiiaea?nuee?
aoae?ae? ?icoaoiaoaaeenue acaeiaae aieiaii? in?(Ai?aiaeue,Ieei?a oa ?i).
Ii/eiath/e c 80-o ?. XVIII no. a?aeaoaa?oueny i?inoi?iaa aaoiiii?caoe?y
ainiiaea?nueei? ciie, yea o?ainoi?io?oueny o ae?iaie/o, eieiaaio aaea ia
oa?eoi??? ianaeaiiai ioieoo (Ei?aoeue, Neaaooa). A?aecia/aia oaiaeaioe?y
aei oa?eoi??aeueiiai caeeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii (ia?aaeii? ?
ainiiaea?nueei?) o 2-?e iie. XIX no. oeyoii aaaaeaiiy o ieaioaaeueio
no?oeoo?o oeaio?o naaeeae ainiiaea?nueeeo aoae?aaeue.

Iie?ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue ?aceaeaioe?e coiiaeea oe?ieo iiiaieeaoo?o
aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae, ye? oiiaii ?icae?eai? ia o?e a?oie: iaeaoeia?
aoae?ae?, aeiiia? eaieeoe?; ia?eia? nii?oaee, nii?oeai? nii?oaee
(e?iaoeue O?O no.) — oai?ni? ei?oe oa iaeaeai/eee aeey a?e a eaae?;
neoaeaia? oa ainiiaea?nuee? aoae?ae?.

Ie?aii ?icaeyaeathoueny caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy ia’?iii-i?inoi?iaeo
eiiiiceoe?e. Aeae?eaii iniiai? oeyoe e?enoae?caoe?? ainaiae?a:
o?ainoi?iaoe?y caieiaeo eiiieaen?a o iaeaoeiai-ia?eia?, oi?ioaaiiy
ainaiae?a «aaiethoe?eiei» oeyoii, caeeaaeaiiy ? caaaeaiiy ainaiae?a ca
?aeeiei caaeoiii ? a ?noi?e/ii ei?ioeee i?ii?aeie /ano. O?ainoi?iaoe?y
ii?aeueii canoa??eeo caieiaeo eiiieaen?a iaea ca iaoo i?aai?/ia ?o
aeeth/aiiy a caaaeueiee i?inoi?iai-/aniaee eiioaeno ioi/aiiy.
Aiae?cothoueny iniiai? eiioeaioe?? ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaiiai caaaeaiiy:
«cae?eoa» (Ei?aoeue oa ?i.), «iai?aa?aee?eoa» (Aeoaii oa ?i.),
«a?aee?eoa» (Caneaa). ?icaeyaeathoueny aa??aioe i?inoi?iaiai
?icoaooaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?e (ia?e?a) i?e o?ainoi?iiaaieo caieiaeo
eiiieaenao.

Iaea?eueoa iaoeiaa caoe?eaaeaiiy neeaaea? a?oia iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo
eiiieaen?a, noi?iiaaieo aaiethoe?eiei oeyoii (Aioii?ie, Aeoi?aaoeue,
Nii?aeaa). I?inoaaeai? a?o?oaeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?ei? i?eeiie
o?aioeocueeiai, aiae?enueeiai, ?oae?enueeiai ciae/anoaa, canoiniaoaai? ?
iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeai? ia Aieei?. I?e caa?aaeaii? ca iaeaoeiaith
aoae?aeath /?eueiiai i?noey o i?inoi?iai-ieaioaaeuei?e no?oeoo??
eiiieaeno, a?aeaoaa?oueny «cieeaiiy» a?o?oaeoo?iiai i?inoi?o ia?aae
iaeaoeii ? i?e?iaeiiai i?inoi?o iica iei (Aeoi?aaoeue) aai «iiaeeiaiiy»
ae?oaiai ia?oei (Iiaa *a?oi?ey) i?e iaci?iiino? ia?a?niiai ea?eano
i?eiaeaoeiai? ciie. I?iaiae?ciaai? aa??aioe ?icoaooaaiiy eiiieaeno
ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae, aeae?eai? iaea?eueo iioe?ai? noaie:
eieae?caoe?y ia ia?eoa??? ciie (??aia, Iiaa *a?oi?ey); acaeiaae
aieiaii? in? ainaiaeth; ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei ia?.

Eiiiiceoe?ei? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a, noai?aieo
ca ?aeeiei caaeoiii, o cia/i?e i??? aiaeia?/i? ?icaeyiooei aeua. Iaeiae,
iniaeea?noue aeacaieo ia’?eo?a — o canoinoaaii? ? caa?aaeaii? a /an?
«/enoeo» eiiiiceoe?eieo i?eeii?a, ye? i?aaenoaaeyee eiie?aoiee
?noi?e/iee ia??iae oa a?aeiia?aeiee a?o?oaeoo?iee noeeue. Iaea?eueo
iiioey?iei ia Aieei? o 2-?e iie. XVIII no. aoa «iaeeaae?ainueeee» oei
eiiiiceoe??. Iaeaoeiaee ei?ion ii?aeioaaany ?c neoaeaiaeie oe?aaeyie
(iaa?eueeiiaie) ca aeiiiiiaith aa?aiooeo aaea?ae, ooai?thth/e
ia?aaeiaeaoeiaee eo?aeiia? (Ai?aiaeue, Aaeee? Iaaee??/? (Ei?aoeuee?),
??aia). Canoinoaaiiy iiae?aiiai i?eeiio iaei i?noea ? o i?ci?o
?aceaeaioe?yo (i?ioyaii XIX no.). ??cieoey iieyaaea o oi?iae?caoe??
i?aeoiae?a aei caaaeueii? eiiiiceoe?? (Aoaeaie oa ?i.). Iaaaeee?
oeyoaonuee? naaeeae oaae ?icieaiiaoaaeenue a?aeiia?aeii aei eeane/ieo
eaiii?a, iane?aeoth/e e?oii? ainaiae? (?ioe?, Oo?e/aie). Iniaeea?noue
iieyaaea o aeiaaio?eaaeino? aeio?eiaiiy aeuaicia/aieo i?eeii?a o oe?e
a?oi? ainaiae?a (any 1-a iie. XIX no.).

