I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AEIIII?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IA?OEITHE IA?E AIAOIE?EIAE*

OAeE. 37:330

INA?OA ssE OAEOI? ?IOAINEO?EAOe?? NONI?EUeIIAI AE?IAIEOeOAA A
IA?AO?AeI?E AEIIII?Oe? OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.01.01 — Aeiiii?/ia oai??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Naa/oe Aieiaeeie? Nao?iiiae/

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai?
?iaioe, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?oaeaanueeee A?oae?e Einoyioeiiae/,

?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
a?aeae?eo aeiiii?/ii? nioe?ieia??

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ea?e?i Ieeiea ?aaiiae/,

Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?iain?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e

nioe?aeueii? noa?e, aeioiae?a oa ??aiy aeeooy

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 17 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14.00
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.006.03 o
Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:
252057, Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoae. 317

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 16 ” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? A.A.Ooen

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia aaiethoe?y
noni?euenoaa oa na?aeiiee ia?ao?ae aei iiaeo, nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaieo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i? iio?aaothoue a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoi??a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa
i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aoaeoeaiino? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Ina?oa ye i?aenenoaia a?aeoai?aiiy aieiaii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee — ?iai/i?
neee oa can?a iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei o an? /ane aoea
?oo?eiei oaeoi?ii i?ia?ano. C iaeyaeo ia oai?aoe/io ?
i?aeoe/ii-i?eeeaaeio cia/ei?noue ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? oi?i i?aai?caoe??
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa nueiaiaei?, ye i?eiee ?ai?oa, ia ia?aaei?e
ieai aenooia? iaiao?aei?noue aiae?co nioe?aeueii? oa aeiiii?/ii? ?ie?
ina?oe o a?aeoai?thaaeueieo eiiieaenao ye oaeoi?a iiaea?i?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa, aoiaiiiai oa aoaeoeaiiai caniao i?aai?caoe?? noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei, aaeaeaaoieo iio?aaai no/anii? ethaeeie.

Ia?ao?ae Oe?a?ie a?ae eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iiaeae? i?aai?caoe??
aeiiii?ee aei ?eieiai? ii?ooo? ia?aae aeiiii?/iith oai???th ye iaoeiaith
aeenoeeie?iith ieoaiiy i?i cia/aiiy ina?oe c oi/ee ci?o caaaeueieo iniia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano, oaeoi??a oa oiia ia’?eoeaii
iaiao?aeieo aeey aeia?aaeaeath/iai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeaia i?iaeaiaoeea ca no/anieo ianoaaei iaeaaeeoue
aei ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? iia’ycaia, c iaeiiai aieo, c
aecia/aiiyi iai?yi?a aoaeoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ina?oe a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo c iaoith canoinoaaiiy ?? o i?ioean? iiaeieaiiy
e?eciaeo yaeu, a c ?ioiai, — caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy aieeao aea?aeaae ia
i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ??aiiaaae a noni?euenoa? ? oi?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee.

Iniiaia caaaeaiiy oa iai?yi o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee nueiaiaei?
aecia/athoueny ?aaeueiei aeeooyi, iio?aaith a /?oe?e i?aai?caoe?? oa
na?aeii?e aeenoeeie?i?, aeiaea?aeoaaoeny yeeo iiaeeeai eeoa ca oiiae
caeo/aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy anueiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo
ethaenoaa. E?a?ie, ui nai?/anii ona?aeiieee ?ieue aeinyaiaiue iaoee oa
iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e, ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai, ui ia ?aii?othoue
oa?aeoa?i? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe??, iia’ycai? c
ia?aoiaeii ethaenoaa aei iiai? a?e, aea ?ioaeaeooaeuei? ?ano?ne ethaeeie
aeaoa?i?iothoue noni?eueiee i?ia?an, nueiaiaei? ? e?aea?aie na?oiaiai
?icaeoeo o ieaiaoa?iiio ianooaa?.

No/ani? iaoiaee ?ic?iaee aeaii? oaiaoeee aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe
oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? cae?enithaaoe i?eeeaaeiee aiae?c ia iniia?
e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy oai??? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa aaaaoiaa??aioiino? ??
iiaeaeae. Aaiethoe?y aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee ia’?eoeaii coiiaeth? iiyao ye
iae?i-, oae ? i?e?iaeiiii?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei aiae?co ?ie? ina?oe,
i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee uiaei i?aai?caoe??
ina?oyinueei? nenoaie ia ??cieo aoaiao aaiethoe?? i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ?
ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei. Iaea?eueo aaeaioiaaieie aei no/anieo oiia ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e aaa/athoueny iiaeae?, ui ?ioaa?othoue aioo??oi?
oa ciai?oi? oaeoi?e aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe.

Aecia/aiiyi i?noey, ?ie? oa cia/aiiy ina?oe o a?aeoai?thaaeueiiio
i?ioean? caeiaeeny caniiaieee eeane/ii? iie?oaeiiii?? A.Ni?o,
Ae.??ea?aei, A.Iaoo?; iaa?oioiaoaaee oa ?icaeaaee oai?aoe/io aaco
oeueiai ieoaiiy i?aaenoaaieee o?oaeiai? oai??? aa?oino?; oaaao aei
ina?oe iaiaaathoueny i?eaa?iooe ? i?aaenoaaieee iaieeane/ii?
iie?oaeiiii?? A.Aaeea?, O. Ooeueoe oa ?io? oai?aoeee “ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo”. Aaaeeeao ?ieue o iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaeao i?iaeaiaoeee aeiiii?/ii?
oa nioe?aeueii? ?ie? ina?oe, iniaeeai o eiioaeno? oi?ioaaiiy no/anii?
eiioeaioe?? iiaoaeiae iiaeae? i?ia?aneaiiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa,
a?ae?a?athoue i?aoe? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a: A.Aaeea?a, Ae.Aaeea,
I.Aeaoaa, A.Aeai?niia, A.Aeieaia, Aeae.Eaiae?eea, A.Eiia, N.A?aeia,
E.E?iaenay, A.Ia?oaea, Aeae.I?ey, N.O?oa?a, O.Ooeueoea.

Caaaeuei? oa niaoe?aeuei? ieoaiiy ina?oe ye oaeoi?a a?aeoai?aiiy
aieiaii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee ciaoiaeyoue a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ?iaioao
a?o/eciyieo aeiiii?no?a ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo: N.No?oi?e?ia, A.AEai?ia,
?.Eaiaethoieeiaa, A.Eei/eiaa, I.E?oa?iiai?. Ethaeeia o aeca?eae?
aeiiii?/ii? oai??? nueiaiaei? ? i?aaeiaoii aiae?co o i?aoeyo
oe?a?inueeeo ? ?in?enueeeo aeine?aeiee?a A.Aaneeue/oea,
A.A?oaeaanueeiai, I.?aaiiaa, A.Eooeaiei, ?.Ia?oeeieaae/a, A.Iineaeaiea,
A.Na?ooaiiaa, ?.Nei?iaa, A.Oo?/aiea.

Neeaaei?noue ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iieyaa? o
iaiao?aeiino? ?ioaineaii ?ic?iaeyoe oa i?aeoe/ii ?aae?ciaoaaoe o
iaenoene?o? no?iee a?aeiia?aeio aea?aeaaio iie?oeeo ? iaeii/anii
oi?ioaaoe aeey oeueiai iaae?eia iaoeiaa i?aea?oioy. I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeai
i?e oeueiio ia o?eueee caa?aaoe ?ioaeaeooaeueiee, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee oa
ina?oi?e iioaioe?ae, a e caeeanoe iniiae aeey aeiaaino?ieiaiai
caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano.

C?icoi?ei, ui, iath/e ia’?eoeaii iaoiiaeai? aioo??oi? ?iioeuene, ye?
aec??aathoue ana?aaeei? aeiiii?/iiai i?inoi?o ? i?aeooiaoothoue ?? aei
oe?ieiianooaaii? ? aeeiai?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei,
Oe?a?ia iiaeiia ?aae?coaaoe iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? iaoai?cie a?aeoai?aiiy
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? no?oeoo?e aea?aeaae, a?aoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio
caaacia/aiiy oiia aeey iinooiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.
Naia oiio oaeee aoiaiiee oa aoaeoeaiee can?a icaei?iaeaiiy noni?euenoaa,
ye ina?oa, ?? caa?aaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ?
aecia/athoue aeooaeuei?noue ? iaiao?aei?noue aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ye neeaaeiaa oaie “I?iaeaie
iiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie noni?euenoaa oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy” (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? UA 01002100 P) ? oaie
“Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy iiai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i?”
(iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0198 U 00078).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. E?ioeaaith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?noey ? ?ie? ina?oe o no/ani?e aeiiii?oe?,
?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ina?oe a oiiaao
?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Oiaoi a aeena?oaoe??
aena?oeth?oueny oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ia cia/aiiy ina?oe o
a?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioeanao acaaae? oa ye oaeoi?a ?ioaineo?eaoe??
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a ?eieiaeo oiiaao cie?aia.

Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoei eiie?aoeciaaii o aeeiiaii? oaeeo caaaeaiue:

1. Aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? i?e?iaee ina?oe, ?ice?eooy
ia?niaeoea ?? ?icaeoeo a iino?iaeono??aeueiiio noni?euenoa? oa oiiaao
nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

2. Aiae?c ci?i oa?aeoa?o i?aoe? ia no/aniiio aoai? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo
oa iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy ina?oe ye oaeoi?a a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee
a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy yeino? oa eaae?o?eaoe??.

