?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AII OE?A?IE

EI?AE Ea?ena A?eoi??aia

OAeE 37(091) (4/9)

INA?OIss Ae?ssEUeI?NOUe CAINOA OA?E?ANUeEI? AOAA?I??

(A E?IOe? O?O — IA II*AOEO OO NOIE?OOss)

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaaeaaia?ee Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?iai? A.N.Iaea?aiea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Na?o?aa
Ae?ia Aiaoie??aia, Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo ?iai?
A.N.Iaea?aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee
/eai AII Oe?a?ie ss?ia/aiei Ieeiea Aeieo?iae/, Aeaaeai?y Iaaeaaia?/ieo
Iaoe Oe?a?ie, ?aaeiee i?aceaeaioa AII Oe?a?ie;

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe E?ea?/oe ?ai? Eaii?aeiae/, Oi?aae?iiy
ina?oith Ee?anueei? iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??, ia/aeueiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “__23_” ea?oiy 1999 ?. i __14_ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.452.01 a ?inoeooo?
iaaeaaia?ee Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie (252053, i. Ee?a, aoe.
A?oaia, 52-A).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_19__”_aa?aciy_1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eaaeee I.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioeCaaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoeiaa iioeaaoe?y
ia?aiiy oaie iaoiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaoa?i?io?oueny
i?eiaeii? aeaiia a?oiaie /eiiee?a. Ii-ia?oa, aeania iaoeiaei ?ioa?anii
aei aaaaoueio oe?eaaeo ? aiaeii/an iaeiaeine?aeaeaieo aniaeo?a oaeiai
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai oaiiiaio ye ae?yeuei?noue a?o/eciyieo i?aai?a
naiia?yaeoaaiiy a aaeoc? ia?iaeii? ina?oe. Ii-ae?oaa, aaaii?noth o?ie?a,
ye? iiaeia aeianoe aeey nueiaiaeaiiy a ?acoeueoao? iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy
oa aeooae?caoe?? ?noi??? ca?iaeaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo, ?icea?oo e i?eieiaiiy
ina?oiuei? aeoeaiino? cainoa. Aaeaea noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? ia?aaeaa/a? cia/io
aeoea?caoe?th ?ie? i?noeaaeo naiia?yaeoaaiue o an?o noa?ao
iaoa??aeueiiai e aeooiaiiai aeeooy, a oiio /ene? ? a
ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?i?e. Ca?nii, ui nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/i? ?aae?? ii/aoeo e
e?ioey OO noi??//y cia/iith i??ith a?ae??ciythoueny, i?ioa a aaaaoueio
aniaeoao aaiaceno oe?eueieoeoaa iiaeia a?aeiaeoe i?yi? aiaeia??, ye?
noinothoueny aieiaiei /eiii inoaii?o ?ie?a ae?yeueiino? cainoa o ia??iae
i?aae?iiy oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a. Oea, ia?o ca ana, eiinie?aeaoe?y coneeue
an?o i?ia?aneaii ieney/eo, iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo nee iaaeiei
?icaoaeiae nenoaie ina?oe ye i?ioeano iaoe?iiaeueii-?ioaa?oth/iai e
aea?aeaaioai?/iai.

sse cacia/aii a Aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa (Oe?a?ia
OO? noie?ooy)”, a?aeiiaa a?ae aaoi?eoa?ii? iaaeaaia?ee ia?aaeaa/a?
ianaiia?aae ?aaeeeaeueio ?aeiino?oeoe?th oi?aae?iiy noa?ith ina?oe c
ia?aoiaeii ?? a?ae aea?aeaaii? aei aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueei? oi?ie.

Cae?eniaiiy ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co ?aoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o ina?oi?e
noa?? ca inoaii? noi??//y aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe, ui naia ?i?oe?aoeaia
o/anoue o ieo i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy ni?eueii c ia?aaeiaith
a?iiaaenuee?noth aenooiaea ?o i?ia?aeiei ?oo??i. Ooieoe?? aea?aeaae
caiaeeeeny ia?aaaaeii aei eaa?oei?caoe?? aaea ai?iaiaaieo ?i?oe?aoea,
aei o?iainiai? i?aeo?eiee ina?oi?o caoiae?a i?noeaai? aeaaee oa
i?aai?caoe?? o?neaeueieo caoiae?a c eiio?ieth iaae ?o ae?yeuei?noth.

Aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo iaaeaaiue c aea/aiiy ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?
a?o/eciyieo onoaiia naiia?yaeoaaiiy aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
oa, ui ia an? aniaeoe oeueiai yaeua aeine?aeaeai? aeinoaoiuei ae/a?iii,
?c caeo/aiiyi ?ai?acaioaoeaieo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo
caeiaooe?a iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee oa iia?oi?o iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oi/a ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ia?aiei eieii i?iaeai, aoee ia
o?eueee ia’?eoii iaoeiaeo ?ioa?an?a oao?aoe?a e?eueeio aaia?aoe?e, aea e
iaaiee /an ia?aaoaaee a ai?oeaio?? oaaae a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee (iniaeeai
ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy). Naiai /ano oe?ea ieayaea aecia/ieo a?o/eciyieo
iaaeaaia?a, a?iiaaenueeeo oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o ae?y/?a (E.Ooeinueeee,
I.Ei?o, I.Ae?aaiiaiia, I.A?aaianueeee, O.Ae/aanueea, N.N??iiieei,
N.?oniaa, I.?onia, N.*a?eanaiei, N.Iinoa?iae) iia’ycoaaea c ina?oiueith
aeoeai?noth cainoa nai? e?au? niiae?aaiiy uiaei ?icaith oe?a?inueeiai
oe?eueieoeoaa.

O i?aoeyo no/aniee?a cainoaa (N.N??iiieea, A.Aanaeianueeiai,
?.Caya?ioeaaa, A.Aaooa?iaa, N.Oaeueai?ea, A.*a?iieonueeiai oa ?ioeo)
ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy a aaeoc? oe?eueieoeoaa
aena?oeth?oueny aeineoue iiaii e ??ciia?/ii. Iaeiae iaaeie?eaie
a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaiue aei?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo aoea iaiaaeai?noue
eiinoaoaoe??th oaeo?a, ianoa/a oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue c oe???
i?iaeaie.

Ii?aoethaaiiy ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo iiiia?ao?e ? ioae?eaoe?e
A.Aaee/e?ei?, A.Aei?i?iaa, I.Eaee?ii?-Na??nueei?, I.I??oiiai?,
I.Inineiaa, A.Aa?aneiaiea, I.Eocuei?ia, I.Oei oa ?ioeo aeicaiey?
eiinoaooaaoe, ui a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo
cainueea iie?oeea o noa?? ina?oe ?icaeyaeaeany iaiiaii e oia?aaeaeaii.
sse aioeeeeiiaaee/iei aeaeaiiyi, oae ? oaoia?e e?oa?aoo?? i?eoaiaiia
aeoeaiooaoe?y ia o?oaeiiuao ? iaaa?acaeao o ooieoe?iioaaii? nenoaie
ia?iaeii? ina?oe, oiae? ye ?? iiceoeai? aniaeoe oa aeinyaiaiiy
caeaa?eueoiai caiia/oaaeeny. Oea i?ecaaei aei noai?aiiy a
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? noa?aioei?a i?i a?aei?noue, a?aenoae?noue
? i?ei?oea?ci ianiai? ia?iaeii? oeiee aei?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo: i?i
“iiaieiaio aaca?aiioi?noue” iaia?aaeiaei? anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee, iiaio aaeaeoae?noue “iii?ueoeueei-ao?aeoacieo” onoaiia
naiia?yaeoaaiiy aei eoeueoo?ieo caieo?a ia?iaeo, aocueei eeaniao
ni?yiiaai?noue ?oiuei? ina?oiuei? iie?oeee, iaaoaeoeai?noue
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oiai/anieo ii/aoeiaeo oeieao,
a?aenooi?noue aeaiaioa?ieo nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo oiia, aeaetha?aeia
noaiiaeua ia?iaeiiai a/eoaey oiui. Ie??i oiai, a ?aaeyinuee?e e?oa?aoo??
ia aaaaoueio aecia/ieo cainueeeo ae?y/?a iaeeathaaeenue y?eeee
“e?iaiieaoeue” oa “aiiaeoae?a”, aai ae ?o ia?niiae?? acaaae?
?aii?oaaeeny iaoeiaoeyie.

A oiiaao ?icaoaeiae iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae neeaeeny
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ia’?eoeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? iaie iaoeiai?
i?iaeaie. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ie?aei? iaoeia? ?ica?aeee E.Aiae,
I.Eaeaie/aiei, AE.?eue/aiei, A.Iaeai?iaee, E.Ae?iaicthe.