Iinooiiaee a?aeo?ae a?ae no?iai? ???a?o?/ii? iiaoaeiae ainaiaeth
niinoa??aa?oueny ia Aieei? ia ii/. XIX no. ?icaeyaea?oueny oi?eaeueiee
ia?ao?aeiee c?acie a?ae ?aaoey?ii? aei aeeaiienii? eiiiiceoe??,
i?iaeaiiino?iaaiee o naaeeaiiio eiiieaen? n.Nai/eee. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
on?o ainaiae?a, noai?aieo ia iniia? ??aiicia/iino? no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a, aoei iaia’yceiaa caa?aaeaiiy i?i?iaeueii? ia?aaeii? ciie
ia?aae aoae?aeath iaeaoeo. Iai?yi aieiaii? eiiiiceoe?eii? in? aecia/aa
aeeiai?/ia iine?aeiaia ni?eeiyooy aieiaieo ainaiaeaaeo aoae?aaeue (Iiaa
*a?oi?ey, *i?ia) ia a?aei?io a?ae o?iioaeueiiai o eeaneoeenoe/ieo
?aceaeaioe?yo.

Ie?aii aeine?aeaeothoueny ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/i? iniaeeaino? aaiethoe??
iaeaoe?a, yea a?aeaoaaeany i?ae aieeaii o?aineueiaaii? /a?ac oa?eoi??th
?a/? Iiniieeoi? ?a?iiaenueei? a?o?oaeoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??, o?aaeeoe??
aeania iieuenueei?, a i?ioyaii XIX no. — ?in?enueei?. Ia Aieei? o 2-?e
iie. XVIII no. aeinya aiiaath naiai ?icaeoeo oei n?euenue-

ei? naaeeae — «aeai?ae» ?c niaoeeo?/ieie noee?noe/ieie iciaeaie.

Aa?ieia? iaeaoee ia Aieei? — iaaaaaoi/eneaii?. «O?aioeocueeee»
(o?eae?eueiee) aa??aio ae??oaiiy ?o ia’?io aoa i?aai?/iei aeey Aieei? c
iaeyaeo ia aaiaoe/io nii??aeiai?noue oaeiai /eaioaaiiy c a?o?oaeoo?ith
iai?iiieo caie?a (Aeoi?aaoeue, Iiaiiaeei, ??aia). Ci?ia noee?noe/ieo
i???ioe??a (a?ae i?ciueiaa?ieiaeo aei ?aiiueieeaneoeenoe/ieo)
iaoa??ae?ciaaia o iaeaoeiaiio ei?ion? Caneaanueeiai ainaiaeth.
Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeaye? iaeaoeia? aoae?ae?, caaaeai? a noee? ?ieiei
(A?eoe?a, Aeoi?aaoeue, ??aia). Oi?ioaaiiy aioo??oiueiai i?inoi?o
(ieaioaaeueii? noaie) oaeiae a?aeaoaaeinue ca ???a?o?/iei i?eioeeiii.
A?aecia/a?oueny iaia’yceiaa ?icoaooaaiiy ia?aaeieo aia?oaiaio?a ia
ae?oaiio iiaa?n?, a?aeiia?aeii, neoaeaiaeo — ia ia?oiio; eiio?ao?aoe?y
iiaa?o?a — i?aeoe/ii ?aeaioe/ia. A?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a
aoae?aaeue no?iai a?aeiia?aeaea ciai?oiueiio ia’?io. I?ine?aeeiao?oueny
oneeaaeiaiiy aioo??oiueiai ?icieaioaaiiy a?ae aio?eaaeii? nenoaie
?icoaooaaiiy i?ei?uaiue (Aeoi?aaoeue) aei ?o aeainoi?iiiueiai ?ici?uaiiy
(Iiaiiaeei, ??aia). Ae??oaiiy neoaeaiaeo oe?aae?a i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeinue
caaaeueiei caeiiii??iinoyi no?oeoo?ii? iiaoaeiae ainaiaeth.

Iae/eneaii?oo a?oio neeaaeathoue eeaneoeenoe/i? iaeaoee. I?ney o?aoueiai
?icae?eo Iieueu? ? aei 1863 ?. ?aceaeaioe?? a?ae?a?aaaee ?ieue
nai???aeieo iao??ioe/ieo oeaio??a, aeei?enoiaoth/e aeey oeueiai no?iaee
a?iiaaeyinueeee noeeue eeaneoeecio. Oioaeueia caiice/aiiy c?ace?a
aiae?enueei? (iaiiaeeaae?ainueei?), o?aioeocueei?, caiaeii — ?in?enueei?
a?o?oaeoo?e, iia’ycoaaeeny o na?aeiiino? caiiaeii? oa na?aaeiuei? oeyooe
c iiiyooyi «/oaeicaiueie» ye o i?ioeanao oi?iioai?aiiy, oae ? a niinia?
aeeooy. Ia caiiaeaiiy iaaiao?a ia Aieei? i?aoethaaee a?o?oaeoi?e
Ae.Ia?e?i?, A.O?aaa?, O.A.Oeoa, A.?ooa?, ss.Eoa?oeueeee, Ia?e, A.Ia?eii?
oa ?i., ia?eiaoae?aie/? Ao?a?iueeii, Eaeca?, Ae.I?eea?. A?eueo?noue c
ieo iioiaeeee c-ca iaae Iieueu? /e oi ?in??. Ii/eiath/e c e?ioey 70-o
??. XVIII no., caiaeyoueny /eneaii? eeaneoeenoe/i? iaeaoee e?oiii?
a?enoie?ao?? (Eaaoiue, Ieei?a (iaeaeaa — a?o. A.O?aaa?), Aaeee?
Iaaee??/? (Ei?aoeuee?), Eonoei (iaeaeaa — a?o. O.-A.Oeoa); iaeaoe
Ethaiie?nueeeo ia oa?eoi??? Aeoai?anueeiai caieo (a?o. Ae.Ia?e?i?).
*aniaee a?aae ?o aoae?aieoeoaa ia Aieei? iaiaaeo?oueny 60-o ?ieaie XIX
no. (a oeae ia??iae caeiiii??iino? oi?iioai?aiiy ?icaeyaeathoueny aaea
ia c iiceoe?? eeaneoeecio, a c iiaeyaeo ianooiath/i? aeeaeoeee). O
aioo??oiueiio ?icieaioaaii? eeaneoeenoe/ieo iaeaoe?a iineethaaeany
ieaioaaeueia aneiao??y, noi?iaiaeaeoaaia iaa?aeiia?aei?noth ciai?oi?i
ia’?iai ? o?iioo oanaae?a, oneeaaeithaaeany a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueia
eiiiiceoe?y aioo??oiueiai i?inoi?o, a?aeaoaaeiny ia?aianaiiy ooieoe??
piano nobile (ia?aaeieo aia?oaiaio?a) ia ia?oee iiaa?o. Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y
i?ei?uaiue ii aenio? a iaaeao iaeiiai iiaa?oo noaea ?acoeueoaoii ao?aoe
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?cieyoe?? iiaa?o?a (ii/. XIX no.). Aiane?aeie oeueiai
?icaeaaeeny ie?ai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeiee, ui ni?eyei caaeiaieaiith
c?inoath/eo aeiia aei eiioi?oiino? i?ioyaii XIX no. I?ioean ci?ie
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo i?ei?uaiue ii iiaa?oao i?ioiaeea
iia?euei?oa, i?ae oi?iaeueia ia?ai???ioaoe?y aoaeeie?a oa aeaoaeae ?o
ieanoeee.

