?INOEOOO AeAOAEOIEIA?? AII OE?A?IE

OAeE: 616.89 : 371.911

IONOAOA?A Aaiiaae?e THneoiae/

INIAEEAINO? AEEOO?AEO IEAI?A

NE?IEO NOA?OIEEANIEE?A

19.00.08 — Niaoe?aeueia ineoieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oeoeiiaaeaaia?ee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: – eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio NEIUeIAA
?aaai?y Iaae?aia; Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I. I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith oeoeiiaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: – aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee
/eai AII Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo ineoieia?? ?iai? A. Einothea AII
Oe?a?ie, IAENEIAIEI Na?a?e Aeieo?iae/.

– eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, a/aiee
nae?aoa? ?inoeoooo nioe?aeueii? oa iie?oe/ii? ineoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie,
EI?I??IEI Aiaoie?e Aioiiiae/.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: – Neia’yinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo,
eaoaae?a ei?aeoe?eii? iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
Neia’yinuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “26” n?/iy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.450.01 i?e ?inoeooo? aeaoaeoieia??
AII Oe?a?ie o i?ei?uaii? IIO ?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252030, i.Ee?a,
aoe. Oo?aai?anueea, 8/14).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie (254060, Ee?a, aoe. I. Aa?eeinueeiai, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “25“ ___________ 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

AEOE O. A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?aaeeeaeuei?
aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie, ei??ii? ci?ie a noni?eueiiio aeeoo?, aoiaeaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie a ?eieia? a?aeiineie noaaeyoue iia? aeiiae aei ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeai i?aeaioiaee iieiae? aei aeeooy a oaeeo oiiaao. Aino?ioa oe???
caaaeueiinioe?aeueii?, a ia?aaeon?i ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?iaeaie
iineeth?oueny noiniaii aeioneiee?a oe?e aeey ne?ieo.

O i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa. Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy” cacia/a?oueny, ui iaaeaaia?ea
? ineoieia?y iathoue aeoeaii ni?eyoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?aoi?iai a
Oe?a?i?. Aeaoaeoieia?/iee ?icae?e oeueiai aeieoiaioa aeeth/a? i?iaeaie
iioeaaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy iaa/aeueii? ? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?
aiiiaeueieo ae?oae oa ineoieia?? iiaaae?iee oaei? ethaeeie a
noni?euenoa?.

?icaeyae ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo
noa?oieeaniee?a o nioe?ieia?/iiio, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiio oa
iaaeaaia?/iiio aniaeoao aea? ciiao aeyaeoe o? ?aaeuei? i?ioe??//y ?
i?iaeaie, ye? noiyoue ia?aae aeioneieeaie oe?e-?ioa?iao?a aeey ne?ieo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, noiniaii iniaeeainoae iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo ne?ieo oa
?o aeyae o ??cieo noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (A. Aiae?ayonean,
E. Ath?eeai, A. I. Aooe?ia, I. A?eeae, E. N. Aeaionueeee,
I. I. Caethaia-ueeee, I. ?. Caioeiaa, A. I. ??iaeia, A. I. E?ia?on,
A. A. Eiaeeue/aiei, I. A. Eeoaae, ?. N. Ii?aoe?n, A. I. ?aiaaeaanueea,
A. Ioi/yoneaia, O. I. Nae?eaethe, ?. I. Neiueiaa, A. I. Noa?i?ia,
A. I. Noneaa?/thn, A. ?. *a?aiueia, A. E. THo??ia, I. ss. Oanaiei oa
?io?) aeiaaee, ui aaaeeee naini?iee aeaoaeo – iiaia aai /anoeiaa ao?aoa
ci?o ye yaea?ia iciaea oaeiai oeio aiiiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, na?eicii
ii?oooth/e aca?iiae?th iniaenoino? c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai, aeeeeea?
ieceo aoi?eiieo ? o?aoeiieo iciae o no?oeoo?? aeaoaeoo ? iicia/a?oueny,
cie?aia, ia ?icaeoeia? nioe?aeueieo iio?aa, iaiaaeaii? nioe?aeueiiai
aeina?aeo, aeieeiaii? iaaieo oa?aeoa?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ne?ii?
ethaeeie. Ne?ae iaaieineoe, iaeiae, ui niaoeeo?ea aeeoo?aeo ieai?a
ne?ieo, cie?aia a oaeee naiceoeaiee ia??iae aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
oeueiai iniaeno?niiai iiaiooai?aiiy, ye noa?oee oe?eueiee a?e, aein?
i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aoea.