C?aceii a?o/eciyii? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e iiai? aaia?aoe??,
o yeiio aia?oa /?eueia i?noea a?aeaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiith aianeo
a?iiaaenueei? ? i?eaaoii? ?i?oe?aoeae a aaiethoe?th iaoe?iiaeueii?
nenoaie ina?oe ? iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee ca ?aaeaeoe??th I.A.Nooiieeinueei?
“Ia?ene c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa (1905-1933)”.

Inieneaiith oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eyee
i?aoe? no/anieo a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaoe?a o aaeoc? oai??? oa ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee — E.Aiae, ?.Cycthia, A.E?aiaiy, I.Naa/aiei,
I.Nooiieeinueei?, I.ss?ia/aiea oa ?ioeo.

Iniiaith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oe?iea e ??ciiiai?oia (ye ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi, oae ? ca ci?noii) aaca ?ao?iniaeoeaieo oa neio?iiieo
aeaea?ae. I??i?eoaoia i?noea a ?iaio? caeiathoue ia?oiaeaea?aea, ye?
neeaaeathoueny c io?oe?eii? oa cainueei? aeieoiaioaoe??, i?ae?o/iee?a,
iin?aiee?a, aeo?iaeueieo oa aacaoieo noaoae, iaoa??ae?a a?o?a?a. Aaeeea
cia/aiiy iathoue aoi?eii? aeaea?aea: iiiia?ao?? oa iaoeia? noaoo?,
noai?ai? o aei?aaiethoe?eiee, ?aaeyinueeee oa a no/aniee ia??iae.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue Oa?e?anueeo aoaa?i?th
(aei yei? iaeaaeaee oa?eoi??? no/anii? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?, /anoeie
Noinueei?, Iieoaanueei?, Eoaainueei? oa Aeiiaoeueei? iaeanoae), oiaoi
oie ?noi?e/iee ?aa?ii Oe?a?ie, yeee neeaaeaa iniiao Neiaiaeaiueie. Naia
Oa?e?anueea aoaa?i?y iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO noi??//y aoea
noa?ith iniaeeaeo ?ioa?an?a ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo, aaeaea, iii?e naith
a?aeaeaeai?noue a?ae oeaio?o ?iia???, aenooiaea aeaeaei ia i?ia?ioe??th.
A i?e aoa cina?aaeaeaiee iiooaeiee aeiiii?/iee oa eoeueoo?iee
iioaioe?ae: ?icaeiaia i?iieneia?noue, i?ioea?oath/a aaie?anueea nenoaia,
aenieina?aeiia ?ia?oieoeoai oa nooaeainoai, ae?yee o?e ?inoeoooe oa
iaeei ?c iaenoa??oeo a Oe?a?i? Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao, yeee aoa
iiaooi?i ina?aaeeii ia?aaeiai? iaoeiai? aeoiee. Aaaaoi ae?y/?a c
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oeueiai oi?aa?neoaoo i/ieeee
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeee ?oo o ?aa?ii?, i?aoethth/e o a?iiaaenueeeo
oiaa?enoaao, aa?eoiaoe aei neeaaeo i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy /e o?nii c
ieie ni?ai?aoethth/e. Ia aeoieo no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a c ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee, a e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. Oa?e?a aoa oeaio?ii
iaaeaaia?/ii? oai??? e i?aeoeee a Oe?a?i?. (?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie 70 /Ca ?aae. I.ss?ia/aiea. — E.: Iaae. aeoiea. — 1996. — N.6)

Ie na?aeiii cina?aaeeee oaaao ia c?ooaiiyo o ?icaeoeo ina?oe a iaaeao
iaeiiai aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?aa?iio e?a?ie, ine?eueee, ia iaoo aeoieo,
naia oaeee c??c aeanoue ciiao iaea?eueo iiaii ? anaa?/ii aena?oeeoe
aanue niaeo? ?iaioe naiia?yaeoaaiue uiaei iaa/aiiy, aeoiaaiiy e ?icaeoeo
ia?iaeo oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo oaeoi??a o oeueiio i?ioean?
(aaiiie?oe/iiai ? ?aa?iiaeueiiai, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?
oai?aoeei-iaaeaaia?/iiai, noni?eueii-a?iiaaenueeiai e ia?niiae?noe/iiai,
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai e aeaiia?ao?/iiai oa ?i.). Iaeiae iii?e
iaiaaeai?noue i?inoi?iaiai iiey aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoue ia
eieaeueii-e?a?ciaa/ee, a aeiaaeueiee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee ?ai?acaioo?
oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? iaaeaaiiy “iaeiiai c iaeiine?aeiai?oeo
oe?a?inueeeo cainoa” (ca neiaaie I.?oniaa) a eiioaeno? na?oiaiai
ina?oiueiai i?ioeano. Oa?e?anueea aoaa?inueea cainoai iaeaaeaei aei
iaea?eueo i?ia?aneaieo onoaiia naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ye?, ca aaoi?eoaoiei
na?ae/aiiyi ciaaoey cainueei? iaaeaaia?ee ?.Caya?ioeaaa, ae??ciyeeny
na?aae ?ioeo cainoa ?in?enueei? ?iia??? “?ici??aie aeo?ao ia ia?iaeio
ina?oo, a oaeiae aaaaonoaii ? ??ciiiai?oi?noth oi?i ina?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino?” (Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea a cainoaao, iniiau i?aaiecaoeee e
i?aeoe/aneiai aeaea /Iiae ?aae. A.Cayaeioeaaa e ae?. — I.: Caae?oaa. —
1915. — N.7).

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue 1864-1919 ??. Ieaeiy
iaaea aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia ci?iaie o noni?eueiiio aeeoo? ?in?enueei?
?iia??? — i?iaaaeaiiyi na??? e?aa?aeueieo ?aoi?i, cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, c ae?yeuei?noth yeeo iia’ycai?
caii/aoeoaaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoie nenoaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe. Aa?oiy
iaaea icia/a? caaa?oaiiy i?anoi??/ii? ?noi??? ooieoe?iioaaiiy cainueeeo
onoaiia, ?o e?ea?aeaoe?th o ca’yceo ?c anoaiiaeaiiyi ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee
ia Oe?a?i?. Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieth? an? aoaie aaiethoe??
cainueei? ae?yeueiino? a aaeoc? ia?iaeii? ina?oe c aeoeaiooaoe??th oaaae
ia iaea?eueo ie?aeieo ?c ieo.

?iaioa cae?eniaia a ?aieao ae?yeueiino? eaai?aoi??? iaaeaaia?/iiai
e?a?ciaanoaa, yea ooieoe?iio? i?e eaoaae?? iaaeaaia?ee Noinueeiai
iaae?inoeoooo ?i. A.N.Iaea?aiea. Oaia aeena?oaoe?? ocaiaeaeaia c
i?iaeaiaoeeith iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaii? eaoaae?e (eiiieaenia oaia:
“I?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy aeeeaaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i
o aoc?”).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue cainoa Oa?e?anueei?
aoaa?i?? a e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?aai?caoe?y, ci?no, iai?yie oa oi?ie
ina?oiuei? ?iaioe cainueeeo onoaiia aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio ai?iaeiaae
i?anoi??/ii? ?noi??? ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — cae?enieoe anaa?/iee oe?e?niee aiae?c aaiethoe??
cainueei? ina?oiueiai ?ooo a iaaeao icia/aiiai /aniai-i?inoi?iaiai iiey
? ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeai? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo aeey no/anii? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ? i?aeoeee.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— iieacaoe i?ioean ?icoe?aiiy ina?oi?o iiaiiaaaeaiue onoaiia
naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa eaa?oei?caoe?? ?o oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e;

— anoaiiaeoe aoaie cainueeiai ?ooo ca ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caaaeueiiai
ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy;

— aena?oeeoe ?icaeoie i?ina?oyinueeeo iano?i?a o na?aaeiaeu? cainueei?
?ioae?aaioe?? ? aecia/eoe ?ieue ia?niiae?noeniiai oaeoi?o a aeoea?caoe??
cainueei? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?;

— c?iaeoe aiae?c aeeaeaeoe/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo canaae ooieoe?iioaaiiy
cainueei? oeiee;

— ?ice?eoe i?ia?aei? iai?yie oa ci?no ae?yeueiino? onoaiia
naiia?yaeoaaiiy a aaeoc? iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe;

— aeyaeoe niaoeeo?eo iie?oeee cainoa aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio o
cae?eniaii? oe?a?i?caoe?? oe?eueieoeoaa.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue: oai??y iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy; neia?aaoe/iee, aoiai?noe/iee, aeiaaeueiee (oe?e?niee),
i?ioeanoaeueiee, neooaoe?eiee i?aeoiaee; iieiaeaiiy i?i
nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/io coiiaeai?noue ci?noo ina?oe, i?i ca’ycie oai??? ?
i?aeoeee, o?aaeeoe?eiiai e ?iiaaoe?eiiai, ia’?eoeaiiai e noa’?eoeaiiai,
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? caaaeueiiethaenueeiai, e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo c?ooaiue.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny c iii?ith ia oae? i?eioeeie
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ciaiiy, ye ia’?eoeai?noue, nenoaii?noue,
?noi?eci, iaoeia?noue, ui a?oioothoueny ia caeiiao ?icaeoeo iaoee e
noni?euenoaa.

Iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: a?aea??, aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy
o?einionueei?, nioe?ieia?/ii?, e?oa?aoo?iciaa/i?, eoeueoo?ieia?/ii?,
?noi?e/ii? oa iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, ui cae?enithaaeeny c iiceoe?e
ia’?eoeaiino? oa eiino?oeoeaii? e?eoeee; ?noi?eei-eia?/iee aiae?c oa
nenoaiaoecaoe?y a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, o?iiieia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee,
ii??aiyeueii-c?noaaiee, ?ao?iniaeoeaiee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee,
?noi?eei-oeiieia?/iee, ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee oa
nenoaiii-aeno?aiieyoe?eiee aiae?c ae?oeiaaieo aeaea?ae oa iaoa??ae?a.
I?e ?iaio? iaae aeine?aeaeaiiyi canoiniaoaaeeny ianooii? aeiiii?aei?
iaoiaee: ii??aiyiiy, c?noaaeaiiy, eeaneo?eaoe?y, nenoaiaoecaoe?y,
oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a, iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae oa
aeniiae?a c aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o nenoaiiiio
iie?aniaeoiiio iaoia?aaeaeaiiio aiae?c? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? cainoa
ca i?anoi??//y ?o ?nioaaiiy, ui aeeth/a? a naaa oae? eiiiiiaioe:
?ice?eooy aca?iica’yceo ?icaaeoaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e cainoa
oa caaaa/aiiy ?o oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e o aaeoc? ina?oe ia ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy; oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeano ?inoeoooe?ae?caoe?? oa
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ia?aae? cainueeeo ina?oi?o caeeaae?a; a?aee?eooy
iacaneoaeaii caaooeo ?iai cainueeeo ae?y/?a c ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa
aena?oeaiiy a iiaiio ?aeo?n? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? a?aeiieo
caioe?a Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?? (o/anoue o i?ioean? oe?a?i?caoe??
oe?eueieoeoaa, o noai?aii? iie?ooieoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a oiui); ?ice?eooy niaoeeo?ee ?aae?caoe?? caaaeueiicainueei?
eiioeaioe?? ina?oe o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ?aa?ii?; aaaaeaiiy a iaoeiaee
ia?a cia/iiai ianyao aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e, ye? iaiiaiith i??ith /e
cian?i ia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeine?aeieeaie c ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee, a oiio
/ene?, oai?e ai?noiey?iiai aeai?o, iaioa?enoeee, niiaaaee no/aniee?a,
?yae ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue oa a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, a oaeiae canoinoaaiiy
iia?oi?o aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? — aeaieo eiii’thoa?ii? ia?aae? “?NTERNET”;
ni?iaa oai?aoe/ii? aeno?aiieyoe?? iiceoeaiiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ia
i?aeoeeo no/aniiai oe?eueieoeoaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiai ?acoeueoaoe
aeiiiiiaeooue a?eueo iiaii a?aeoai?eoe ?noi??th a?o/eciyii? nenoaie
ia?iaeii? ina?oe; noai?youe oai?aoe/ia i?aea?oioy aeey ?icaeoeo
i?noeaai? ?i?oe?aoeae a oi?aae?ii? ina?oith a no/anieo oiiaao;
ni?eyoeiooue iiiaeaiith no?oeoo?e oa ci?noo aoc?anueeiai eo?no c ?noi???
a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?ee, a oaeiae iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a/eoaeyie ia
o?ieao ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa.

A??ia?aei?noue ? a?aoiaioiaai?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/o?oueny
oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino? a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a oa
iaoa??ae?a ia?oiaeaea?ae, canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeany a oiae?
iaaiai?aiiy ia i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo AEeoiie?nueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo oa Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
?inoeoooo ?i.A.N.Iaea?aiea (1997-1999 ??.). Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia oaeeo eiioa?aioe?yo: i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e “Eoeueoo?a
iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy ye oaeoi? aoiai?caoe?? no/anii? ina?oe”
(Noie, 1996 ?.); nooaeaionueei-ani??aionuee?e NAeI? (Noie, 1996 ?.);
?anioae?eainuee?e a?o?aiciaa/?e (Noie, 1997 ?.); ?? Anaoe?a?inuee?e
“Iaaeaaia?/i? ?iiiaaoe??: ?aea?, ?aae??, ia?niaeoeae” (Noie, 1998 ?.);
iaeani?e, i?enay/ai?e 60-??//th ooai?aiiy Noinueei? iaeano? (Noie, 1999
?.) ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiaee noaaeaiiy ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee oa iaoiaee/ieo nai?ia?ao o Noinueeiio
iaae?inoeooo?. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny o i?ioean?
aeeeaaeaiiy eo?no ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee oa ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo
niaoeeo?nao o NAeI? ?i.A.N.Iaea?aiea. Oaeiae ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy
cae?enithaaeany oeyoii ioae?eaoe?? iaoa??ae?a o oaoiaeo
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 8 iaeiiin?aieo
noaoae (3 — o ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, 3 — o oaoiaeo
ca??ieeao oa 2 — o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ?
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a (245 iaca). Iiaiee ianya ?iaioe — 197 noi??iie,
iniiaiiai oaenoo — 176 noi??iie, 3 oaaeeoe?, 7 aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIssINIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii iniiai? eiiiiiaioe iaoeiaiai aia?aoo
aeine?aeaeaiiy: aeooaeuei?noue oaie, oa?eoi??aeuei? e o?iiieia?/i?
iaae?, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?noi??ia?ao?th oa aeaea?aeueio aaco i?iaeaie,
aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoiaeieia?/io e oai?aoe/io aaco, aeacaii ia i?aeoe/ia
e oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy oa iaoeiao iiaecio aeniiae?a, iiaeaii iieiaeaiiy,
ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a oa
no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aaiacen eaa?oeiieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo oa
eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? cainoa” c’yniaaii
eiiieaen ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a (th?eaee/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo,
nioe?aeueieo, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o, aaia?ao?/ieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo,
ia?niiae?noe/ieo), ye? aeaoa?i?ioaaee aeeiai?eo, iaoai?cie, ianooaae,
iai?yie, ci?no, oi?ie e iaoiaee aieeao naiia?yaeoaaiue ia ae??oaiiy
ina?oi?o ieoaiue, ui i?ecaiaeeei aei ?noioieo ci?i o nenoai? ia?iaeii?
ina?oe, aei ?? ia?aoiaeo ia ye?nii iiaee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo.

Ia iniia? i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoei aeie?aieaii ianooii? aoaie ?icaeoeo cainueei? ae?yeueiino? a aaeoc?
ia?iaeii? ina?oe:

1) 1865 ?. — ii/aoie 90-o ??. O?O no. — ii/aoeiaee aoai i?iiaaeaaoe/ieo
iiooe?a ? oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueieo ?en cainueei? ina?oiuei? eiioeaioe??,
iaiaaeaiiy iacia/iith iaoa??aeueiith ? i?aai?caoe?eiith o/anoth a
oe?euei?e ni?aa?. A oiae? inyaiaiiy nai?? ina?oiuei? i?n?? i?aaie
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia?aeiiaeenue o oeaiino? “eaaeiai”, ni?iuaiiai oeyoo
?icaeoeo ina?oe (a?ae ni?ia aaaaeaiiy aeeeth/ii ?ai?nie/iai oa?aeoa?o
oe?e, iicaaaeaiiai caaaeueiiina?oiueiai eiiiiiaioo, aei ?aea? iiaii?
a?aeiiae a?ae ae??oaiiy i?iaeai oe?eueieoeoaa /a?ac ia?aaea/o oe?e
Neiiaeo) ? ia?aeoee aei eii?oei? i?aoe? c oaeineiiaeaiiy eiai ci?noo,
oi?i oa iaoiae?a ?c caeo/aiiyi aei ni?ai?aoe? ia?aaeiai? a?iiaaenueeino?
— aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a, ae?y/?a i?ina?oi?o oa eoeueoo?ieo oiaa?enoa,
ia?iaeieo a/eoae?a oa ?ioeo caoe?eaaeaieo in?a.