Ia?o? c?acee ?iiaioe/ieo iaeaoeiaeo aoae?aaeue c’yaeeeny ia Aieei? o
80-o ??. XVIII no. Aeacaia a?oia iaeaoe?a iaei/eneaiia: iaiaa?iei
(Aioii?ie, Nii?aeaa), iaiaioeea (A?eie?eieoey, Iiainaeeoey,
E?aniii?eue), iai?aianain (Aaeeea Aeooa, Aea?iaiue), iaieeaneoeeci.
Ii?yae c «/enoeie» c?aceaie noeeth cono??/a?ii i?eeeaaee
?aeiino?oeoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy, ?icaoaeiae eeaneoeenoe/ieo iaeaoe?a c
?iiaioe/ieie iaa?thaaiiyie. Aecia/ai? i?aeoiaee aei o?aeooaaiiy
oeiieia?/ii? iaeaaeiino? a?oie iaiaioe/ieo iaeaoe?a ? iniiai? oeyoe
aeinyaiaiiy noee?noe/ii? ?aeiino? c? nai?i aiae?enueeei i?ioioeiii
(caieii).

Aaaaonoaii, aeooeai?noth, cia/iith iane/ai?noth aeaei?ii
a?aecia/athoueny ia?aaei? ?ioa?’??e aa?ieiaeo iaeaoe?a. Aeey
?aiiueieeaneoeenoe/ieo iaeaoe?a oa?aeoa?ia canoinoaaiiy aeaiaio?a,
o?aaeeoe?eieo aeey iiia?aaeiuei? aiioe. Ci?ie a?aeaoaaeeny o oaiaoeoe?
?icien?a oa e?iieo aeaoaeae. ?iiaioe/i? iano?i? a ?ioa?’??ao noathoue
aeii?ioth/eie c 30-o ?? O?O no. Cia/ia caoe?eaaeaiiy neeaaeathoue
i???ioaeuei? iioeae o ?o aeaei?oaaii? (Nai/eee, Aaeee? Cicoeeioe?).

Aca?iii?iieeiaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo aeaiaio?a aea?aa’yiiai aeeoeiaiai
ciae/anoaa oa eaiii?/ieo aeaoaeae aa?iei, eeaneoeecio ? ?iiaioecio
aee?enoae?coaaei ia Aieei? o 2-?e iie. XVIII no. iaiiaoi?iee ?
canoiniaoaaiee o aeaui ?io?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? eeoa ia i?ai?/iiio Iiae?ee?
oei n?euenueei? oeyoaonueei? naaeeae, ui ?nioaaea o aeaio ??ciiaeaeao:
oae caaiee «iieuenueeee aeai?ae» ? eeaneoeenoe/iee aea?? aai n?euenueeee
iaeaoeee. Iiae?ai?noue i?ae eeaneoeenoe/ieie iaeaoeaie ? aeai?aie ia
ii/. XIX no. iaeneiae?co?oueny, aea i?eioeeiiaa ??cieoey caeeoa?oueny
noaeith, aecia/ath/enue iiaa?oia?noth aai iaeiieiiiiiaioi?noth

O i’yoiio, caeeth/iiio, ?icae?e? «Caeiiii??iino?
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aceaeaioe?iiaeueieo ia?e?a»
?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? aoaie oa iniaeeaino? aaiethoe?? ia?e?a ye
iaa?ae’?iii? /anoeie iaeaoeiaeo ainaiae?a. ?icaeoie naaeiai-ia?eiaiai
ienoaoeoaa ia Aieei? iai/ii aeaiiino?o? aeeth/aiiy ?aa?iio a
?a?iiaenueeee eiioaeno o oe?e aaeoc?. Aiae?enueea oai??y ?icaeoeo
iaecaaeieo ia?e?a noaea aaceniith i?e noai?aii? ?ae?aaoe?eieo cii
ainaiae?a c 70-o ?ie?a XVIII no. I?iia?acii i?e i?aai?caoe?? ia?eiaeo
eaiaeoaoo?a aoee oaeiae naaee ssiii?? oa Eeoath. Iiioey?ecaoe?? iiaeo
eiioeaioe?e o cae?an? ia?eiaoae?aieoeoaa o Iieueu? ni?eyei aeaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue ia aeaio oaiaoeeo.

