I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIA A??IE*A AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

Ean?i Aoi?ae Aaaeae Oaae? Aeue-Oaaeae Aaaeoeea

OAeE 622.013.2

IOe?IEA IAI?OAEAII-AeAOI?IIAAIIAI NOAIO

IA?IAIE NOAIOe?EIEO AE?IAIE IAO?IIIE?OAIO OA IOI*OTH*EO II??Ae C
O?AOOAAIIssI EIIA??I?NII? I?E?IAeE AEO?AeIEO AeAIEO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue:

05.15.09 — “Iaoai?ea a?oio?a oa a??nueeeo ii??ae”

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1999 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? IIA?EIAA
Ethaeieea Aanee?aia, Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a
aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeui? iaoaiaoeee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee NAAeIAAIEI ?aai Ieaenaiae?iae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e a?ae?iaaieia?? oa ?iaeaia?ii? aaieia??;
eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

AIEUeAeOOAEI A?eoi? Ieoaeeiae/,
I?eaei?i?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio eaoaae?e iniia oa i?aeaaeei

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — ?inoeooo aaioaoi?/ii? iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 “ aa?aniy 1999 ?. i ” 14 “ a.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.080.04 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (49027, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-27, i?ini. E. Ia?ena, 19).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320027, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-27, i?ini. E.
Ia?ena, 19).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 “ na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

ae.o.i., n.i.n. A.I. ?i?iei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a i?aecaiiiai aoae?aieoeoaa
acaaae? oa noaioe?e iao?iiie?oai?a cie?aia, noi?iaiaeaeaia oneeaaeiaiiyi
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia, aeeeeea? iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy iiaeo
aaaeeeaeo o i?aeoe/iiio ? oai?aoe/iiio a?aeiioaiiyo i?iaeai. Iaeia c ieo
— noai?aiiy iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo c o?aooaaiiyi ?iia??i?nii? i?e?iaee
aeo?aeieo aeaieo.

Oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a aei noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a o caaea/ao ?ic?aooieo
i?aecaiieo nii?oae iiynith?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie /eneaiieo iaoo?ieo
aei???a a??nueeiai oeneo ia ia?iaee ooiae?a Iineianueeiai,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueeiai oa Ee?anueeiai iao?iiie?oai?a (OeIAeOA, i. Iineaa,
“Eaiiao?iaoae”, “Ee?aiao?iaoae”), i?nueeeo eieaeoi?ieo ooiae?a (OeIAe?
“I?aecaioaooiaoae”, AIAeI?), a oaeiae ia e??ieaiiy oo?ae?a o oaooao
??cieo aanaei?a. C aeaieo iaoo?ieo cai??thaaiue aeoiaeeoue, ui ae?th/?
iaaaioaaeaiiy a?aeoeeythoueny a?ae na?aaei?o cia/aiue, ye?
aecia/athoueny ca ii?iaoeaieie aeieoiaioaie, ia??aiii??i? aith?e oene?a
na?ae/aoue i?i ?o aeiaaeeia?noue. Oaeee aea oa?aeoa? ia? ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
a??ie/i-aaieia?/i? oiiae, iaea?aeoaaia oeyoii aaieia?/ii? ?ica?aeee.
E??i oiai, o?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ii??ae, onoaiiaethaai?
iaoai?/ieie aei?iaoaaiiyie c?ace?a, /a?ac iiieeee aei??thaaiiy oa
ona?aaeiaiiy ia iiaeooue aooe caaeai? iaeiicia/ii, a eeoa ye aeiaaeeia?
aaee/eie.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaiiaoai?oe? oa?aeoa?ia
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee aeey ?ioai?aoaoe??
?acoeueoao?a eaai?aoi?ieo aei?iaoaaiue c?ace?a a??nueeeo ii??ae,
aeeth/ath/e aea?? oai?aoe/ieo iaaeeaeaiue aeey caeii?a ?iciiae?eo
i?oei?nieo oa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee ii??ae (E.?.Aa?ii,
A.A.Eoci?oeia, ?.?.?eueieoeueea, TH.?.Iaothoeoeueeee, E.Ooaa?,
A.A.A?iia?aaeia, A.I.Ona/aiei, I.N.Oa/aoo?’yi, A.A.Eeoe?i,
?.N.I?eaiaeei, A.I.Aeaienia oa ?i.). O caaea/ao aoae?aaeueii? iaoai?ee ?
aaiiaoai?ee i?e aecia/aii? ?iia??iino? ?oeioaaiiy oe?iei
canoiniaothoueny iaoiaee aeiaaeeiaeo ooieoe?e (A.A.Aieio?i, A.I.Ioeea?,
E.A.?oiiaiaeo, A.A.Iaoa??iei,I.I.Aeieaeo, A.?.Oaei?i, E.ss.Ia?/aanueeee,
I.I.Oaoaiei, C.Aecaenii oa ?i.).

O eiioaeoieo caaea/ao i?i aca?iiae?th i?aecaiieo eiino?oeoe?e c ianeaii
a??nueeeo ii??ae, iaeiae, aein? ia?aaaaeathoue aeaoa?i?iiaai? i?aeoiaee,
iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui i?ieea?noue ?ic?aooieiaeo aaee/ei o e?ioeaaiio
i?aenoieo ?noioii aieeaa? ia ?iaioo oeeo eiino?oeoe?e. A?aeiii oaeiae,
ui i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? i?aecaiieo nii?oae, ye? i?iaeoothoueny,
aeiaaa? a?aooaaiiy o iae?eiaeo aeai?eoiao ?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae
ii??ae. ? iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui o?ce/ia iae?i?ei?noue, iaoiiaeaia
oaeoi?ii /ano, ciae/eea nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o /eneaiieo ?iaioao
(I.I.Oio??aa, I.N.Aoee/ia, I.?.Oeie?i, I.N.Naa?i, A.I.Aoiaithe,
A.O.Aeooeia, ?.I.Naaeiaaiei, E.A.Aeaeaia??aeca, A.I.Aieueaeooaei,
E.I.Oeiio?aa oa ?io?), iica oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a caeeoeeeny
oaoiieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ooai?aiiy ae?iaie oa caaaeaiiy ia?iaie. Oe?
oaeoi?ie a?aoiaai? o aeine?aeaeaiiyo TH.I.Aeaaciaa ? A.?.Aoceei, iaeiae
??oaiiy o ?o ?iaioao aeeiiai? o aeaoa?i?iiaai?e iinoaiiaoe?. Oiio
?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?iaee ?
ioi/oth/eo ii??ae c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae iine?aeiaiiai nii?oaeaeaiiy
aeaiaio?a i?aecaiii? eiino?oeoe?? ? ?iceeaeo aeo?aeieo aeaieo ca
ae?th/eie iaaaoaaeaiiy oa o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie ii??ae ?
aeooaeueiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith caaea/ath. Oaea caaea/a, ui iia’ycaia ?c
nii?oaeaeaiiyie o?eneeaienoi? noaioe?? iao?iiee?oaio a iaiaeii??aeiiio
ianea? inaaeiaeo ii??ae, ? ae??oo?oueny o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?aaio?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniai? o iaaeao aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
i?ia?aie Oe?a?ie “Aeieia?/ii /enoa aia?aaoeea oa ?ano?nicaa??aath/?
oaoiieia??” ? i?ia?aie aea?aeaaii? ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?iao?iooiaeueaoae”
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo iaaeiei ae?iaie o?eneeaienoi? noaioe??
Ee?anueeiai iao?iiie?oaio, iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? noaie ?o
cae?eniaiiy oa aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a e??ieaiiy i?aeneeaiiy aeey
caaacia/aiiy i?i?iaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia?iaee aieiaeo ooiae?a i?ae /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? ae?iaee”.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa ?iaioe — noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee i?iaiiciaaii? ioe?iee
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?iaie noaioe?eieo ae?iaie oa
ioi/oth/eo ii??ae, ui a?aoiao? ?iia??i?nio i?e?iaeo aeo?aeieo aeaieo ?
oei naiei i?aeaeuo? iaae?ei?noue nii?oaeaeoaaieo ooiae?a iao?iiie?oaio.