2) e?iaoeue 90-o ??. O?O no. — 1911 ?. — aenoaineaiee aoai: oioaeueia
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?aea? anaia?iaeii? a?aiioiino?, ae?iaeaiiy
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo canaae cainueei? eiioeaioe?? ina?oe (caoaa?aeaeaiiy ?
ii/aoie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ieaio caaaeueii? ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy, o/anoue o
?icaeoeo iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy o?niiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
aoaa?inueeiai e iia?oiaeo cainoa, i??i?eoaoia iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy
oe?eueieoeoaa, ?icaeoie iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo canaae cainueei?
ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?, ?aaeueiiai oa i?noeaaiai eiiiiiaio?a ci?noo
ina?oe);

1911 — 1917 ??. — ?ioaineaiee aoai: ia?ao?ae aei ?aae?caoe?? cainueei?
ina?oiuei? eiioeaioe??, cae?eniaiiy aeoeaii?, nenoaiaoe/ii?,
oe?eani?yiiaaii? iie?oeee onoaiia naiia?yaeoaaiiy a aaeoc? ina?oe
(?ioaineaia oe?eueia aoae?aieoeoai, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo
ae?yeueiino? oe?eueieo oa iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a i?aai?caoe?eieo oa
iaoiaee/ieo iiaaoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi aeinyaiaiue na?oiai? oa a?o/eciyii?
?aoi?iaoi?nueei? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee);

1917 — 1919 ??. — iaoe?iiaeueii-e?aaoeaiee: ia??iae iiaeaeueoi?
aeoea?caoe?? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? cainoa, ia?ao?ae aei cae?eniaiiy
ieie aaciina?aaeiueiai oi?aae?iiy oe?eueieoeoaii (oeyoii noai?aiith
eii?oao?a aieiniiai, iia?oiaiai oa aoaa?inueeiai ??ai?a);
eiinie?aeaoe?y an?o a?iiaaenueeeo nee, noai?aiiy aoiinoa?e
anaia?iaeiiai ni?eyiiy ina?o? ? ia?aoai?aiiy ina?oiuei? noa?e a nenoaio
o?nii? nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae??; oai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe
oeyoii ii/aoeo ?icaoaeiae ?aeeii? o?enooiaiaai? oeiee, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
??aeii? iiae ? i?aaeiao?a oe?a?iiciaanoaa o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean oa
iicaoe?eueio ?iaioo, o??ciiiai?oiaiiy ?o oi?i ? iaoiae?a.

O aeine?aeaeaii? anoaiiaeaii, ui c 60-o ??. O?O no. ?acii ?c
caii/aoeoaaiiyi ? noaiiaeaiiyi nenoaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe aino?i iinoaei
i?ioenoiyiiy io?oe?eiiai eo?no o?yaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? (c /?oeith
oaiaeaioe??th aei oeaio?ae?caoe?? e oi?o?eaoe?? oe?eueieoeoaa) oa
a?iiaaenueei? iaaeaaia?ee (c oyae?iiyi aei aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??,
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaaoe?e). I?aaiaiiy o?yaeo aei
iaeo?ae?caoe?? i?ia?anoth/iai noni?eueiiai aaoi?eoaoo i?aai?a
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ?aae?ciaoaaeiny a ianooiieo oi?iao: i?eeiyooy
?aaeoe?eieo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, a?aeaeaiiy o?iainiaiai ? ii?aeueiiai
i??i?eoaoo i?i?noa?nueeei oa oea?eiaiii?eoiaenueeei oeieai, iineeaiiy
?iniaeoe?? ia?iaeieo oe?e, caaaeueioaaiiy /eneaiieo ina?oi?o ii/eiaiue
ia i?noeyo, ?ai?an?? i?ioe aecia/ieo cainueeeo ae?y/?a oa ia?iaeieo
o/eoae?a ia i?aenoaa? “iie?oe/ii? iaaeaaiiaae?eiino?” oiui.

Ia aeeaey/enue ia aocuee?noue caeiiiaeaa/i? aace ? i?ioeae?th
aea?aeaaieo /eiiaiee?a, ye? ia ni?eyee a?eueiiio ?icai?oaiith ina?oi?o
?i?oe?aoea cainueeeo onoaiia, inoaii? caae?yee an? iiaeeea? aaaeae? aeey
?icoe?aiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e o nenoai? ia?iaeii? ina?oe. Aei ieo
ne?ae a?aeianoe ianooii?: ii?ooaiiy eeiiioaiue ia?aae aeueie i?aaiaie
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee i?i iaaeaiiy iiaeeeaino? iiaiiai /e i?eiaeii?
/anoeiaiai ao?o/aiiy o ci?no ? iai?yie iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a
ii/aoeiaeo oeieao; iineeaiiy cainueeiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa a o/eeeuieo
?aaeao; ?ic?iaea e ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeanieo i?iaeo?a ?icaeoeo
oe?eueieoeoaa (anoia?a/ io?oe?ei?e ?aaeaiaioaoe?? nooi o?iaiainiaiai
oa?aeoa?o ni?eyiiy cainoa ?icaeoeo oe?eueieoeoaa); ni?iae
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? ina?oiueiai caeiiiaeaanoaa caaaeyee aeoeai?e
ae?yeueiino? caioe?a o Aea?aeaaieo Aeoiao; caeo/aiiy aei ni?ai?aoe? an?o
caoe?eaaeaieo a?iiaaenueeeo nee.

O aeine?aeaeaii? c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueii-c?noaaiee aiae?c noaio ?icaeoeo
oe?eueieoeoaa a Oa?e?anuee?e oa ?ioeo aoaa?i?yo ?in?enueei? ?iia???,
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao; iieacaii ianooaae e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo c?ooaiue o
ia?iaei?e ina?o? ii??aiyii c aei?aoi?iaiei ia??iaeii (aeaaaeaiiy ?? ?c
noaio aeeaieiai caiaiaaeo ia ??aaiue, a?aeiia?aeiee aei iio?aa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio); i?i?ethno?iaaii i?yiee
ca’ycie ?ici???a o?iainiaeo aeeaaeaiue ? oaii?a oe?eueiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa; ?ice?eoi i?iaeaie i?ioenoiyiiy “oeaio?o” e “i?ia?ioe?e” o
ieoaiiyo ?iciiae?eo eioo?a. Ia i?aenoaa? aaaaoianiaeoiiai aiae?co
aeiaaaeaii, ui Oa?e?anueea aoaa?inueea cainoai aenooiaei ?i?oe?aoi?ii
aeoaea aaaaoueio ii/eiaiue ina?oiueiai oa?aeoa?o ? c?iaeei /?eueiee
aianie o oai??th e i?aeoeeo cainueei? iaaeaaia?ee a
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio ianooaa?. O 1897 ?. Oa?e?anuee? aoaa?inuee?
cainuee? cai?e aeneiaeeeny ca iaaeaiiy i??i?eoaoo o o?iainoaaii?
ia?iaei?e ina?o? e ia?oeie na?aae onoaiia naiia?yaeoaaiiy aneaioaaee ia
iio?aae oe?eueieoeoaa cia/i? noie. Ia ii/aoeo OO no. cainoaa aoaa?i??
caeiaee i?ia?aeia i?noea c aaniethoieo ?ici???a aeo?ao ia ia?iaeio
ina?oo na?aae oe?a?inueeeo niiia?yaeoaaiue, ui o e?aueo cainoaao
noaiiaeei 35-50% eiooi?eno (oiae? ye aeo?aoe aea?aeaae ia iio?aae ina?oe
ia ia?aaeuoaaee 2% athaeaeaoo). Iie?ioaiiy o?iainiaiai e
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy oe?e ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith
aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ? iineeeei i?aaiaiiy i?aai?a
naiia?yaeoaaiiy eiio?iethaaoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue aeeaaeaieo eioo?a.

O ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeaia aeeiai?ea ?ooo cainoa ca ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
caaaeueiiai ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy. Iieacaii, ui o 1918 ?. iaia?aaeiaei?
inoaoi/iiai anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee naiia?yaeoaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio aoee aeecueeeie aei aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii?
iaoe: a iaaeao e?ath aoei ioiieaii oeieith 81% ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo.

Ae?aiacii ina?oiuei? aeoeaiino? onoaiia naiia?yaeoaaiiy aeaeaei ia
ae/a?ioaaany oo?aioaie i?i ii/aoeiao oeieo. A ia’?eoea? ?ioa?an?a
cainueeeo ae?y/?a ia?aaoaaee ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
na?aaeiuei? oa niaoe?aeueii? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee ianaeaiiy. Uiaei
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui cainoaa Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i??
ni?iiiaeeny iinoaaeoe ?? ia aeineoue aenieee ??aaiue, noai?eaoe ia?aaeo
a?aeiia?aeieo caeeaae?a oa iiaeaaaoe i?i ?o iaoa??aeueia e
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy.