Caaaeueio eiiiiceoe?th ?ae?aaoe?? neeaaeaee ianooii? no?oeoo?i?
aeaiaioe: naae aeey i?iaoeyiie, ca??eiaoeue, o?oeoiaee naae. C oanoe
aeae?a iaecaaeieo ia?e?a (ca I.A?aeeoeueeei) ia Aieei? cono??/aeeny
ia?aaei?, iaeaioie?ei?, o?, a yeeo aiaea ? aieiaiei aeaiaioii. ?io?
aeaee (?onoeeaeueiee, ianoa?nueeee, no?ao?oeeaee) ia aeae?eythoueny o
i?eiaeaoeiaeo ia?eao ye naiino?ei?, oi?ioth/e ie?ai? naiaioe/i?
ae?eyiee. Iane?aeoaaiiy o?aaeeoe?e cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai
naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa c 1-i? iie. XVIII no. ia Aieei?
ao?ethaaeinue o caeeaaeaii? «?oae?enueeeo» ia?e?a (Aeoi?aaoeue, Aeueeone
oa ?i.) ye iaeiiai c ??ciiaeae?a eeane/ieo aa?ieiaeo naae?a.
«O?aioeocuee?» ia?ee o nai?io o?aaeeoe?eiiio aeaeyae? ia «i?eaeeeeny»
ia Aieei?, canoiniaoaaany eeoa ia?aaeiee ia?aaeiaeaoeiaee ia?oa?,
aeineoue ?icaeiooee i?inoi?iai o i?ciueiaa?ieiaeo oa
?aiiueieeaneoeenoe/ieo ainaiaeyo.

Ia iaae? XVIII-XIX nono. iinoaei caaaeaiiy ?aeiino?oeoe?? aai
?icieaioaaiiy iiaeo ?aceaeaioe?iiaeueieo ia?e?a ia Aieei?. Iaecaaei?
ia?ee ia Aieei? oeueiai ia??iaeo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ye aeaeia? (aeaieia
eeane/i?e o?aaeeoe??), aea iniiaiei aoea i?ia?aiiaai?noue a?coaeueii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ? noai?aiiy iaia’yceiaeo i?inoi?iaeo i???ioe??a. Ie?aii
aecia/ai? iniiai? noaie ?icoaooaaiiy o?oeoiaeo naae?a ia oa?eoi???
?ae?aaoe??. sse iieaciao, i?iaiae?ciaaii eiiiiceoe?th «?oae?enueeiai»
ia?eo ? ainaiaeth a oe?eiio o Ieeiia?. Ieei?anueeee ia?e noaa iaeiei c
ia?oeo ia Aieei?, aea canoiniaoaaeenue a?euei? i?eeiie ieaioaaiiy
i?aeoe/ii ia an?e oa?eoi???, a?aoiaoaaeenue oi?eaeuei? eaiaeoaooi?
iniaeeaino? ae?eyiie. C aeaoooaaiiyi i?aiaea?ae ia oa?eoi??yo
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a iia’ycaia iaeia c noi??i iaoeaiaonoaa
e?oiii? a?enoie?ao??. Ca?iaeaeoth/enue ye aeaieia cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee?e
iiae?, ae?iuoaaiiy oa eieaeoe?iioaaiiy aecioe/ieo ?ineei o i?ioean?
naiai ?icaeoeo ia?aoai?eeinue ia ae?yeuei?noue o aaeoc? aaeaioaoe?? ?o o
iiaeo ee?iaoe/ieo oiiaao — noai?aii? i?eaaoieo aioai?/ieo naae?a iioyaii
1-? iie. XIX no. (Aioii?ie, A?ano?a, Eieanieee). Oe?eaaei niiniaii
ae?iuoaaiiy oaieiethaieo aea?aa aoee «naaee a io?ao» (??aia, Nai/eee).

Oi?eaeueia i?inoi?iaa eiioeaioe?y ?icieaioaaiiy iaecaaeiiai ia?eo a
??aiiio iieyaaea o caa?aaeaii? ???a?o?/ieo canaae i?e eiiiiceoe?ei?e
aca?iioa’ycoe? ie?aieo eiai ae?eyiie. Ooo neioacoaaeenue on? aeaee
«aiaei-eeoaenueeeo» naae?a, aecia/aieo I.A?aeeoeueeei. Aiaeieieua yaeyee
niaith iaeaieiai?oo eiiiiceoe?eio neeaaeiao aeacaiiai ia?eo. Iaa??
ciaeiaeo oi?i, ?icoaoiaaieo ia ia?eia?e oa?eoi???, iaaecae/aeii
??ciiiai?oiee — i?iya ?aeaieia?? ?iiaioecio o i?aaiaii? ii?aeiaoe ??ci?
aiioe ia ?aeei?e oa?eoi???; cia/ieie aoee ? i???ioaeuei? aieeae.

A?aecia/aia oaiaeaioe?y aeeth/aiiy o eiiiiceoe?eio no?oeoo?o ?ae?aaoe?e
eaieeoeue, ye nooi ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia’?eo?a, oae ? aeaiaio?a
a?iiaaeyinueei? iaii??aeueii? anoaoeee — i?ioyaii XIX no. (A?eoe?a,
Iiei/ee, Iiaa *a?oi?ey).