?aeay ?iaioe iieyaa? a onoaiiaeaii? caeii?a ?iciiae?eo iaeneiaeueieo
ia?ai?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue ia?iaie noaioe?eieo ooiae?a ?ica’ycoaaiiyi
iecee aeaoa?i?iiaaieo eiioaeoieo caaea/ aeey nenoaie “ia?iaea — ianea” c
??cieie cia/aiiyie aecia/aeueieo ia?aiao??a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei aeeiiaoe oae? aoaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeaiee aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo eiiiiiaio?a
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?iaie noaioe?eieo ae?iaie
iao?iiie?oaio oa iaaeieeoi?o ii??ae c o?aooaaiiyi ia?a?iciiae?eo
iai?oaeaiue o i?ioean? aoae?aieoeoaa (?c canoinoaaiiyi aiea??a oa aac
ieo).

2. I?iaanoe iaoaiaoe/iee aenia?eiaio: ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai
aeai?eoio ?ica’ycaoe eiioaeoio caaea/o aeey ?yaeo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a (I
oa (, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ae?th/a iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ??cieo aoaiao
nii?oaeaeaiiy o?eneeaienoi? noaioe??, a oaeiae aeey ??cieo cia/aiue
iiaeoey i?oaeiino? A oa ia?aiao?a ( = (? /(n ii?iaee; noi?ioaaoe
?ai?acaioaoeai? aea??ee aeey iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue ia?ai?uaiue ?
iai?oaeaiue o aieao oa neeai?iiyo ia?iaie, a oaeiae aeey cia/aiue
iaea?eueoi? aaee/eie i?ioyaeiino? ciie a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio
iaaeieeoi?o ii??ae.

3. Ca iaea?aeaieie aea??eaie anoaiiaeoe caeiie ?iciiae?eo iaeneiaeueieo
cia/aiue ci?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaeao noaioe?eieo ae?iaie
iao?iiie?oaio, ui aca?iiae?thoue c iaiaeii??aeieie ianeaaie inaaeiaeo
ii??ae.

4. Ia iniia? iiiaeeiiiai ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co aeaieo /eneiaiai
aenia?eiaioo io?eiaoe ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, ye? ca’ycothoue iaea?eueo?
cia/aiiy ci?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a, a oaeiae
iaea?eueoo aaee/eio i?ioyaeiino? ciie a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio
aeiaeieeoi?o ii??ae c ia?aiao?aie ((, ( = (/(1-() oa ( = (?/(n.

5. Ii??aiyiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo uiaei a??nueeiai oeneo ia ia?iaee ooiae?a
eieaeoi??a ? iao?iiie?oai?a ioe?ieoe a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a
aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

6. Ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaiiai ?ic?aooieiaiai aeai?eoio oa
anoaiiaeaieo ei?aeyoe?eieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue ?ic?iaeoe caoiaee ii
caiia?aaiith iiyae aeaoi?iaoe?e ia?iaie aieiaeo ooiae?a i?ae /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? ae?iaee o ?ac? nii?oaeaeaiiy o?eneeaienoi?
noaioe?? iao?iiie?oaio o neaaeeo ii?iaeao.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiao aeeiiaii? ?iaioe neeaaea? aiae?c
?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo iai?oaeaiue oa ia?ai?uaiue nenoaie
“ia?iaea — ianea”; aiae?c a?aeiieo ?acoeueoao?a iaoo?ieo aei???a
a??nueeiai oeneo ia ia?iaee ooiae?a iao?iiie?oai?a oa i?nueeeo
eieaeoi?ieo ooiae?a; aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio ia?iaie aca?iiaieeaiaeo noaioe?eieo ae?iaie oa iaaeieeoi?o ii??ae,
aeeiiaieo c o?aooaaiiyi ?iceeaeo aeo?aeieo aeaieo iaoiaeii a?aie/ieo
aeaiaio?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi iieiaeaiue iaoai?ee i?aecaiieo nii?oae,
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a /eneiaiai iaoaiaoe/iiai aenia?eiaioo
noaoenoe/ieie iaoiaeaie, aeeth/ath/e iiiaeeiiee iae?i?eiee ?aa?an?eiee
aiae?c.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ui caoeuathoueny o aeena?oaoe??.

1. Iiaeaeue e?i?eii-niaaeeiaiai na?aaeiaeua c aeiaaeeiai i?ieeaeie
u?euei?nieie oa iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie aea? iiaeeea?noue o oa?i?iao
iaoiaeo a?aie/ieo aeaiaio?a aaeaeaaoii iienaoe iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee
noai iaiaeii??aeiiai ianeao inaaeiaeo ii??ae iaaeiei ia?iaie
aca?iiaieeaiaeo ae?iaie ? oeyoii aaaaoi?aciaiai ?ica’ycoaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii? eiioaeoii? caaea/? c ??cieie aeo?aeieie aeaieie ?c
caaeaiith iaae?ei?noth aecia/eoe iaeneiaeuei? ia?ai?uaiiy oa iai?oaeaiiy
a aeaiaioao aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie.

2. Iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aiea?e a i?ioean? aoae?aieoeoaa o?eneeaienoeo
noaioe?e iao?iiie?oai?a o i?ioa?icienueeeo oa niiiaeeeiaeo aeeiao c
aeinoaoiueith aeey i?aeoeee oi/i?noth aecia/a?oueny aaaith ii??ae a
iaeano? a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio, iaae? yei? iaaeiei ia?iaie
noaioe?eieo ae?iaie onoaiiaeththoueny ca e?eoa???i E.ss.Ia?/aanueeiai —
I.I.Oaoaiea.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue oa a??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Oai?aoe/i? e?ea? ?iciiae?eo ca e?eoa???i (2 a?aeiia?aeathoue aii??e/iei
i?e iaeiii?ioeaioieo a?aieoeyo a?aeoee?a a?ae e?eoe/ieo oi/ie. Io?eiai?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?aa?an?? iathoue iiiaeeii? ei?aeyoe?ei? a?aeiioaiiy, ye?
aeecuee? aei iaeeieoe?. I?iaiiciaaia ca anoaiiaeaieie caeiiaie
?iciiae?e?a ea?oeia iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?iaie aieiaeo
ooiae?a ye?nii i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iaoo?ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie o i?ioean?
aoae?aieoeoaa noaioe?? “Eoe`yi?anueea” Ee?anueeiai iao?iiie?oaio.
A?aeii? aeai? iaoo?ieo aei???a a??nueeiai oeneo ia ia?iaee ooiae?a
??ciiiai?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy oa a?aeiia?aei? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ca
?ic?iaeaiei aeai?eoiii ni?aiaaeathoue c oi/i?noth 7 . . . 15%.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe.