O aeine?aeaeaii? c?iaeaia ni?iaa iiaeieaiiy “aeaia?niiae?caoe??”
oyaeaiue i?i cainueeo iaaeaaia?eo. Iieacaii aieea aeaiie?aoecaoe??
neeaaeo i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy (iineeaiiy ieoiii? aaae oae caaiiai
“iiaiai aeaiaioo”: aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a, i?iieneiaoe?a, e?ea??a, noaeae?a,
aa?iiii?a, ?iaeaia??a, naeyi) ia aeoea?caoe?th ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?
ia iaae? O?O — OO noie?ooy. Aea/aiiy aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? cainoaaie
Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?? ni?aae ia?iaeii? ina?oe aeiaiaeeoue aecia/io ?ieue
noa’?eoeaiiai /eiieea — iayaiino? aia?a?eieo, ia?ciaieo, naiia?aeaeaieo
a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a, oaeaiiaeoeo ea??aiee?a ? i?aai?caoi??a, ye?
eiinie?aeoaaee ? ni?yiiaoaaee ina?oith iie?oeeo ia i?noeaaiio ??ai?.
I?aaenoaaieee ia?aaeiai? cainueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? aoee iaai? oiai, ui
“i?aea?oioy aeia?iaooo e iiaooiino? ia?iae?a iieyaa? ia o aeaeaoi?e
eoeueoo?iino? ie?aieo in?a, a a ina?/aiino? an??? iane ia?iaeo”. Ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, ?iaia ?.Ai?ae??iea, I.Eiaaeaanueeiai, C.Aaea?theiaa,
A.Eieieieueoeaaa oa ?ioeo — oe?ei? ieayaee aecia/ieo cainueeeo ae?y/?a c
ia?iaeii? ina?oe — caneoaiaothoue ia oa, uia aooe caianaieie a
iaaeaaia?/io aioeeeeiiaae?th, ye ethaeae, aeey yeeo aeeoo?aei e?aaei
aoea iaaoiiia ie?aeia i?aoey ia ei?enoue oe?eueieoeoaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?aae?caoe?y cainueei? ina?oiuei? eiioeaioe?? a
i?aeoeoe? ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a oe?eueii? oa iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe”
?ice?eaathoueny oi?ie i?aeoe/iiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo aei?iae?a
onoaiia naiia?yaeoaaiiy. O aeine?aeaeaii? anoaiiaeaii aianie cainoa
Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?? o i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?? ci?noo ina?oe.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui onoaiiae naiia?yaeoaaiiy aenooiaee ca nei?i/aiiy aiaeei
ia aea/aiiy a?aiaoeee ?in?enueei? iiae e Caeiio Aiaeiai ? ca ?o
?aoi?ioaaiiy a a?e aaeaioaoe?? aei iniaeeainoae aeeoy/iai ni?eeiyooy; ca
ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aaae aeaiaio?a iaoeiaeo ciaiue; ca aaaaeaiiy ?noi???
e aaia?ao??, i?e?iaeiciaa/eo aeenoeeie?i, i?aeoe/ii? iaoaiaoeee,
a?o/eciiciaanoaa, a?iianoeee, ni?a?a, ?o/ii? i?aoe?. Ia i?aenoaa?
eeiiioaiue n?euenueeeo a?iiaae i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy aeiaiaeeee
aeioe?euei?noue aeeeaaeaiiy i?eiaeii? o e?aueo oeieao “iniia iia?oi?o
iaoe”: eiiia?aoe??, ?ao?aieoeoaa, aooaaeoa???, noni?euenoaiciaanoaa,
i?aaiciaanoaa, o?aioeocueei? oa i?iaoeueei? iia, iniia a?a??ie, ?yaeo
?ioeo i?aaeiao?a.

Ae?iaeaiiy cainueei? eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oe?eueieoeoaa ciaeoei
iaea?eueo iiaia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iinoaiiaao ia?oiai caaaeueiicainueeiai
c’?caeo c ieoaiue ia?iaeii? ina?oe 1911 ?. O ?iaio? oeueiai c’?caeo
Oa?e?anueea aoaa?inueea cainoai i?eeiyei iaeaeoeai?oo o/anoue,
i?aeaiooaaaoe cia/io e?euee?noue aeiiia?aeae, ca i?aenoieaie yeeo aoee
i?eeiyo? a?aeiia?aei? ?aciethoe??. Aei iaeoe?eaa?oeo ?i?oe?aoea
oa?e?anueeeo caioe?a, ia iaoo aeoieo, iaeaaeaoue ?ic?iaea iiaeo
iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai, anoaiiaeaiiy ii?ee iaaea?iaaieie ae?oueie oa
noai?aiiy nenoaie caoiae?a ?c iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe. Iniiaia
a?aei?ii?noue cainueei? i?ia?aie a?ae io?oe?eii ae?th/i? iieyaaea a
oiio, ui aiia ia?aaeaa/aea aaaaeaiiy aei eo?no iaa/aiiy ia?iaeieo oe?e
?yaeo i?aaeiao?a, ia?o ca ana ?aaeueii? oa e?a?ciaa/i? ni?yiiaaiino?.

Cainoaa aecia/eeenue c iniiaieie i?eioeeiaie iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano a ?aoi?iiaai?e oeie?, aei yeeo iaeaaeaee: iai/iino?, i?aeoe/ii?
aeioe?eueiino?, o?niiai aca?iica’yceo i?ae ie?aieie i?aaeiaoaie,
aeoiaiiai oa?aeoa?o iaa/aiiy. ?acii ?c iiiaeaiiyi ci?noo ina?oe
oa?e?anuee? cainuee? ae?y/? iaa?oiooaaee iaiao?aei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iia?oi?o oi?i ? iaoiae?a aeeeaaeaiiy, ci???ioiaaieo ia ni?eyiiy
anaa?/iiio ?icaeoeo aeeoeie, iaaeaiiy o/iaa? cia/ii a?eueoi?
naiino?eiino? a iaieiae?ii? ciaiiyie.

A oe?eiio, cainueea eiioeaioe?y ina?oe aoea ni?yiiaaia ia aa?iii?eia
ii?aeiaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai, anoaoe/iiai, iao??ioe/iiai,
i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai, o?ce/iiai e o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy ? a?oiooaaeeny ia
ia?aaeiaeo caeiaooeao no/anii? a?o/eciyii? e ca?oa?aeii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee. Aeiaaeuei?noue aieeao ?aeae “?aoi?iaoi?nueei? iaaeaaia?ee” ia
cainueeo eiioeaioe?th ina?oe ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aenaieia?/iiio
aniaeo? ? iicia/eeany ia iiiyo?eiiio aia?ao?, yeei iia?oaaee cainuee?
ae?y/? (“oai?/a iniaeno?noue”, “eaai?aoi?iee iaoiae”, “o?oaeiaee
i?eioeei”, “iia?oi? aeinyaiaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaaeaaia?ee”).
Aiaeii/an cacia/aii, ui aeoioeyoe?y cainoaaie i?ea?iaeueieo ?aeae
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?iii?oo ia aoea iaoai?/iei, aaccanoa?aaeiei ?o
ia?aianaiiyi a i?aeoeeo a?o/eciyiiai oe?eueieoeoaa. Na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai
aoea aeiyoeiaa oaaaa cainoa aei “i?noeaaiai eiiiiiaioo” ina?oe,
iaiieyaaiiy ia i?aa? ae?iaeaiiy “aeanoe/ieo” i?ia?ai, i?enoiniaaieo aei
iio?aa ?aa?iio e aeiia i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy c aeio?eiaiiyi iaaiiai
aea?aeaaiiai i?i?ioio ciaiue.

A oiiaao caai?iie oe?a?iiiiaiino? iaa/aiiy ia?aaeia? cainoaa i?iiaaoaaee
oae? oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? ye niaoeeo?ea
aeecaeio iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, nii?oaeaeaieo a oe?a?inueeiio noee?,
aaaaeaiiy aei oe?eueiiai eo?no aea/aiiy oieueeei?o, ia?iaeieo ?aianae,
aaia?ao??, ?noi??? ? no/aniiai noaiiaeua ??aeiiai e?ath, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
o?niiai ca’yceo oeiee c aoi?/iei na?aaeiaeuai. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
iiaeeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiiiiiaioo ci?noo ina?oe iaei iaa?oiooaaiiy
aaaaeaiiy aei i?ia?aie aeaieeanieo oe?e iiaiai i?aaeiaoo — oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e (“noa?i? e iiai?”). Oaeei /eiii, cainueea eiioeaioe?y ina?oe
aoea caaaeueiiethaenueeith ca ci?noii ? iaoe?iiaeueiith ca oi?iith. ?
oi/a oai?aoe/iee oa i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae onoaiia naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia
cae?eniea cia/iiai aieeao ia ina?oi? caeiiiaeaanoai ?in?enueei? ?iia???,
a ?aaeueiiio aeeoo? eiino?oeoeai? i?iiiceoe?? caioe?a ?iiiioaaee
ia?iaeiei a/eoaeyi ? neoaoaaee aeey ieo aeoeaiei ea??aieoeoaii aei ae??.
Aeooae?caoe?y ? iiioey?ecaoe?y oeeo i?ia?aneaieo ?aeae cae?enithaaeanue
ia noi??ieao ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, ia a/eoaeuenueeeo eo?nao oa
c’?caeao, o i?iaaaeaii? yeeo Oa?e?anueea naiia?yaeoaaiiy a?aecia/aeiny
iaee?auith na?aae oe?a?inueeeo cainoa i?aai?caoe??th.

