Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iaeaeanoaainueea ??eia ?aaai?aia

OAeE 882/82.09.08.

I.N.Iooe?i o e?oa?aoo?i?e na?aeiiino?

e?ioey O?O ( ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy

10.01.06 ( oai??y e?oa?aoo?e

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee ( 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee ( eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

I?aeiiaeeueia Iaoae?y Aanee?aia,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaee/ Ieaenaiae? Aiae??eiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

Eoaainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ieoaae Iaaei Aieiaeeie?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e

I?aeeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Ieeiee Aiaiey

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee,

eaoaae?e oai??? e?oa?aoo?e,

i. Eooeuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «29» a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.03.01.20 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe o
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (320050, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Aaaa??ia, 72, ei?i. 1, aoae. 1305).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe?
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
aoe. Eacaeiaa, 8).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «28» eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ie?eiee I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Inoaii?i /anii o e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? aeyaeeeny i?eioeeiiai iia?
i?aeoiaee a ?icaeyae? i?e?iaee oai?/ino? ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai
oai?o a /eoaoeueeiio na?aaeiaeu?. Iaea?eueo nooo?a? ci?ie
niinoa??aathoueny i?e ae??oaii? i?iaeai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaoi?a ? oai?o,
aaoi?a e /eoa/a. Nueiaiaei? iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i oi?ioaaiiy noa?e
aeine?aeaeaiue ooaeiaeiuei? na?aeiiino?, eia?ea ?icaeoeo ? oe?ii?noue
yei? aaea aecia/ai?, a oaeiae i?i noaiiaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?iciaa/i?
eaoaai??? «e?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue». I?ioean aca?iiae?? oai?o ? /eoa/a
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye ??cii??aiaaee, ye oaeee, a yeiio a?aeaeaathoueny ia
o?eueee iniaeno?noue aaoi?a ? /eoa/a, aea e iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?oa?aoo?e, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aaeeaaiiy o no/aniiio
aeine?aeaeaii? i?e iienaii? noa?e inieneaiiy e?oa?aoo?e oa?i?io «aoooy».
Aaaaeaiiy oeueiai oa?i?io ia?aiineoue aeoeaio c aea/aiiy nooiino?
e?oa?aoo?e ia yaeua: aeya /eoaoeueei? ?aaeoe?? ia e?oa?aoo?o aeiiiaith?
ea?oeio e?oa?aoo?ii? eoeueoo?e, aeicaiey? ioiieoe e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean ?
e?oa?aoo?iee iiaoo a ?o oe?e?niino?, a oaeiae aeayeith i??ith i?iynieoe
ieoaiiy ineoieia?? oai?/ino?.

sseui ooaeiaeith na?aeii?noue iiaeia aaaaeaoe ieoaiiyi, aeinoaoiuei
aeine?aeaeaiei o oai?aoe/iiio ieai?: niaoeeo?eiaai? ?? aniaeoe
(A.Oaaei?ia, A.I?inoeaa?/on), aeyaeythoueny a?oaoeiia? iiaeae? ?
no?oeoo?a ooaeiaeiueiai ieneaiiy (Ae.Iaeeaaeei), iiaoeeo oaenoo
caaaa/aii iiaoeeith oai?/ino? (A.Oiii?ia), ( oi i?iaeaia e?oa?aoo?ii?
na?aeiiino?, yeo a?aeiinyoue aei noa?e aoooy e?oa?aoo?e (A.Eaoeaae/), ua
iio?aao? a?aeiia?aeieo oai?aoe/ieo ooi/iaiue naia ye e?oa?aoo?iciaa/a
eaoaai??y. Iniaeeaino? e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? a oie /e ?ioee niin?a
aea/athoueny ?noi???th e?oa?aoo?e ye ?noi???th e?oa?aoo?ieo oaeo?a
(I.Aiaiiieia, I.Aaee/, I.?aiao?a, A.?aeoaeao, ?.Oeiai/ee),
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aea/aiiy oe??? eaoaai??? iicia/ai?
nioe?ieia??th e?oa?aoo?e ? nioe?ieoeueoo?ieia??th (E.Aoaeeia, A.Aeoa?i,
I.Ci?ea, TH.Eioiai, C.I?ioe, A.Iaia?iee, ?.Aa?o, I.Eaa?oo).

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo 1990-o ?ie?a e?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue aecia/a?oueny
ye oaiiiai iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? anoaoeee ? oai??? e?oa?aoo?e, aaiaoe/ii
iia(ycaiee c ?aeayie i?i e?oa?aoo?io na?aeii?noue aiioe, aeneiaeaieie ua
o 1920-30-o ?ieao (A.Aeiia?aaeia, E.A?icao?a). Iaeiae aeooae?caoe?y
oai?aoe/iiai ?ioa?ano aei ?aeae e?oa?aoo?ii? aeeiai?ee TH.Oeiyiiaa
iio?aao? iiaiai iiaeyaeo ia i?iaeaie aoooy e?oa?aoo?e, a a?aeoae, (
ia?oi/a?aiaei aeyaey?oueny caaaeaiiy ?ice?eoe ci?no oa?i?io «e?oa?aoo?ia
na?aeii?noue», ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iienoaaeinue /eoaoeueea na?aaeiaeua,
aea ia ia(?oioiaoaaany naiee iaoai?ci ?aoeaioe??.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny iaiao?aei?noth
i?inoaaeeoe aeeiai?/io nenoaii?noue e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? ?
e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano. Iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee iio?aao? ? oaea eaoaai??y
«ciai?oiuei?» iiaoeee, ye e?oa?aoo?ia ?aiooaoe?y, ui o ia?a?niiio
oyaeaii? i?i neaao ienueiaiieea ia(?aeio? an? a?oie e?oa?aoo?ii?
a?iiaaenueeino? ? ia?nii?o?eo? ea?oeio e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? aiioe.
I?iaeaia e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe?? I.N.Iooe?ia, /e? ?i(y caaaeaee aoei a
i?aie? eaaaiae, cayaeaia no/aniith iaoeith ye aeooaeueia (I.Aeaa?aoeai?,
A.Neo?ao?anueeee, I.Aiooaei): eaeaoueny i?i ?iciaaeoaaiiy «?noeiiiai» ?
«oyaiiai» Iooe?ia, a oea a naith /a?ao ca?aa?oueny ?c caaaeaiiyi
noai?aiiy iiai? iaoeiai? a?ia?ao?? I.N.Iooe?ia (E.O??ciai). Oe?eeii
neooiei aeaea?oueny caoaaaeaiiy AE.I?aa i?i oa, ui ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo
?iciianthaeaeaith “aeniei? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e” ia ?nio?. Aeania, ia
nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue iiaeia iacaaoe eeoa eieae I.Aeaa?aoeai? ?
I.Eaa?ooa, o yeeo ia no?eueee ?ica(yco?oueny i?iaeaia ni?eeiyooy
Iooe?ia, ne?eueee iicia/a?oueny naia ye i?iaeaia, ui iio?aao?
iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee. ?ioa no/ania aeine?aeieoey – ?.Aaeaoiaa –
a?aecia/a? iaaaeueio iio?aao aeooae?caoe?? aianeo ?in?enueei?
o?einionueei? e?eoeee e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, iinoaoue Iooe?ia – eiai oai?/?noue ? a?ia?ao?y –
yeiaee?aua oiniaeththoue ca(ycothoue a iaeei i?iaeaiiee aocie aeaa
ieoaiiy: eoeueoo?o /eoaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy eieae o ?in?? e?ioey O?O
noie?ooy ? cia/aiiy aei?iaeo ?in?enueei? o?einionueei? e?eoeee. Aea/aiiy
oeeo ieoaiue a ?o ?aeiino? ? aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino? aeicaieeoue ?icoe?eoe ?
ea?oeio e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy iaae? noie?oue, aecia/eaoe oe?ii?noue eiai
aeina?aeo aeey oai??? e?oa?aoo?e, ? ooi/ieo no/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i
cacia/aiee eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iee ia??iae.

Ia(?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – oai?e ?in?enueei? o?einionueei? e?eoeee ?
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? ?iaioe e?ioey O?O ( ii/aoeo OO no., aeeoo?iene
I.N.Iooe?ia 1880 ? 1899 ?ie?a, oe?euei? eo?ne ?noi??? ?in?enueei?
e?oa?aoo?e ? o?anoiiao??, a?aeaoee i?aaenoaaiee?a oea?eae, ui oaeiae
a?aeaeca?eaethaaee e?oa?aoo?io na?aeii?noue ? noai?thaaee e?oa?aoo?io
?aiooaoe?th Iooe?ia ia iaae? noie?oue.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o ?one? iaoeiai? oaie «Caeiiii??iino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?oa?aoo?e o nenoai? eoeueoo?e».