1. Oia?oa oeyoii noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co aeaieo iaoaiaoe/iiai
aenia?eiaioa, aeeiiaiiai c o?aooaaiiyi ?iceeaeo aeo?aeieo aeaieo ca
ia?aiao?aie ((, A oa ( (?acoeueoao?a aaaioie?aoiiai ?ica’ycoaaiiy
iaoiaeii a?aie/ieo aeaiaio?a eiioaeoii? caaea/? aaiiaoai?ee, iia’ycaii?
c aoae?aieoeoaii o?eneeaienoi? noaioe?? iao?iiie?oaio a iaiaeii??aeiiio
ianea? inaaeiaeo ii??ae), iaea?aeai? e?ea? ?iciiae?eo iaeneiaeueieo
aaee/ei ci?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a. Oe? e?ea?
aeathoue ciiao ?c caaeaiith iaae?ei?noth ioe?ithaaoe i?oei?noue oa
aei?noe?noue ia?iaie aieiaeo ooiae?a o iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aeaeueiee
ia??iae aoae?aieoeoaa — i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? ae?iaee.

2. Oia?oa io?eiaii ??aiyiiy ca’yceo iaeneiaeueiiai ?ici??o ciie
a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio i?ioa?icienueeeo ? niiiaeeeiaeo aeei
iaaeiei o?ueio aca?iiaieeaiaeo noaioe?eieo ae?iaie c ia?aiao?aie ((, (
oa (. Ca aeiiiiiaith oeueiai ??aiyiiy aecia/athoueny ia?aiao?e aiea?iiai
e??ieaiiy ii??ae iie??ae?, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey caiia?aaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?e ia?iaie aieiaeo ooiae?a i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy
na?aaeiueiai.

Anoaiiaeai? iia? iae?i?ei? ei?aeyoe?ei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ui ca’ycothoue
iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy ci?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a
c oeie ae ia?aiao?aie ca oiiae aiea?oaaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? o i?ioean?
nii?oaeaeaiiy noaioe??.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?ice?eoo? caeiiii??iinoae ?iciiae?eo
iai?oaeaiue oa ci?uaiue a ia?iaeao ae?iaie, ui aieeaathoue iaeia ia
iaeio, ? iaaeieeoi?o ii?iaeao c o?aooaaiiyi ?iceeaeo aeo?aeieo aeaieo ca
ae?th/eie iaaaioaaeaiiyie oa o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie ii??ae.

Caaaeai? aeua ei?aeyoe?ei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa e?ea? ?iciiae?eo,
i?ecia/ai? aeey i?iaiico i?iya?a a??nueeiai oeneo i?ae /an aoae?aieoeoaa
noaioe?e iao?iiie?oaio, aeicaieyoue oao?aoeyi ci???iooaaoeny o eie?
iaae??oaieo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c i?aecaiiei aoae?aieoeoaii, e
iae?aneeoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? oeyoe ?o ?ica’ycaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe caiaeeoueny aei ?ic?iaee iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aie
uiaei aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a aiea?oaaiiy ii??ae i?e nii?oaeaeaii?
o?eneeaienoi? noaioe?? iao?iiie?oaio, acyoeo aei aeei?enoaiiy
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeei o?e?aeii aea?aeaaiiai i?iaeoiiai ?inoeoooo
“Oe?iao?iooiaeueaoae” oa AAO ii aoae?aieoeoao iao?iiie?oaio o
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c? (“Iao?iaoae”).

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee aeei?enoai? AAO ii aoae?aieoeoao
iao?iiie?oaio o Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c? aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? oa
aeiaaeeie aiea??a, a oaeiae ?aoe?iiaeueii? noaie ?o onoaiiaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii aei oiia nii?oaeaeoaaii? noaioe?? “Aiaaoe?nueea”.

Ai?iaaoe?y. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997, 1998, 1999), oaoi?/i?e ?aae? AAO
“Ee?aiao?iaoae” (i. Ee?a, 1997), i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy (i. Oa?nii, 1998), i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “OO? noi??//y — i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae
inai?iiy ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei” (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998),
Anana?oiueiio eiia?an? c ooiaeaaoaeoaaiiy (i. Nai-Iaiei, A?acee?y,
1998), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie aaieia?? oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy”, i?enay/ai?e
100-??//th a?ae aeiy canioaaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 noaoae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a, aeeeaaeaia ia 127 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 45 ?enoie?a, 21 oaaeeoeth,ia?ae?e
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 120 iaca, 5 aeiaeaoe?a, a yeeo iaaaaeai?
aea??eia? aeai? aeeiiaieo iaoaiaoe/ieo aenia?eiaio?a ? aeiaaaeaii
i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
i?iieneia?noue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? aeianai? ia
caoeno iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, i?iaeaiiino?iaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? c?iaeaiee e?eoe/ee aiae?c iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa
ii?iaoeaii? e?oa?aoo?e, i?enay/aii? caaea/ai aca?iiae?? ia?iaie ?
aiea??a c iaaeieeoi?ie ii?iaeaie noiniaii aei o?eneeaienoeo noaioe?e
iao?iiie?oaio. Iieacaii, ui a a?eueoino? iaoiaeee ?ic?aooiie
cae?enith?oueny ca noaiith caaeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea ia a?aoiao?
ia?a?iciiae?eo iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ii?iaeiiai ianeao oa
ia?iaie ia ??cieo noaae?yo aoae?aieoeoaa. ?icaeyaeathoueny, ye i?aaeei,
iiiaeeiie? ae?iaee. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ca iaoo?ieo oiia na?ae/aoue i?i aeiaaeeiaee oa?aeoa?
aith? iaaaioaaeaiy aeaiaio?a i?aecaiieo nii?oae, a?aeii? ?ic?aooieia?
aeai?eoie aacothoueny ia aeaoa?i?iiaaieo i?aeoiaeao.

Aeey noai?aiiy aeiiii?/ieo oa iaae?eieo ooiae?a o?eneeaienoeo noaioe?e
iao?iiie?oai?a iaiao?aeii iaoe aeinoaoiuei oi/i? a?aeiiino? i?i aaee/eie
ae?th/eo iaaaioaaeaiue ? oa?aeoa? ?o ?iciiae?eo. A?ae/ooio aeiiiiiao i?e
ae??oaii? oeueiai ieoaiiy iiaeooue iaaeaoe cai??thaaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo
a iaoo?ieo oiiaao, aea, ii-ia?oa, oea iio?aao? cia/ieo o?iainiaeo
aeo?ao, a, ii-ae?oaa, ye ? ii?iaoeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, aiie iani?iiiaei?
ioiieoe anth ??ciiiai?oi?noue a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oa a??ie/ioaoi?/ieo
neooaoe?e.