Ioaea, ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ni?yiiaai?noue iniaenoino? ne?iiai
noa?oieeanieea a iaeaooi?, a i?aaeiaoii – iniaeeaino? ieaioaaiiy
aeaniiai aeeooy o ??cieo eiai noa?ao oa niaoeeo?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa a aaeoc? niaoe?aeueii? ineoieia?? oa
iaaeaaia?ee; aiii iia’ycaia c ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe AII
Oe?a?ie, eiioeaioe??th ?icaeoeo aeaoaeoieia?/ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i?,
caaaeueiith i?iaeaiith ?ioaa?aoe?? aiiiaeueieo ae?oae o noni?euenoa?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ineoieia?/i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ieai?a
noa?oieeaniee?a oe?e aeey ne?ieo o ??cieo noa?ao iaeaooiuei?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, aeyaeaii? iniiaieo aeaoa?i?iaio ?o oi?ioaaiiy oa
iaenooo?a?oeo aeey nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino? c aeeaieei ii?ooaiiyi ci?o
iai?yi?a ? cania?a ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaiiai aieeao ia ieo.

I?e oeueiio ie aeoiaeeee c a?iioace i?i oa, ui aeeeeeaia oyaeeei
naini?iei aeaoaeoii (ne?iioith) nai???aeia nioe?aeueia neooaoe?y
?icaeoeo iniaenoino? c a?eueoith aai iaioith aeaoa?i?ioth/ith neeith
iicia/a?oueny ia niaoeeo?oe? ?? aeeoo?aiai ieaioaaiiy, oi/a “yae?i
iniaenoino?” – ?? nioe?aeueio ni?yiiaai?noue – ia ca/?ia?.
Ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui ??ciia?/iee nenoaiiee ineoieia?/iee aiae?c aeeoo?aeo
ieai?a ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a aeiiiiiaea ciaeoe ae?eia? ?aca?ae
iie?ioaiiy ?iaioe oe?eueieo iaaeaaia?a, ineoieia?a, aaouee?a,
i?aoe?aiee?a nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?, ni?a?ia?oiee?a OOINo
uiaei ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanaie nioe?ae?caoe??, nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiai?
aaeaioaoe?? aeioneiee?a oeueiai oeio niaoe?aeueieo oe?e, ?ioaa?aoe?? ?o
o noni?euenoa?.

Aeey ia?aa??ee a?iioace ? aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?yiiaoaaeiny ia ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo iiceoe?e ? ?ic?iaea aae?aeieo
iaoiaee/ieo i?ioeaaeo? cai?o aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo uiaei iniaeeainoae
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
ne?ieo;

aeae?eaiiy ? ia??oiooaaiiy iniiaieo noa? iaeaooiuei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a, o yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ?? ieaioaaiiy, a oaeiae
nenoaie e?eoa???a ? iieaciee?a yeino? noi?iiaaiino? a ieo a?aeiia?aeieo
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a;

ineoieia?/iee aiae?c aeeoo?aeo ieai?a noa?oieeaniee?a ?c c’ynoaaiiyi ?o
niaoeeo?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee c oi/ee ci?o oeoeiineoieia?/ieo
caeiiii??iinoae;

?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oa ineoieiai-eiinoeueoaoeaiiai aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a ye nooo?aiai eiiiiiaioa
iniaeno?nii? ni?yiiaaiino?, ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei
?aae?caoe?? naaa ye aeoeaiiai, na?aeiiiai ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai noa’?eoa
aeanii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iia’ycaia c oei, ui i?iaeaia
aeeoo?aiai ieaioaaiiy a oeoeiineoieia?? acaaae? aeine?aeaeo?oueny
aia?oa, ioaea, ae??oaiiy an?o cacia/aieo aeua caaea/, ii noo? aea? iiao,
?ai?oa ia a?aeiio ?ioi?iaoe?th aeey a?aeiia?aeii? aaeoc? ineoieia?/ii?
iaoee ? i?aeoeee. Oae, iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai:

– ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaenio iaoiaeeeo aea/aiiy aeeoo?aeo ieai?a c
aaeaioaoe??th eiie?aoieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?ioeaaeo? aeey aeei?enoaiiy
?o a ?iaio? c? ne?ieie;