Iaoa ?iaioe ( aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? oa iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii?
?aiooaoe?? ienueiaiieea, oiniaeaiei c?aceii yei? o ?in?enueeiio
e?oa?aoo?iiio aeeoo? e?ioey O?O ( ii/aoeo OO no. noaa I.N.Iooe?i,
aeyaeaoe ?iaiaioi? ?ene e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? ? ?icaeyioaoe aieea ??
?aeae ia oai??th ? ?noi??th e?oa?aoo?e ? e?oa?aoo?ia aeeooy cacia/aii?
?noi?e/ii? aiioe. Iaoa ?iaioe ia?aaeaa/a? iinoaiiaeo ? ae??oaiiy oaeeo
eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue:

( aecia/eoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? ? e?oa?aoo?iiai
i?ioeano, ooi/ieaoe oiiae e?oa?aoo?ecaoe?? iicae?oa?aoo?iiai;

( ?icaeyiooe nioe?aeueiee iaoai?ci noai?aiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe??;

( iienaoe oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae cia/ouino? e?oa?aoo?ii? neaae
ienueiaiieea, aeyaeaoe i?i oeueiio ca(ycie iiioey?iino? c ?ieyie
ienueiaiieea ? /eoa/?a;

( iicia/eoe i?e/eie ?ioa?ano aei Iooe?ia o e?oa?aoo?i?e na?aeiiino?
iaae? noie?oue;

( ?icaeyiooe iniiai? iooe?inuee? i?oe, ui aeieeee o noa?? e?oa?aoo?ii?
?aiooaoe??;

( ?ice?eoe cia/aiiy ?aeae ?in?enueei? o?einionueei? e?eoeee aeey
ona?aeiieaiiy «iiaiai» Iooe?ia;

( i?inoaaeeoe aieea ie?aieo ?aeae e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? ia oai??th
e?oa?aoo?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui a i?e cai?iiiiiaaii
nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? ? oi/eith a?aee?eo o
iaoai?ci? /eoaoeueei? ?aoeaioe?? aecia/aii e?oa?aoo?io ?aiooaoe?th.
Aia?oa aeey aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? aeei?enoiaothoueny ?aea?
oai??? na?aeiiino? I.Iaia?aeaoa?e?; aeii?iaioith e?oa?aoo?ii?
na?aeiiino? aecia/aii onoaiiaeo ia ?icoi?iiy. E?oa?aoo?ia ?aiooaoe?y
noaa?aeaeo?oueny ye e?oa?aoo?iciaa/a eaoaai??y. Iieacaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
oyaeaiue i?i neaao ienueiaiieea c iniiaieie eoeueoo?ieie i?oaie aiioe, a
oaeiae aeyaeaii «ia?ace» iiioey?iiai ienueiaiieea o e?eoe/ieo ?iaioao
A.?icaiiaa, I.Aa?oaiciia, A.A?eiai oa ?i. Aaaaoi a /iio iiaith ? ? naia
noa?a aeine?aeaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe??, a oaeiae caeo/aii iiaee
aeey iooe?i?noeee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaoa??ae.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio
e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aoeaioe?? aeicaieeei iicia/eoe ?ie? ienueiaiieea ? /eoa/a
o e?oa?aoo?iiio aeeoo?. Aeena?oaoe?y ?icoe?th? oyaeaiiy i?i
iiioey?i?noue ? ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue Iooe?ia ye e?oa?aoo?ii? iniaenoino?
o /aniaiio a?ae??ceo iaae? noie?oue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o aoc?anueeeo eo?nao
oai??? oa ?noi??? ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e, a oaeiae o niaoeeo?nao ?
niaoenai?ia?ao, i?enay/aieo oai?/ino? I.N.Iooe?ia, iiao?a iooe?inueei?
aeiae, e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioeano iaae? noie?oue.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? iniaenoei aianeii caeiaoaa/a o ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe?? a oai?aoe/iiio aniaeo? oa aeyaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii?
?aiooaoe?? I.N.Iooe?ia o /aniaiio a?ae??ceo e?ioey O?O ( ii/aoeo OO no.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia
?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e oai??? e?oa?aoo?e ? ienoaoeoaa
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeeeaaeai? o aenooiao ia i?aeia?iaeieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo o Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo (1996), Neioa?iiie? (1997),
Noaeaeo (1998), ia ui??/ieo i?aenoieiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo o
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeoi?aa?neoao? (1996-1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaeoi o 7 iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a (anueiai noi?. iaoeiiieno), nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae iae?/o? 207 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O Anooi? ia(?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie oa ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
aecia/athoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia, a
oaeiae oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia iniia? iaeyaeo niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e
aecia/athoueny oai?aoe/ia i?ae(?oioy ? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Cacia/a?oueny, cie?aia, ui e?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue iia(ycaia c
noni?eueiith ?aeaieia??th ? ci?iith e?oa?aoo?ieo aiio, ye
iicae?oa?aoo?ia yaeua ?ai?acaioo? noa?o ciai?oiuei? iiaoeee ? ?
?noi?e/iith ? ci?noiaiith eaoaai???th. sse iaeanoue ae?aaeaiiy
/eoaoeueei? oi/ee ci?o, e?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue iia(ycaia ye c iiooeaie
iiaeo oeyo?a ?icaeoeo iaaiith e?oa?aoo?iith eoeueoo?ith, oae ? c
«i?oieia?/iei i?aeoiaeii» aei e?oa?aoo?e acaaae?.

Ia?oee ?icae?e «Oai?aoe/ia ia?aaeeaia eaoaai??? «e?oa?aoo?ia
?aiooaoe?y» neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. A oeueiio ?icae?e?
iieno?oueny e?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue ye ae?aaeaiiy oi/ee ci?o /eoa/a ia
e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean, aecia/athoueny oeyoe e?oa?aoo?ecaoe??
iicae?oa?aoo?ieo yaeu ? ?icaeyaea?oueny e?oa?aoo?ia ?aiooaoe?y ye
nenoaia «ia?ac?a» ienueiaiieea.

1.1. «Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino?». Oa?? ye
oi?ia aoooy e?oa?aoo?e (I.Aaee/, A.Iaca?aoeue) aoiaeeoue aei
e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy, aea ? a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai ni?eeiyooy /eoa/ai.
Iniiaith /eoaoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ? ?ica(ycaiiy aeanieo nieneiaeeoo?aeo
i?iaeai (I.Iaia?aeaoa?e?), ae/eooaaiiy c e?oa?aoo?e «aeeoo?aeo
no?aoaa?e» (I.Aeaa?aoeai?).

I?ia?aeiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith oaiiiaio e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? ?
nenoaia ioe?iie, ui aecia/a?oueny e?oa?aoo?ieie niaeaie ioae?ee.
Aa??aoeai?noue oaeeo ioe?iie iiynith?oueny oei, ui o i?ioean? ni?eeiyooy
cono??/athoueny na?oe ienueiaiieea ? /eoa/a, /eoa/ i???ioo?oueny ia
caaaeueiiaeciaio ?ieue iiaoa o e?oa?aoo?iiio aeeoo?. Ioe?iea na?ae/eoue
i?i aea?? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c e?oa?aoo?ieie niaeaie /eoa/a, a ca?aene ?
ocaaaeueiaia ieoaiiy i?i a?oiia? ia?aaaae ?aoeaioeaiiai na?aaeiaeua, i?i
aea?? ii?i iaaii? eoeueoo?ii? iiaaae?iee.

Iaaea /eoaoeueeiai ?icoi?iiy aaa/a?oueny o iani?aiaae?ii?
naiina?aeiiino? aaoi?a (A.Oaaei?ia) ? oyaeaiue i?i eoeueoo?iiai aa?iy o
??cieo a?oi /eoaoeueei? ioae?ee. Oiio ?acoeueoaoii aca?iiae?? oai?o ?
?aoeaioeaiiai na?aaeiaeua aoaea ia?nii?o?eiaaiee ia?ac, coiiaeaiee
«no?aoaa??th ?icoi?iiy» (?.Aa?o) a?oie. ?icoa?oaaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo niae?a
? ianoiae?noue ii?i eoeueoo?ii? iiaaae?iee ooai?ththoue aeeiai?/io
nenoaio /eoaoeueeeo ioe?iie. Aea/aiiy oaeoo ?aoeaioe?? ye ?nioaaiiy
??cieo «ia?ac?a», ui noai?ththoueny eieaeoeaiei na?aaeiaeuai
(ss.Ioea?aeianueeee), iio?aao? iienaiiy ?aoeaioeaiiai iaoai?cio ia
iniia? nenoaie anoaoe/ieo niae?a, ui ?ai?acaioothoue i?aaeea eoeueoo?ii?
iiaaae?iee ? caeaaeaoue a?ae nioe?aeueieo /eiiee?a (E.A??oe).