Ioaea, i?aeoeeith noaaeoueny ia ia?aaei?e ieai iaiao?aei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eueiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie “ia?iaea — ii?iaea” c
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao aeecueei ?icoaoiaaieo ae?iaie, ia?a?iciiae?eo
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia ??cieo noaae?yo aoae?aieoeoaa oa
?iia??i?nii? i?e?iaee aeo?aeieo aeaieo ca ae?th/eie iaaaioaaeaiiyie ?
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie ii??ae.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e (ca noi?ioeueiaaieie aeniiaeaie) i?enay/aiee
iaa?oiooaaiith ?ic?aooieiaeo noai, aeei?enoiaoaaii? iiaeae? na?aaeiaeua
oa noai?aiith ia ?o iniia? ?ic?aooieiaiai aeai?eoio aecia/aiiy
iai?oaeaiue ? ci?uaiue a aeaiaioao nenoaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

No/aniith oaoiieia??th aoae?aieoeoaa o?eneeaienoeo noaioe?e
iao?iiie?oaio nii/aoeo ia?aaeaa/aii nii?oaeaeaiiy aieiaeo ooiae?a, a
aaea iio?i — na?aaeiueiai. An? ae?iaee iathoue ae?aiao?e iiiaae 8 i e
?ici?uai? ia iacia/i?e a?aenoai? iaeia a?ae iaeii?. Oiio i?ae /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? ae?iaee a iaeano? ?? aeaith o ianea?
a?aeaoaathoueny ?noioi? ia?a?iciiae?ee iai?oaeaiue oa ci?uaiue,
aeaoi?iothoueny otha?iaia? ia?iaee aieiaeo ooiae?a, c’yaeythoueny
o??ueie a ea?aoaaii?, ii?ooo?oueny a?ae?i?cieyoe?y. I?ioenoiyoe oeei
iaaaoeaiei yaeuai iiaeia aiea?oaaiiyi aeiaeieeoi?o ii??ae. Aeey
aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aiea??a caaea/a aaiiaoai?ee
?ica’yco?oueny iaoiaeii a?aie/ieo aeaiaio?a ia iniia? aeaio ieineeo
?ic?aooieiaeo noai:

— ia?oa o?eno? iai?oaeaiee noai nii?oaeaeoaaii? noaioe?? i?ney
caaa?oaiiy 100 ae?a a?ae ii/aoeo ?ia?o. Aei oeueiai /ano nii?oaeaeai?
aeinoaoiuei i?ioyaei? aieia? ooiae?. Aiane?aeie neiao??? ?ic?aooieiaa
noaia aeeth/a? ae?iaeo c ia?iaeith. Ae?th/a iaaaioaaeaiiy — aaaa ii??ae:
o aa?oeeaeueiiio iai?yieo — (I, a a ai?eciioaeueiiio — ((I (( —
u?euei?noue ii?iaee, o/i3; ( = (/(1 — (), ( — eiao?oe??io Ioanniia
ii?iaee). sse a?aie/i? oiiae ia a?eueiiio eiioo?? ia?iaie caaeathoueny
ioeueia? iai?oaeaiiy (n oa (s ;

— ae?oaa i?eiaaea? ia /an t = 300 ae?a a?ae ii/aoeo aoae?aieoeoaa
noaioe??. I?ioyaii oeueiai /ano i?ae aieiaeie ooiaeyie /anoeiai
i?ieaeaiee na?aaei?e. Iayai?noue aeaith inoaiiueiai a?aoiao?oueny
“i?eaaioaaeaiiyi”, oiaoi aa?oeeaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy aei??aith? Ky((, a
ai?eciioaeueia — Kx(((. Ia a?eueiiio eiioo?? na?aaeiuei? ae?iaee
iai?oaeaiiy aaaaeathoueny ??aieie ioeth, a ia eiioo?ao aieiaeo ooiae?a
o?enothoueny ia?ai?uaiiy, aecia/ai? a ?acoeueoao? ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? ca
ia?oith ?ic?aooieiaith noaiith, ? ye? aeiionoei?. Iai?oaeaiiy, ui ?i
a?aeiia?aeathoue, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?
ia?aiao?e aiea??a oa noaio ?o onoaiiaeaiiy.

?ic?aooieiaee aeai?eoi iiaoaeiaaiee ia iniia? aiae?oe/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy
a?aeiii? caaea/? Eaeuea?ia i?i ae?th ii?iaeueieo oa aeioe/ieo nee,
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaieo ia a?ae??ceo a iane?i/aiiiio i?oaeiiio
na?aaeiaeu?. Niaaeeia? aeanoeaino? ii?iaee a?aoiaothoueny /a?ac
ooieoe?th iiaco/ino?. Iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? At o iiiaio /ano t
aecia/a?oueny ca?aeii c oai???th e?i?eii-niaaeeiaiai na?aaeiaeua ca
oi?ioeith

,

aea A — iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? ii?iaee;

;

( oa ( — ia?aiao?e iiaco/ino? ii?iaee.

Iaae? iaeano? a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio ii??ae o aeine?aeaeoaai?e
iaeano? ianeao anoaiiaeththoueny ca e?eoa???i E.ss.Ia?/aanueeiai —
I.I.Oaoaiea:

, (1)

aea (1 oa (3 — iaea?eueoa oa iaeiaioa aieiai? iai?oaeaiiy;

( = (? /(n;

(? oa (n — a?aieoe? i?oeiino? ii?iaee ia ?icoya oa noene.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iienaiiai aeai?eoio anoaiiaeai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e
aiea?iiai e??ieaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? aeey oiia nii?oaeaeoaaii? noaioe??
“Eoe’yi?anueea” Ee?anueeiai iao?iiie?oaio. Ai?uoth/a ii?iaea —
niiiaeeeiaa aeeia c oaeeie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie: A = 300
IIa; ( = 0,3; ( = 0,832; ( = 0,0108 n(-1; (n = 0,9 IIa, ( = 0,1 (ca
aeaieie AIAeI?). O?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aaoiio: Aa = 0,182(105
IIa, ( = 0,2, (n = 22 IIa.

Eiao?oe??ioe eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue: Kx = 1,1; Ky = 1,2 (ca aeaieie
?ica`ycaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? i?inoi?iai? caaea/?, iaea?aeaiiai Iia?eiaith
E.A. oa Aoceei A.?.).

= 4,25 i; a?aenoaiue l/2 = 11,05 i.

= 1,7 ni.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaea?aeaii? o ae?oa?e ?ic?aooieia?e noai? aith?e
?aae?aeueieo iai?oaeaiue o ianea? oa ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a aecia/ai?
eoo ioiieaiiy aiea?aie ii??ae iie??ae? (( = 1240), e?ie ?o onoaiiaeaiiy
ii eieo oa aeiaaeei? ooiae?a (0,84 i), coneeey a aiea?? (?a = 2 o). C
o?aooaaiiyi iaeneiaeueii? i?ioyaeiino? ciie a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiai
noaio, anoaiiaeaii? ca e?eoa???i (1), ca a?aeiiith iaoiaeeeith
I.I.Oe?ieiaa, A.I.E?aea?a e A.A.Ieneyeiaa ciaeaeaia aeiaaeeia aiea?a la
= 2,8 i.