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae ina?oe ye oaeoi?a ?ioaineo?eaoe??
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ae?eiaiai caniao iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano.

4. Aecia/aiiy nenoaie, ci?noo oa oeyo?a aaeineiiaeaiiy ina?oe aeey
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai i?aeaioiaee no/aniiai oao?aoey, noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii?
nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee oa aoiaiii? iie?oeee.

C iaeyaeo ia caaino?aiiy aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai a oiiaao
?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?euenoaa a aeine?aeaeaii? c?iaeaii aeineoue /?oeee
aeoeaio ia aena?oeaii? i?e/ei nueiaiaei?oiueiai e?eciaiai noaio ina?oe
oa iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? oeyo?a eiai iiaeieaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Ea?oth/enue
caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy oa nenoaiiei i?aeoiaeii o canoinoaaii?
caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo ? niaoeeo?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ina?oe ye
noeoiiino? ciaiue oa iaae/ie, iaiao?aeieo aeey i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
?iai/i? neee, ye i?ioeano i?aoe? ii a?aeoai?aiith oeeo ciaiue, ui
aeeth/a? ?o iaeiie/aiiy ? ia?aaea/o a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa ?
iiaeeeainoae iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, ie aena?oeeee ina?oo ye
niaoeeo?/io aaeocue ii a?aeoai?aiith iniaenoiai oaeoi?a noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa c i?eoaiaiieie o?eueee ?e, ina?o?, iciaeaie yeino? oa
oiiaaie i?aai?caoe??, oa?aeoa?iei iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiei ci?noii.

I?aaeiaoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aenenoaia ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei ii
a?aeoai?aiith ye?nieo ia?aiao??a iniaenoiai oaeoi?a ae?iaieoeoaa a
oiiaao ?eieiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? e?eoe/ii inieneaia
ii?aeiaiiy aeooaeueieo, c oi/ee ci?o ia’?eoeaii? eia?ee ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, aeinyaiaiue ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo a/aieo.
Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao neeaaeathoue i?eioeeie ae?aeaeoe/iiai
aca?iica’yceo nioe?aeueieo oa aeiiii?/ieo iniia ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa,
iaoiaee i?ciaiiy eiai aaiethoe?? c iaeyaeo ia cia/ei?noue aeoioethaaiiy
? ia?aaea/? ciaiue ia no/aniiio aoai? ina?oyinueeiai i?ioeano. O
aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai? oae? iaoiaee: aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iee,
ii??aiyeueii-aeiiii?/iee, iaoiae aenia?oieo ioe?iie, a?aoiaiae?oe/iee.
Noaoenoe/io ? oaeoieia?/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue aeai?
I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, III, IAO, Na?oiaiai aaieo, ?aaee ?a?iie
oa ?ioeo i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e. Oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeany a?o/eciyia
? ca?oa?aeia iiiia?ao?/ia oa ia??iaee/ia niaoe?ae?ciaaia e?oa?aoo?a,
a?aeii/? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? atheaoai?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a
iieyaa? o:

1) aecia/aii? ina?oe ye nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???, aeey /iai
eiie?aoeciaaii eia?/iee ca’ycie ina?oe c iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei, aeiiii?/iei
? nioe?aeueiei i?ia?anii, aecia/aii iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy ina?oe ye
oaeoi?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie;

2) aeine?aeaeaii? aca?iica’yceo i?noey oa ?ie? ethaeeie o no/aniiio
ae?iaieoeoa? c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi aeiiii?ee. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii iio?aao
a?eueo iiaii? a?aeiia?aeiino? ??aiy ina?oe iio?aaai ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oa
nioe?aeueii? i???ioaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa;

3) nenoaiaoecaoe?? i?aeoiae?a aei oa?aeoa?enoeee ina?oe ye niaoeeo?/ii?
aaeoc? i?aoe? c a?aeoai?aiiy aieiaii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee noni?euenoaa, c
iaeyaeo ia ui neeaaeaii aeniiaee i?i iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy
nenoaie oa caoenoo ina?oe a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa ? iiaeeeainoae
no/aniiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ? ca?aeii c nioe?aeueieie
i???ioe?aie ia iaeaooi?;

4) ii?ooaii? ? ae??oaii? ieoaiue oai??? e i?aeoeee i?aai?caoe?? ina?oe a
oiiaao ?eieo. Iaaiaeyoueny aeieace ia’?eoeaii? iaiao?aeiino?
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, caaacia/aiiy ? o?iainoaaiiy ?icaeoeo ina?oe a
Oe?a?i?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaoiaeeoue
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?iiiceoe?yo aeena?oaioa uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?eioeei?a, iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a i?aai?caoe?? ina?oe a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. I?e oeueiio oaaaa eiioeaio?o?oueny ia e?eciaiio noai?
aeiiii?ee, ni?e/eiaiiio ia?aoe?iiaeueieie iaoiaeaie ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiai? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iniiae aiae?co ina?oe ye nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
yaeua iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe o iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaeao ii aeeeaaeaiith
aeiiii?/ii? oai???, aeiiii?ee ina?oe, aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa
oi?aae?iiy ina?oith.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy c 1993 ?. aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e neeaaeaii?
o/aiaeo i?ia?ai oa ci?noo aeeeaaeaiiy eo?n?a “Aeiiii?ea ina?oe”,
“Aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy” ? “Iaiaaeaeiaio a ina?o?” o Eoaainueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (aeia?aeea ?1/620 a?ae 22.03.99
?.).

Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee aeei?enoai? o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? Aea?aeaaiiai
eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao n?i? oa iieiae? (aeia?aeea ?08/06-00/16 a?ae
16.03.99?.), Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoe?iiaeueiinoae
oa i?a?aoe?? (aeia?aeea ?14-7/4 a?ae 15.02.99?.)

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, io?eiai? aaoi?ii, aoee ii?eethaeiai? ? noaaeai? ia
eiioa?aioe?yo, ui a?aeaoeeny o Iae?oiiie? (1993 ?.), Ee?a? (1994 ?.),
Eoaainueeo ? Iinea? (1997?.).

Iaoeia? ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 5
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,4 ae?oe. a?e. ? oace aeiiia?aeae
o?ueio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. ?iaioa i?noeoue
167 noi??iie, 5 aeiaeaoe?a ? nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 190
aeaeaiue.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, aecia/ai?
nooi?noue i?iaeaie oa aaoi?nueeee i?aeo?ae aei ?? ?ica’ycaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo, caaaeaiiy, i?aaeiao oa iaoiaeieia?th ??
aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a
aaoi?a, aeacai? oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/i? iai?yie ?o i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??,
iaaaaeaii io?oe?eio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?acoeueoao?a ai?iaaoe?? i?iiiceoe?e
aeena?oaioa.

?icae?e ? “Iaoiaeieia?y i?ciaiiy nooiino? aeiiii?/ii? neeaaeiai? ina?oe”
i?enay/o?oueny aeine?aeaeaiith noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o noa?? ina?oe ye
aaeoc?, ui ia? niaoeeo?/ia i?ecia/aiiy ii a?aeoai?aiith aieiaii?
i?iaeoeoeaii? neee.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ina?oe ye nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai??? ie
caa?oa?iiny aei aeiiii?/ii? oai??? a ?? ?noi?e/iiio ? eia?/iiio
?ic??cao, aei ??cieo oe?e oa eiioeaioe?e, ui yaeythoue niaith oai?aoe/ia
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?aaeueieo yaeu ? i?ioean?a, aei caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo
aecia/aiue aeiiii?ee, iaoee, ina?oe oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia ?o
a?aeoai?aiiy.

Caniiaieee eeane/ii? iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? aaaaeaee ina?oo
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iei yaeuai, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaeeeai caa?aaoe
a?iiaaeyinueeee ie? ? caaacia/eoe eiio?ieue iaae i?e?inoii ianaeaiiy.
Aeoiaaiiy aeia?ice/eeaino? oa ?icnoaeeeaino? iaeaaeaei aei ooieoe?e
aea?aeaae, oiio aiia ?c caaeiaieaiiyi i?aeo?eioaaea iaoa??aeuei?
iiaeeeaino? i?eaaoieo oe?e. Aieiaia aeiiaa A.Ni?oa aei aea?aeaaii?
nenoaie caaacia/aiiy ina?oe iiynithaaeany iaiao?aei?noth noeioethaaiiy
aaeeeiianyaiai? ?iaioe a/eoae?a. Aeiiii?/iee ci?no ina?oe a?eueo
aeaoaeueii oa c iiyniaiiyi i?e/ei aecia/a?oueny o eeane/i?e iie?oe/i?e
aeiiii??, cie?aia a?aeii?e i?aoe? E.Ia?ena “Eai?oae”. Anoaiiaeaiiy
eaoaai??? aa?oino?, ui iiaea?oueny o ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Eai?oaeo”,
caeaaeeoue a?ae e?eueeino? i?aoe? aai noni?eueii iaiao?aeiiai ?iai/iai
/ano ? ? aeo?aeiei iieiaeaiiyi aei ona?aeiieaiiy aeiiii?/ii? noo?
ina?oe. Ia aaee/eio aa?oino?, e??i ?ioeo oaeoi??a, aieeaa? ? nooi?iue
ina?/aiino? ?ia?oieea, a oaeiae ??aaiue ?icaeoeo iaoee oa ianooaae
aeei?enoaiiy ?? o ae?iaieoeoa?. Inoaiiy oiiaa oaeiae cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy ?icaeoeo ina?oe a e?a?i?, iioe?aiiy ia?aae?
ina?oyinueeeo onoaiia.