?aea? aaiethoe?eii? nenoaiieia?? TH.Oeiyiiaa ? «ae?aeia?cio» I.Aaoo?ia,
aeoeaiee ?ioa?an aei yeeo aeyaey? no/ania e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai,
aeicaieythoue oiai/ieoe naiino?eia aeeiai?/ia ?aoeaioeaia na?aaeiaeua ?
ia?aoai??thth/ee eiai ooaeiaei?e oaeno. Nioe?ieoeueoo?io ?aaeuei?noue a
iioieia?/iiio ?aeo?n? iiaeeeai iienaoe, caa?ioaoenue aei oai???
na?aeiiino? I.Iaia?aeaoa?e?. E?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue aecia/a?oueny ia
ye eia?oaeueia, a ye oaiiiai, oi?ia. E?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue iiaea
?icaeyaeaoenue ia i?inoi ye oaeno, a ye aeo eiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?
aeeiiaiiy. O oeueiio niene? ie iiae?ey?ii aeoieo A.Eaoeaae/a i?i oa, ui
e?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue ? noa?ith ?noeiiiai aoooy e?oa?aoo?e. Anoaoe/ia
«i?enai?iiy» ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo ni?aa?aeiineoueny c e?oa?aoo?iei
i?ioeanii. O i?ioean? ?icoi?iiy ia?iaeaeothoueny e?oa?aoo?i? oaeoe,
aeooae?cothoueny i?aeaeai?ia? e?oa?aoo?i? iiaeeo?eaoe??.
?ioa?i?aoaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue ia ioioiaeith?oueny ?c noa(?eoii, ( aiia
ni?aa?aeiineoueny c aoooyi oai?o, oiaoi eiai naii?icaeoeii
(A.I?inoeaa?/on), /ei ? aecia/a?oueny ?icaeoie ?aoeaioeaiiai
na?aaeiaeua. O oaeiio aecia/aii? e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? a?aoiao?oueny
aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue aaoi?a ? /eoa/a, ona?aeiieaiiy «ae?oaino?»
?aoeei??ioa ? ae?aae?iiy oeueiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o e?oa?aoo?? Iiaiai
/ano. Aecia/eoe ci?no e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? eiie?aoii? ?noi?e/ii?
aiioe iiaeeeai o ia?niaeoea? an?o ia?niiaae?a oe??? na?aeiiino?. Ca oiia
oaeiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie oai?aoe/iee aniaeo o?nii iia(yco?oueny c
?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iei: aaaeeeai ia o?eueee iienaoe iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy
e?oa?aoo?iiai oaeoo, aea e aeiaanoe eiai cia/ou?noue aeey e?oa?aoo?ii?
eoeueoo?e a?aeiia?aeii? aiioe. O ?iaioao c i?iaeai e?oa?aoo?ii?
na?aeiiino?, ye i?aaeei, ?ic??ciythoueny oa?i?ie «e?oa?aoo?ia
na?aeii?noue» ? «e?oa?aoo?ia eoeueoo?a». Eaoaai??y e?oa?aoo?ii?
na?aeiiino? oa?aeoa?eco? ?aoeaioeaia na?aaeiaeua ye oe?ea ?
i?ioenoaaey?oueny naiina?aeiiino? ooaeiaeieea; oa?i?i «e?oa?aoo?ia
eoeueoo?a» /anoi aaeeaa?oueny o neiainiieo/aii? «e?oa?aoo?ia eoeueoo?a
a?oie» ye iaaia ao?eaiiy oi/ie ci?o a?oi ia?niiaae?a.

Niaoeeo?ea e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? ye iaoai?cio ?aoeaioe?? iieyaa? o
cae?eniaii? ?icoi?iiy ye «ei?eaei?o aiein?a» I.Aaoo?ia, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeiai a?aeoai?th?oueny niaeo? ia?ac?a-?icoi?iue. Aeey aecia/aiiy
e?oa?aoo?e o ia?niaeoea? an?o eoeueoo?ieo ia?niiaae?a ye ae?eiaeo in?a
e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy, ye? oi?iothoue e?oa?aoo?io iniaeno?noue aaoi?a,
iaiao?aeii onoi/ieoe ci?no iiiyooy «?aoeaioeaia na?aaeiaeua».
C(ynoaaiith oeueiai ieoaiiy i?enay/aii ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e 1.2.
«?aoeaioeaia na?aaeiaeua ye oai?aoeei-e?oa?aoo?ia i?iaeaia».

?aoeaioeaia na?aaeiaeua iieno?oueny o aeena?oaoe?? o ?one? ?aeae
no/anii? nioe?ieia?? e?oa?aoo?e (E.Aoaeeia, A.Aeoa?i, A.?aeoaeao). Oi/ee
ci?o o/aniee?a e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy iiae?ai? aei aeai?iaeo ooai?aiue
(iiaeaii?aeo aeai??a) ? oiniaeththoueny ye /eoaoeuee? na?oe e?oa?aoo?e,
ui aeeth/athoue oeie e?oa?aoo?e (oianoee aeo?iae) ? oeie ia?niiaae?a
(e?eoee, e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue oa ?i.).

Inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy iicia/ai? ?ioaineo?eaoe??th oai?aoe/ieo ?
?noi?e/ieo iiooe?a aeine?aeiee?a iaaeiei o?ao?e /eoa/a, yeee noaa
ia(?eoii aea/aiiy nioe?ieia?? e?oa?aoo?e ? nioe?ieoeueoo?ieia??,
oaiiiaiieia?/ii? e?eoeee ? e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa. Noai?aiith oe?e?nii?
ea?oeie e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino?, ui aeeth/a? na?o /eoa/a-aeine?aeieea,
ni?ey? ? ?aoeaioeaia iiaoeea. Iaaiei ae?aaeaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino?
iaoeiaeo iiooe?a o ?aoeaioeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? iiaeia aaaaeaoe iane/aio
oa?i?iieia?ciaai?noue oeueiai iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
iacaaa?oai?noue i?ioeano aca?iiae?? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeeooy, i?i aii??e/iee
? nenoaiiee i?aeoiaee aei yaeu iicae?oa?aoo?ii? noa?e. Oacao?on
iicae?oa?aoo?iiai yaey? niaith iaoiiaeai?noue e?oa?aoo?ieo yaeu yaeuaie
iiaooo, ui neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo oa?i?iieia?/ii ii?aoeueiaaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo oaeo?a, ye e?oa?aoo?ia iniaeno?noue, e?oa?aoo?ia o?i/eua,
e?oa?aoo?iee iiaoo oiui. Aii??e/iiio aea/aiith iicae?oa?aoo?ieo oaeo?a
ni?eythoue i?aeoiaee, caii/aoeiaai? nioe?ieia??th e?oa?aoo?e.

O no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo a?aecia/a?oueny, ui o ci?noiaiiio ieai?
iaoae?oa?aoo?i? ia?ace, noai?thaai? ?ioa?i?aooth/ei na?aaeiaeuai,
iathoue ? i?ciaaaeueio, ? ooaeiaeith i?e?iaeo, iiiaeththoue e?oa?aoo?io
eoeueoo?o (A.Iaia?iee). I?aee?anethth/e cia/ou?noue o?ao?e /eoa/a ?
nenoaiaoecoth/e oeiieia?th /eoa/?a ? oeie /eoaiiy iaaii? aiioe, no/ania
iaoea iaaieioo? ia iaiao?aeiino? iienaiiy ?aoeaioeaiiai iaoai?cio, ui
coiiaeth?oueny oe?iiinoyie ? niaeaie /eoaoeueeiai na?aaeiaeua.
?ioa?i?aooth/a na?aaeiaeua aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny ca niiniaaie ni?eeiyooy ?
noai?thaaieie «ia?acaie», i?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe a?ia?ao?/io
? nioe?aeueio aecia/ai?noue /eoaoeueeiai na?aaeiaeua, yea ooai?th? «oei
iaioaeueino? aiioe» (?.Aa?o). I?i oa, ye e?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue,
aoaeo/e aca?iiae??th «aeiiii?ee» ? «iiaooo», aecia/a? oei iaioaeueiino?
aiioe, na?ae/eoue i?eeeaae, o yeiio no/aniee oe?a?inueeee
e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue ooi/ith? niaoeeo?/i?noue oe?a?inueei? iaioaeueiino?:
«ie, oe?a?ioe?, ciaethaaee c Oaa/aiea ?eiio, a a??o? eiai c?iaeee
iieeoaith… sseae iaoei iaoe?iiaeueiei iiaoii aoa Iooe?i, ie c iueiai
c?iaeee a «oa??iiiai aaeeeiio/aieea Ieaenaiae?a». Noai?thaai? o
/eoaoeueeiio na?aaeiaeu? «ia?ace» ? a?aeaeaaoeiooue ea?oeio e?oa?aoo?ii?
na?aeiiino? ye oaei?.