?icea?o anoaoeee ?iiaioecio o ia?eiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? iicia/eany ia
a?eueo no?eiaiiio canoinoaaii? a?o?oaeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a. O aeacaiee
ia??iae iniiao naiaioe/ii? eaiae neeaaeathoue aaea ia iaoa??aeuei?
ia’?eoe, a nenoaia iaoa??ae?ciaaieo iiiyoue-neiaie?a. ?ae?aaoe?ei? ciie,
oa?eoi??aeueii ?icoe?thth/enue, aeeth/aee o i?inoi?iao no?oeoo?o ?aii?
ieaioaaeuei? aeaiaioe ?c caa?aaeaiiyi ?nioth/iai ea?eano ye
a?aeia?aaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?? ciae/anoaa ii/. XIX no. aei caa?aaeaiiy
?noi?e/ii? niaaeueie. ?aoaeueii caa??aaeeny noa?? ianaaeaeaiiy oa
ooai?thaai? ieie ieaioaaeuei? aeaiaioe. Caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy
iaecaaeiiai ?iiaioe/iiai ia?eo i?ine?aeeiaai? o i?inoi?iai-ieaioaaeuei?e
i?aai?caoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eii? ciie iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai ainaiaeth o Iia?e
*a?oi?e?. Ca iaai?ii aeaiaio?a, ?ae?aaoe?eia ciia i?ecia/aeany a
iniiaiiio aeey ?icaaa ? a?aeii/eieo, /ei cao?eniaaii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
?aceaeaioe?e iiaiai oeio — cai?nueeeo aea/. O 2-?e iie.XIX no. ?icaeoie
?ae?aaoe?eii? ooieoe?? ia Aieei? a?aeaoaaany oeyoii ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?icoe?aiiy ia?eiaeo cii. Ia?oi/a?aiaa oaaaa
i?eae?eyeanue iniaeeainoyi i?e?iaeiiai iaoa??aeo, ui i?ia?uaei i?eo?ae
iiaea?i?noe/ii? anoaoeee o aieeinueea naaeiai-ia?eiaa aoae?aieoeoai.

AENIIAEE

Iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaee ainaiaeue Aieei? 2-? iie. XVIII-XIX nono. ye
i?inoi?iai aii?yaeeiaaia aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueia nenoaia ? ye ?acoeueoao
oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? iiia?aaei?o iieie?iue — nooi?nia ao?eaiiy niiniao
aeeooy ? ieneaiiy nai?? aiioe. I?aenoiiaoth/e neacaia o i?aaenoaaeai?e
?iaio?, iaiao?aeii c?iaeoe aeae?eueea neioaoe/ieo aeniiae?a, ui
ocaaaeueiththoue aeeeaaeaiee aiae?oe/iee iaoa??ae.

1. Noai no/aniiai iaoeiaiai ciaiiy o aaeoc? ?noi??ia?ao??, cie?aia,
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia Aieei? aea? iiaeeea?noue
oaa?aeeoe, ui iiia?aaei? ni?iae ii?aoethaaiiy iaoa??aeo, yeee
aaciina?aaeiuei oi?ea?oueny oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia iaee ia iao?
noai?aiiy oe?e?nii? ea?oeie aaiethoe?? iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a, ?o
??ciiieaiiaeo aca?iiae?e ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai ? aioo??oi?o ca’yce?a
ainaiae?a, ?aa?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee.

2. Caaaeaiiy ? ?icaoaeiaa iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a noaee ye?nii
iiaei yaeuai o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, ui aoei i?aeaioiaeaia ?yaeii
ia?aaeoiia, a ca nai?i ci?noii noaei a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iiaeo noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei. Ca oiiae iieuenueei?, a i?ci?oa — ?in?enueei? aea?aeaaiino?
caeiiii??iei aoei ia?aianaiiy aeanii? a?o?oaeoo?ii-aoae?aaeueii?
o?aaeeoe?? ia aieeinuee? caie?, ui iaeeaaeaeanue ia ?noi?e/ii noi?iiaaio
no?oeoo?o i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua ? ?? ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo. Oaeei /eiii
aeieeaee i?inoi?iai-/ania? ca’ycee i?ae iia?oi?ie oa ?nioth/eie
aeaiaioaie i?nueeiai ea?eano, ye? caeeoaeeny noaa?eueieie iacaeaaeii
a?ae iino?eii ci?ithaaieo ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o oiia.

3. ?c neacaiiai aeua eia?/ii aeieeaa? ??aia i?aai ia oaeo niaaeueio
oe?a?inueeiai, iieuenueeiai ?, aeayeith i??ith, ?in?enueeiai ia?iae?a.
Oaea ??ai?noue ? oe?eeii caeiiii??iith — aaoaioe/i?noue aieeinueeeo
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a iaaoea niaoeeo?/iiai cao/aiiy caaaeyee
neioaco i?noeaaeo i?eeii?a a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?noiaoae?aaeueiiai ienoaoeoaa
oa ianooiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?o na?aaeiaeua, iaeneiaeuei?e eiai
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? c a?aeiia?aeieie ?noi?eei-nioe?aeueieie oiiaaie oa
anoaoeei-oaeeoeiaeie aeiiaaie aei aeeoo?aiai na?aaeiaeua i?aaenoaaiee?a
aa?oi?o oa??a iieuenueei? oa ?in?enueei? ni?eueiioe.

4. Iaeaoeiai-ia?eia? ainaiae? aoee i?aai?/iith neeaaeiaith
«eoeueoo?iiai eaiaeoaooo» aieeinueeeo i?no ? i?noa/ie, «a?inoath/e» a ?o
aaiaoe/io no?oeoo?o, oi?ioth/e iaaeiei naaa ia o?eueee na?aaeiaeua
iiaiai aeaeo, aea e nenoaio iiaeo ooieoe?e, aeeiioth/e ?ieue
eaoae?caoi?a i?inoi?iaiai ?icaith o?aai?noe/ieo ooai?aiue, aoee
iaeii/anii iaeiei c aeaea?ae iaiiaoi?iino? ia?aco i?no oa ?o
naiiaooiino?. Uiaei naieo naaeea ?nioaaea iaaia caeiiii??i?noue:
ooieoe?iiaeueia ciioaaiiy e?oiieo ainaiae?a aecia/aeinue ia?aaeon?i
noni?eueiith eii’thieoo?ith ia i?aaeiao anoaoe/ieo i??i?eoao?a; o iaeeo
naaeeaao e?eoa???i i?e eiiiiioaaii? cii aoea noaa?euei?noue ?o
aaciina?aaeiueiai oa?eoi??aeueiiai eiioaeoo.