I?aaenoaaieeaie o?oaeiai? oai??? aa?oino? i?aee?aneth?oueny aaeeea
cia/aiiy ??aiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ?iai/i? neee oa ?ieue oeueiai oaeoi?a o
i?aeaeuaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?. Iiaeeea?noue a?aeoai?thaaoe
aa?o?noue ?iai/i? neee iethn aeiaeaoeiao aa?o?noue o oiaa?iiio
ae?iaieoeoa? coiiaeaia niaoeeo?/iith iciaeith oaeiai oiaa?o, ye ?iai/a
neea, eiai caeaoi?noth aei noai?aiiy aa?oino?, a?eueoi? ca aeanio.
Aa?o?noue oiaa?o ?iai/i? neee, ye ? aoaeue-yeiai ?ioiai, aecia/a?oueny
noni?eueii iaiao?aeiei /anii aeey a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee. Oiaoi oea —
eiooe, iaiao?aei? aeey oo?eiaiiy n?i’? ? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
?icaeoeo, a oaeiae eiooe ia caaaeueio ? i?ioan?eio ina?oo.

E.Ia?en naiai /ano noi?ioethaaa e?eueea iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaeo aeey
aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ina?oe iieiaeaiue. Cie?aia, a?i cacia/aa, ui aeey
oiai, uia ia?aoai?eoe caaaeueiiethaenueeo i?e?iaeo ia ?icaeiaio ?
niaoeeo?/io ?iai/o neeo, iaiao?aeii, uia aiia iaea?aeaea a?aeiia?aeio
ina?oo aai aeoiaaiiy, ui, a naith /a?ao, eiooo? o??? /e ?ioi? noie
oiaa?ieo aea?aaeaio?a. Oe? aeo?aoe ia ina?oo ??ciyoueny a caeaaeiino?
a?ae eaae?o?eaoe?? ?iai/i? neee (E. Ia?en, O. Aiaaeuen. Ca. oa. — O.23.
— N. 182-183).

Ii-ia?oa, ooo aeacaii ia niaoeeo?/io ?iai/o neeo, eio?a iio?aao?
a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy ina?oe. ?iai/a neea o oeueiio cia/aii? aeeiio?
eiie?aoio i?aoeth, aeey /iai ?e iaiao?aeii iaoe a?aeiia?aei? iaae/ee,
oie /e ?ioee ??aaiue iaenoa?iino?. Ii-ae?oaa, ii?ooaia i?iaeaia
caeaaeiino? aa?oino? i?aeaioiaee oe??? niaoeeo?/ii? ?iai/i? neee a?ae
eaae?o?eaoe??. Ii-o?ao?, iaoa??aeueiith iniiaith a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
?iai/i? neee ? i?iaeoeo, ui yaey? niaith oiiae aeeoo?aeo cania?a ? ?
iaiao?aeiei i?e an?o nenoaiao noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Oeae i?iaeoeo
caaaeaee ae?iaey? ? a?aeoai?th? nai ?ia?oiee.

Aieea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ianoaaei ia nooi?noue ina?oe, aeiaaaeaiee
i?aaenoaaieeaie o?oaeiai? oai??? aa?oino?, aea? ciiao i?aai?caoi?ai
ina?oe ona?aeiieoe, ui aeanieee eai?oaeo, ea?oth/enue i?aaiaiiyi
yeiaeoaeaeoa io?eiaoe i?eaooie, iiaeooue caiaeeoe ??aaiue ina?oe aei
iaaiiai iaaenieiai nooiaiy, coiiaeaiiai eeoa iio?aaaie eiie?aoiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, oa i?i?iaeueii ciaiooaaoe aeo?aoe ia iaaoooy
eaae?o?eaoe??. Ioaea, i?e /?oeiio oyaeaii? i?i iaiao?aei?noue caaaeueii?
oa niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee ?iai/i? neee ia?ii iaoeiaa i?aea?oioy aeey
a?aenoithaaiiy eiioeaioe?? aaceiooiaii? caaaeueii? ina?oe oa noai?aiiy
oeaio?ae?ciaaieo aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a aeey caaacia/aiiy o?iainoaaiiy
aeo?ao ia ina?oo ? aeoiaaiiy aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaii? iniaenoino?.

Aeiiii?/io nooi?noue ina?oe o iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao
a?aecia/athoue ? i?aaenoaaieee iaieeane/ii? oeiee aeiiii?/ii? oai???,
cie?aia aaoi?e oai??? “ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo” A.Aaeea?, I.Aeaoa, A.Eii ?
O.Ooeueoe. I?aee?anethth/e ia?aaaaeia cia/aiiy iniaenoiai oaeoi?a
ae?iaieoeoaa o iiaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo
oiiaao, aeiiii?/io nooi?noue ina?oe aiie aaa/athoue o aecia/aii? oa?i?io
“ethaenueeee eai?oae”, yeee oi?io?oueny ca ?aooiie ?iaanoeoe?e o
ethaeeio. Na?aae oeeo aeeaaeaiue iiaeia iacaaoe ina?oo, i?aeaioiaeo ia
ae?iaieoeoa?, aeo?aoe ia ioi?iio caei?ia’y, i?a?aoe?th oa iiooee
?ioi?iaoe?? ca oe?iaie oa aeioiaeaie.

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.Aeieaia ? Ae.E?iaenay iaaiaeeoueny aecia/aiiy
“ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo” ye iin?y iaaieo ?icoiiaeo cae?aiinoae,
iaea?aeaieo caaaeyee oi?iaeueiiio iaa/aiith, ina?o? aai i?aeoe/iiio
aeina?aeo.

A aeiiii?/i?e oai??? ?.O?oa?a i?ae eai?oaeii ?icoi??oueny ana oa, ui
caeaoii i?eiineoe ethaeei? aeioiaee. Aei iiiyooy “ethaenueeee eai?oae”
a?i a?aeiineoue ia o?eueee ciaiiy ? ai?iiy, ia o?eueee caeaoi?noue aei
i?aoe?, aea e o?ce/i?, ineoieia?/i?, eoeueoo?i? aeanoeaino? ? cae?aiino?
ethaeeie, oiaoi “ethaenueeei eai?oaeii” o aeai?e no?oeoo?? ? ao?eaiee a
ethaeeio ?a/iaee (o?ce/iee) oa ia?a/iaee (ciaiiy) eai?oae.

Iacaaaeath/e ia /eiae? ?ica?aeiino? o aecia/aiiyo “ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo”, o?aaa a?aecia/eoe, ui ?o iiyaa ia? ia’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae ?
oea, a naith /a?ao, aei?aaaeiao? i?noea oa cia/aiiy oeueiai iiiyooy o
no?oeoo?? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? nueiaiaeaiiy.

Aecia/aiiy noo? ina?oe ye oaeoi?a ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee
? i?iaeaiith aeiiii?/ii? oai???, oiio ui aiia ia?o ca ana ? nenoaiith
a?aeoai?aiiy noni?eueii? oi?ie ooieoe?iioaaiiy ethaeeie, nenoaiith
a?aeiinei, ui iiia?aaeaea? i?ioe??//y ca aeiiiiiaith iaoeiaiai aiae?co
oa iaa?oioiaaieo aeniiae?a. Ca’ycie ina?oe c aeiiii?eith e?a?ie
a?aeaoaa?oueny caaaeyee aca?iiiio caaeiaieaiith iio?aa o iaoa??aeueieo,
o?iainiaeo oa ae?iaie/eo ?ano?nao. I?ioean a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee
aenooia? aecia/aeueiei uiaei ?ai?iaeoeoaaiiy cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? a?ae
e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo oeueiai i?ioeano — yeino? i?aeaioiaee oa ??aiy
ina?/aiino? ?iai/i? neee — caeaaeeoue e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao anueiai
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, noeoiiiai noni?eueiiai i?iaeoeoo ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo. A naith /a?ao, i?ioean ina?oe aecia/a?oueny
oiiaaie iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, iaoa yeiai iaoiiaeth? caaaeaiiy
ina?oe oa aeiiii?/i? iiaeeeaino? ?? ?icaeoeo. Iaoe?iiaeueiee aeio?ae,
yeee noai?th?oueny o iaoa??aeuei?e noa?? ae?iaieoeoaa, ? o?iainiaei
aeaea?aeii ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe.

No??ieee ?icaeoie iaoee ? oaoi?ee nueiaiaei? aeiei??iii ci?ith? ?a/iaa
na?aaeiaeua no/aniiai na?oo ? aenoaa? aenie? aeiiae aei noeoiii? ?iai/i?
neee oa nenoaie ?? i?aeaioiaee. Aeey nueiaiaei?oiueiai aoaio ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo e?a?i oa?aeoa?iei ? iino?eiee i?aeeii ??aiy ina?oe
ianaeaiiy ? c?inoath/? oaiie ?icaeoeo iaoee oa oaoi?ee. I?ae aieeaii
inoaii?o ci?ith?oueny no?oeoo?a no/aniiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
ia?aoai?ththoueny iaoa??aeuei? oiiae aeeooy.