Aeae? aeine?aeaeoaaany aieea ?iceeaeo ia?aiao??a (, (( oa ( ia
iaeneiaeuei? aaee/eie ia?ai?uaiue ? iai?oaeaiue, ui aeieeathoue a
ia?iaeao aieiaeo noaioe?eieo ooiae?a i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiueiai
o aeiaaeeo aiea?oaaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? ca cai?iiiiiaaiith noaiith. Ca
?ioeo iaci?iieo aeo?aeieo aeaieo aa??eiaai? ia?aiao?e iaaoaaee cia/aiiy:
( ( (0,25 . . . 1,375(, (( ( (0,85 . . . 2,125( IIa, ( ( (0,1 . . .
0,18(. Onueiai aoei ?icaeyiooi 16 ?ic?aooieiaeo aeiaaee?a.

ciie a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio cacia/aieo ii??ae:

= 3,79 — 4,94 ( + 1/( + 1,31(/(( — 10,60(/((( , ni

= -2,00 + 1,11(2 + 0,60((( + 7,46(/((( — 7,02(/(, ni

(2)

= -0,60 + 1,60 ((( + 9,10 (/((( — 12,84 (/(, ni

= 4,05 — 5,36( + 1,77(2 — 0,4((( — 4,05 (/((( , ni

(n max = — 0,37 — 0,47((( — 0,11((/( + 1,89 (/((, IIa
(3)

(t max = -1,41 — 1,81 ((/( — 19,10 ((((, IIa

= 3,75 — 6,30 (((( — 18,62(/(( , i (4)

Iiiaeeii? ei?aeyoe?ei? a?aeiioaiiy iaea?aeaieo caeaaeiinoae iathoue
cia/aiiy 0,716 . . . 0,99, a cia/aiiy e?eoa??th O?oa?a cia/ii a?eueo?
iaeiii?ioeaioieo a?aieoeue a?aeoeeaiue, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aeinoaoiuei
o?nio ei?aeyoe?th ?icaeyiooeo aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei c aa??eiaaieie
ia?aiao?aie oa i?i noaoenoe/io cia/ou?noue ca’yce?a.

= 1,2 ni).

Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a ca aeaieo
oiia, iaea?aeaieo ca aeiiiiiaith caaaeaiiai aeai?eoio ca ae?oaith
?ic?aooieiaith noaiith, neeaaeathoue: (n max = -1,05 IIa, (t max = -10,9
IIa. A?aeiia?aei? aaee/eie, ?ic?aoiaai? ca ei?aeyoe?eieie oi?ioeaie (3),
iathoue cia/aiiy (n max = -1,03 IIa oa (t max = -9,99 IIa.

= 2,2 i.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aca?iiae?y ia?iaie noaioe?eieo
ae?iaie c iaiaeii??aeiei ianeaii inaaeiaeo ii??ae, u?euei?noue,
eiao?oe??io Ioanniia oa iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? yeiai ci?iththoueny
aeiaaeeiai. Iaae? ci?i iiaeeeaeo cia/aiue aa??eiaaieo ia?aiao??a
aecia/athoueny, aeoiaey/e c aeanoeainoae eiaeii? c ai?uoth/eo ii??ae.
Aeey aeeaeie ?ici?uaiiy ae?iaie I = 80 i o iaaeao i?noa i?ae
aaaaoiiiaa?oiaith caaoaeiaith, ye o aeiaaeeo Ee?anueeiai /e
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueeiai iao?iiie?oai?a, ia?aiao?o (( iaaeathoueny
cia/aiiy 1,7; 2,5; 3,3; 4,1; 4,9 IIa. Ieaeiy iaaea (( = 1,7 IIa
a?aeiia?aea? ii?iae? c iaeiaioith u?euei?noth ( = 2,125 o/i3, a aa?oiy —
(( = 4,9 IIa — ii?iae? c iaea?eueoith u?euei?noth ( = 3,8 o/i3.
Iiaeeea? cia/aiiy iiaeoey i?oaeiino? yaeythoue niaith ?yae (0,3; 1,0;
1,5; 2,0; 3,0; 7,8; 15,3; 22,8; 30,0)( 103 IIa, a eiao?oe??io aieiaiai
?icii?o ( iaaoaa? cia/aiue 0,25; 0,45; 0,65; 0,85; 1,0. Iiaeeea?
eiia?iaoe?? aa??eiaaieo ia?aiao??a ninoaaeythoue 137 ?ic?aooieiaeo
aeiaaee?a.

Aecia/ai? noaoenoe/i? ia?aiao?e ? caeiie ?iciiae?eo iaeneiaeueieo
ci?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a c a?aenooi?noth
aiea??a oa c ?o iayai?noth ia aoai? i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? ae?iaee.
?aae?aeuei? oa oaiaaioe?aeuei? ia?ai?uaiiy o aieao oa neeai?iiyo
ia?iaie, ye c’ynoaaeiny, i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny aaiia-?iciiae?eo, a
?aae?aeuei? oa e?eueoeaa? ii?iaeuei? iai?oaeaiiy aeio?eiothoueny
aeniiiaioe?aeueiiai /e aeno?aiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo aai iienothoueny
caeiiii Eaieana. Aeaye? c iaea?aeaieo e?eaeo ?iciiae?eo cia?aaeai? ia
?enoieao 1 — 4.

(= 2,79 ni, ye? ia?aaeuothoue aeiionoei?. E??i oiai, c aaeeeith
?iia??i?noth iiaeia i/eeoaaoe iiyae iaaacia/ieo aeey aaoiio ?icoyaoth/eo
iai?oaeaiue (t.

(aac aiea??a)

(c aiea?aie)

(aac aiea??a)

(c aiea?aie)

Ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiai — o??ueie o ea?aoaaii? oa ii?ooaiiy
a?ae?i?cieyoe?? o noeeao otha?ia?a aieiaeo ooiae?a, iii?/ai? i?ae /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? ae?iaee i?e aoae?aieoeoa? noaioe??
“Eoe’yi?anueea” Ee?anueeiai iao?iiie?oaio.

(= 1,5 ni) ia ia?aaeuothoue aeiionoeieo. Ioaea, o i?ioean?
aoae?aieoeoaa o?eneeaienoi? noaioe?? iao?iiie?oaio ca icia/aieo
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia aiea?oaaiiy caaacia/o? iaae?eio aenieoaoaoe?th
aieiaeo ooiae?a.

O i?aaeeueiino? oeueiai aeniiaeo ia?aeiio? oaeo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
aiea??a c ?ic?aoiaaieie ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith ia?aiao?aie i?e
iiaoaeia? noaioe?? “Aiaaoe?nueea” Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueeiai iao?iiie?oaio.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe iaoaiaoe/iiai
aenia?eiaioo aeey iioeeeo ae?iaie, i?ioiaeaeaiiy yeeo o iaiaeii??aeiiio
ianea? c aeiaaeeiai ci?ithaaieie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
cae?enith?oueny ?c canoinoaaiiyi aiea??a ? aac ieo.

Io?eiai? e?ea? ?iciiae?e?a na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy
ia?ai?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue ? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeia?a iienothoueny
aaiia-?iciiae?eii, aeniiiaioe?aeueiei caeiiii aai caeiiii Eaieana.

A?aeiia?aei?noue aii??e/ieo ?iciiae?e?a i?eeiyoei oai?aoe/iei
onoaiiaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??th (2 i?e iaeiii?ioeaioieo a?aieoeyo
a?aeoeeaiue a?ae e?eoe/ieo oi/ie.