A oiiaao th?eaee/ii? iani?iiiaeiino? o/ano? cainoa a ea??aieoeoa?
oe?eueieoeoaii oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaaoa iiina?aaeeiaaiee aieea
onoaiia naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia oa?aeoa? oa iai?yi ii/aoeiai? ina?oe, ui
aeyaeyany o anaa?/i?e oo?aio? i?i oeieo ? a/eoaey: caaacia/aii?
n?euenueeeo iaaeaaia?a aeineoue aenieith ca?ieaoiath, a?aei?aoethaaii?
nenoaie i?euea ? caioi/aiue, ai?iouea? ca iaaeaiiy a/eoaeth a?aeiiai
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai oa i?ioan?eiiai noaoono, iie?ioaii?
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai oa iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy oe?e
oiui. O?nia aca?iiae?y i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? oeiee aoea
iaeaaiaeaeaia caaaeyee ni?euei?e ?iaio? caioe?a ? a/eoae?a o oe?eueieo
eii?n?yo, a oaeiae /a?ac eenooaaiiy oa aieaooaaiiy.

Cainoaa aaeaaaeeny aei caioi/aiiy (a oiio /ene? e iaoa??aeueiiai) iiaeo
iaoiae?a aeeeaaeaiiy, iao?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe.
Iinooiiaiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaaoaaee iaoiaee iai/iino?, ?ethno?aoe?y,
aeaiiino?aoe?y, iiynithaaeueia /eoaiiy, aeneo?n??. Cia/ia oaaaa
i?eae?eyeany ?icaeoeo aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
i?aeoiae?a, ianaiia?aae oeyoii e?aa?ae?caoe?? noeeth ni?eeoaaiiy a
nenoai? “a/eoaeue-o/aiue”, caaaeyee i?euaieaiith ae?oyi iaae/ie
naiiina?oe, aeiaeaoeia?e ?iaio? c iaaea?iaaieie oa iaanoeaath/eie
o/iyie, caiyooyi c iaiaia’yceiaeo i?aaeiao?a, i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey
oeiey??a. A?eueo?noue cainoa Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?? ai?iaaaeaeoaaee
i?ea?iaeuei? oi?ie eiio?ieth ciaiue — a?oiia? ?nieoe oa ni?aaan?aee, ye?
noai?thaaee a?eueo iaaeiooaio aoiinoa?o na?aae aeioneiee?a ? ni?eyee
i?aeaeuaiith i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii? i?aoe?. Oea oe?eeii
ocaiaeaeoaaeinue c iaoith cainueei? eiioeaioe?? ina?oe — aaeaioaoe??th
ci?noo iaa/aiiy aei niaoeeo?ee aeeoy/iai ni?eeiyooy ? iio?aa nioe?oio.

Iniaeeai ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey aeoea?caoe?? cainueei? ina?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? neeaeeny a ia??iae i?aae?iiy oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a, ?acii c
io?eiaiiyi i?aaiaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy eaa?oeiieo i?aenoaa ia ?ic?iaeo
aeanieo i?iaeo?a i?ia?ai oa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a oi?aae?ii?
aaeoccth. Oai?aiiy cainoaaie iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe a?aeaoaaeiny
oeyoii ?icaoaeiae ?aeeii? o?enooiaiaai? oeiee, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ??aeii?
iiae a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean oa iicaoe?eueio ?iaioo oa o??ciiiai?oiaiiy ?o
oi?i oa iaoiae?a. O 1917-1919 ??. ia Oa?e?auei? i?e anaa?/iiio ni?eyii?
i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy aoee cae?eniai? oe?eaa? aenia?eiaioe c
i?aai?caoe?? aeioe?eueii? i?aeaioiaee ae?oae, c ae?yeueiino? eean?a
ae??aithaaiiy, c? noai?aiiy caeeaae?a aeey iaacaeieaieo ae?oae oa e?oi?o
icaei?ia/eo oaai??a, c ?icaeoeo ia?aae? n?euenueeeo na?aaei?o oe?e, c?
caaaa/aiiy oi?i ina?oe aei?ineeo, ?c ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a oe?eueiiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy oiui. Iie?oeea i?noeaaeo cainoa uiaei oe?a?i?caoe??
oeiee i?iaiaeeeany c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee e?ath — Neiaiaeaiueie (c?
cia/iei a?aenioeii aoi?/ieo ?in?yi). Ca?aene aeaaaeai?noue,
iinooiia?noue oe?a?i?caoe??, “ni?a?nioaaiiy” oe?a?inueei? ? ?in?enueei?
iia aeeeaaeaiiy ?, ?acii c oei, ?aoe?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y
a/eoaeuenueeeo eo?n?a oe?a?iiciaanoaa, aei yeeo aoee caeo/ai? i?ia?aei?
?ioaeaeooaeuei? neee e?ath.

Caaaeyee eiinie?aeaoe?? coneeue cainoa oa i?ina?oieoeueeeo oiaa?enoa
e?ath Oa?e?anueea aoaa?i?y caeiaea a Oe?a?i? i?ia?aeia i?noea c ??aiy
?icaeoeo iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe. Ia ii/aoeo OO no., a ia??iae “noeo?eiiai
?ooo ian aei ina?oe”, o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei i?aeaeuaiiai iiieoo
ianaeaiiy ia na?eicio e?oa?aoo?o, ia /eoaiiy e eo?ne iaoeiai-iiioey?iiai
oa ooee?oa?iiai oa?aeoa?o, c?inea e?euee?noue ??ciioeiieo oe?e aeey
aei?ineeo, o oiio /ene? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a i?aeaeuaiiai ??aiy
— a?iiac?e aeey aei?ineeo, Ia?iaeieo oi?aa?neoao?a oa Ia?iaeieo
aoaeeie?a.

C iaoith ?ioaa?aoe?? e?a?ie o na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai i?aaie
naiia?yaeoaaiiy aeoeaii i?iiaaoaaee ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? iio?aao iino?eiiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo a
ia?iaeo oai?/eo cae?aiinoae: i?aei?e?ieeaino?, aeiao?aeeeaino?,
iai?aeeia?iino? ieneaiiy, oe?ioe e?oaici?o oa aeniei? oaoiai?
eaae?o?eaoe??. Na?ae/aiiyi aoaeoeaiino? cainueei? iie?oeee a aaeoc?
iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe aoa ?icea?o ae?yeueiino? naeyinueeeo niiaeea/eo,
e?aaeeoieo oa ?ioeo oiaa?enoa. I???ioaoe?y cainueei? ae?yeueiino? ia
caoaeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? aeoeaiino? e oai?/i? naiiae?yeueiino? ia?iaeo
aeaiaeeea ?? ?c aeania iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aiie ? ia?aoai?thaaea ?? ia
aaaeeeaee /eiiee noni?eueiiai i?ia?ano.

Ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy c iii?ith ia a?iiaaenueeo e
i?eaaoio ?i?oe?aoeao aenooiaea eiinie?aeoth/ith oa ?ioaa?oth/ith neeith
a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/iiai ?ooo, neoaoaaea aecia/aeueiei /eiieeii
aaiethoe?? ina?oiueiai i?ioeano, ni?eyea c?inoaiith eiai e?euee?nieo oa
ye?nieo ia?aiao??a. A oe?eiio, ina?oiy iie?oeea cainoa aoea
i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ia’?eoeaiei iio?aaai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ? ni?eyea
?ica’ycaiith iac??eeo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue.

AENIIAEEAENIIAEE

1. ?icoe?aiiy eiiiaoaioe?e cainoa a oi?aae?ii? ina?oith cae?enithaaeiny
i?e a?aenooiino? iii?oiiai i?ia?ano a ina?oiueiio caeiiiaeaanoa?
?in?enueei? ?iia???, ui coiiaeei aeueoa?iaoeai?noue iie?oeee i?aai?a
naiia?yaeoaaiiy uiaei io?oe?eiiai eo?no iiia?o?/iiai o?yaeo. Oaiaeaioe??
cainueei? ae?yeueiino? aei aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??, aeaoi?o?eaoe??,
aeaiiiiiie?caoe?? oa aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oi?aae?iiy oe?eueieoeoaii aoee
ia?aoai?ai? ia i?eioeeiia? canaaee ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oiuei? nenoaie a
ia??iae i?aae?iiy oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a 1917-1920 ??., ui aoei cae??ieaii
ia th?eaee/iiio ??ai?.