5. I?aeoiaee aei oi?ioaaiiy ia’?iii-i?inoi?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e e?oiieo
ainaiae?a a?aeia?aaeaee /?oea ? iine?aeiaia aeio?eiaiiy
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo iiaaoi?nueeeo oaiaeaioe?e o aeai?e aaeoc?
ciae/anoaa ia a?aei?io a?ae eiina?aaoecio ? aea??eiaino? o i?eeiyoo?
eiiiiceoe?eieo iiaiaaaaeaiue o naaeeaao na?aaei?o aa?noa.

6. «Iaeeaae?ainueeee» oei ia’?iii-i?inoi?iai? eiiiiceoe?? «aaiaoe/ii»
iia’ycaiee ianaiia?aae ?c iieuenueeith o?aaeeoe??th eieaoe??
aoae?aaeue, a oaeiae ia?inoath/ith oaiaeaioe??th aei iiaeeaeaiiy
eiioaeo?a i?ae a?o?oaeoo?ith ? i?e?iaeiei ioi/aiiyi, i?eeiaany
iaeiicia/ii iiceoeaii o an?o i?ioa?eao ae?oe. Cacia/aii, ui oeiieia?/iee
?yae cai?nueeeo a?ee caii/aoeiaaiee ua o XVI no. A.Iaeeaae?i,
i?iaaiethoe?iioaaa aeineoue aeiaaee /an, ciaeoiaoe ao?eaiiy o oai?/ino?
aecia/ieo ciae/eo ia Aieei?.

7. O canoinoaaii? ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/ieo cania?a i?ine?aeeiao?oueny
iiaea?ei?noue: iiaia i?eeiyooy ?a?iiaenueeeo noee?noe/ieo iiaaoe?e o
iaaiaonueeiio oa aeuiio oeyoaonueeiio eie? ? oaeoe/ia ?o caia?a/aiiy o
ieae/eo oa?ao ae?oe. ?iciianthaeaeaiith ia Aieei? ?a?iiaenueeeo
a?o?oaeoo?ieo noee?a ni?eyei caeo/aiiy aei i?iaeooaaiiy oa
aoae?aieoeoaa a?o?oaeoi??a-i?ioan?iiae?a ca iaia’yceiai? i?aeo?eiee
caiiaiee?a. Ae?yeuei?noue a?o?oaeoi??a aoea ooieoe??th ?noi?e/ii
neeaaeaii? i?noiaoae?aaeueii? neooaoe??, ?aae?e naiai /ano oa aeanii?
oai?/i? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?.

8. Aieeinuee? naaee ? ia?ee yaeyee niaith i?aai?/iee, iaa?ae’?iiee
aeaiaio iaeaoeiaeo ainaiae?a, eio?ee neioacoaaa o nia?
caaaeueii?a?iiaenuee? oaiaeaioe?? ia?eiaoaeoaaiiy oa i?noeaa?
iniaeeaino?, noai?thaaa iaiao?aeia eaiaeoaooii-i?inoi?iaa na?aaeiaeua
?aceaeaioe?e, caaacia/oaaa eiaei?e naaeea? iiaiioe?iia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oa anoaoe/io ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Ieoaeeeoei I.E.»C?aceiaee» aaiieai Ino?iaa 1845 ?., ye iaeei c
aoai?a ?icaeoeo ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e i?noa // Iaoeia? caienee
Ino?icueei? Aeaaeai??.- 1998.- O.?.- *. 2.- N. 75-78.

2. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Aei ?noi??? ao?a/aiiai iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai
ainaiaeth a

n.E?oiaoeue (??aiainueea iae.) // Iaoeia? caienee ?Ae?E: Oe?a?inueea
eoeueoo?a a ?iaiao ? aeine?aeaeaiiyo.- ??aia, 1998.- N. 45-49.

3. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy naaeea aieeinueei? oeyooe o
2-?e iie. XVIII no.// Iaoeia? caienee ?Ae?E: Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a:
ieioea ? no/ania; oeyoe ?icaeoeo. — ??aia, 1998. — N.74-79.

4. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa ia Aieei? o 2-?e iie. XVIII-XIX no. // Iaoeia? caienee
Ino?icueei? Aeaaeai??. — 1999. — O.??. — *.?. — N.64-66.

5. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iaoiiaeai?noue o?aaeeoe?e
o?ainoi?iaoe??, aaeaioaoe?? oa caa?aaeaiith caieiaeo eiiieaen?a Aieei? o
2-?e iie.XVIII no. oa nueiaiaeaii? // No/ani? i?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?e oa
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy. – Ee?a: EIOAA, 1999.- Aei.5. – N.15-18.

6. Ieoaeeeoei I.E., ?e/eia I.A. Aei ?noi??? iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai
ainaiaeth ?aceaeaioe?? eiyc?a ssaeiiianueeeo a Ino?ic? // Iaoa??aee V?
Ino??cueei? iaoe.-e?a?ci. eiio. «Ino?ia ia ii?ic? 900-??//y». — Ino??a.
— 1995. — N. 180-182.

7. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? aieeae o iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiio
aoae?aieoeoa? ia Aieei? o XVIII-XIX no. // Iaoa??aee ae?oai? iaoe.-oaoi.
eiio. i?io.-aeee. neeaaeo, ani. ? nooae. OAeAAA. — ??aia. — 1996. —
*.2.- N.21.

8. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Aei ?noi??? noai?aiiy oa ?icaeoeo iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo
ainaiae?a ia AEeoiie?uei? //Iaoa??aee Anaoe?. iaoe.-e?a?ci. eiio. aei
130-??//y AEeoiie?nueei? iae. iaoe. oi?aa?n. a-ee.-AEeoiie?: AEO
«Iie?a?ao?ea».-1996.- N.99-100.

9. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Caiie ei. Aeoi?aaoeueeeo oa eiai eieaeoe?? ye ia’?eo
?noi?e/ieo iiooe?a I.?.Einoiia?iaa // Iaoeia? caienee ?Ae?E: Oe?a?inueea
eoeueoo?a a ?iaiao ? aeine?aeaeaiiyo. — ??aia,1997. — Aei. 1. — N.
74-76.

10. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Iaeaoeiai-ia?eia? ainaiae? Aieei? 2 iie. OVIII-XIX
no. oa ?o oai?oe?: a?o?oaeoi?e ? ia?eiaoae?aie/? // Ca. noaoae. — ??aia,
1997. — *.3. — N.33-34.

11. Ieoaeeeoei I.E.?eiiia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee aei ?noi???
iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia Aieei? o a?ae?ioaeao oa a?o?aao
i.E?aeiaa //Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue:
Iaoe. ca.-AEeoiie?: AEo?oiiae.-1997.-N.96-97.

12. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. ?iiaioe/i? oaiaeaioe?? a a?o?oaeoo?? iaeeo naaeea
Aa?aee/?aueie O?O no. // Aa?aee/?anueea caiey a eiioaeno? ?noi???
Oe?a?ie: Iaoe. ca. — AEeoiie?: I.A.E., 1999. — N.81.

13. Ieoaeeeoei I.E., ?e/eia I.A. Einoueie a Iaa??eia? (??aiainueea
iae.): aeiey iaei??? c aieeinueeeo nayoeiue ii/aoeo O?O no.//Iaoa??aee
?O i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? “?noi??y ?ae?a?e a Oe?a?i?”. — Eieaa ??. —
Euea?a: Eiain. -1999. — N.76-79.

14. Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Iaeaoeiai-ia?eia? ainaiae? Aieei? ?? iie. XVIII-XIX
no. Aaiethoe?y, eiiiiceoe?y, noee?noeea. //Iaoe.cai. ??aiainueeiai
aea?ae. aoiai?oa?iiai oi-oaoo: Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a: ieioea ? no/ania;
oeyoe ?icaeoeo. – ??aia: Ae?aa, 1999. – N.199-295.

AIIOAOe??

Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Iaeaoeiai-ia?eia? ainaiae? Aieei? 2-? iie. XVIII-XIX no.
(iai?yie, ia?aaeoiiae. caeiiii??iino? a?o?oaeoo?iiai ?icaeoeo).-
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 18.00.01. — oai??y a?o?oaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie
a?o?oaeoo?e.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeyaeaiith oa aeine?aeaeaiith iniiaieo
ia?aaeoiia, iai?yie?a oa caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa ia Aieei? o 2-?e iie. XVIII-XIX no. A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa
i?ine?aeeiaaiee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaeo ainaiae?a Aieei?
ye i?inoi?iai aii?yaeeiaaii? oe?e?niino?, ui ooai?eeinue a ?acoeueoao?
ae?? eiiieaeno /eiiee?a noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa anoaoeei-eoeueoo?iiai
ieaio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeaiiy oa ?icaoaeiaa ainaiae?a noaee ye?nii
iiaei yaeuai o ?aceaeaioe?iiaeueiiio aoae?aieoeoa? a oe?eiio.
Aeieo/aiiy aei ?nioth/iai oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo cia/ii? e?eueeino?
a?aeiaeaeaieo aeena?oaioii ia?oiaeaea?ae aeaei ciiao noai?eoe oe?e?nio
ea?oeio aaiethoe?? oeueiai aeaeo a?o?oaeoo?ii? ae?yeueiino? a ?aa?ii?.
Aeai?, io?eiai? a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaeooue ciaeoe
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoii? aeieoiaioaoe?? ii ?anoaa?aoe??
ie?aieo iai’yoie a?o?oaeoo?e oa a?aeia?aaeai? o eaeoe?eieo eo?nao aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaeaoeiai-ia?eiaee ainaiaeue, ?aceaeaioe?y,
o?ainoi?iaoe?y, ooieoe?y, eiiiiceoe?y, aiae?c, neioac, iiaea?i?caoe?y.

Ieoaeeeoei I.E. Aeai?oeiai-ia?eiaua ainaiaee Aieuie 2-ie iie. XVIII-XIX
aa. (i?aiinueee, iai?aaeaiey, caeiiiia?iinoe a?oeoaeoo?iiai ?acaeoey). —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa a?oeoaeoo?u ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 18.00.01 — oai?ey a?oeoaeoo?u, ?anoaa?aoeey iaiyoieeia
a?oeoaeoo?u.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia auyaeaieth e enneaaeiaaieth iniiaiuo
i?aaeiinueie, iai?aaeaiee e caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey
aeai?oeiai-ia?eiaiai no?ieoaeuenoaa ia Aieuie ai 2-ie iie.XVIII-XIX aa.

A i?ioeanna ?aaiou ?aoaeenue caaea/e ii?aaeaeaiey oaeoi?ia
enoi?eei-nioeeaeueiiai ieaia, eioi?ua iaoneiaeee eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?a
no?ieoaeuenoaa aieuineeo ?aceaeaioeee, a?aaeino?ieoaeueiie ?iee
ainaiaeae a oi?ie?iaaiee ieaie?iai/iie no?oeoo?u ianaeaiiuo ioieoia,
aiaeeca e auyaeaiey eiiiiceoeeiiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae nicaeaiey
aeai?oeiai-ia?eiauo ainaiaeae, noeeenoe/aneiai naiaia?acey eo iniiaiuo
yeaiaioia.

Ioia/aii, /oi iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiey iniiauaaaony iae
enoi?eei-a?oeoaeoo?iie ia?aaioea aeinooiiuo ia?aienoi/ieeia, iaoo?iii
ianeaaeiaaiee nio?aieaoeony iaiyoieeia; eniieuecothony oaeaea
n?aaieoaeueii-enoi?e/aneee, oeiieiae/aneee iaoiaeu e iaoiae a?aoe/aneeo
?aeiino?oeoeee.