Aeey ioe?iee a??ia?aeiino? ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o
/aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaiee aeai?eoi aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
iaea?aeaiiy aith? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?iaie i?nueeeo eieaeoi?ieo ooiae?a oa
ooiae?a iao?iiie?oaio a neaaeeo ii?iaeao, aeey yeeo ? a?aeiia?aei? aeai?
iaoo?ieo aei???a, aeeiiaieo OeIAe?A oa OeIAe? “I?aecaioaooiaoae”
eieeoiueiai N?N?. Cai??i? noaioe?? neeaaeaeeny c 2-3 aeeiaiiiao?e/ieo
e?eaoeue ia?iaee, o eiaeiiio c yeeo — ii 8-12 ianaeic, ui caaacia/oaaei
20 . . . 25 oi/ie aei???a. O?eaae?noue niinoa?aaeaiue neeaaeaea 5 . . .
6 i?nyoe?a.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeyaea, ui a?aei?ii?noue i?ae oai?aoe/ieie aeaieie
oa aenia?eiaioaeueieie noaiiaeoue 7 . . . 15%.

AENIIAEE

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ae??oaia aeooaeueia iaoeiaa caaaeaiiy, nooue
yeiai — a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee i?iaiiciaaii? ioe?iee
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?iaie noaioe?eieo ae?iaie oa
iaaeieeoi?o ii??ae, ui a?aoiao? ?iia??i?nio i?e?iaeo aeo?aeieo aeaieo ?
oei naiei i?aeaeuo? iaae?ei?noue ooiae?a iao?iiie?oaio a i?ioean?
aoae?aieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe??.

Iniiai? i?aenoiee ? caaaeuei? aeniiaee, a yeeo a?aeaeo? aieiai? iaoeia?
oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe:

1. Ia iniia? iaoiaeo a?aie/ieo aeaiaio?a oa iiaeae? e?i?eii-niaaeeiaiai
na?aaeiaeua ?ic?iaeaiee aoaeoeaiee ?ic?aooieiaee aeai?eoi aeey
aecia/aiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?iaie ? ii??ae ia ??cieo
noaae?yo aoae?aieoeoaa o?eneeaienoi? noaioe?? iao?iiie?oaio a neaaeeo
ii?iaeao. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oaea a?aeiieo oaeee aeai?eoi aea? ciiao
a?aoiaoaaoe iayai?noue aiea??a o iie??ae? ae?iaie.

2. Aeey iaea?eueo iaaacia/iiai aoaio aoae?aieoeoaa o?eneeaienoi?
noaioe?? iao?iiie?oaio a i?ioa?icienueeeo ? niiiaeeeiaeo aeeiao
(i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiueiai ooiaeth) ia iniia? iiiaeeiiiai iae?i?eiiai
ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a iaoaiaoe/iai aenia?eiaioo,
aeeiiaiiai ca aeiiiiiaith iacaaiiai aeai?eoio, onoaiiaeai? iia?
caeaaeiino? iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue ia?ai?uaiue un ? us, iai?oaeaiue
(n oa (t a ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a ? iaeneiaeueiiai ?ici??o ciie
a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio iaaeieeoi?o ii??ae a?ae ia?aiao??a (, ((
oa (.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iaea?aeaieo caeaaeiinoae aecia/ai? ?aoe?iiaeuei?
ia?aiao?e aiea?oaaiiy ii??ae: coneeey a aiea?? ?a = 2 o, aeiaaeeia la =
2,8 i, e?ie onoaiiaeaiiy ii eieo oa aeiaaeei? ooiaeth l = 0,84 i, eoo
ioiieaiiy ( = 1240.

Aiea?e c oaeeie ia?aiao?aie aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?ae /an aoae?aieoeoaa
aaea caaaeaii? noaioe?? “Aiaaoe?nueea”.

3. Ia iniia? noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co aeaieo c?iaeaiiai iaoaiaoe/iiai
aenia?eiaioo (125 … 137 ?ic?aooie?a ca ?ic?iaeaiei aeai?eoiii)
aecia/ai? caeiie ?iciiae?eo iaeneiaeue-ieo ia?ai?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue a
ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a o?eneeaienoi? noaioe?? iao?iiie?oaio,
nii?oaeaeoaaii? o iaiaeii??aeiiio ianea? inaaeiaeo ii??ae c
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ye? aeiaaeeiai ci?iththoueny.

?aae?aeuei? oa oaiaaioe?aeuei? ia?ai?uaiiy o aieao oa neeai?iiyo ia?iaie
i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny aaiia-?iciiae?eo, a ?aae?aeuei? oa e?eueoeaa?
ii?iaeuei? iai?oaeaiiy aeio?eiothoueny aeniiiaioe?aeueiiai /e
aeno?aiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo aai iienothoueny caeiiii Eaieana.

Onoaiiaeai? caeiie ?iciiae?e?a aeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe ?c
caaeaiith iaae?ei?noth (aeia??/ith ?iia??i?noth)
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai ia?iaie aca?iiaieeaath/eo ae?iaie o
iaea?eueo iaaacia/iee ia??iae aoae?aieoeoaa — i?e i?ioiaeaeaii?
na?aaeiuei? ae?iaee.

4. Ia aac? anoaiiaeaieo ei?aeyoe?eieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue oa caeii?a
?iciiae?eo iaeneiaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaeao aieiaeo
ooiae?a ii?aoeueiaai? iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee uiaei aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a
aiea?oaaiiy ii??ae i?ae /an nii?oaeaeaiiy o?eneeaienoi? noaioe??
iao?iiie?oaio. Oe? aeac?aee acyo? aei aeei?enoaiiy Aei?i?iiao?ianueeei
o?e?aeii aea?aeaaiiai i?iaeoiiai ?inoeoooo “Oe?iao?iooiaeueaoae” oa AAO
c aoae?aieoeoaa iao?iiie?oaio a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?.

5. Onoaiiaeai? caeiie ?iciiae?eo iaeneiaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue oa
iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaeao iioeeeo aca?iiaieeaath/eo ae?iaie, ?icoaoiaaieo o
iaiaeii??aeiiio ianea? inaaeiaeo ii??ae c aeiaaeeiai ci?iieie
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Eiaeia c aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny
aaiia-?iciiae?eo aai caeiio Eaieana.

6. Iiiaeeii? ei?aeyoe?ei? a?aeiioaiiy io?eiaieo ??aiyiue ?aa?an??
iathoue cia/aiiy 0,716 . . . 0,99, a cia/aiiy e?eoa??th O?oa?a cia/ii
a?eueoa iaeiii?ioeaioieo a?aieoeue a?aeoeeaiue, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aeinoaoiuei o?nio ei?aeyoe?th ?icaeyiooeo aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei c
aa??eiaaieie ia?aiao?aie oa i?i noaoenoe/io cia/ou?noue onoaiiaeaieo
ca’yce?a.

7. A?aeiia?aei?noue aii??e/ieo ?iciiae?e?a i?eeiyoei oai?aoe/iei
onoaiiaeaia ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??th (2 i?e iaeiii?ioeaioieo a?aieoeyo
a?aeoeeaiue a?ae e?eoe/ieo oi/ie.

I?iaiiciaaia ca anoaiiaeaieie caeiiaie ?iciiae?e?a ea?oeia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?iaie aieiaeo ooiae?a ye?nii
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iaoo?ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie o i?ioean? aoae?aieoeoaa
noaioe?? “Eoe’yi?anueea” Ee?anueeiai iao?iiie?oaio.