– cai?iiiiiaaii aeey aiae?co iniiai? noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?iaae?ae?a
ii ci?o, i?eioeeiiai cia/ou? aeey ?o aaeaioaoe?? a noni?euenoa?
(i?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue; i?aeiniaeno?nia ni?eeoaaiiy;
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaa caaacia/aiiy; aeica?euei? caiyooy oa
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy) ? c’yniaaii iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a o eiaei?e
?c cacia/aieo noa?;

– ia i?aenoaa? c?noaaeaiiy yeinoae noi?iiaaiino? ieai?a o ??cieo noa?ao
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aeyaeaii niaoeeo?/i? aeey ne?ieo iniaeno?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeoo?aiai ieaioaaiiy, cie?aia aieea
inaaaeieiiiainaoi?ieo ineo?/ieo iiaiooai?aiue ca oeiii ineoieia?/iiai
caoenoo;

– aeae?eaii nooo?a? ciie ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a, ye?
iio?aaothoue niaoe?aeueii? oaaae c oi/ee ci?o ina?oiuei-aeoiaiiai oa
ineoiei?aeoe?eiiai aieeao aeey caaacia/aiiy aioiaiino? iniaenoino? aei
naiino?eiiai aeeooy.

O iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeia? iaoeiaiai ?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueii? i?e?iaee
iniaenoino?, i?ia?aeii? ?ie? nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a o oi?ioaaii? ??
ni?yiiaaiino? i?e iayaiino? neeaaeieo aca?iica’yce?a i?ae a?ieia?/iei
(cie?aia aaaeeei naini?iei aeaoaeoii) ? nioe?aeueiei o oeueiio i?ioean?
ie aaa/a?ii oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey
oeoeiineoieia??. Aiii iieyaa? oaeiae a iaa?oiooaaii? oeyo?a ?aae?caoe??
?aea? ?ioaa?aoe?? ?iaae?ae?a c aeeaieeie ii?ooaiiyie ci?o a nioe?aeueia
na?aaeiaeua /a?ac ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/io ei?aeoe?th aoi?eiieo
a?aeoeeaiue o no?oeoo?? ni?yiiaaiino? iniaenoino?, a naia ?? aeeoo?aeo
ieai?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?ic?iaeai? oa aeine?aeii ia?aa??ai? eiiieaenia iaoiaeeea aeyaeaiiy
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo ? e?eoa??? ioe?iee yeino? ?o noi?iiaaiino?
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? iaaeaaiaaie ? ineoieiaaie niaoe?aeueieo
oe?e-?ioa?iao?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy iniaenoino? o/i?a oa ?ic?iaee
i?ia?ai ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe, a oaeiae i?aoe?aieeaie neoaea aeey
iieiae?, i?aei?e?inoa OOINo, aeey ni?eyiiy nioe?aeueii-o?oaeia?e
aaeaioaoe?? ne?ieo, iie?ioaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c ieie.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeea? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
i?ioa?aeai?o oa i?ioeiinoeueoaoe?? ne?ieo, ia?aaeyaeo eiea ?o i?ioan?e,
ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? ?iaioe o niaoe?aeueieo ?ioa?iaoao oa a nenoai? OOINo,
aeey i?aeaioiaee ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? oeoeiineoieia?a ?
oeoeiiaaeaaia?a, iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo iiooe?a o niaoe?aeuei?e,
iaaeaaia?/i?e oa nioe?aeuei?e ineoieia??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? eaoaae?e oeoeiiaaeaaia?ee IIO
?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ia eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
i?aoe?aiee?a OOINo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny c 1993-ai ii 1998 ??e. Aenia?eiaioaeueiith
aacith aoee niaoe?aeuei? oeiee-?ioa?iaoe aeey ae?oae c aeeaieeie
ii?ooaiiyie ci?o, cie?aia 10-o eean?a na?aaeiuei? niaoeoeiee-?ioa?iaoo ?
5 i. Ee?aa, 12-o eean?a Euea?anueei? na?aaeiuei? niaoeoeiee-?ioa?iaoo ?
100 oa Oa?e?anueei? oeiee-a?iiac?? aeey ne?ieo. Aeine?aeiith ?iaioith
aoei ioiieaii 152 o/i?, a oaeiae o/eoae?a oa aeoiaaoae?a cacia/aieo
oe?e, aaouee?a ne?ieo ae?oae.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai iaoiaee aoaeooue
ioa?aeoa?eciaai? ieae/a a iniiaiiio ci?no? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ? aoee noaaeai? ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai aeaoaeoieia?? (2–3 eenoiiaaea
1994 ?ieo, i. Ee?a), ia ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a IIO
?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (1994 – 1998).