Cia/aiiy ?ioaineaieo oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue iaoea e
ina?oa, aecia/a?oueny ?o niaoeeo?/iei aeiiii?/iei oa?aeoa?ii, ui
anoaiiaeth? nooi?iue caeaaeiino? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a?ae
aoaeoeaiino? aeo?ao i?aoe? o oe?e noa??. Iaeiie/aiiy aeo?ao noni?euenoaa
ia ina?oo oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ? ia?ai?aeaioiaeo eaae??a
(noni?eueii? ?iai/i? neee) neeaaeathoue oiiae ina?oe; eiai oi?ioaaiiy ?
iaa?ae’?iiith oa iaiao?aeiith /anoeiith noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy. Ca
aeaieie aia?eeainueeeo aeiiii?no?a, iaeiie/aiiy ina?oiueiai oiiaeo
c?inoa? oaeaeoa ca aaeiaee aioo??oi?e i?iaeoeo. Caaaeyee
aeia?aaeaeath/iio ca?eueoaiith oiiaeo ina?oe a?aeiioaiiy eiai ianyao aei
iaoa??aeueieo oiiae?a c?inei ca inoaii? 20 ?ie?a oaea?/? (iaoa??aeuei?
oiiaee ca?eueoothoueny ui??/ii a na?aaeiueiio ia 2,1%, a oiiae ina?oe —
ia 4,09%). Oiio “ae?iaie/? i?iaeoeoeai? iiaeeeaino? ethaeeie ca?ac aeu?,
i?ae ?io? oi?ie aaaaonoaa, ?acii ocyo?”. (Schulz T. Investment in Human
Capital. — ?. 14).

O nioe?aeueii i???ioiaai?e aeiiii?oe? i?ae aeiiii?/iith ? nioe?aeueiith
noa?aie aioaaii?noe/ieo i?ioe??/ aooe ia iiaea, iaeiae nenoaia ina?oe ia
caaaeaee nai?/anii ?aaao? ia iio?aao ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa /a?ac
naith a?aeiinio a?aeie?aieai?noue oa aeiiii?/io caeaaei?noue a?ae
iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ina?oe a ?aeeiiio ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiio eiiieaen? e?a?ie
iiyniththoueny ?? iaiao?aei?noth ? aecia/aeueieie eaae?iaeie
iiaeeeainoyie (iioaioe?aeii), a oaeiae aenieith aoaeoeai?noth.

?iaanoeoe?? a ina?oo i?eiinyoue iaeaeuo aeiiii?/io a?aeaea/o, aei oiai
ae aiie ua e iathoue aaeeeo nioe?aeueio cia/ei?noue aeey ?icaeoeo
ethaenoaa. Ine?eueee a ina?o? caoe?eaaeai? an? noa’?eoe noni?euenoaa, oi
iiaeeea?noue caaeiaieaiiy eiai iio?aa caeaaeeoue a?ae oeaio?ae?caoe??
eioo?a ia ?? ?icaeoie o aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeao? c ?o iiaeaeueoei
?iciiae?eii, ye i?aaeei, ca i?eioeeiii ia?oi/a?aiaiai caaacia/aiiy
aaeoc? o aeinyaiaiiyo iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano c iaeii/aniei
caa?aaeaiiyi iaeaei?iae/iai, ui ? o ian, — iiaiai iieie?iiy, ae?oae,
caoeuai?noth oiia aeey ii?iaeueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ethaeeie oa ??
caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? iiaaae?iee.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ina?oe ye aeiiii?/iiai yaeua o ??ci? ?noi?e/i? /ane
oa ??cieie oeieaie aeiiii?/ii? oai??? aea? ciiao aeine?aeeoe ?icaeoie
i?ioeano aeciaiiy ina?oe ye oaeoi?a aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Ia i?eeeaaeao a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
?ie? oa cia/aiiy ina?oe o a?aeoai?aii? aieiaii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee oa
ei?enieo ?? yeinoae ie neeaaea?ii aeniiaie i?i aecia/aeueio ?ieue ina?oe
o a?aeoai?aii? ye?nieo iieaciee?a iniaenoiai oaeoi?a noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oa oaeoi?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a oe?eiio,
oaeoi?a a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee oa ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei o an?o noa?ao
ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae aeniiaie i?i ?icaeoie naii? aeiiii?/ii? oai???
ina?oe ye a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy iio?aa ?aaeueiiai aeeooy c eiai iinooiiaei
oneeaaeiaiiyi.

?acoeueoaoii oeueiai ?icae?eo aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oi?ioethaaiiy aecia/aiiy ina?oe ye nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???,
oai?aoe/iiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?aaeueii? i?aenenoaie ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei,
ui neeaaeathoueny a ina?o? aeey a?aeoai?aiiy aieiaii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee
— ?iai/i?.

?icae?e I “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ci?no ina?oe oa eiai aieea ia
?ioaineo?eaoe?th noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa”. C oi/eo ci?o aeiiii?/ii?
nooiino? ina?oa ? ae?enii aoaeoeaiei caniaii ?ioaineo?eaoe??
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa o an?o eiai noa?ao, aea ia?aoai?aiiy ??
iiaeeeainoae ia ?aaeuei?noue caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia, ui caaacia/othoue
?icaeoie naii? ina?oe. Oiio ie aeine?aeaeo?ii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee
ci?no ina?oe ye niaoeeo?/ii? aaeoc? i?aoe? oa oiiae, ui aieeaathoue ia
aoaeoeai?noue ?? aeei?enoaiiy.

Aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a ia ina?oo oa oi?ie ?? ?aae?caoe?? ?icaeaaeeny a?ae
noai?aiiy nenoaie ?ioa?an?a aei ia? ye aei caniao i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? ?iai/i? neee, i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaeaeoo ?iaeea?aeooi?a c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a iaaeao ie?aiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aei ia?aoai?aiiy oe??? nenoaie ia iiooaeiee oaeoi?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano noni?euenoaa ca no/anieo oiia.

A?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeaieo iniaeeainoae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ci?no
i?aoe? ii caaacia/aiith ina?oe iiaeia aecia/eoe ye oai?/ee ?
aaciina?aaeiuei noni?eueiee. Iciaee oe??? oa?aeoa?enoeee iia’ycai? ?c
noni?eueiei i?ecia/aiiyi i?aoe? a/eoaey ii a?aeoai?aiith iniaenoiai
oaeoi?a aeey an?o aac aeiyoeo aaeocae noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
sse?noue oaei? i?aoe?, ii-ia?oa, ia? aooe aeineoue aenieith ?
a?aecia/aoeny iniaeeaith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth, ui iiaeeeai eeoa ia
a?eueo iiaeeaeaiiio ??ai? i?ciaiiy caeii?a ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ?
caaaeaiue na?aeiii? eiai iiaoaeiae. Ii-ae?oaa, i?aoey a/eoae?a
a?oioo?oueny nei??oa ia ii?aeueieo, i?ae ia iaoa??aeueieo noeioeao
(aeo?aoe i?aoe? ia ?? a?aeoai?aiiy i?ae?aooaaoe aaaeei). ? oeae oaeo
i?aei?ia? i?aoeth a/eoaey ia a?eueo aenieo noiaeeieo noni?eueii? iiaaae.
Ii-o?ao?, oai?/ee oa?aeoa? ina?oyinueei? i?aoe? ia aecia/a? /?oeeo,
aaccaia?a/ieo aeiia aei oi?i aeeiiaiiy (iaoiaeee) ? oa?i?i?a ?iai/iai
/ano ca iaaeaie, anoaiiaeaieie caeiiii.

A?aoiaoth/e niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? i?aoe? a ina?o?, ia iiaeia ia
a?aecia/eoe, ui a?aeiia?aei?noue iniaenoiai oaeoi?a aeiiaai ae?yeueiino?
o oe?e aaeoc? ? iaia’yceiaith oiiaith ?? ?acoeueoaoeaiino? oa
aoaeoeaiino?. Iieacieee i?ioan?eii? i?eaeaoiino? oa oaoiai? i???ioaoe??
neeaaeathoue aecia/aeueio iciaeo ye?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iniaenoiai
oaeoi?a a ina?o?.

Caaacia/aiiy iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? a ina?o?, iaiao?aei?noue yei?
aeyaey?oueny o /?oeiio ieaioaaii?, eiio?ieueiaai?e ?ioaineo?eaoe??
o?ce/iiai oa ?icoiiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe.

Niaoeeo?/ia cia/aiiy iniaenoiai oaeoi?a a nenoai? ina?oe oa ??
aecia/aeueia ?ieue o noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? aeiaaathoue cia/ii
a?eueoi? oaaae aei oai??? ? i?aeoeee i?aai?caoe?? oa iieaoe i?aoe?
iaaeaaia?a, oiio ui oe? oaeoi?e neeaaeathoue ?aaeueio iniiao ?aae?caoe??
iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ina?oe oa c?inoaiiy ?? aeiiii?/ii? oa
nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino?. Aeio?eiaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo oiia
i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? a ina?o? aea? ciiao ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia ii?iaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy ooieoe?e ina?oe — i?ciaaaeueii?, iaoiaeieia?/ii?,
i?aeoe/ii? oa iinooiiaiai ia?aoai?aiiy iaaooeo ciaiue ia ai?iiy ?
iaae/ee i?aeoe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii.