1.3. «Ia?nii?o?eaoe?y o e?oa?aoo?i?e ?aiooaoe?? oyaeaiue i?i iiioey?io
e?oa?aoo?io iniaeno?noue». O ??cieo e?oa?aoo?ieo eoeueoo?ao anoaoe/ia
ii?ia, ui i?iyaey?oueny ye e?oa?aoo?i? niaee, ni?ey? noai?aiith
iaoai?cio ?icoi?iiy. ?aiooaoe?y eiioeaio?o? «ae?aeia?/ia» ia/aei o
e?oa?aoo?i?e eoeueoo??, a?aeaeaath/e no?aoaa?? e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino?.
I?ia?aeiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ?aiooaoe?? ? niin?a aca?iiae?? «?ioeo»
(«ae?oaeo») c e?oa?aoo?iith iniaeno?noth ? iaoai?ci ia?aaea/?
eoeueoo?ieo c?ace?a. Oaeei /eiii, ?aiooaoe?y iicia/a? iaae? /eoaoeueeiai
?icoi?iiy, ei?aethth/e c «i?oieia??th» i?i e?oa?aoo?o.

A e?oa?aoo?iiio aeeoo? naiina?aeiiino? e?oa?aoo?ii? iniaenoino?
i?ioenoi?oue e?oa?aoo?ia ?i(y. A.?icaiia, a?aecia/ath/e ci?io ?ie?
ienueiaiieea o noni?euenoa?, cae??ieth? oaeo iiaeo a?aeiioaiue i?ae
ienueiaiieeii ? /eoa/ai o aecia/aii? «e?oa?aoo?ia ?aiooaoe?y».
Oai?aoe/iith ia?aaeoiiaith aeey aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe?? noaei
oaa?aeaeaiiy I.Aiaiiieiaa i?i oa, ui «iaee//y» ieooey iiaea aooe
a?aeoai?aia. Iiaeyaee eoeueoo?ieo ia?niiaae?a ia e?oa?aoo?io
iniaeno?noue ia(?aeiothoueny o e?oa?aoo?iiio ?iai?, yea o?aaeeoe?eii
iia(ycoaaeiny c oyaeaiiyie i?i neaao ? iiioey?i?noue ienueiaiieea.
E?oa?aoo?ia iniaeno?noue ? iin??i ci?noo eieaeoeaieo ii?i, ui
ooai?ththoue e?oa?aoo?io ?aiooaoe?th. O ?aiooaoe?? aeyaey?oueny iiaeaeue
e?oa?aoo?ii? iniaenoino? o ?aeiino? a?ia?ao??, oai?/ino?, aeanieo ciaiue
/eoa/a i?i iiia?aaeith e?oa?aoo?o. Nie?aea??coth/enue ?c I.Aania?iaei,
ie oaeiae aaaaea?ii, ui aea/aiiy i?iaeaie e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe?? ?
ia?aaeon?i i?ciaiiyi e?oa?aoo?ieo niae?a ioae?ee ? ocaiaeaeaiiyi ia
oeueiio iaoa??ae? «iia» iaeii/aniiai /eoa/a.

Oaiiiai Iooe?ia o e?oa?aoo?i?e na?aeiiino? e?ioey O?O ( ii/aoeo OO no.
ia?aii aeey aiae?co oiio, ui ? naia e?oa?aoo?ia iniaeno?noue iiaoa, ?
aeaeaiiy eiai oai??a, ? iaoii?i?/i? anioe?aoe??, iia(ycai? c iei,
iinoathoue ye i?ia?aei? e?oa?aoo?i? oaeoe aiioe. Iaaea noie?oue ( oea
/an ona?aeiieaiiy aeeth/aiino? aei no/aniiai e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano
Iooe?ia, ? oe??th ianoaaeiith coiiaeth?oueny ni?eeiyooy Iooe?ia ye
aaciina?aaeiueiai iiia?aaeieea cacia/aii? e?oa?aoo?ii? aiioe, caaaeyee
/iio Iooe?i oyaeyany «iiaei», ? naia ?noi?e/ia aeiaa iaoooaaea oaeoaie
iiia?aaeiuei? «a?oaoei?caoe??» iiaoa. C oi/ee ci?o e?oa?aoo?ii?
na?aeiiino?, Iooe?i oa?a?aa o naaa ?ioa?ane an?o eoeueoo?ieo
ia?niiaae?a, ye? ia?nii?o?eoaaee iaoe?iiaeueiiai iiaoa o i?ia?aeiiio
eoeueoo?iiio i?o? aiioe. Aeeiai?ea oi?ioaaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe??
iia(ycaia c? ci?iith o neeaae? e?oa?aoo?iiai ? iicae?oa?aoo?iiai ?yae?a:
a?aeaoeinue inai?iiy Iooe?ia ye e?oa?aoo?iiai oaeoo ? a ae?oa?iiio, ? a
ianiaiio na?aaeiaeu?; ooai?eeeny o? oyaeaiiy i?i ?ieue iiioey?iiai
ienueiaiieea, ui aeecuee? aei no/anieo o?aeooaaiue: Iooe?ia aoei aeciaii
«eoeueoo?iei aa?i?i Iiaiai /ano».

«Ia?ace», noai?thaai? ?aoeaioeaiei na?aaeiaeuai, aeicaieythoue iienaoe
iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy ?aiooaoe?? ienueiaiieea. Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ii?
?aiooaoe?? ? a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo? aeicaieeoue c(ynoaaoe i?e/eie
?ioa?ano aei Iooe?ia ? ni?eyoeia noai?aiith ia?aco eiie?aoii?
e?oa?aoo?ii? iniaenoino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ( «Iiooee «iiaiai» Iooe?ia o ?in?enuee?e
o?einionuee?e e?eoeoe?» ( aecia/aii i?e/eie ?ioa?ano aei Iooe?ia o
iaaeieineiaie?nonueeiio na?aaeiaeu?, a oaeiae niiniae i?ciaiiy iiaiai o
Iooe?i?. Ie?aii iaaieioo?oueny ia ia?niaeoeaiiio cia/aii? noai?aieo
e?eoeeith «ia?ac?a». Ae?oaee ?icae?e neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
i?ae?icae?e?a.

2.1. «Iooe?i?ainoai ye aaeoi? e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy». Aeaaeai?/ia
e?eoeea ? e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai noai?thaaee ia?ac Iooe?ia o eiioaeno?
?nioth/eo eiioeaioe?e, ? aiane?aeie oaei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iiao iinoaaaa
ye ?noi?e/ia o?ao?a, «iaaacia/ia ethaeeia» (I.Eioey?aanueeee), «nei
i?aaeiy» (Ae.Ianyi?ei-Eoeeeianueeee), a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy noni?eueiiai
aeeooy. Ia?ac iiaoa ? eiai oai?/?noue ii?aeiothoueny o eiioeaioe?? i?i
ienueiaiieea-?aae?noa, ? a oaeee niin?a e?eoeea a?aeaeaey?oueny a?ae
Iooe?ia.

Noai?thaaia e?eoeeith iiaeaeue e?oa?aoo?ii? iniaenoino? aenieoaoo?oueny
iath ye no/ania, a a?aeoae, aaoi?eoao e?eoeee o nioe?oi? cacaeaeaa?aeue
aecia/a? ii?ie iiioey?iino? ienueiaiieea, aeoeaii ni?ey? iioe?aiith
ienueiaiieoeueei? neaae.

Ia iaae? noie?oue aeooae?coaaany nioe?ieia?/iee aniaeo o a?aeiioaiiyo
/eoa/a ? ienueiaiieea o ca(yceo c i?ioan?iiae?caoe??th e?oa?aoo?e, a
iiioey?i?noue ienueiaiieea iaaoaa? aeania e?oa?aoo?iiai cia/aiiy. Iiaiio
ienoaoeoao aoei iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe oyaeaiiy i?i ?aeaaeueiiai iiaoa, c
yeei iiaeia aoei a ni?aa?aeiineoe naaa naiiai. Iioe?aiei caniaii
naiiinieneaiiy noaee oyaeaiiy i?i i?oieia?/ia ioioiaeiaiiy aeaniiai
aeeooy ? oai?/ino?. E?oa?aoo?iei c?aceii iiioey?iiai ienueiaiieea noaa
Iooe?i: ienueiaiieoeueea aeeooy ciiao yaey? niaith e?oa?aoo?iee oaeo, ye
oea aoei a iooe?inueeo aiioo, a ia aeeth/a?oueny o noa?o iniaenoiai
aoooy.

O 1899 ?ioe? ii-iiaiio ?icnoaaeythoueny aeoeaioe o noaaeaii? aei iiaoa,
ui iia(ycaii c ?aeaieia??th aeaaee ? c ianiaeie i?aoaic?yie «ia
Iooe?ia». O oeueiio ca(yceo a aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny iiaeyaee
ia ienueiaiieoeueeee ? iooe?inueeee noi??/iee tha?eae e?eoeea
E.Eaiioue?aa ? o?einioa I.Oaaei?iaa. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui tha?eae noaa
oi/eith ?icoiaeaeaiiy ae?oa?ieo ? ianiaeo c?ace?a, a oaeiae eoeueoo?ieo
a?oi o oe?eiio, oi/a o eiaeii? ie?aii? a?oie ?aiooaoe?y Iooe?ia aoea
noaa?eueii aenieith.