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 5 noaoae, 1 oace, a yeeo
?ice?eoi iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??: anooi, aeaa ?icae?ee, aeniiaee, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (160 iaeiaioaaiue ianyaii 14 noi??iie). Caaaeueiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 187 noi??iie. O oaeno? ai?uaii 15 oaaeeoeue
(caaaeueiee ianya – 7 noi??iie), 8 ?enoie?a ia 3 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/athoueny ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoa, a?iioaca, caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaathoueny
iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “I?iaeaia aeeoo?aeo ieai?a iniaenoino? a
caaaeuei?e oa niaoe?aeuei?e ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??” c?iaeaii
aiae?c iaoeiai-e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1. “Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oa iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe
aea/aiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo ieai?a noa?oieeaniee?a”
i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ia nueiaiaei? aecia/eeany iecea iai?yi?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, o yeeo o oiio aai ?ioiio aniaeoao ?icaeyaeathoueny
ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo ieai?a iieiae?. Aiae?c oe??? i?iaeaie
i?iaaaeaii o nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiio (?. ?. Aaeaoeia,
A. A. Aa?aaie?i, E. I. Eiaai, E. A. Nioaiue oa ?i.), ineoieia?/iiio
(?. ?. Aieiaaoa, ?. N. Eii, A. N. Iaaoi, A. I. Iaie?ianueeee,
A. A. ssaeia oa ?i.), iaaeaaia?/iiio ieai? (E. A. Aa?aiaa, ?. A. Ao?iaa,
A. A. Enaiioiioiaa, A. A. Ioae?ee oa ?i.).

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiue aaaaoueio o/aieo o aaeoc? iaaeaaia?ee,
ineoieia??, nioe?ieia?? aoee ieoaiiy i?ioi???ioaoe??, iniaeeainoae
ia?aoiaeo thiae?a aei aei?ineiai noaio, i??e oa i?aaiaiue iieiaei?
ethaeeie oiui, ye?, oi?eath/enue caaaeueiiineoieia?/ii? i?iaeaie
iniaenoino?, o??th aai ?ioith i??ith iathoue noinoiie aei ieoaiiy
oi?ioaaiiy ?aae?noe/ieo aeeoo?aeo ieai?a iieiae? (A. A. Aiaiue?a, ?. Ae.
Aao, E. ?. Aiaeiae/, E. ?. Ao?a, A. ?. Aanooaeaa, TH. A. Caiioe?ia,
A. A. Cae?aaiieneia, N. I. ?eiii?eiaa, ?. A. Eeeiia, I. A. Ee?e/oe,
I. I. Eaiioue?a, A. O. E?nianueeee, N. Ae. Iae-neiaiei, A. I. ?iaeei,
I. I. ?oaeeaae/, A. I. Oaieia, A. ?. Oea?aoai, ?. I. Oeaiae,
A. A. ssaeia oa ?i.).

I?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c i?aoeue cacia/aieo aaoi??a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
aiie aeei?enoiaothoue ieceo iiiyoue, ye? a?aeaeaathoue ??ciiiai?oi?
aniaeoe noaaeaiiy ethaeeie aei iaeaooiueiai: i??y, iaoa, naiiaecia/aiiy,
i???ioaoe?y, ia?niaeoeaa, onoaiiaea, ieai.

Nie?ath/enue ia i?aoe? E. A. Aa?aiai?, A. A. Canaiea, ?. N. Eiia,
A. I. Neiueiaa oa ?i., ie ?icaeyaeaee aeeoo?aee ieai iniaenoino? ia
o?eueee ye iayai?noue o ia? oe?eae ia iaeaooi?, aea e ?aaeueieo niinia?a
aeinyaiaiiy oaeeo oe?eae c o?aooaaiiyi iniaenoeo iiaeeeainoae,
noni?eueieo aeiia oa ianoaaei.