8. Aith?e iaaaioaaeaiue ia?iaie eieaeoi?ieo ooiae?a oa ia?aa?iieo
ooiae?a iao?iiie?oai?a, iaea?aeai? aeey ?aeaioe/ieo a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo
oiia ?ic?aooieii ca ?ic?iaeaiei aeai?eoiii ? ?acoeueoaoaie iaoo?ieo
aei???a, a?ae??ciythoueny ia a?eueo ye ia 7 . . . 15%, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
caaeia?eueio oi/i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaieo oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
oa a??ia?aei?noue noi?ioeueiaaieo o ?iaio? iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue,
aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o oaeeo i?aoeyo:

1. Iiaeeiaa E.A., Oeaiiaa I.I., Eanai Aaaeoeeao. Ioeaiea aeeyiey caaiy
au?aaioee ia iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea e?aie ninaaeieo
au?aaioie e ie?oaeathueo ii?iae //

Iaoeiaee a?niee IAA Oe?a?ie.- 1998.- ?1.- N. 29-31.

2. Iiaeeiaa E.A., Eanai Aaaeoeeao. Aa?iyoiinoiay ioeaiea ?acia?ia cii
i?aaeaeueiiai iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey ii?iae aie?oa acaeiiaeeythueo
au?aaioie // ?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee: Na.- E?eaie ?ia, 1998.-
Aui. 66.- N. 40-44.

3. Iiaeeiaa E.A., Caneaaneay E.E., Eanai Aaaeoeeao Aa?iyoiinoiue
iiaeoiae e caaea/a acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeie acaeiiaeeythueo au?aaioie n
ie?oaeathueie ii?iaeaie // Na. iao/i. O?oaeia “Iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneea
i?iaeaiu iiaeaee?iaaiey e i?iaiice?iaaiey /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee”.-
Eeaa: I*N Oe?aeiu.- 1999.- ? 2.- N.166-171

4. Iiaeeiaa E.A., Aoceei A.E., Eanai Aaaeoeeao. Aeeyiea oi?i/iaiey
ianneaa aiea?iaaieai ia niauaiey eiioo?a au?aaioee // Aaioaoie/aneay
iaoaieea: Na. iao/i. o?oaeia.- Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.- ? 15,- N. 22-24.

5. Iiaeeiaa E.A., Caneaaneay E.E., Eanai Aaaeoeeao. Ii?aaeaeaiea caeiiia
?ani?aaeaeaiey yeno?aiaeueiuo cia/aiee ia?aiauaiee e iai?yaeaiee aie?oa
acaeiiaeeythueo au?aaioie // Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu.-
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998.- ?3, o.3.- N. 68-72.

6. Eanai Aaaeoeeao. Eciaiaiea iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?oaiiai ninoiyiey
ii?iaeiiai ianneaa i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa o?aonaiae/aoie noaioeee
iao?iiieeoaia // Na. iao/i. O?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu.- Aeiai?iiao?iane,
1999.- ?6, o.4.- N. 52-56.

7. L.V.Novikova, K.Abdullakh, S.N.Likhman, G.F.Kalinichenko. Calculation
of parameters of side station tunnels reinforcing temporary support //
Tunnels and Metropoliscs, Negro Jr & Ferreira (eds) @ 1998 Balkema,
Rotterdam, ISBN 905410936X.- ?. 365-367.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o ?iaioe, iioae?eiaai? o ni?aaaoi?noa?:[1,
7] — ?ic?iaea /eneiaiai aeai?eoio ?ica’ycaiiy eiioaeoii? caaea/? aeey
nenoaie “ia?iaea aca?ii-aieeaath/eo ae?iaie — ii?iaea” oa eiai i?ia?aiia
?aae?caoe?y, aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a; [2, 3, 5] — a?aei?aoethaaiiy
iaoiaeeee ?a?no?aoe??, aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo
iaoaiaoe/iiai aenia?eiaioo, iaea?aeaiiy ei?aeyoe?eieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue ?
e?eaeo ?iciiae?eo aeno?aiaeueieo cia/aiue ia?ai?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue
ia?iaie noaioe?eieo ae?iaie, a oaeiae ia-eneiaeueii? aaee/eie
i?ioyaeiino? ciie a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio ioi/oth/eo ii??ae; [4] —
?ic?iaea /eneiaiai aeai?eoio ?ica’ycaiiy ieinei? caaea/? i?i aca?iiae?th
ia?iaie aca?iiaieeaath/eo ae?iaie c iaaeieeoi?ie ii?iaeaie c o?aooaaiiyi
?o aiea?oaaiiy.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ean?i Aoi?ae Aaaeae Oaae? Aeue-Oaaeae Aaaeoeea. Ioe?iea
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?iaie noaioe?eieo ae?iaie
iao?iiie?oaio oa ioi/oth/eo ii??ae c o?aooaaiiyi eiia??i?nii? i?e?iaee
aeo?aeieo aeaieo.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.09 — “Iaoai?ea a?oio?a oa a??nueeeo ii??ae”.
Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

?ice?eo? caeiiii??iino? ?iciiae?eo iai?oaeaiue oa ci?uaiue nenoaie
“ia?iaee noaioe?eieo ae?iaie iao?iiie?oaio — ii?iaea — aiea?e” (ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo a?aie/ieo aeaiaio?a oa iiaeae? e?i?eii-niaaeeiaiai
na?aaeiaeua) c o?aooaaiiyi ?iceeaeo aeo?aeieo aeaieo ca
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ii??ae oa iaaaioaaeaiiyie. Aeey
iaea?eueo iaaacia/iai aoaio aoae?aieoeoaa o?eneeaienoi? noaioe??
(i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiueiai ooiaeth) io?eiai? ei?aeyoe?ei?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ui ca’ycothoue iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy ia?ai?uaiue oa
iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a c ia?aiao?aie (, (I ? ( ca
oiiae aiea?oaaiiy ii??ae iie??ae?.

Onoaiiaeai? caeiie ?iciiae?e?a iaeneiaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue
a ia?iaeao aieiaeo ooiae?a, ?icoaoiaaieo o iaiaeii??aeiiio ianea? ii??ae
c o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ui ci?iththoueny aeiaaeeiai.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoai? o oiae? i?aeaioiaee iaoiaee/ieo
aeac?aie c aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a aiea?oaaiiy ii??ae o i?ioean?
nii?oaeaeaiiy o?eneeaienoeo noaioe?e iao?iiie?oaio a neaaeeo ii?iaeao.