Aieiaiei e?oa?aoo?iei oaeoii, ui iicia/ea noni?eueii aeyaeaio
ni?yiiaai?noue ia noai?aiiy «iiaiai» Iooe?ia, noaa tha?eaeiee ca??iee
«Ie?a eneonnoaa», aei yeiai oa?eoee noaoo? A.?icaiiaa,
Ae.Ia?aaeeianueeiai, I.I?inueeiai, O.Nieiaoaa. Aeii?ioth/eie oaiaie
ca??ieea aoee aeooaeuei?noue ? iiioey?i?noue Iooe?ia aeey iiai?
eoeueoo?e (I.I?inueeee, O.Nieiaoa), ona?aeiieaiiy ao?a/aiiai ?aeaaeo
(Ae.Ia?aaeeianueeee), ia?aoai?aiiy Iooe?ia o oe?eueiiai eeaneea
(A.?icaiia). Ia aeoieo N.Eeoa?y, «Ie? eneonnoaa» noaa caeiiiaeaaoeai
«aenieiai niaeo».

Iooe?i?ainoai aeieea? ye ?aaeoe?y ia io?oe?ei? eaaaiaee i?i iiaoa ?
ii?aeio?oueny c iooe?i?noeeith, c iiooeaie ?noeiiiai Iooe?ia
(A.A?thnia). A?aeoae o iooe?i?ainoa? ii/eia? ia?aaaaeaoe ?aeaieia?/iee
aniaeo, «iaee?auiio iiaoo ?iia???» i?ioenoaaey?oueny «iiaoiethaeeia».
A?aeoaia? o Iooe?i? ooeathoue o?enoeyinuee? ia/aea. A.A?ii?on o ?iaio?
«Iooe?i ? o?enoeyinoai» (1915) iaceaa? iiaoa c?aceii ia o?enoeyinueei?
naiina?aeiiino?, a o?enoeyinueeiai aeeooy ia oeyoo a?ae a??oa aei
nayoino?, a?ae ieio? aei aeooo ? a?aeiaoiaeeoue ?aeaae, ui iicia/a?
oeyoe a iaeaooi?. Oaeei /eiii, aenieo ?aiooaoe?th Iooe?ia iiynith? ia?ac
?aeaaeueiiai iiaoa ? ethaeeie, ui a?aeiia?aea? iio?aaai /ano.

Iooe?i?ainoai aoei «aeeoo?aei» (?.Iaia?ii), ine?eueee ni?aa?aeiineee c
Iooe?iei ia?aaeon?i aeania aeeooy, noai?thth/e iooe?inueeee i?o,
ciaoiaey/e o nia? ni?eueia c e?oa?aoo?iith iniaeno?noth Iooe?ia. Oaea
ioioiaeiaiiy iaei /anoeiaee oa?aeoa?, a a oe?eiio eiioeaioe?? e?eoee?a
(I.Aa?oaicii, A.?icaiia) aoee ni?eueieie o oiio, ui i?inoi «aeeoe
Iooe?iei» ia iiaeia. I?o i?i Iooe?ia iaaoaaa ?en iiai? ?aaeueiino?,
a?aeaeaath/e o nia? oa?aeoa?enoeee naiai oai?oey, ? a oaeiio aeaeyae?
iinoaaaa «iiaee» Iooe?i.

Oaeee iaoiae iiooeo aeiiii?a e?eoeoe? a?aee?eoe iia? oeyoe aei Iooe?ia,
a?aeiaeoe niiniae i?iaeiaaeaiiy o?aaeeoe??. ?ica?aeiino? o e?eoe/ieo
i?aeoiaeao aeyaeeenue o oe?e?nieo eiioeaioe?yo iniaenoino? ? oai?/ino?
Iooe?ia, noai?aieo Ae.Ia?aaeeianueeei, A.?icaiiaei, A.A?eei,
I.Aa?oaiciiii. sse iaaia ocaaaeueiaiiy «iiaeo» eiioeaioe?e o
aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ?iaioa TH.Aeoaiaaeueaea «Iooeei».

2.2. Eiioeaioe?y e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe?? o ?iaioao A.?icaiiaa. O ?iaioao
A.?icaiiaa ianoith?oueny iaiao?aei?noue anoaiiaeaiiy iiaeo a?aeiioaiue
i?ae ienueiaiieeii ? /eoa/ai. I?aaiaiiy ca?eueieoenue a?ae «i?aeiiai
yceea Aoooaiaa?aa» o aeani?e oai?/ino? i?eaiaeeoue ?icaiiaa aei ?aea?
?ioei?caoe?? e?oa?aoo?ii? iniaenoino?. Naiina?aeii?noue ienueiaiieea
i?iyaey?oueny ii-iooe?inueee: aeaeaiiy oai??a, oiaoi ae?oe, ?
«oaoi?eith», ienueiaiiee ieoa aeey naaa, a ae?oeo? oiio, ui «a?io?
aeathoue». Inieneaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo yaeu a?aeaoaa?oueny o noa??
?aiooaoe??.

Ia iaoa??ae? ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeo?iae?noeee aeae?ey?oueny
e?oa?aoo?ia ?aiooaoe?y ye ioe?ii/ia aecia/aiiy, ui a?aeaeca?eaeth?
aeano?oeoeaiee aieea ienueiaiieoeueei? neaae ia noni?euenoai, ine?eueee
e?oa?aoo?a oi?io? na?oiaeyae (A.A?e?inueeee, I.Iae?ania). ?aiooaoe?y
aeyaey?oueny iaea?eueo o?aceeaei i?noeai e?oa?aoo?e, ine?eueee a
oyaeaii? /eoa/?a ia ?nio? ei?aeii?a i?ae e?oa?aoo?ith ? iiaooii, ( a
inia? ienueiaiieea ooeathoue nayoiai, yeee iaaaeiac? aie?a? o oe?e ?ie?.

O nai?io ?icoi?ii? ?aiooaoe?? A.?icaiia aeae?ey? nayoeith a oe?e noa??,
yeith ? aeyaey?oueny Iooe?i, iaaoaath/e o na?aeiiino? e?eoeea cia/ii
a?eueoiai, i?ae aioo??oiueie?oa?aoo?ia, cia/aiiy. Oe?ii?noue Iooe?ia, ca
?icaiiaei, o oiio, ui a?i yaey? niaith «einiin», e?oa, iaae? yeiai –
eiei – iaiiaeeeai a?aeiaeoe. Aeey ?icaiiaa aaaeeeaei aoei ni?aa?aeianoe
Iooe?ia ?c oe?iiinoyie eiai aeanii? na?aeiiino?. A?aeeeaeath/e ??cieoeth
i?ae ae?oa?iei ? ianiaei ia?acaie iiaoa, ?icaiia i?iiiio? ia?ac
«aeiiaoiueiai» Iooe?ia, yeee iiaea c(yaeoenue o i?ioean? noaa?aeaeaiiy
?ae?a?? n?i(? ye ?icoi?iiy, «/eoaiiy c eeiinue ?acii», ( oiaoi
noaa?aeaeaiiyi oiai, /iai ia iaa nai Iooe?i.

A?aeiiaa a?ae ii?iiaaiino? o i?aeoiae? aei e?oa?aoo?e o ?icaiiaa
aeyaey?oueny aeecueeith aei eiioeaioe?? e?oa?aoo?ii? aaiethoe??, aea
e?oa?aoo?ia aeeiai?ea iaaea? ?aiooaoe?? ?en a?aeiiniino?, aii??e/iino? ?
iicaaaey? ?aiooaoe?th noaoono ioe?ii/ii? eaoaai???.

«Iiaiie?iai?noue» (E.*oeianueeee) aecia/aiue e?oa?aoo?ieo yaeu,
cai?iiiiiaaieo A.?icaiiaei o iianyeaeaiieo ioe?ieao («e?oa?aoo?ia
iniaeno?noue», «e?oa?aoo?ia iyiueea»), aeyaeea aiaeii/an ?o
a?aeiini?noue ? coiiaeea caiice/aiiy ?in?enueeei oi?iae?cii, a /a?ac
iueiai – iiaeaeueoo oa?i?iieia?caoe?th o oai??? e?oa?aoo?e.

2.3. Inoaoi/ia oi?ioaaiiy iooe?inueeiai i?oa o ?iaioao I.Aa?oaiciia ?
A.A?eiai. Ine?eueee Iooe?i aoa ?aeaaeii aiioe, i?oieia?/ia ioioiaeiaiiy
c ie?aieie aniaeoaie eiai ienoaoeueei? iniaenoino? aoei i?iyaii oe?eiai.
Inoaoi/ia oi?ioaaiiy i?oa o iao?e o?aeoiaoe? icia/a? oi?ioaaiiy i?oa ye
iaeaeui? oi/ee ?aiooaoe??, a oaeiae a?aeiia?aeio ioe?ieo oe?e?nieo
eiioeaioe?e ia?aco iiaoa, noai?aieo I.Aa?oaiciiii ? A.A?eei.

Aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith aeey ooaeiaeiuei? ? e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? aoa
iioea ni?aa?aeianaiiy ii/aoeo O?O ? ii/aoeo OO noie?oue ye ?aaiaae?y ?
Aiieae?inena (A.Aania?ia), oiio noaooy «Ioae?inoue Iooeeia» Aa?oaiciia ?
iaienaia ia eiai i?ioaiiy eaeoe?y A?eiai, ui i?iaeiaaeoaaea ?icaeoie
Aa?oaiciia, iaaoaathoue aaaiiiai cia/aiiy ye a?oe e?ioey aiioe.

Nooue i?oa, noai?aiiai Aa?oaiciiii, iieyaa? a ioioiaeiaii? iniaenoino? ?
oai?/ino? Iooe?ia a iaeiiio ia?ac?, yeee iaeo?ae?co? i?ioe??//y i?ae
e?anith iiac?? ? oneeaaeiai?noth ?? ?icoi?iiy. O «Ioae?inoe Iooeeia»
iinoaaeaii i?iaeaio i?i aeecuee?noue ?aeae iiaoa OO noie?ooth. Ia iniia?
aiae?co iooe?inueei? oai?/ino? ye oe?eiai, Aa?oaicii i?eoiaeeoue aei
aeniiaeo, ui oa?iieoey, yeo i?eoiao? ooaeiaei?e na?o Iooe?ia, iieyaa? a
i?ioenoiyii? o na?o? iiaiioe ? iaiiaiioe, ooeiaeaeaiino?. Ia aeoieo
Aa?oaiciia, cia?aaeaia o Iooe?ia cono??/ aai?y ? eeoiae?enoaa,
aacae?yeueiino? ? ae?? a??aiiaaaeo? iaiiaiioo c aeineiiae?noth ?
oa?aeoa?eco? Iooe?ia ye eaeuea?i?noa, yeee caia?a/o? ia?aiiao aeia?a
iaae ceii. Noeo?? a?aeaea?oueny ia?aaaaa ia?aae iii??eiaaiei ?nioaaiiyi.
I?e?iaea ? aeoo ona?aeiieththoueny o i?ioenoaaeaii? «ieaiaie – oeaaea»
ye iniia? iooe?inueeiai i?oa. I?ioe??//y i?ae noeo??th ? ?icoiii o
iooe?inuee?e oai?/ino? ona?aeiieth?oueny Aa?oaiciiii ye i?ioe??//y i?ae
naiaiaeith ? ianaiaiaeith.

Ia?ac noeo?? o Iooe?ia, ye aaaaea? Aa?oaicii, ? ae?aaeaiiyi no/anii?
na?aeiiino?. I?aaiaiiy ?in?yi ocaiaeaeoaaoe ?oo ?c niiei?i
anioe?th?oueny c aeuei i?iyaii noeo?? – iiaoe/iei iieoi(yi, ae?aaeaiei o
Iooe?ia. ?ica(ycaiiy ieoaiiy i?i iiaieeao yni?noue, «oaiiioo» Iooe?ia
Aa?oaicii ciaoiaeeoue o a??iiio, oiaoi iia?eueiiio i?i/eoaii? oaeno?a
iiaoa.

Iiaeeo?eaoe??th i?oa, noai?aiiai Aa?oaiciiii, ? iaienaia A.A?eei eaeoe?y
i?i Iooe?ia. Cae?eniaiiy iooe?inueeiai i?oa a i?ney?aaiethoe?eio aiioo
ae?aaea?oueny o A?eiai /a?ac noaa?aeaeaiiy oaiiioe, a ia yniino?
Iooe?ia, ?icoi?iiy iiaoa ia?aiineoueny a iaeaooi?. A?aeeeaeath/e yni?
aecia/aiiy Iooe?ia, ui noaee eaaaiaeaie, A?eee iaeii/anii ?icaeaa?
eiioeaioe?th i?i aeii?iaioo noeo??, ui ia?aaoeo?oueny c iiaith noeo?e
?in?enueei? ae?eniino?. Ia?aae A?eei iinoa? i?iaeaia noinoie?a c ianaie.

O 1925 ?ioe? ieoaiiy i?i i?i?iea ? eiai ceeooy c eieaeoeaii
ona?aeiiethaaeinue ye no/ania. I?iaeaia i?i?ioeoaa ii?aeioaaeanue c
i?iaeaiith ianaiaiaee, oiio A?eee caa?oa?oueny aei ia?aco aeeaoeai
iioiaaii? iniaenoino? Iooe?ia, aei o?ao?e i?i?iea i?ae a?eae?inueeith
ianeith oooa. I?i?ioeoai ?ioa?i?aoo?oueny ye ci?ia iiceoe?? iiaoa,
caaaeaiiyi yeiai aoei iiaeieaiiy oaino, i?i ui A?eee ienaa ua a
«Aiieaeeinena a ?onneie iiycee». ?in?enueea noeo?y, ui c(yaeeanue o 1925
?ioe? c /a?aiieie ciaiaiaie, ?iaeoue aacaeocaeith o?ao?o i?i?iea, yeee,
ca A?eei, ia?aaeaaaeaa nioe?ae?noe/io ?aaiethoe?th.

Caaa?oaiiyi aiioe iiaiai Iooe?ia noaei /a?aiaa a?aeianaiiy ?icoi?iiy ?
aeooaeueiino? iooe?inueei? iiac?? o iaeaooi?. Iooe?i ye ia(?eo
i?oieia?/iiai ioioiaeiaiiy aeyaey?oueny ciaeii e?ioey aiioe, ae/a?iaaoe
an? iiaeeeaino? iiioey?iino?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – «Oaiiiai Iooe?ia a aoaeaii?e na?aeiiino?» –
aiae?cothoueny oai?e, ui ?ai?acaioothoue Iooe?ia ye iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eeaneea. Aeiaiaey/e onoaiiaeo ia nioe?aeueio «?icaa?iaoecaoe?th»
(A.Neo?ao?anueeee) iiaoa, ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? i?oieia?/i?
eiino?oeoe?? iaae? noie?oue ia iaoa??ae? ianiaeo aeaeaiue, aiaeaeio?a,
aieao, oe?eueieo oai??a.

Aieiaieie eoeueoo?ieie iiae?yie aiioe, ui ia?aaiaeyoue iniaeno?noue ?
oai?/?noue iiaoa o oaeo aeeooy, aoee anoaiiaeaiiy iai(yoieea Iooe?io a
Iinea? a 1880 ?ioe? ? noi??/iee tha?eae iiaoa a 1899 ?ioe?. Oe? aeaoe
aeeeeeaee iiyao /eneaiieo aeaeaiue i?i Iooe?ia ? i?aeiyee ??aaiue
a?aiioiino? ianiaiai /eoa/a. A oie aea /an c(yaey?oueny eieaa
N.E?a?iae/a «Iooe?i a ii?o?aoao» (1890), a ye?e ai?uaii iioi/i?
aeo?iaeuei? ioe?iee i?iaeo?a iai(yoieea Iooe?io, a oaeiae iienaiiy
ianiai? iooe?inueei? i?iaeoeoe??, o oiio /ene? ? eieaeeiai?.

E?oa?aoo?a aeey «iai?aina?/aiiai» /eoa/a (o?anoiiao??, «Aeaoneia
/oaiea», aeeoo?iene) i?iiiiothoue /eneaii? ioe?iee iiaoa Iooe?ia. Oe?
aeaeaiiy a?aee?eaathoue iiaoa aeey ia?iaeo, aea ia?aaaao a ieo a?aeaeaii
oai?ai, ui ?ai?acaioothoue Iooe?ia ye e??eea ? eacea?y. O oai?ao, ui
aeeth/athoue ? a?ia?ao?/ia ia/aei, i?aee?aneth?oueny aeecuee?noue iiaoa
aei i?e?iaee, oieueeei?o, ia?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua. Oaea ni?eeiyooy
Iooe?ia ianiaith aoaeeoi???th aeyaey?oueny ? a /eoaoeueeeo a?aeaoeao, a
yeino? iiaoa Iooe?ia ye «iaee?aui? ?in?enueei? ethaeeie» aeae?eythoueny
a on?o eiai oai?ao. Iooe?i iinoa? o /eoaoeuee?e na?aeiiino? ye
eaaaiaea?iee aa?ie, ? eiai i?noea – a iaeiiio ?yaeo c oea?yie, aa?iyie
a?eie, a oaeiae c aa?iyie aeanieo oai??a.