Aei /enea ooieoe?e ina?oe, ui iiceoeaii aieeaathoue ia noni?eueiee
i?ia?an, iaeaaeeoue ? ?aeaieia?/ia. sseui ia?o? o?e ooieoe??
caaacia/othoue ina?oi?e iioaioe?ae, oi /aoaa?oa, ?aeaieia?/ia, —
ia?aeiiaiiy, ona?aeiieaiiy ?icoi?iiy iaiao?aeiino? aeei?enoaiiy oiai /e
?ioiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ianeao ca oe?eueiaei noni?eueiei i?ecia/aiiyi.

Nioe?aeueio ooieoe?th ina?oe iiaeia aecia/eoe ye ?? aca?iiae?th c
nioe?aeueiith no?oeoo?ith noni?euenoaa. Ina?oa caeaoia caaacia/eoe ye
aa?iii?caoe?th ?ioa?an?a o noni?euenoa?, oae ? a?aeoai?eoe ia??ai?noue.
Oea caeaaeeoue a?ae iieiaeaiiy oa aca?iiae?? iin??a oeeo ?ioa?an?a,
eean?a oa oa?oioaaiue, ye? aecia/athoue iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
noni?euenoaa, ?aaeoe?eieo /e aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee, ui i/ieththoue eiai
oi?aae?inueeee aia?ao. Ina?oa aieeaa? ia an? aac aeiyoeo ??ai? ?
no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe noni?euenoaa, aeeth/ath/e iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo
aea?aeaae ? caoeno eiie?aoiiai ?? a?iiaaeyieia.

Aoaiaie ?aae?caoe?? caaaeueii? iaoe ina?oe, ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? cie?aia
oa aaiethoe?? noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio ? ia?aoai?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
i?ia?ano ca aeiiiiiaith ina?oe ia aeiiii?/iee ? a iiaeaeueoiio —
nioe?aeueiee iinooiaeueiee ?oo. sse?ni? iciaee oeueiai i?ioeano
ciaoiaeyoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iiooeao iaoai?ci?a ?ic?aooieo
e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ina?oe.

I?aaiaiiy caa?iooe oaaao ia aaeocue, ui a?aeoai?th? ye?noue iniaenoiai
oaeoi?a, aai “ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo”, ciooo? caa?iooeny aei iaoiaeee
?ic?aooie?a iieaciee?a aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ina?oe, ui ?ic?iaeyeeny
iaeaea o an?o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao. O ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? i?i oae?
iaoiaeeee ii/aee aiai?eoe c 1924 ?. A?aei?aoeueiaoaaeeny aiie a?aeiiei
aeiiii?noii N.A.No?oi?e?iei, a i?ci?oa A.A.AEai?iei. O e?a?iao Cao?aeii?
?a?iie oa NOA oe? ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeee A.Aeai?nii, A.Eii, O.Ooeueoe.
Aeoiaey/e ?c caaaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie iaiaaeeiiny
ii??aiyeueiei aiae?cii iaoiaeieia?/ieo iineeaiue uiaei aeiiii?/ii? oa
nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ina?oe c ??cieo aeaea?ae.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? aea? ciiao i?aeoe/ii
i?aeoaa?aeeoe aeiiii?/ia cia/aiiy ina?oe ye niaoeeo?/ii? aaeoc? ii
a?aeoai?aiith iniaenoiai oaeoi?a noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa c
a?aeiia?aeieie, o?eueee ?e aeanoeaeie iciaeaie ii?aeiaiiy oaeoi??a
ae?iaieoeoaa (noa’?eo?a ina?oe), yeino? oa oiia ?o i?aai?caoe??, iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaiiai ci?noo ina?oe oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?? cia/aiiy,
oiaoi aieeao ?? iiaeeeainoae, on?o ooieoe?e ia noni?eueiee i?ia?an.
Ii??aiyeueia ae oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie ii cae?eniaiith
?ic?aooie?a aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ina?oe ?, ii-ia?oa,
aeieacii aeciaiiy ?? ye oaeoi?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo, a ii-ae?oaa, aea? iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe, ui o?niee ca’ycie
i?ae aeiiii?/iei oa nioe?aeueiei cia/aiiyi ina?oe, iaoiiaeai?noue eiai
iane?aee?a ? aaaaoiaa??aioi?noue iaoiae?a ia/eneaiiy cieaeo? aaaii?noue
?ic?aooie?a e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a acaaae?. Ina?oa aieeaa? ia ye?ni?
iieacieee aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy, i?aenoieiaei i?iyaii yeeo ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aeia?iaooo oa anaa?/iee ?icaeoie iniaenoino?. Oiio c on?o
iieaciee?a e?euee?niiai ae?aco iaei?eeiyoi?oei ia? aooe iieaciee
caaaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ina?oe, oiaoi a?aeiioaiiy i?e?inoo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoo aei aeo?ao ia ina?oo.

Iiaeeea?noue ia?aoai?aiiy iaoee ia aaciina?aaeith ae?iaie/o neeo
caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy oa yeino? ina?oe, ui ia? ?aaeueiee oiiae ciaiue,
i?iiiiiaaiee iath.

A aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aeineoue iioe?aiith ? aeoiea, ui ?iai/a neea,
iniaenoee oaeoi? ae?iaieoeoaa — oea /anoeiaee eiiiiiaio “?ioaa?aeueii?
aoaeoeaiino?”, aei yei? i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? aoiaeeoue ?acii c
oiiaei- oa iaoa??aei?ii?noth. *anoi aaeeaathoue aeneiae
“oiiaeicaa??aath/?”, “iaoa??aei-caa??aath/?” /e “i?aoeacaa??aath/?”
oaoiieia??. Aaaeeeai i?e oeueiio ona?aeiieth-aaoe, ui oae? iiioey?i?
ae?ace ia iiaeii? i?aaethaaoe aieiaia iieiaeaiiy i?i oi?aa?naeuei?noue
o?oaeiaiai oaeoi?a, i?i oa, ui an? “?iiino?” oa “a?aeaea/?” yaeythoue
niaith ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? ?iai/i? neee. Oiaoi oea icia/a?, ui
cia/ouei aniaeoii i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ina?oe oa iioaioe?eii
iaae/a?iiei ?ano?nii, iaae? yeiai iino?eii ?icoe?ththoueny o /an?, ? ia
aeiiii?y aeo?ao, a ye?ni? c?ooaiiy o ae?iaieoeoa? oa niiaeeaaii?,
niinia? aeeooy a oe?eiio, o ?icaeoeo naii? ethaeeie (oiaoi o c?inoaii?
/enaeueieea oi?ioee aoaeoeaiino?). ?ieue ina?oe o oeueiio eiioaeno?
i?e??aith?oueny aei /eiieea a?aeoai?aiiy noni?eueii? oi?ie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a, nenoaie ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue i?eioeeiai iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? oa c?inoaiith
iieaciee?a ?? i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

Iineeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ?ie? ethaeeie, a c iath e ina?oe ye oaeoi?a
a?aeoai?aiiy aaaeaieo yeinoae oe??? ethaeeie o noni?eueiiio
ae?iaieoeoa?, nueiaiaei? ci?ith? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae iaoa??aeueiith oa
aeooiaiith noa?aie ia ei?enoue inoaiiuei?. Oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
aaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo ina?oe oa iai?yi?a ?? caaacia/aiiy: aeiiii?caoe??,
aoiai?caoe?? oa aeaiie?aoecaoe??. ?aae?caoe?y oeeo aeiaaeueieo iai?yi?a
a ina?o? Oe?a?ie oneeaaeith?oueny i?iaeaiaie, ui iia’ycai? c ia?aoiaeii
aei ?eieiai? oi?ie ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, yea ia ia? ua iaeaaeiiai
eiio?ieth oa a?ae/ooiiai caoenoo nioe?aeueii? noa?e, cie?aia ina?oe.

?icae?e O “Aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie ina?oe a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie”. A?o/eciyi? ina?oi? i?iaeaie, ui oae “ae?acii”
a?ae??ciythoue ian nueiaiaei? a?ae ?ioeo e?a?i oa aeaniiai
iiia?aaeiueiai noaio, iaoiiaeai? “na?aeiiei” ?aoi?ioaaiiyi aeiiii?ee oa
ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiai? oi?ie ?? ?aaoethaaiiy. Ca iane?aeeaie oeeo
i?ioean?a, ye eiinoaoothoue ca?oa?aei? aenia?oe, Oe?a?ia iin?aea? 80-oa
i?noea ca ??aiai aeeooy ?? a?iiaaeyi, i?e/iio iaei??th c iniiaieo i?e/ei
aiie aaaaeathoue ia?icaeioo?noue nenoaie ina?oe.

Ca inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy a Oe?a?i?, ye ? a ?ioeo e?a?iao, o?eaa? i?ioean
iiiaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? oa aeui? oeiee, ni?yiiaaiee ia aeaiie?aoecaoe?th,
aoiai?caoe?th noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio ? ia?aoai?aiiy ina?oe ia ?inoeooo
a?iiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei cie?aia. Nai oaeo iayaiino? oeeo i?ioean?a
na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeea?noue iiceoeaieo ci?i o nenoai? ina?oe, i?ioa ?o
aoaeoeai?noue caeeoa?oueny noii?aiith /a?ac ?yae ianoaaei.