2. Ia?aaaaeaiiy cainoaaie caaaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caaaeueii? ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe a noaoon iaeaeeae/i? ia?niaeoeae noaei iiaeeeaei o Oa?e?anuee?e
aoaa?i?? caaaeyee: a?aooaaiith aeiiii?/ieo iio?aa ?aa?iio,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caieo?a oa iaoa??aeueieo iiaeeeainoae ianaeaiiy;
i??i?eoaoiiio o?iainoaaiith ia?iaeii? ina?oe; iaeaaiaeaeaiith /?oei?,
ae/a?iii? ina?oiuei? noaoenoeee; eii?aeeiaoe?? coneeue aoaa?inueeiai oa
iia?oiaeo cainoa a ina?oi?e ni?aa?; ia’?aeiaiith i?ia?aeieo
?ioaeaeooaeueieo iioaioe?e ?aa?iio iaaeiei ?icaoaeiae cainueei?
ia?iaeii? oeiee; oi?ioaaiith a/eoaey iiaiai oeio.

3. ?noioiei caeiaooeii i?aa?eiai? ae?yeueiino? cainoa Oa?e?anueei?
aoaa?i?? o ni?aa? ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe noaei noai?aiiy
?icaaeoaeaii? ia?aae? ii/aoeiaeo oa na?aaei?o caaaeueiiina?oi?o ?
i?ioan?eieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a. Nooo?aeie oaiaeaioe?yie aaiaceno
cainueei? oeiee aoee aeaiie?aoecaoe?y oa aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y.

4. Aeoea?caoe?y ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? cainoa cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaea
a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai oaeoi?o — ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo
cainueei? ?ioae?aaioe??. I?ia?aeieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie a?eueoino?
ia?aaeiaeo caioe?a aoee i?ia?aneai? a?iiaaenuee? ia?aeiiaiiy
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino?, oi?aa?neoaonueea ina?oa, ue?a
a?aeaeai?noue ni?aa?, aeinoaoiy ia?ciai?noue c iaaeaaiiyie a?o/eciyii?
oa ca?oa?aeii? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee oa i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo.

5. Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii, ui caaacia/oaaa ?acoeueoaoeai?noue cainueei?
iie?oeee a oe?eueieoeoa?, neoaoaaea aeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue ??
oai?aoe/ii? eiioeaioe??, aeey yei? oa?aeoa?iith aoea a?aeiia?aei?noue
oe?eaiieeaaeaiiy, i?aai?caoe?eieo, ci?noiaeo oa iaoiaee/ieo aniaeo?a.

6. I?ia?aeieie i?eioeeiaie cae?eniaiiy cainueei? iie?oeee oe?a?i?caoe??
ina?oe ia Neia?aenuee?e Oe?a?i? a ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aianaino
aoee eoeueoo?ia?aeiia?aei?noue, aoi?caoe?y, iine?aeiai?noue,
oiea?aioi?noue.

7. Ia?aaea cainueeeo iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a yaeyea niaith a?aee?eoo
aeeiai?/io iie?ooieoe?iiaeueio nenoaio, yea noai?eea ?noi?e/i?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey aeieeiaiiy nenoaie aacia?a?aii? ina?oe.

8. Cainueea ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue neoao? ua iaeiei c aaaaoueio o
na?oiaiio eiioaeno? aeieacii o??? caeiiii??iino?, ui aoaeoeai?noue
iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aoi?i iiaea aooe aeinyaiooa ianaiia?aae caaaeyee
?i?oe?aoea? oa coneeeyi “cieco” — aeoeaiino? i?noeaaeo a?iiaae oa ?o
iiaiiaaaeieo i?aaenoaaiee?a o i?aaiao i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

9. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia aecia/eoe ?yae
o?ie?a c ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo onoaiia, ye?
aeioe?eueii aoei a aeei?enoaoe no/aniei i?aaiai i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy c iaoith caaacia/aiiy iaeaaeiiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo ina?oe:

— aeoeaia e iine?aeiaia iie?oeea i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ni?yiiaaia ia
ia?ao?ae a?ae aea?aeaaiiai aei aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueeiai oi?aae?iiy
ina?oith;

— iaaeaiiy ina?o? i??i?eoaoiino? o o?iainoaaii? oa i?aai?caoe?y
eiio?ieth ca aoaeoeai?noth aeeaaeaiue;

— caaacia/aiiy a?aeiiai iaoa??aeueiiai, nioe?aeueiiai ? i?ioan?eiiai
noaoono i?aoe?aiee?a nenoaie ina?oe;

— i?e ae?iaeaii? i?noeaai? iie?oeee caae??iiy aei ?iaioe eiiiaoaioieo,
ia?ciaieo, aenieiina?/aieo i?aoe?aiee?a c iii?ith ia an? caoe?eaaeai? o
ni?aa? oe?eueieoeoaa a?iiaaenuee? neee e i?eaaoi? iniae;

— iaaeaiiy oeie? noaoono oeaio?o a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy oeyoii oe?ieiai
caeo/aiiy cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??;

— iai?i aeina?aeii oa eii?aeeiaoe?y coneeue i?noeaaeo naiia?yaeoaaiue
??cieo ?aa?ii?a a ina?oi?e ni?aa?;

— a?aei?aoethaaiiy iaoai?ci?a aeno?aiieyoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caiiaeaiiy a
oe?ieo ina?oith i?aeoeeo, ye? a caaeiaieueiyee caieoe ianaeaiiy a iaaieo
aaeocyo iaoeiaeo oa i?eeeaaeieo ciaiue (caaaeyee iaoiaee/ii
caaacia/aiiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean iiaeo i?aaeiao?a c
iaeyaeo ia niaoeeo?eo ?aa?iio, i?aai?caoe?? ??ciiiai?oieo eo?n?a
caeiaoooy, i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? oa ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?? oiui).

Aaoi? oe?eeii ona?aeiieth? aaaaoianiaeoi?noue aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
i?aaeiaoo ? ia i?aoaiaeo? ia ae/a?ii?noue caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a.
Iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaathoue oae? i?iaeaie: iaaeaaia?/i?
iiaeyaee oa ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue aecia/ieo cainueeeo ae?y/?a, i?ia?aei?
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo a?iiaaenueei? ?i?oe?aoeae o aaeoc? oe?eueieoeoaa a
eiioaeno? na?oiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao:

1.Ei?ae E.A. Cainuee? eo?ne oe?a?iiciaanoaa ia Oa?e?auei? //Oeyo ina?oe.
— 1996. — ?2. — N.43-45.

2.Ei?ae E.A. Aei?aaeyinueea ia?iaeia oeiea //Oeyo ina?oe. — 1999. — ?1.
— N.53-55.

3.Ei?ae E.A. ?oo cainoa ca ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caaaeueii? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe
//Iaaeaaia?/i? iaoee: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue NAeI? ?i. A.N.Iaea?aiea. — Noie,
1998. — N.3-11.

4.Ei?ae E.A. Aecia/i? cainuee? ae?y/? a aaeoc? ia?iaeii? ina?oe
//Iaaeaaia?/i? iaoee: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue NAeI? ?i. A.N.Iaea?aiea. — Noie,
1998. — N.118-125.

5.Ei?ae E.A. Iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy cainueeiai a/eoaey o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? oa iicaiaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino? //Eoeueoo?a
iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy ye oaeoi? aoiai?caoe?? no/anii? ina?oe.
Iaoa??aee i?ae?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — Noie. — 1996. —
N.72-73.

6.Ei?ae E.A. Aieea ?icoe?aiiy noni?eueieo oa ina?oi?o iiaiiaaaeaiue
cainoa ia ?icaeoie ia?iaeii? ina?oe (ia i?eeeaae? ae?yeueiino?
Noinueeiai, Eaaaaeeinueeiai oa Iooe?nueeiai cainoa) //?icaeoie ina?oe oa
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia Noiuei? o XV???-OO noie?ooyo. Iaoa??aee
aoc?anueei? nooaeaionueei-ani??aionueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. Aei.1. — Noie, 1996. — N.3-9.

7.Ei?ae E.A. Eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue cainoa
Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?? ye can?a i?iaoaeaeaiiy oai?/i? naiiae?yeueiino?
ia?iaeo // Iaaeaaia?ea ? iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy. I?iaeaie
?icaeoeo oai?/i? iniaenoino?: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue NAeI? ?i. A.N.Iaea?aiea.
— Noie, 1997. — N.38-43.

8.Ei?ae E.A.A?iiaaenueea ?i?oe?aoeaa o ai?iaaaeaeaii? iia?oi?o
i?aeoiae?a o nenoai? ia?iaeii? ina?oe (?noi?e/iee aniaeo) //
Iaaeaaia?/i? ?iiiaaoe??: ?aea?, ?aae??, ia?niaeoeae. Iaoa??aee ??
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? 20-21 aeiaoiy 1998 ?. —
Noie: I??y, 1998. — N.116-118.

Ei?ae E.A. Ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue cainoa Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?? (a e?ioe?
O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. —
?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1999.