Iiaia «?icaa?iaoecaoe?y» Iooe?ia cae?enieeanue o aeai?? aiaeaeioo, ui
noi?ioaany ia iaae? noie?oue ye eaaaiaea i?i Iooe?ia ia iniia?
iai?aeaaaiaea?ieo iiia?aeae o i?ina?oieoeuee?e e?oa?aoo??. O ?iaio?
a?aecia/a?oueny «e?iaai-oa?aiaaoe/ia» ooieoe?y aiaeaeio?a ?
ianooaai?noue ?o iioe?aiiy, aeae?eythoueny iniiai? nthaeaoi?
eiino?oeoe??, a oaeiae iicia/a?oueny aieea ia iiaeaeueoo eoeueoo?o.

O i?ioean? aoiaeaeaiiy Iooe?ia o na?o ianiaiai /eoa/a oi?iothoueny i?oe,
ui iathoue naiiaeinoaoi? cia/aiiy. sse i?eeeaae i?oieia?caoe?? Iooe?ia o
na?aeiiino? ianiaiai /eoa/a iiaea?oueny oe?eueiee oa?? iaeaooiueiai
iooe?i?noa E.Iiaecaeaanueeiai ia caaeaio oaio – «I?i Iooe?ia».

O eie? i?oieia?/ieo iaa?oiooaaiue aeieea? ea?eeaoo?iee ia?ac Iooe?ia,
iia(ycaiee c iicae?oa?aoo?ieie iai??aie eiai aaoi??a. I?ae oaeei eooii
ci?o aiae?co?oueny «Aio?iiieiae/aneay e ineoieiae/aneay aaiaaeiaey
Iooeeia» ineoieiaa ?.N?ei?nueeiai, yeee aaaaeaa Iooe?ia aeeeei
ao?eeainueeei uaieaiiyi ia aeaai?iaeiiio aea?aa? ?in?enueei? eoeueoo?e ?
aaa/aa e?auee aeo?ae aeey iiaoa a iae?oaeaii? c iyiath I?eiith
?iae?ii?aiith.

Oe?e?ni?noue oyaeaiue ianiaiai na?aaeiaeua i?i Iooe?ia aoea a iaiiaiith
aac o?aooaaiiy iiceoe?? i?aaenoaaiee?a oea?eae. O aeena?oaoe??
iienothoueny oa?aeoa?i? aeey ia??iaeo, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, iiaeyaee ia
iiac?th oeeo o/aniee?a eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy, aeae?eythoueny oaenoe
Iooe?ia, ui ei?enooaaeenue iaea?eueoei iiieoii. A?aecia/a?oueny,
cie?aia, ui i?aaineaaiee Iooe?i aaaaoi a /iio ni?aiaaea? c Iooe?iei
io?oe?eiei ye c?acie ethaeeie, yea noaea oaeith, ia?aoai?eaoenue ia oaeo
c aeoaeiiai neia. I???ioaoe?y aeooiaainoaa ia iiia?aaeith o?aaeeoe?th ?
ioe?ieo a?aeiioaiue aei Iooe?ia c oea?eaith, a?ae??aai?noue a?ae
anoaoe/ii? i?e?iaee iooe?inueeiai oaiiiaia – ana oea ia?aoai?eei
aeneiaethaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a oea?eae ia aeineoue ?cieueiaaio noa?o
ioe?iie, ia naiai ?iaeo eiiaioa? aei i?iaeaie “e?oa?aoo?a ? ?aeaieia?y”
a iooe?inueeiio i?o?.

I?ioean ianiaiai inai?iiy oyaeaiue i?i Iooe?ia c?aooith c?iaea iiaoa
o?ao?ith iaoe?iiaeueiiai cia/aiiy.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
ocaaaeueiththoueny o Aeniiaeao.

Oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? a ?? no/aniiio aeaeyae?
caaa?oeeinue naia ia iaae? noie?oue. ?icaeoie e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy, o
yeiio cia/ouith o?ao?ith noaa ianiaee /eoa/, coiiaeth?oueny ieceith
/eiiee?a, iniiaieie na?aae yeeo ? oiiae aeey oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea ye
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ? ianooiiee oaeo ?aoeaioe??.

Caaaeyee ??ciiiai?oiino? /eoaoeueeeo oi/ie ci?o o e?oa?aoo?i?e
na?aeiiino? ii?aeiothoueny ??ci? iiaeyaee ia e?oa?aoo?i? yaeua.
E?oa?aoo?ia na?aeii?noue, aoaeo/e ci?noiaiith eaoaai???th, yaey? niaith
oi?io, yea aeeth/a? aanue niaeo? noaeaeaiue i?i e?oa?aoo?o, ui
ni?eythoue iiiaeaiith e?oa?aoo?ii? eoeueoo?e. Ci?no /eoaoeueeeo ioe?iie
aecia/a?oueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie no?aoaa?yie ? eieaeoeaieie
e?oa?aoo?ieie niaeaie aoaeeoi???. Iaaeieie?oa?aoo?ia na?aaeiaeua
ia?aaeon?i iaoe?eaia ia ?icoi?iiy, ae?aaeaia a «ia?acao», o yaeuao
e?oa?aoo?iiai iiaooo i?inoaaeothoueny oaiaeaioe??, ui aecia/athoue
/eoaoeueeo iiaaae?ieo.

Iiioey?iee ienueiaiiee ye e?oa?aoo?ia iniaeno?noue iiaea iieieoenue o
oeaio?? nioe?aeueii? /eoaoeueei? aca?iiae??, aea oi?io?oueny e?oa?aoo?ia
?aiooaoe?y ye «nioe?aeueia a?ia?ao?y» ienueiaiieea, iia(ycaia c
i?oieia??th i?i e?oa?aoo?o. Oaeoe a?ia?ao?? ienueiaiieea ? iia(ycai? c
iei oaeoe oai?/ino?, ui aeoeoia/othoueny ye a?ia?ao?/i?, iio?aieythoue o
naiaioe/ia iiea ?aiooaoe?? ? ?ai?acaioothoue ia eeoa e?oa?aoo?io
iniaeno?noue, aea e ooi/iththoue ea?oeio e?oa?aoo?ii? aiioe, ui
aea/a?oueny.

Eaoaai??y e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe?? ? oi/eith ocaiaeaeaiiy aeoiie
o/aniee?a e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy ? aeicaiey? iaaiith i??ith aeiiiaieoe
oyaeaiiy i?i e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean: /eoa/ a?eueoa oe?eaaeoueny
eiie?aoiith e?oa?aoo?iith iniaeno?noth, ui aeieea? a eiai ioe?ieao.
?aiooaoe?y ii?aeio?oueny c aoaeaiiith ? ooaeiaeiueith na?aeii?noth.

I.N.Iooe?i o e?oa?aoo?i?e na?aeiiino? iaae? noie?oue iaa iaeneiaeueii
aenieo ?aiooaoe?th, ui ioiiethaaea ? noa?o i?oa. O caaaeuei?e ea?oei?
e?oa?aoo?iiai iiaooo iii?oiei yaeuai aoei iooe?i?ainoai, yea ae?aaeaeiny
a ioioiaeiaii? oaeo?a e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy c Iooe?iei ? aoei
ia?aaeoiiaith anoaoe/iiai ?ioa?ano aei eiai oai?/ino?.

Ia?ac Iooe?ia aieeioa ia ?in?enueeo o?einionueeo e?eoeeo, ? oeae aieea
cae?enieany ia aeaio ??aiyo: ??ai? iiooe?a iiaeo oeyo?a o e?oa?aoo??,
/ei aeeeeeaia iiyaa «iiaiai» Iooe?ia (Ae.Ia?aaeeianueeee, A.A?eee), ? ia
??ai? noinoie?a c /eoa/ai, ( oeae aniaeo ?ai?acaioothoue eiioeaioe??
e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe?? (A.?icaiia) ? iia?eueiiai /eoaiiy (I.Aa?oaicii).
Iooe?inueeee i?eioeei, ui eiai iane?aeothoue e?eoeee, i?aaio/e ae?aceoe
no/aniee ci?no, aeoioeth? aeina?ae ?noi?e/ii? o?aaeeoe??; noai?ai?
e?eoeeith ia?ace i?noyoue ioe?ieo o?aaeeoe?eiiai Iooe?i ? aeyaeythoueny
cia/oueie aeey iiaiai ia??iaeo e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy. Ia?ace Iooe?ia, ui
oi?iothoue eiai e?oa?aoo?io ?aiooaoe?th, iia(ycai? ye ?c e?oa?aoo?ieie
niaeaie ioae?ee, oae ? c o?einionueeeie i?iaeaiaie aiioe (I.Aa?oaicii).
Iooe?i iinoa? ye o?ao?a no/anii? eoeueoo?e, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
noai?aiiyi oe?e?nieo ia?ac?a.