Noi?ioeueiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aiea?iiai e??ieaiiy a?aoiaai? i?ae
/an aoae?aieoeoaa noaioe?? “Aiaaoe?nueea” Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueeiai
iao?iiie?oaio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, o?eneeaienoa noaioe?y
iao?iiie?oaio, ia?iaea, aiea?, ei?aeyoe?eia ni?aa?aeiioaiy, e?eaa
?iciiae?eo.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eanai Aoiaae Aaaeae Oaaee Aeue-Oaaeae Aaaeoeea. Ioeaiea
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey iaaeaeie noaioeeiiiuo au?aaioie
iao?iiieeoaia e ie?oaeathueo ii?iae n o/aoii aa?iyoiinoiie i?e?iaeu
enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.09 — Iaoaieea a?oioia e ai?iuo ii?iae.-
Iaoeeiiaeueiay ai?iay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu. Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Ia iniiaa iaoiaea a?aie/iuo yeaiaioia e iiaeaee eeiaeii-ianeaaenoaaiiie
n?aaeu ?ac?aaioai yooaeoeaiue iaoiae ?an/aoa eiiiiiaio
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey iaaeaeie noaioeeiiiuo au?aaioie
iao?iiieeoaia n o/aoii ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iai?yaeaiee a ie?oaeathueo
ii?iaeao a i?ioeanna no?ieoaeuenoaa (n i?eiaiaieai aiea?ia e aac ieo).

N iiiiuueth ?ac?aaioaiiiai aeai?eoia auiieiai iaoaiaoe/aneee yenia?eiaio
— inouanoaeaii iiiaie?aoiia ?aoaiea eiioaeiie caaea/e i acaeiiaeaenoaee
o?aonaiae/aoie noaioeee iao?iiieeoaia n iaiaeii?iaeiui ianneaii
inaaei/iuo ii?iae, oeceei- iaoaie/aneea naienoaa eioi?iai eciaiythony
neo/aeiui ia?acii. A i?ioeanna ?aoaiey aa?uee?iaaeenue ia?aiao?u (, ((,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea aeaenoaothuoth iaa?oceo ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo
no?ieoaeuenoaa noaioeee, a oaeaea iiaeoeue oi?oainoe A e ia?aiao?
(=(?/(n ii?iae.

A ?acoeueoaoa noaoenoe/aneie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo 137 aa?eaioia ?an/aoa
onoaiiaeaiu caeiiu ?ani?aaeaeaiee iaeneiaeueiuo cia/aiee niauaiee e
iai?yaeaiee a iaaeaeeao aieiauo oiiiaeae a iaeaieaa iianiue ia?eiae
no?ieoaeuenoaa — i?e i?ioiaeea n?aaeiae au?aaioee n i?eiaiaieai e aac
i?eiaiaiey aiea?ia. Iieacaii, /oi ?aaeeaeueiua e oaiaaioeeaeueiua
ia?aiauaiey a aieao e naiaeao iaaeaeie iiae/eiythony aaiia —
?ani?aaeaeaieth, a ?aaeeaeueiua e eieueoeaaua ii?iaeueiua iai?yaeaiey
neaaeotho yeniiiaioeeaeueiiio eee yeno?aiaeueiiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth, eeai
iienuaathony caeiiii Eaieana.

Niioaaonoaea yiie?e/aneeo ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?eiyoui oai?aoe/aneei
onoaiiaeaii n iiiiuueth e?eoa?ey (2 i?e iaeiii?ioeaioiuo i?aaeaeao
ioeeiiaiee io e?eoe/aneeo oi/ae.

Ia iniiaa iiiaeanoaaiiiai iaeeiaeiiai ei??aeyoeeiiiiai aiaeeca aeaiiuo
/eneaiiiai yenia?eiaioa iieo/aiu o?aaiaiey ?aa?anee, naycuaathuea
iaeneiaeueiua cia/aiey niauaiee e iai?yaeaiee a iaaeaeeao, a oaeaea
iaeaieueooth aaee/eio i?ioyaeaiiinoe ciiu i?aaeaeueiiai iai?yaeaiiiai
ninoiyiey ii?iae n aa?uee?oaiuie ia?aiaoaie (, (( e (.

A?aieoeu ciiu i?aaeaeueiiai iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey ii?aaeaeythony ii
e?eoa?eth E.ss. Ia?/aaneiai — A.I. Oaoaiei n e?eaieeiaeiie iaeaathuae
e?oaia Ii?a, o/ouaathuaio ?acee/iia nii?ioeaeaiea ii?iae ?anoyaeaieth-
naeaoeth.

Noaoenoe/aneay cia/eiinoue onoaiiaeaiiuo naycae ioeaieaaeanue ii
e?eoa?eth Oeoa?a.

Auiieiaii n?aaiaiea yith? iaa?oaeaiey eieeaeoi?iuo oiiiaeae e oiiiaeae
iao?iiieeoaiia, iieo/aiiuo aeey eaeaioe/iuo ai?ii-aaieiae/aneeo oneiaee
?an/aoii ii ?ac?aaioaiiiio aeai?eoio e ii ?acoeueoaoai iaoo?iuo
ecia?aiee. Ioee/ea ninoaaeyao 7 … 15%.

I?iaiice?oaiay n iiiiuueth onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiey ea?oeia
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey iaaeaeie aieiauo oiiiaeae
ea/anoaaiii iiaeoaa?aeaeaia iaoo?iuie iaaethaeaieyie i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa
noaioeee «Eoeueyiianeay» Eeaaneiai iao?iiieeoaia.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou eniieueciaaiu i?e ?ac?aaioea iaoiaee/aneeo
oeacaiee ii ii?aaeaeaieth ia?aiao?ia aiea?iaaiey ii?iae a i?ioeanna
nii?oaeaiey o?aonaiae/aouo noaioeee iao?iiieeoaia a neaauo ii?iaeao.

Noi?ioee?iaaiiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aiea?iiio e?aieaieth o/oaiu i?e
no?ieoaeuenoaa noaioeee “Aiaaou?neay” Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneiai
iao?iiieeoaia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea, o?aonaiae/aoay
noaioeey iao?iiieeoaia, iaaeaeea, aiea?, ei??aeyoeeiiiia niioiioaiea,
e?eaay ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

ANNOTATION

Qasem Ahmed Abdel Hadi Al Haj Abdullah. Evaluated stress-strain
condition in the rock area around of there close drifts of the metro
station in developments with allowance for probability nature of basic
data.-Ianuscript.

Base on thesis competition of a scientific degree for candidate of
technical science on a speciality 05.15.09 — Mechanics of grounds and
mining rock session in National mining academy of Ukraine.
Dnepropetrovsk, 1999.

With the method of boundary elements and the models of linear
hereditary, medium are uncovered regularities of distribution of
voltages and displacements of a system. «erecting developments of
station — rock-anchors», taking into account a scatter of basic data on
physical-mechanical performances of rocks and loads. For the most
dangerous stage of construction of three-vaulted station (driving of
middle tunnel) the correlation ratio connecting maximum significance of
transitions and voltages in erecting of side tunnels from parameters
SYMBOL 108 \f «Symbol» \s 14 l , SYMBOL 103 \f «Symbol» \s 14 g SYMBOL
72 \f «Symbol» \s 14 H and SYMBOL 121 \f «Symbol» \s 14 y under
condition of anchoring rocks roof are obtained.

For the same performances of the stress-strain condition characterised
researched system of laws of distributions were established also. The
comparative analysis of theoretical and experimental diagrams of loading
erector is executed.

The obtained outcomes are used for development of the methodical
instructions on determination of parameters anchoring rocks during a
structure of 3-arch metro station in loose rocks.

The formulated recommendations on anchors strengthening are taken into
account for construction of station «Bogatirskia» of the
Sankt-Petersburg underground.

Key word: the stress-strain condition, three-arch metro station, erect,
anchor, correlation ratio, curve of distribution.

PAGE 16

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