Aeae? a aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny ia naiceoeaiino? aeey oi?ioaaiiy
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a a?eiaiai ia??iaeo thiaoeoaa, iniaeeai aeioneieo eean?a
oeiee, ca ?. N. Eiiii, “inoaiiueiai aoaio i?aeaioiaee aei aeeooy”.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui, ye i?aaeei, aeeoo?aa iaoa c’yaey?oueny o 14 – 16 ?ie?a
? ia? oa?aeoa? iai?aiaoe; iinooiiai ae?aiacii ?? ?icoe?th?oueny, o
thiaea iaeiie/othoueny aeeoo?aee aeina?ae, ciaiiy ? o?eueee i?ney
oeueiai oi?iothoueny aecia/ai? aeeoo?a? ieaie.

O aeena?oaoe?? iniaeeai aeoeaioothoueny o? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiue o
caaaeuei?e ineoieia?? oa iaaeaaia?oe?, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue c?icoi?oe
niaoeeo?eo noi?iiaaiino? oa yeino? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo.

I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaei aaaaea?ii iiceoe?th uiaei iiae?eo aeeoo?aeo ieai?a
ia neooaoeai?, ni?yiiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy iaeaeeae/i? iaoe, oa ei??ii?,
ui a?aeaeaathoue caaaeueio, no?eaeiaao iaoo. I?e an?e iaiao?aeiino? oa
ei?eniino? neooaoeaieo ieai?a oe?e?ni?noue iniaenoino? a ?aeiino? ??
aieiaieo oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e, ?? oe?eani?yiiaai?noue, iaiieaaeea?noue
oa naiino?ei?noue, ia iaoo aeoieo, iia’ycai? c? noi?iiaai?noth naia
ei??iieo ieai?a.

Ei?enieie aeey ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a iieiae? ? iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue, aea c’yniaaia ?ieue
o oeueiio i?ioean? oyae oa ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaieo c iath i???, oaioac??
(A. ?. Aeiaeiiia, ?. N. Eii).

I?ae?icae?e 1.2. “Aea/aiiy aeeoo?aeo ieai?a aeioneiee?a niaoe?aeueieo
oe?e o aeaoaeoieia?/i?e iaooe?” i?enay/o?oueny aena?oeaiith noaio
?ic?iaee aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaie i?iaeaie i?e aiiiae?yo ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino?. I?aee?aneaii, ui a ??cieo aaeocyo aeaoaeoieia?? ca inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? ?icaeyaeathoue i?iaeaie
i?aeaioiaee aei naiino?eiiai aeeooy o/i?anueei? iieiae? c aeeaieeie
aaaeaie ineoio?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo, i?ioa eeoa iiiia?ao?/ia i?aoey A. A.
Canaiea aaciina?aaeiuei i?enay/aia iniaeeainoyi aeeoo?aeo ieai?a aeooeo
(aieiaiei /eiii o noa?? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?) ? iaaeaaia?/iei oiiaai
?o oi?ioaaiiy. Ie?ai? ieoaiiy ni?yiiaaiino? a iaeaooi? in?a ?c
ii?ooaiiyie neooo aeine?aeaeoaaeenue oaeiae I. I. Aiciaith,
I. ?. ?aaieoeueeei, I. I. Ioaeaeueiaiii. O ie?aio?aiiiaaeaaia?oe? oa
ineoieia?? ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae ieoaiiy, ui iiina?aaeeiaaii
oa?aeoa?ecothoue niaoeeo?eo noaaeaiiy ie?aio?ai?a aei iaeaooiueiai
(ia?aaeon?i aei i?ioan??), aea/aee I. E. Aaa-aaeyi, A. ?. Aiiaea?,
A. TH. Ea?aye?n, I. E. Eieii?inueeee, A. A. Ei?i??iei, A. I. E?ia, A. ?.
?aeo, A. I. Neiueia, E. I. Oo?/einueea oa ?i.

Cia/io oaaao a oeueiio i?ae?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?eaii iniaeeainoyi
iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo ne?ieo, iia’ycaiei ?c i?iaeaiith oi?ioaaiiy ?oi?o
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a.