Ia?aue ?acaeae — “Enoi?eia?aoey aeai?oeiai-ia?eiaiai no?ieoaeuenoaa
Aieuie 2-ie iie.XVIII-XIX aa.: iiuo e eaeoiu” — iinayuai iaiauaieth
i?aaeuaeoueo enneaaeiaaiee ii oaia aeenna?oaoeee. ?anniio?aia
enoi/ieeiaaae/aneay, eeiiia?aoe/aneay aaca, nicaeaiiay a i?aaeuaeouea
ia?eiaeu ioa/anoaaiiuie e ca?oaaaeiuie a?oeoaeoo?iaaaeaie, ii?aaeaeaiu
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ianoiyuaai enneaaeiaaiey.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea — “Enoi?e/aneea i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey
aeai?oeiai-ia?eiaiai no?ieoaeuenoaa Aieuie ai 2-ie iie.XVIII-XIX aa.” —
i?iecaaaeai aiaeec iniiaiuo eciaiaiee a iauanoaaiiie aeecie ?aaeiia,
eioi?ua niinianoaiaaee aaoiiiiecaoeee aeai?oeiai-ia?eiaiai ciae/anoaa
eae naiinoiyoaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?iie aeayoaeueiinoe.

O?aoee ?acaeae — “Iniiaiua oaeoi?u oi?ie?iaaiey aeai?oeiai-ia?eiauo
ainaiaeae” — iinayuai auyaeaieth eiiieaena iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua
iaoneiaeee eiie?aoiua iooe aeeth/aiey ainaiaeae a ai?iaeneoth no?oeoo?o,
a oaeaea caaeneiinoe eo ?aciauaiey io ianoiuo oneiaee. Auaeaeaiu
iniiaiua aeaeu i?ino?ainoaaiii-ieaie?iai/iiai eiioaeoa ?aceaeaioeee e
ninoaaeythueo ai?iaeneie oeaie (caiee, oeaio?aeueiay ieiuaaeue,
eoeueoiaua nii?oaeaiey, ai?iaeneea oi?oeoeeaoeee, oee/iay naoue e
o.ae.). Ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee eo ?acaeoey.

A /aoaa?oii ?acaeaea — “A?oeoaeoo?ii-i?ino?ainoaaiiia ?acaeoea
aeai?oeiai-ia?eiauo ainaiaeae” — ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe
oi?ie?iaaiey eo aioo?aiiae ooieoeeiiaeueiie e iau?iii-i?ino?ainoaaiiie
eiiiiceoeee, ?acaeoea noeeenoe/aneeo /a?o eiiieaenia a oeaeii e
ioaeaeueiuo eo yeaiaioia.

Iyoue ?acaeae — “Caeiiiia?iinoe a?coeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iiai ?acaeoey
?aceaeaioeeiiaeueiuo ia?eia” — iinayuai auyaeaieth iniiaiuo yoaiia e
iniaaiiinoae yaiethoeee ia?eia eae iaiouaieaiie /anoe aeai?oeiauo
ainaiaeae.

A ?acoeueoaoa, a aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua i?ineaaeai i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
aeai?oeiai-ia?eiauo ainaieae Aieuie eae i?ino?ainoaaiii oii?yaei/aiiie
oeaeinoiinoe, eioi?ay ia?aciaaeanue a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey oaeoi?ia
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai e ynoaoeei-eoeueoo?iiai ieaia.Onoaiiaeaii,
/oi nii?oaeaiea e i?ino?ainoaaiiia ?anoe?aiea ainaiaeae noaei
ea/anoaaiii iiaui yaeaieai a ?aceaeaioeeiiaeueiii no?ieoaeuenoaa a
oeaeii. ?aceaeaioeee auee i?aaie/aneie ninoaaeythuae “eoeueoo?iiai
eaiaeoaooa” aieuineeo ai?iaeia e ianoa/ae, auiieiyee ?ieue eaoaeecaoi?a
i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ?acaeoey o?aaienoe/aneeo ia?aciaaiee, auee enoi/ieeii
iaiiaoi?eiinoe eo a?oeoaeoo?iiai ia?aca.

I?eiauaiea e nouanoaothuaio oaeoieiae/aneiio iaoa?eaeo cia/eoaeueiiai
eiee/anoaa auyaeaiiuo aeenna?oaioii ia?aienoi/ieeia aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
ninoaaeaiey oeaeinoiie ea?oeiu yaiethoeee yoiai aeaea a?oeoaeoo?iie
aeayoaeueiinoe a ?aaeiia. Aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua a i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey
(iienaiey, eeethno?aoeaiua iaoa?eaeu, a?aoe/aneea ?aeiino?oeoeee), iiaoo
auoue aiaae?aiu i?e ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoiie aeieoiaioaoeee ii ?anoaa?aoeee
ioaeaeueiuo iaiyoieeia a?oeoaeoo?u e io?aaeaiu a eaeoeeiiiuo eo?nao
aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeai?oeiai-ia?eiaue ainaiaeue, ?aceaeaioeey,
o?ainoi?iaoeey, ooieoeey, eiiiiceoeey, aiaeec, neioac, iiaea?iecaoeey.

Mykhajliszin O.L. The Volyn palace-park ensemble in the letter half of
the XVIII-XIX th century (prerequisites, trends, the appropriateness of
an architectural development). — A manuscript.

The thesis for an architecture Msc; speciality number 18.00.01. — the
theory of an architecture, the restoration of architectural monuments.

The thesis has been devoted to revealing and researching the main
prerequisites and appropriateness of the development of a palace-park
building in Volyn in the latter half of the XVIII-XIX th century.

In the thesis for the first time the formation process of palace-park
ensemble in Volyn has been retraced as a spatially-regulated integrity
which has arisen as a result of the effect of number of a factors of a
social-economic and aesthetic-cultural aspect. It has been ascertained
that the ensemble erection and construction has become a brand-new
phenomenon in a residential building as a whole.

The candidate for e degree yas added a great number of primary sources
found by her to the available facts.

Thus, it has given an opportunity of creating an integral picture of the
evolution of the kind of architectural activities in the region. The
data obtained in the research be useful both in drafting documents on
the restoration of some architectural monuments and using them in
lecture courses in institutes.

Key words: a palace-park ensemble, a residence, a transformation, a
function, a composition, an analysis, a synthesis, a modernization.

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