Iniaeeaa neeaaei?noue cae?eniaiiy ina?oiuei? ?aoi?ie iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aiia i?ioiaeeoue ca oiia nenoaiii? e?ece, ni?e/eiaii? aia?o?/iei
ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieo, a oaeiae oei, ui aiia, ina?oa, ye ? ?eiie, ia
?aaoeth?oueny iaeaaeiei /eiii c aieo aea?aeaae. *a?ac oea o i?ioeanao
?aoi?ioaaiiy ie ia?ii ye iiceoeai?, oae ? iaaaoeai? ?ene.

?icaeyaeath/e i?ioean aeieeiaiiy iaaea?aeaaieo o/aiaeo caeeaae?a, ie
aa/eii aeineoue cia/i? i?ioe??//y a ?o ae?yeueiino? ? /eiae?
?ica?aeiino? a iioeaaoe?? ?o a?aee?eooy. sseui aeaye? i?aai?caoi?e
ea?othoueny aaaeaiiyi ae?enii noai?eoe oiiae aeey aenia?eiaioaeueieo
i?ia?ai, oi o a?eueoino? caniiaiee?a iniiaiei iioeaii noaiiaeaiiy
ina?oiueiai caeeaaeo ? eiia?oe?eia ae?yeuei?noue, oiaoi i?aaiaiiy
aeinyaoe iaoa??aeueiiai oni?oo ia a?eueiiio naaiaio? ?eieo ina?oyinueeeo
iineoa. O ca’yceo c oei, ui iaaea?aeaai? o/aia? caeeaaee noai?ththoueny
ia?aaaaeii aeey i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth (aeineoue
i?anoeaeia ia nueiaiaei? i?ioan?y), iiae?aia i?aeoeea iiaea iaaeiaai
cao?eiaoe iiaeeeaino? aeoiaeo c e?ece ? ina?oe, ? aeiiii?ee.

Caaaeath/e ia anaa?/ia cia/aiiy ?icaeoeo ina?oe, ia?oi/a?aiaeie iathoue
aooe oaaaa c aieo aea?aeaae, oeaio?ae?ciaaia oi?aae?iiy ina?oith,
ine?eueee a ina?oyinuee?e nenoai? o eiioeaio?iaaiiio aeaeyae?
cina?aaeaeothoueny ? a?aeaeca?eaeththoueny an? noni?euei? i?ioe??//y.
A?aenooi?noue iiaeeeaino? ae??oeoe ?o aaciina?aaeiuei a ina?o?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aaaaoi?aciaiai a?aeoai?aiiy iaae??oaieo i?iaeai o
iaeaooiueiio.

I?i caeaaei?noue noni?eueiiai i?ia?ano a?ae ia?oi/a?aiaiai caaacia/aiiy
?icaeoeo ina?oe na?ae/aoue ? i?eeeaaee c? na?oiai? i?aeoeee. O na?aaeei?
70-80 ?ie?a e?eca ina?oe ii/aea i?iyaeyoeny o caa?iceeaiio yaeu? –
ooieoe?iiaeuei?e iaa?aiioiino?. C iath c?oeioeeny iaa?oue o? e?a?ie, a
yeeo iaia’yceiaa iaa/aiiy ?nio? aaea ia iaeia noie?ooy (NOA, I?ia//eia,
O?aioe?y). Iiynieoe oeae oaeo iiaeia iayai?noth i?ioe??//y i?ae
i?enei?aiiyi ?icaeoeo ?a/iaiai oaeoi?a oa a?aenoaaaiiyi iniaenoiai,
oiaoi a?aenoaaaiiyi ina?oe, i?aai?caoe?? oa caaacia/aiiy ?? yeino? ia
o?eueee noiniaii iio?aa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo, aea e iioi/ieo,
iiaooiaeo iio?aa ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?.

Ooieoe?iiaeueia iaa?aiioi?noue – iaeaino??oa i?iaeaia ae?oai? iieiaeie
OO noie?ooy — aeeeeeaea ?ioaineai? iiooee iaaeaaia?/ii? ia?aaeeaie c
iiaeie ?aeayie, i?eioeeiaie, i?aeoiaeaie, ye? iaee a?aeiia?aeaoe
iio?aaai ianooiiiai OO? noie?ooy. ? /ei aeeae/a ?oa?ae iiaiai noi??//y,
oei ?ioaineai?oa iiiaeeoueny /enei oaeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai, ye “Ina?oa aeey 2000 ?ieo” (I?ia//eia),
“Ina?oa aeey aia?eeaioe?a OO? noie?ooy” (NOA), “Ina?oa iaeaooiueiai”
(O?aioe?y), “Iiaeaeue ina?oe aeey OO? noie?ooy” (ssiii?y). Ii/eiath/e c
1989 ?. aeine?aeieoeueea a?oia “?aeeia ?a?iia” ui??/ii i?iaiaeeoue
eiioa?aioe?? oa nai?ia?e c i?iaeai i?aeia?iaeii? aca?iiae?? o noa??
ina?oe. Aaaaoieoeueoo?ia ina?oa ca?ac – ia eeoa ii?aeueiee ?iia?aoea, a
i?aeoe/ia iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaeiie/aiiai aeina?aeo aeey
aeiiii?/ii?, iie?oe/ii? oa eoeueoo?ii? aca?iiae?? na?oiaiai
ni?aoiaa?enoaa. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye?
i?iaiaeyoueny c iaoith cae?eniaiiy ianooaaieo ?aoi?i on?o noi??i aeeooy,
ia iiaeooue ia?eoeny aac anaioiiethth/i? ina?oe ia ??ai? na?oiaeo
aeinyaiaiue oa iaia’yceiaeo noaiaea?o?a.

Caaaeueiiaeciaiei ? oie oaeo, ui a iaoo aiioo i?ia?aeia ?ieue o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo iaeaaeeoue ?ioaineaiei oaeoi?ai.
I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy caaaeueii? oa i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee ?iai/i? neee ?
iaeiei c iniiaieo. *eneaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca?oa?aeieo oa a?o/eciyieo
aeine?aeiee?a aeiaiaeyoue, ui ?iaanoeoe?? a ina?oo caaacia/othoue
a?eueoa iieiaeie ??/iiai i?e?inoo aaeiaiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoo.
Oea — i?aeoe/ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iiceoeaiiai aieeao ina?oe ia aeiiii?/ia
c?inoaiiy.

Aaeineiiaeaiiy ina?oe ? iaeiei c iniiaieo iai?yi?a aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee
an?o aeniei?icaeiooeo e?a?i. Iia? ?iaeono??aeuei? e?a?ie oaae
caaacia/eee i?i?ea a aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo caaaeyee aeiei??iiei ci?iai o
noa?? ina?oe (I?aaeaiia Ei?ay, Oaeaaiue, N?iaaio? oa ?io? e?a?ie a
ei?ioeee oa?i?i ai?iaaaeeee caaaeueio na?aaeith ina?oo, c?iaeee
caaaeueiiaeinooiiith aeuo oeieo, i?aeiyee ??aaiue caaaeueii? oa
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee aei ??aiy no/anieo noaiaea?o?a). Na?oiaee
aeina?ae i?aee?aneth?, ui iaoea aac ina?oe i?/iai ia aeanoue
ae?iaieoeoao. Oiio c?icoi?eei noa? oie oaeo, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia
nei?i/aiiy o?yaeaie aaaaoueio nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai, aeeiai?ea aeo?ao ia
ina?oo caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiith. Ina?oa o an?o ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiooeo
e?a?iao caoeua?oueny a?ae noeo?eiiai ?eieo, /ei aeiaiaeeoueny, ui aiia ?
ia eeoa caniaii aeinyaiaiiy iaoe, a e naiith iaoith, ui naia a oeueiio
iieyaa? ?? a?aeoai?thth/a aoiaiia neea. Ca?eueoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e a ina?oo
nueiaiaei? oei ia/a iaiao?aeia, ine?eueee aeiaae?caoe?y aeiiii?ee,
?aaiethoe?y ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, i?enei?aiiy nioe?aeueiiai
i?ia?ano ii?iaeaeo? iano i?iaeai, i?e/iio ia o?eueee nioe?aeueieo ?
aeiiii?/ieo, a e aoe/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo. Iao na?o noa? ana a?eueo
iano?eeei oa i?ieeaei, oiio o?eueee aacia?a?aia ina?oa iiaea iaae?eeoe
eiaeio ethaeeio caeaoi?noth i?enoiniaoaaoeny aei iaeaooi?o ci?i.

I?iaeaie a?o/eciyiiai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo iieyaathoue ia eeoa a oiio,
ye ia?aeoe aei ?eieo ? naiaiaee i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, a e a oiio, ye
noai?eoe oeea?e?ciaai? i?aaia? iaiaaeaiiy ?eieo. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, ye
ci?ieoe ciai?oi? oiiae, uia oeea?e?ciaaia aeaiaea ? ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue
ca?aaeeny c aeiaaii/?eoaaiith noni?eueiith oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiith
ei?eni?noth.

Ine?eueee oai?oeai oa aeeiiaaoeai oeea?e?ciaaieo i?aaee, iaiaaeaiue
caeii?a o aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa? ? eiaeia ethaeeia, oi ciaiiy oa
ai?iiy noai?thaaoe ?o ? ea?oaaoeny ieie, iiaeii? aooe caaacia/ai?
eiaeiiio a?iiaaeyieio a iaia’yceiaiio ii?yaeeo. I?e a?aeiia?aeiiio
iie?ioaii? ci?noo oa no?oeoo?e i?aai?caoe?? ina?oe c iiae?aiei
caaaeaiiyi oe?eeii aii?a?oueny a?o/eciyia ina?oyinueea nenoaia.