Oaea ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? oeoeiineoieia?? cacia/aeiny,
ui ne?iioa coiiaeth? niaoeeo?eo ia eeoa i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, aea
e iaeeaaea? a?aeaeoie ia anth iniaeno?noue (E. Ath?eeai,
I. Iieueaeaiaaoa?, N. Naeaee, A. Aa?aa?ae, A. Iia/ , A. A. E?ia?on oa
?i.). ?aeay i?i oa, ui iniaeno?ni? iniaeeaino? ne?ieo aeaoa?i?iiaai?
a?aeiia?aeieie nioe?aeueieie oiiaaie. O oeoeiineoieia?/ieo i?aoeyo
E. N. Aeaionueeiai, I. ?. Caioeiai?, I. A. Eeoaaea, ?. N. Ii?aoe?na,
A. N. Naa?eiaa, ?. I. Neiueiai? oa ?i., i?ioa I. A. Eeoaae canoa??aa?
i?ioe ?aii?oaaiiy oaeoi??a, i?yii iia’ycaieo c? ne?iioith. Ia?aaeon?i
oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui ne?iioa cia/ii ia?aoeiaeaea? caaeiaieaiith
aaaaoueio iio?aa iniaenoino?, cie?aia nioe?aeueieo, ui aeeeeea?
nai???aei? ineo?/i? noaie oeio o?ono?aoe?e, ye?, o naith /a?ao,
iicia/athoueny ia aeieeiaii? noaeeo ?en iniaenoino?, ?? onoaiiaeao oa
aeeoo?aeo iiceoe?yo (A. Aiae?ayonean, ?. I. Aaiaecya?/aia,
A. I. Aooe?ia, A. TH. Ea?aye?n, O. Iaeaanueeee, ?. N. Ii?aoe?n,
A. A. Ioi/yoneaia, ?. I. Neiueiaa oa ?i.). A aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeiaaaeaii,
ui, noai?eaoe a?aeiia?aei? iaaeaaia?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?
oiiae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa aeoiaaiiy, iiaeia nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia
eiiiainaoi?i? i?ioeane, ye? ei?eaothoue ?icaeoie iniaenoino? ne?ieo o ??
nioe?aeueii cia/oueo yeinoyo (A. A. Eiaeeue/aiei, A. I. Noa?i?ia,
A. ?. Noneaa?/thn, A. ?. *a?aiueia, A. E. THo??ia, I. ss. Oanaiei oa
?i.).

O oeoeieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? (A. I. Ae?iooe?i, I. ?. Caioeiaa,
A. I. ??iaeia, ?. N. Ii?aoe?n oa ?i.) iaaaaeaii aeineoue aaaaoi
i?eeeaae?a a?aaeath/eo aeinyaiaiue ne?ieo o ??cieo noa?ao ae?yeueiino?.
Iaeiae A. ?. Noneaa?/thn o aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii? nenoaie
nioe?aeueieo onoaiiaie in?a c aeeaieeie aeaoaeoaie ci?o anoaiiaea, ui
?oi? iniaeno?ni? onoaiiaee ia neeaaeio i?aoeth aeineoue iani?eyoeea?, ?
i?aee?aneea i?eioeeiiao iaiao?aei?noue aeoiaaiiy o ne?ieo oiaaiaiino? o
aeanieo neeao ? oai?/eo iiaeeeainoyo. ?. N. Ii?aoe?n, ?. I. Neiueiaa,
I. ss. Oanaiei eiinoaoothoue oaeoe cia/ieo o?oaeiiu?a aeioneiee?a oe?e
ne?ieo o noa?ao, iia’ycaieo c i?aai?caoe??th a?eueiiai /ano,
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a ? aeae?eythoue oe? noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ye oae?, ui iio?aaothoue niaoe?aeueieo
ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaieo coneeue.

Ie ia ciaeoee o oeoeiineoieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? niaoe?aeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai ieaioaaiiy iaeaooiueiai aeeooy iniaaie c
aeeaieeie ii?ooaiiyie ci?o (e??i ?iaioe I. A. Ii?iciai? noiniaii
?ioa?an?a ? i??e ne?ieo ae?oae), oi/a ieoaiiyi i?ioi???ioaoe?? oa
i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy aeioneiee?a oe?e-?ioa?iao?a aeey ne?ieo i?eae?ey?oueny
aeineoue aaaaoi oaaae (A. I. ??iaeia, E. ?. ??i?eiaa, A. I. AEioia,
I. O. Ca?aoeueeee, A. TH. Ea?aye?n, A. ?. Eiaaeaiei, A. E. Iia?oee?n oa
?i.).