E?oa?aoo?ia ?aiooaoe?y, ui aeicaiey? ii?aeiaoe o oe?ea oyaeaiiy
ienueiaiiee?a ? /eoa/?a i?i e?oa?aoo?ia ?i(y, ? e?oa?aoo?iciaa/ith
eaoaai???th ? ni?ey? aea/aiith e?oa?aoo?i? na?aeiiino? ye aca?iiae??
/eoaoeueeeo niae?a. O e?oa?aoo?i?e na?aeiiino? e?ioey O?O ( ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy cae?enith?oueny ?iciaaeoaaiiy ae?oa?ieo ? ianiaeo iiaeyae?a ia
e?oa?aoo?o, i?e oeueiio oi?io?oueny i?oieia?/iee «iooe?inueeee oaeno».

Aieea e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe?? Iooe?ia ia aoaeaiio na?aeii?noue
aeyaey?oueny o ?aaeoe?? ianiaiai na?aaeiaeua ia iniao iiaoa o aeai??
aiaeaeioa. ?nioth/? o iiiaeeiiino? /eoaoeueeeo ?aaeoe?e ia iiaoa
i?oieia?/i? anioe?aoe?? ni?eythoue iiaeaeueoiio ia?ainieneaiith
eaaaiaea?iiai ia/aea ? ?iciaaeoaaiith «?noeiiiai» ? «oyaiiai» o ieooe?,
? a oie aea /an caeeoathoueny o «?icoi?iiyo» o aeaeyae? «ia?ac?a», ui
iicia/athoue iaaeo ?icoi?iiy /eoa/?a.

I?oieia?/iee «iooe?inueeee oaeno» aoa iaeaeuith oi/eith ?aiooaoe??
iiaoa, c yeiai aeae?eeeenue aea? i?ioeeaaei? oaiaeaioe?? o iiaeaeueoiio
?icaeoeo e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy: ioioiaeithaaoe c iooe?inueeith
o?aaeeoe??th iiaa a e?oa?aoo?? ? oeoia/eoe iaoe?iiaeueiiai iiaoa ye
i?ia?aeio eoeueoo?io eaaaiaeo.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Aa?aaeecaoeey ia?aca «Iaaeiiai anaaeieea» a iiycee Na?aa?yiiai aaea
(A.Ianoa?iae «Iaoa?ao?a») // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaa/aeueia eieaa. – 1997. – O.2 – N.50-56.

Aiaeaeiou i Iooeeia a eeoa?aoo?iii niciaiee eiioea OIO – ia/aea OO aaea
// Iaoeia? caienee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee. Na??y e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. – Aeione 4
(15). – Oa?e?a. – 1998. – N.38-45.

Eeoa?aoo?iay ?aiooaoeey Iooeeia a oai?/aneii ianeaaeee A.A.?icaiiaa
// Iaoeia? caienee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee. Na??y e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. – Aeione 9
(20). – Oa?e?a. – 1998. – N.102-108.

Eiioeaioeey eeoa?aoo?iie ee/iinoe Iooeeia a ?aaioao Aiae?ay Aaeiai //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. O?eieia?y. Iaaeaaia?ea ( ?91 (158). –
N.102-108.

I eeoa?aoo?iie ?aiooaoeee a oai?aoe/aneii aniaeoa // I?eaei?i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee. Aoiai?oa?i? iaoee: o?eieia?y, iaaeaaia?ea, ?noi??y,
o?einio?y, nioe?ieia?y. – 1998. ( ?93 (160). – N.23-30.

Aiaeec iiyoe/aneiai iae?ieiioaenoa (oeeee I.Oeaaoaaaie «Noeoe e
Iooeeio») // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaa/aeueia eieaa. – 1998. – O.3. – N 26-32.

Iooeeineay o?aaeeoeey a yienoiey?iii ianeaaeee I.Aieioeia (ienueia ec
Ia?eaea. 1915) // I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y «O?aioe?y oa Oe?a?ia,
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae o eiioaeno? ae?aeiao iaoe?iiaeueieo
eoeueoo?»: Oace aeiiia?aeae. 14-16 o?aaiy 1996 ?. – O.1. ( *.1. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iie?a?ao?no. – 1996. – N.114-115.

AIIOAOe?ss

?iaeaeanoaainueea ?.?. I.N.Iooe?i o e?oa?aoo?i?e na?aeiiino? e?ioey O?O
( ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. ( ?oeiien.

Aeena?aooe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.06 ( oai??y e?oa?aoo?e.(
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? aea/athoueny i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo e?oa?aoo?ii? na?aeiiino? ?
oi?ioaaiiy ?aiooaoe?? ienueiaiieea, iniaeea?noth yei? ? ?aaeoe?y an?o
o/aniee?a e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy ia e?oa?aoo?io iniaeno?noue.
Nenoaii?noue, ui aeyaey?oueny o oi?ioaaii? e?oa?aoo?ii? ?aiooaoe??,
?icaeyaea?oueny ia iaoa??ae? inai?iiy oaiiiaia I.N.Iooe?ia e?oa?aoo?iith
a?iiaaene?noth ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. Aecia/a?oueny i?noea ? ?ieue
o?einionueei? e?eoeee o eiioaeno? ??ciiiai?oieo oyaeaiue i?i
iiioey?i?noue ienueiaiieea, aeae?ey?oueny iooe?i?ainoai ye aaeoi?
e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy ii/aoeo noie?ooy, a?aecia/a?oueny cia/ou?noue
oeueiai yaeua o oai?aoeei-e?oa?aoo?iiio ieai?. Noaiiaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii?
iniaenoino? ye e?oa?aoo?iiai oaeoo a?aeaeaa? niaoeeo?eo ?aoeaioeaiiai
iaoai?cio iaaii? aiioe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?oa?aoo?ia iniaeno?noue, e?oa?aoo?ia ?aiooaoe?y,
?aoeaioeaiee iaoai?ci, i?o i?i iiaoa.

AIIIOAOeEss

?iaeaeanoaaineay E.A. A.N.Iooeei a eeoa?aoo?iii niciaiee eiioea O?O (
ia/aea OO aaea. ( ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.06 ( oai?ey eeoa?aoo?u. (
Aeiai?iiao?ianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee eco/athony i?iaeaiu eeoa?aoo?iiai niciaiey e
oi?ie?iaaiey eeoa?aoo?iie ?aiooaoeee ienaoaey, iniaaiiinoueth eioi?ie
yaeyaony ?aaeoeey anao o/anoieeia eeoa?aoo?iie aeecie ia eeoa?aoo?ioth
ee/iinoue. Nenoaiiinoue, eioi?ay i?iyaeyaony a oi?ie?iaaiee eeoa?aoo?iie
?aiooaoeee, ?anniao?eaaaony ia iaoa?eaea inaiaiey oaiiiaia A.N.Iooeeia
eeoa?aoo?iie iauanoaaiiinoueth ia/aea OO aaea. Eco/aaony ianoi e ?ieue
oeeinioneie e?eoeee a eiioaenoa ?aciiia?aciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i
iiioey?iinoe ienaoaey, auaeaeyaony iooeeieainoai eae aaeoi? eeoa?aoo?iie
aeecie ia/aea aaea, ii?aaeaeyaony cia/eiinoue yoiai yaeaiey a
oai?aoeei-eeoa?aoo?iii ieaia. Noaiiaeaiea eeoa?aoo?iie ee/iinoe eae
eeoa?aoo?iiai oaeoa io?aaeaao niaoeeoeeo ?aoeaioeaiiai iaoaiecia
ii?aaeaeaiiie yiioe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeoa?aoo?iay ee/iinoue, eeoa?aoo?iay ?aiooaoeey,
?aoeaioeaiue iaoaieci, ieo i iiyoa.

ANNOTATION

Rozhdestvenska I.Ye. Pushkin in the literary consciousness at the end of
the XIXth and at the beginning of the XXth century. ( Manuscript.

Dissertation is about the issues of literary consciousness development
and formation of literary reputation of the writer, a characteristic
feature of which is a reaction of all the members of literary life to
the literary person. Dissertation deals with system of literary public
mind of the early of the XXth century. It is realized in formation of
literary reputation on the material of Pushkin(s phenomenon. It is
pointed out the place and role of philosophical critique in the context
of the different views on the writer(s popularity, “pushkinianstvo” is
determined as a vector of the literary life, theoretical significance of
this phenomenon is defined. Literary person as a literary fact is
reflected in the mechanism of reception of the literary age.

Key words: literary person, literary reputation, mechanism of
reception, myth about the poet.

Enoi?e/aneay iiyoeea. Eeoa?aoo?iua yiioe e oeiu ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
niciaiey. ( I.: Ianeaaeea, 1994. ( 512 n.

Iiaeeia A. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue Ouiyiiaa // Iiaia eeoa?aoo?iia iaic?aiea. (
1998. ( ?1(29). ( N.362-366.

Ea/o?ianueeee ?. Iiao naiioe oa aaciaae?? // Oe?a?inueea iiaa ?
e?oa?aoo?a a oeie?. ( 1992. ( ?3-4. ( N.7-11.

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