O ia??iae aeiiii?/ii? ianoaa?eueiino? iaoiai noni?euenoaa ? ia aeineoue
iaiaae?eeeaiai iaeaooiueiai ie ia iiaeii? aeiioneaoe “oieiai? oa?ai??”
ina?oe ?aae?yie aeeooy, oi/a ina?oyinueea nenoaia e ooieoe?iio? o
ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu?. I?e caaacia/aii? iacaeaaeiino? a?ae
aeiiii?/ieo no?on?a ? aeniei? /ooeeaino? aei iio?aa ? iiaeeeainoae
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano, ui iiaea
caaacia/eoe eeoa aea?aeaaa, ina?oa noaia ae?enii aoaeoeaiei ? aoiaiiei
caniaii aeaaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie c e?ece c iiaeaeueoith ??
?ioaa?aoe??th o na?oiao aeiiii?/io nenoaio.

Aeniiaee

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? nooiino? ina?oe, ?? i?noey, ?ie? oa cia/aiiy
o ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?ioeanao ye oaeoi?a ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i?
neee, iniaenoiai oaeoi?a aea? ciiao ocaaaeueieoe oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy
oa iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeey ?icaeoeo ina?oe c iaoith caaacia/aiiy
?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy oa caaeiaieaiiy noni?eueieo
iio?aa o iiaoaeia? nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a
Oe?a?i?.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aii??e/iiai aeina?aeo ?icaeoeo ina?oe a ??cieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo oiiaao, ona?aeiieaiiy ?? i?noey oa ?ie? o noni?eueiiio
ae?iaieoeoa?, ?icoi?iiy i?iaeai ? iiaeeeainoae ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie aeicaieeee ae?eoe oaeeo aeniiae?a:

1. Nenoaia ina?oe — oea aeooiaia, iaoa??aeueia iniiaa no/anieo
?icaeiooeo e?a?i, oiio aeeaeia ? oaeaee?noue ci?ie oi?ie oa ci?noo
ina?oe o?nii iia’ycai? c aeiaaeueieie i?ioeanaie ci?i noni?euenoaa,
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee oa ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei ? i?iii?oe?ei? i?ia?ano
inoaii?o.

2. Ina?oa ye niaoeeo?/ia aaeocue i?aoe? ia? nai? iniaeeaino? uiaei noo?
oaeoi??a, oiia ?o aca?iiae?? oa ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiaia caaaeaiiy aaeoc?
iaoiiaeth? ci?no ? oi?io iaeiie/aiiy ? ia?aaea/? ciaiue i?i caeiie
?icaeoeo i?e?iaee, noni?euenoaa oa ieneaiiy a?ae iieie?iiy aei
iieie?iiy.

3. C oi/ee ci?o aeiiii?/iiai a?aeoai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano ina?oa ?
oaeoi?ii ?ai?iaeoeoaaiiy aieiaii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee noni?euenoaa —
?iai/i? neee — ye noeoiiino? aeooiaieo ? o?ce/ieo cae?aiinoae ethaeeie,
ui ?aae?cothoueny o i?ioean? i?aoe?, yea, a naith /a?ao, yaey? niaith
i?iaeoeoeaia niiaeeaaiiy ?iai/i? neee.

4. Ia?aoai?aiiy ethaeeie ia aecia/aeueiee oaeoi? noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa cia/ii ?icoe?th? eiei ?? ?ioa?an?a ? iio?aa ye ae?iaie/eo,
oae ? iniaenoeo, a ioaea, i?aeaeuo? ?ieue nenoaie, ui oi?io? oe?
?ioa?ane oa iio?aae, oiaoi noni?eueio oi?io ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie —
ae?iaie/? a?aeiineie.

5. Ci?ia ?ie? oa cia/aiiy ethaeeie o noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, /?oea
ae?aaeaiiy ?? nioe?aeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? ci?ith? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
iaoa??aeueiith oa aeooiaiith noa?aie ae?iaieoeoaa ia ei?enoue i?e?iaeieo
? noni?eueieo iio?aa ethaeeie. Oea noaaeoue iia? caaaeaiiy ia?aae
aaeoccth, ui a?aeoai?th? aeooiai? oa i?ioan?ei? oe?iiino? ethaeeie, —
ia?aae caaaeueiith oa i?ioan?eiith ina?oith. Aeiiii?caoe?y, aoiai?caoe?y
oa aeaiie?aoecaoe?y ci?noo ina?oe ? ia’?eoeaii iaoiiaeaiith aeiiaith aei
i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ina?oe a oiiaao iino?iaeono??aeueiiai ?icaeoeo oa
na?aeiiiai ia?aoiaeo aei nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo.

6. Caa?aaeaiiy ina?oiueiai i?inoi?o a oiiaao nenoaiii? e?ece,
iaaeiiouaiiy cieaeaiiy ?ioaeaeoo oa ?ic?eao c iaeiie/aiith iiia?aaei?ie
iieie?iiyie eoeueoo?ith, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeiiii?/ii? a?aiioiino? an?o
noa’?eo?a ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei ? niaoeeo?/iith iniaeea?noth
aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ina?oe a Oe?a?i? oa iaia’yceiaith oiiaith
ae??oaiiy ?nioth/eo i?iaeai o noni?euenoa?.

7. Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea a aaeoc? ina?oe iiaeiia aooe /?oea ? ae?eiaa.
Aea?aeaai? i?aaie oi?aae?iiy iathoue a?aeiia?aeaoe ca oiiae oa noai
caaacia/aiiy aaciaiai ??aiy ina?oe, iaia’yceiai? oa aaceiooiaii? aeey
an?o ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo. sse ?aaoeueiaaia, oae ? naii?aaoeueiaaia
aeiiii?ea ia aeeeth/a? na?aeiii? iiaaae?iee ethaeae o noni?euenoa?, a
noai?aiiy a?aeiinei aca?iicaeaaeiino? oa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeaeoa e aoaeoeai?oa i?e oeaio?ae?ciaai?e aea?aeaai?e
oi?i? i?aai?caoe?? oa ca oiiae caaacia/aiiy o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe.

Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy ?eieii — oea aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith
eaae??a, aea?aeaaia ieaioaaiiy ina?oe a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa oa
iiaeeeainoae iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano
noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaaia caaacia/aiiy iaoa??aeueieie, o?oaeiaeie ?
o?iainiaeie ?ano?naie c ?aeeiiai oeaio?o oa ca ?aeeieie ii?iaie,
iaa?oioiaaieie anaa?/ii; oea aea?aeaaiee eiio?ieue ca aeeiiaiiyi ieai?a
ii ?icaeoeo oa caaacia/aiith ina?oe a?aeiia?aeii aei na?oiaeo
noaiaea?o?a ??aiy oa yeino?.

Oeaio?ae?ciaaia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ina?oe — oea
ia’?eoeaii iaoiiaeaiee i?ioean ?icaeoeo ina?oe ? noni?euenoaa naia ca
aeiiiiiaith ina?oe, caeiiii??i?noue, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?noi?e/iei
?icaeoeii aeiiii?ee, iie?oeee ? ina?oe, na?oiaeie i?eeeaaeaie ?o
aca?iiae?? ye o /an?, oae ? i?inoi??.

Ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

O oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo:

1. Ia?oeithe I.A. Aeiiii?/iee aniaeo ?ie? oa i?noey ina?oe o
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie // Aeiiii?ea oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai: Ca.
iaoe. i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo oa ani??aio?a. Aei. 1.— E.: EIAO, 1997. —
N. 10-14. — 0,25 ae?oe. a?e.

2. Ia?oeithe I.A. Aecia/aiiy noo? ina?oe ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai??? //Ca.
iaoe. i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo. Aei. 5. — E.: ?i-o na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie, 1997. — N. 10-15. — 0,4 ae?oe. a?e.

3. Ia?oeithe A.I., Ia?oeithe I.A. ?ieue ina?oe o aeoiae? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie c e?ece // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue Eoaainueeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?i-oo. *ano. 3. — Eoaainuee: ENA?, 1997. — N.
63-65. — 0,15 ae?oe. a?e. (iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a — 0,1 ae?oe. a?e.).

Iniaenoee aianie: ?ice?eoi oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe ina?oe ye
oaeoi?a iiaeieaiiy aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, ?icaeyiooi aeiiii?/io neeaaeiao
ina?oe.

4. Ia?oeithe I.A. Iieacieee aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino?
ina?oe // Aeiiii?ea oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue iieiaeeo
a/aieo oa ani??aio?a. Aei. 2. — E.: EIAO, 1998. — N. 50-55. — 0,4 ae?oe.
a?e.

5. Ia?oeithe I.A. O?ainoi?iaoe?y nenoaie ina?oe Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno?
no/aniiai aoaio ?icaeoeo na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe?? // Ca. i?aoeue a/aieo.
Aei. 13. — E.: ?i-o na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI
Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N. 18-22. — 0,25 ae?oe. a?e.

A ?ioeo aeaeaiiyo:

6. Ia?ouithe A.I., Ia?ouithe I.A. Nioeeaeueii-yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu
?uiea // Iaoa??aee ?anioae?eainueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Aeieiai-aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa a
Oe?a?i? a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei”, 28-29 o?aaiy 1993 ?.
*ano. 2. — Iae?oiiieue: IAeI?, 1993. – N. 167-168. — 0,1 ae?oe. a?e.
(iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a — 0,05 ae?oe. a?e.)