I?ae?icae?e 1.3. aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeth? iaoiaeieia?th oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ae?iaeai? iaie ia i?aenoaa? c?iaeaiiai aeua aiae?co eiai
oai?aoe/ieo canaae. Noeoii?noue i?eioeei?a: aeaoa?i?i?ci, ?aeiino?
na?aeiiino? ? ae?yeueiino?, ?icaeoeo ineo?ee o ae?yeueiino?,
iniaeno?niiai, eiiieaeniiai oa eaocaeueii-aaiaoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo, a
oaeiae oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ui ?icaeaathoue ?o o no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e
aoiai?noe/i?e, iniaeno?nii i???ioiaai?e ineoieia?? (?. Ae. Aao, N. Ae.
Iaeneiaiei, I. A. Ee?e/oe, A. I. Oaoaiei, I. A. *aiae?aa, O. N. ssoeaiei
oa ?i.) noaiiaeyoue caaaeueio iaoiaeieiai-oai?aoe/io iniiao iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iaee oaeiae
iiceoe?? iaoeiai? aeaoaeoieia?? i?i ?aei?noue caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo
ii?iaeueieo ? aiiiaeueieo ae?oae, neeaaeio no?oeoo?o aeaoaeoo, i?ia?aeio
?ieue nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a o eiiiainaoe?? aeaoaeo?a aiiiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo (E. N. Aeaionueeee, A. A. Canaiei, I. ?. Caioeiaa, I. A.
Eeoaae, A. I. Ne-iueia, I. Ae. ss?ia/aiei oa ?i.).

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ?ic?iaeee eiiieaenio iaoiaeeeo
cai?o aii??e/ieo aeaieo uiaei iniaeeainoae aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo
noa?oieeaniee?a, ui aeeth/aea o aca?iiiia’ycaiiio aa??aio? oae? iaoiaee:
aiae?c aeieoiaioaoe??, cie?aia eaoaiianoe/ieo aeaieo, niinoa?aaeaiiy,
aiae?c i?iaeoeo?a ae?yeueiino? o/i?a (cie?aia iaienaiiy ca niaoe?aeueiei
caaaeaiiyi ? ieaiii oai??a), aieaooaaiiy (cie?aia i?iiiioaaeany
niaoe?aeueia i?ia?aiiaaia aieaoa, ui i?noeea iiiaae 80 caieoaiue), ca??
oa c?noaaeaiiy iacaeaaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia o/i?a, oanooaaiiy (cie?aia
niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiee oano iacae?i/aieo ?a/aiue), nioe?iiao??y oiui.
I?e oeueiio iniiaiith na?aae aii??e/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea
?iaeea?aeoaeueia aan?aea, ui iaiaeii?aciai i?iaiaeeeany c eiaeiei ne?iei
o/iai, ioiieaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ia ??cieo aoaiao.

Oai?aoe/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/aee aiae?c, ii??aiyiiy,
nenoaiaoecaoe?th, ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo oa aii??e/ieo aeaieo.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia??oioiaaii oaeiae aeae?eaiiy /ioe?ueio noa?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, a yeeo iathoue aooe aeine?aeaeai? ieaie ne?ieo
noa?oieeaniee?a uiaei naiai iaeaooiueiai: i?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue;
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaa caaacia/aiiy; i?aeiniaeno?ni? noinoiee c ?ioeie
ethaeueie; iai?ioan?ei? aeica?euei? caiyooy. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iniiai?
e?eoa???, ca yeeie ie ioe?ithaaee ye?noue noi?iiaaiino? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a
ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a: no?ee?noue, oe?ioa, nioe?aeueia ni?yiiaai?noue,
ae??a?noue oa eiie?aoi?noue, ona?aeiieai?noue, ?aaeuei?noue oa
aaeaeaaoi?noue, ia?niaeoeai?noue.