O aeine?aeaeaii? c?iaeaia ni?iaa cae?enieoe oe?e?niee aiae?c ina?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? cainoa Oa?e?anueei? aoaa?i?? a e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy. O ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaii aoaie ca?iaeaeaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo cainueei? eiioeaioe?? ina?oe; anoaiiaeaii aaaeae? aieeao
i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano a ia?iaei?e oeie?; ?ice?eoi i?aai?caoe?th, ci?no, iai?yie oa
oi?ie ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo onoaiia aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
?aa?iio; iieacaii cia/aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo cainueeeo
ae?y/?a o aeooiai?e aiaineiaoe?? ia?iaeo; aecia/aii ?ieue a?iiaaenueei?
?i?oe?aoeae a aaiethoe?? oe?eueieoeoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: cainoai, cainueea ae?yeuei?noue, cainueea eiioeaioe?y
ina?oe, cainueea ?ioae?aaioe?y, cainueea oeiea, ia?iaeiee o/eoaeue,
iicaoe?eueia ina?oa.

Ei?ae E.A. I?inaaoeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue cainoa Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?iee
(a eiioea O?O — a ia/aea OO aaeia). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. —
Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aeiu. — Eeaa, 1999.

Niaea?aeaiea ?aaiou ninoieo ec neaaeothueo no?oeoo?iuo eiiiiiaioia:
aaaaeaiea, aeaa ?acaeaea, auaiaeu e eaaeaeiio ?acaeaeo, iauea auaiaeu,
nienie iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia, i?eeiaeaiea. Ai aaaaeaiee iainiiaaiu
aeooaeueiinoue oaiu, oa??eoi?eaeueiua e o?iiieiae/aneea ?aiee,
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu enoi/ieeiaay e iaoiaeieiae/aneay aaca, noaiaiue iao/iie
?ac?aaioee i?iaeaiu, ii?aaeaeaiu iauaeo, i?aaeiao, oeaeue e caaea/e
enneaaeiaaiey, oeacaii ia oai?aoe/aneia e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea,
iao/ioth iiaecio aai ?acoeueoaoia, i?aaenoaaeaiu iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua
auiinyony ia caueoo, naaaeaiey ia ai?iaaoeee iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee ?aaiou.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea “Aaiacen eaaeoeiiuo, i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e
eiioeaiooaeueiuo iniia i?inaaoeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe cainoa”
ii?aaeaeai eiiieaen iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia (th?eaee/aneeo,
yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, iauaeoeueoo?iuo, aaia?aoe/aneeo,
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, ia?niiaeenoe/aneeo), eioi?ua aeaoa?ieie?iaaee
aeeiaieeo, iaoaieciu, ianooaau, iai?aaeaiey, niaea?aeaiea, oi?iu e
iaoiaeu aicaeaenoaey i?aaiia naiioi?aaeaiey ia ?aoaiea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo
aii?inia, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaeinue nouanoaaiiuie eciaiaieyie a nenoaia
ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey aieioue aei ia?aoiaea aa ia ea/anoaaiii iiaue
o?iaaiue ?acaeoey.

Enneaaeiaaiea niaea?aeeo yeaiaiou neio?iiiiai (n?aaiaiea ninoiyiey
?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey a enneaaeoaiii ?aaeiia n aiaeiae/iuie
i?ioeannaie a ae?oaeo aoaa?ieyo ?inneeneie eiia?ee e ca?oaaaeiuo
no?aiao) e aeeao?iiiiai aiaeeca (iieacaiu ianooaau eiee/anoaaiiuo e
ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a aeaiiie iaeanoe ii n?aaiaieth n aei?aoi?iaiiui
ia?eiaeii, eioi?ua ninoiyo a auaaaeaiee aa ec aeoaieiai oiaaeea ia
o?iaaiue, niia?aciue iio?aaiinoyi nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
?aaeiia); ?ane?uoa i?iaeaia i?ioeainoiyiey “oeaio?a” e “i?iaeioeee” a
aii?ina oi?aaeaiey noa?ie.

A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaia aeeiaieea aeaeaeaiey cainoa ca aiaae?aiea
anaiauaai ia/aeueiiai iao/aiey. Iieacaii, /oi a 1918 a. iaeaioia
ieii/aoaeueiiai onoaiiaeaiey niaaoneie aeanoe ia?aaeiaua cainoaa
enneaaeoaiiai ?aaeiia auee aeecee e inouanoaeaieth iinoaaeaiiie oeaee.

Eco/aiea iiuoa i?aaiecaoeee cainoaaie aeaea ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey
aeieacuaaao cia/eiinoue noauaeoeaiiai oaeoi?a — iaee/ey yia?ae/iuo,
naaaeoueo, naiiioaa?aeaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo aeayoaeae, oaeaioeeauo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae e i?aaiecaoi?ia, eioi?ua eiinieeaee?iaaee e iai?aaeyee
ia?aciaaoaeueioth iieeoeeo ia ianoiii o?iaia. I?aaenoaaeoaee ia?aaeiaie
caineie eioaeeeaaioeee auee oaaaeaeaiu, /oi “caeia aeaaininoiyiey e
iiaouanoaa ia?iaeia caeeth/aaony ia a aeaeathuaeny eoeueoo?iinoe
ioaeaeueiuo iniaae, a a ia?aciaaiiinoe anae iannu ia?iaea”.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea “?aaeecaoeey caineie i?inaaoeoaeueiie eiioeaioeee a
i?aeoeea aeayoaeueiinoe o/?aaeaeaiee oeieueiiai e aiaoeieueiiai
ia?aciaaiey” ?ane?uaathony oi?iu i?aeoe/aneiai aiaae?aiey oai?aoe/aneeo
iniiaiiieiaeaiee, eioi?uie ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue i?aaiu naiioi?aaeaiey.

Ia iniiaaiee iieeaniaeoiiai aiaeeca aeieacaii, /oi Oa?ueeianeia
aoaa?ineia cainoai aunooiaei eieoeeaoi?ii eiino?oeoeaiuo ia/eiaiee
i?inaaoeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a e naeaeaei nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a oai?eth e
i?aeoeeo caineie iaaeaaiaeee a iauaainoaea?noaaiiii ianooaaa. Iniaia
aieiaiea oaeaeaii o/anoeth oa?ueeianeeo caioeaa a ?aaioa Iineianeiai
iauacaineiai nuacaea ii aii?inai ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey 1911 a., a
i?ioeanna eioi?ie ninoiyeinue eiae/aneia ioi?ieaiea caineie eiioeaioeee
ia?aciaaiey.

A oneiaeyo th?eaee/aneie ianinoiyoaeueiinoe o/anoey cainoa a
?oeiaiaenoaa ia?aciaaieai oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?eia?aei
iiin?aaeiaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ianoiuo i?aaiia ia oa?aeoa? e iai?aaeaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe ia?iaeiie oeieu, /oi i?iyaeyeinue ai ananoi?iiiae caaioa
i oeiea e o/eoaea: au?aaioea nenoaiu iaoa?eaeueiiai e ii?aeueiiai
noeioee?iaaiey aunieii?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?oaea iaaeaaiaa, ai?ueaa ca
i?aaeinoaaeaiea o/eoaeuenoao aeinoieiiai nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaiai noaoona,
oeo/oaiea iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai e o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneiai iaania/aiey
o/aauo caaaaeaiee e o.ae.

A auaiaeao iainiiaaiu iniiaiiieaaathuea ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey; n
oeaeueth aeooaeecaoeee i?ia?anneaiiai iiuoa i?aaenoaaeaiu enoi?e/aneea
o?iee, i?eiaieiua e i?aeoeea aeayoaeueiinoe nia?aiaiiuo i?aaiia
naiioi?aaeaiey a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey; iieacaiu ia?niaeoeau aeaeueiaeoaai
oaeoaeaiiiai eco/aiey ioaeaeueiuo aniaeoia e?oaa i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
aeaiiie oaiie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: cainoai, caineay aeayoaeueiinoue, caineay eiioeaioeey
ia?aciaaiey, caineay eioaeeeaaioeey, caineay oeiea, ia?iaeiue o/eoaeue,
aiaoeieueiia ia?aciaaiea.

Korzh L.V. The educational activities of zemstvos of Kharkov province at
the end of the 19-th — the beginning of the 20-th centuries. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for receiving the degree of candidate of pedagogical sciences on
speciality 13.00.01 — the theory and history of pedagogics. The
Institute of Pedagogics of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the
Ukraine, Kiev, 1998.

This research is attempt to make an internal analysis of educational
activities of zemstvos of Kharkov province at the end of the 19-th — the
beginning of the 20-th centuries. In the research work the stages of
origin, the process of making and development of zemstvo conception of
education are scientifically grounded; the mechanisms of influence of
organs of municipal government at the rise of efficiency of teaching and
educational process in people’s school are determined; the content,
tendencies and forms of educational activities of zemstvo institutions
of Kharkov province are revealed; the role of intellectual potential of
zemstvo public leaders in spiritual emancipation of people is stated;
the importance of public initiative in the evolution of educational
process is defined.

Key words: zemstvo, educational activity, zemstvo educational
conception, zemstvo intelligensia, zemstvo schools, folk teacher,
out-of-school education.

Похожие записи