Iniaenoee aianie: ?ice?eoi ?ieue ? i?noea ina?oe, cie?aia aeiiii?/ii? oa
aeieia?/ii?, o ae??oaii? nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai noni?euenoaa ca
?eieiaeo oiia.

7. Ia?oeithe I.A. I?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe o
caaaeueiiaea?aeaai?e i?ia?ai? “Iaoe?iiaeueia ina?oa Oe?a?ie” // Oace
aeiiia?aeae Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoe.-iaoiae. eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?iiciaanoai
o oaoi?/iiio aoc?: iaoiaeieia?y, iaoiaeeea, ia?niaeoeae”, 12-14 aeiaoiy
1994 ?. — E.: OAeOOO, 1994. – N. 132-133. — 0,05 ae?oe. a?e.

8. Ia?ouithe I.A. Yeiiiie/aneia ia?aciaaiea a eiioaenoa aoiaiecaoeee
ioiioaiee a iauanoaa // Iao/i. o?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?. iao/ii-i?aeoe/.
eiioa?aioeee o/aiuo Iineianeiai oaoie/aneiai oi-oa e Eoaaineiai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai ei-oa, 4-5 aeaeaa?y 1997 a. — I.-Eoaaine:
IAAeE(OO)-ENOE, 1997. – N.76-79. — 0,2 ae?oe. a?e.

Aiioaoe?y

Ia?oeithe I.A. Ina?oa ye oaeoi? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01. — “Aeiiii?/ia oai??y”. — Ee?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/o?oueny aeyaeaiith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nooiino? ina?oe ye oaeoi?a ?icoe?aiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy aieiaii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee noni?euenoaa — ?iai/i? neee,
iniaenoiai oaeoi?a noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ethaeeie, caeaoii?
oi?aaeyoe niaith oa oiiaaie, a yeeo aiia aeeaa.

E?ioeaaith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy i?noey, ?ie?
oa cia/aiiy ina?oe o nenoai? noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy; iaoiaee/ieo
i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ina?oe ye oaeoi?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oa
nioe?aeueii? i???ioaoe?? aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee.

Aeinyaiaiiy aieiaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy eiie?aoeciaaii o aecia/aii?
aeiiii?/ii? nooiino? ina?oe, niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae ??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo oa cia/aiiy ina?oe o caaacia/aii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano noni?euenoaa,
a oaeiae o iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? iai?yi?a aaeineiiaeaiiy ina?oe ca
ci?noii oa i?aai?caoe??th oi?aae?iiy.

O ca’yceo ?c caaino?aiiyi e?eciaeo yaeu a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iniaeeao oaaao a ?iaio? i?eae?eaii i?e/eiai e?eciaiai
noaio noni?euenoaa oa oeyoai aeoiaeo c e?ece ca aeiiiiiaith ina?oe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ina?oi?e iioaioe?ae, ina?oi?e oiiae, ?ioaeaeooaeuei?
?ano?ne, ?iai/a neea, iniaenoee oaeoi?, ethaenueeee eai?oae.

Aiiioaoeey

Ia?ouithe I.A. Ia?aciaaiea eae oaeoi? eioaineoeeaoeee iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01. — “Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey”. — Eeaaneee
iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiia enneaaeiaaiea iinayuaii auyaeaieth
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie nouiinoe ia?aciaaiey eae oaeoi?a ?anoe?aiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa aeaaiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeu iauanoaa — ?aai/ae
neeu, ee/iiai oaeoi?a iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, /aeiaaea niiniaiiai
oi?aaeyoue niaie e oneiaeyie, a eioi?uo ii aeeaao.

Iniiaiay caaea/a enneaaeiaaiey ninoieo a iao/iii iainiiaaiee ianoa, ?iee
e cia/aiey ia?aciaaiey a nenoaia iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa,
iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iiaeoiaeia e i?aaiecaoeee nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey eae
oaeoi?a eioaineoeeaoeee e nioeeaeueiie i?eaioaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa
a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee.

Aeinoeaeaiea aeaaiie oeaee eiie?aoece?iaaii a ii?aaeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie
nouiinoe ia?aciaaiey, niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae aai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey e cia/aiey a iaania/aiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai, yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai i?ia?anna iauanoaa,
a oaeaea a iao/iii iainiiaaiee iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaa?oainoaiaaiey
ia?aciaaiey a niaea?aeaoaeueiii e oi?aaeai/aneii iai?aaeaieyo

Oai?aoe/aneie iniiaie aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony
e?eoe/aneia iniuneaiea aeooaeueiuo, n oi/ee c?aiey iauaeoeaiie eiaeee
?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie iaoee, aeinoeaeaiee ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo
o/aiuo e i?aeoeee i?aaiecaoeee ia?aciaaiey a oneiaeyo ?uiea.
Iaoiaeieiae/aneoth iniiao ninoaaeytho i?eoeeiu aeeaeaeoe/aneie
acaeiinayce nioeeaeueiuo e yeiiiie/aneeo iniia ?acaeoey iauanoaa,
iaoiaeu iiciaiey aai yaiethoeee n o/aoii cia/eiinoe aeeoioee?iaaiey e
ia?aaea/e ciaiee ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia i?inaaoeoaeueneiai i?ioeanna.

Yaiethoeey iao/iuo acaeyaeia ia ia?aciaaiea e oi?iu aai ?aaeecaoeee
i?ienoiaeeea a iai?aaeaiee nicaeaiey nenoaiu eioa?ania e iaio eae
oaeoi?o iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/ae neeu, o?iaiy eioaeeaeoa
eiaeeaeaeooia n oeaeueth oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a ?aieao
ioaeaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi i?aa?auaei a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
ia?aciaaoaeueioth nenoaio a iiuiue oaeoi? nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ia?anna.

Iao/iay iiaecia iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia ninoieo a nenoaiaoecaoeee
oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeoiaeia e oa?aeoa?enoeea ia?aciaaiey eae niaoeeoe/aneie
io?anee o?oaea, iai?aaeaiiie ia aini?iecaiaenoai aeaaiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeu iauanoaa. A nayce n yoei naeaeaiu auaiaeu i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu e niaea?aeaiey ia?aciaaiey a
caaeneiinoe io iio?aaiinoae yeiiiieee e nioeeaeueiuo i?eaioe?ia ia
aoaeouaa.

?anniio?aiu aii?inu oai?ee e i?aeoeee i?aaiecaoeee ia?aciaaiey a
oneiaeyo ?uiea, aeieacaia iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey e iaania/aiey oeiaine?iaaiey ia?aciaaiey a Oe?aeia.

A nayce n eciaiaieai ianoa e ?iee /aeiaaea a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia iio?aaiinoue a aieaa iieiii
niioaaonoaee nia?aiaiiiai ia?aciaaiey naaiaeiyoiei iio?aaiinoyi a
eioaineoeeaoeee e nioeeaeueiie i?eaioaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aaeeiaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee
ia?aciaaiey, ooi/iyaony aai eiae/aneay naycue eae oneiaey i?aa?auaiey
iaoee a iaiin?aaenoaaiioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo n
iao/ii-oaoie/aneei, yeiiiie/aneei e nioeeaeueiui i?ia?annii.

A nayce n e?eceniuie yaeaieyie, eioi?ua niioonoaotho ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu, iniaia aieiaiea a ?aaioa oaeaeaii i?e/eiai yoeo
yaeaiee e iainiiaaieth iooae auoiaea ec e?ecena n iiiiuueth ia?aciaaiey.

Aeieacaii, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue aicaeaenoaey nioeeaeueiie noa?u, e
i?aaeaea anaai ia?aciaaiey, ia iauanoaaiiue i?ia?ann aiciiaeia oieueei
i?e aaeaeaaoiii ioiioaiee e iaio ainoaea?noaaiiuo einoeoooia oi?aaeaiey,
iaania/aiey e oeiaine?iaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?aciaaoaeueiue iioaioeeae, ia?aciaaoaeueiue oiiae,
eioaeeaeooaeueiua ?ano?nu, ?aai/ay neea, ee/iue oaeoi?, /aeiaa/aneee
eaieoae.

Summary

Martynyuk M.A. Education as a factor of intensification of public
production in transitional economy of Ukraine — Manuscript.

Thesis to stand for scientific degree of Candidate of Economic Science,
speciality 08.01.01. – The economic theory. – Kyiv National Economic
University, Ministry of Education of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

This research is devoted to revelation of social-economic essence of
education as a factor of extended reproduction of the main productive
power of society – manpower, personal factor of public production and a
man who is capable to manage himself and conditions of his life.

The eventual object of the research is scientific substantiation of the
place, role and meaning of education in the system of public
reproduction; of methodical approaches to the organization of
educational system as a factor of intensification and social orientation
of economic growth under the conditions of transitional economy.

The achievement of the main object is made specific in clarification of
economic essence of education, specific distinctive features of
social-economic content and meaning of education in ensuring of
scientific-technical, economic and social progress of society and also
in scientific substantiation of directions of improvement of education
by content and organization of administration.

In connection with aggravation of crisis occurrences under the
conditions of market transformation of Ukrainian economy, the special
attention in the thesis is devoted to the causes of crisis situation in
the society and to the way of overcoming of the crises by means of
education.

Key words: educational potential, educational fund, intellectual
resourses, manpower, personal factor, human capital.

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