?icae?e I aeena?oaoe?? “Ineoieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeeoo?aeo ieai?a
aeioneiee?a oe?e aeey ne?ieo, oiiae ?o oi?ioaaiiy ? ei?aeoe??”
i?enay/aiee iaaiai?aiith ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?ae?icae?e?
2.1. ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy noiniaii ieai?a o noa?? iaeaooiuei?
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia ii/aoeo iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo a
10 eean? oae? ieaie aoee o?eueee 14,0 % o/i?a, a o 12 eean? – o 36 %.
Iai?ee?ioe? ?ieo iieacieee aeaui c?inoathoue: o 10 eean? – aei 23,0 %, o
12 eean? – aei 56,0 %. Ioaea, cia/ia /anoeia ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a,
iaa?oue c oeo, ooi io?eio? iiaio caaaeueio na?aaeith ina?oo, ia ieaio?
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, aaaaeath/e ?? iaiiaeeeaith aeey ?iaae?aea a
iei?oi?o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao ? ?ic?aoiaoth/e ia iain?th oa
aeiiiiiao aaouee?a. Cacia/eii, ui iei? a?eueoa /anoeia iac?y/eo
aeioneiee?a ia?aaoaa? ia ii?eoaaii? ??aeieo, io?eioth/e i?i?iaeueio
iain?th. Acaaae? aiae?c aeaieo i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy ne?ieo (ca noaoenoeeith
OOINo) na?ae/eoue, ui a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ?iaae?ae?a ii ci?o ? oa
I a?oi i?aoeaaeaooiaaii aeecueei 65,0 % (?io? aeeaooue ia iain?th); a?ae
oe??? e?eueeino? 54,0 % – ia i?aei?e?inoaao OOINo, ye? i?aoeththoue ca
?ia?oie/eie i?ioan?yie. I?ioa, na?aae i?ioan?e, ui ia?aaeaa/ai?
io?oe?eiith i?ia?aiith niaoeoeiee aeey ne?ieo ae?oae, aeiaeia ia noa?
i?aaeiaoii aeeoo?aiai ieaioaaiiy aeioneiee?a oi/a iaaia e?euee?noue
iieiae? (2,3 %) iia’yco? iaeaooith i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue c OOINii,
aea ?iaioo ca io?eiaiith o oeie? ?ia?oie/ith i?ioan??th ia ieaio?.

Acaaae? na?aae i?ioan?e, ca yeeie ieaiothoue i?aoethaaoe ne?i?
aeioneieee, a aaniethoi?e a?eueoino? iacaai? o?, ui iio?aaothoue
iiaeaeueoiai iaa/aiiy ? i?anoeaei? aeey ne?ieo. Ca aeaieie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iacaai? n?i i?ioan?e i?i?aiaeiaai? iaie oae: o/eoaeue,
ianaaeeno, ioceeaio, nioe?ieia, ineoieia, th?eno, i?ia?ai?no (a
iiiaeeiieeo aeiaaeeao iaceaaeeny i?ioan?? a aaeoc? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe –
iiaiciaanoai, ?noi??y, iaiaaeaeiaio, i?eaaoiee i?aei?e?iaoeue,
i?iaeaaaoeue). sse na?ae/aoue noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy
?iaae?ae?a ii ci?o oa iaoeiaa e?oa?aoo?a, an? oe? i?ioan?? iiaeooue aooe
aeinooiieie aeey ne?ieo. Ioe?iea ieai?a ca e?eoa???i ?aaeueiino? oa
aaeaeaaoiino?, oiaoi ?o a?aeiia?aeiino? iiaeeeainoyi eiie?aoiiai o/iy ?
ia?niaeoeaai eiai i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy, iieacaea, ui 29,0 % oaeeo ieai?a
ia?aaeuei? (oiaoi iaaaeaeaaoii caaeuai?). Aiaeii/an 35,0 % i?ioan?eieo
ieai?a ne?ieo aeioneiee?a iiaeia aaaaeaoe iaaaeaeaaoii caieaeaieie. C
oi/ee ci?o ae?eiaiai eiiiiiaioa aeeoo?aiai ieaio, oiaoi ?icoi?iiy
eiie?aoieo oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy iaoe, ne?i? ieaiothoue aeey iiaioaaiiy
iacaaieie i?ioan?yie io?eiaoe aeuo aai na?aaeith niaoe?aeueio ina?oo:
i?e oeueiio a ?aae?caoe?? nai?o ieai?a 97,0 % iieooaaieo aaeeeo iaae?th
iieeaaeathoue ia noi?iiith aeiiiiiao, iniaeeai aaouee?a. E?euee?noue
ieai?a ia eaae?o?eiaaio i?anoeaeio i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o i?yii i?iii?oe?eia oe?euei?e oni?oiino?
ne?ieo o/i?a. I?ioa oe?eaai, ui ia?niaeoeao ?aae?caoe?? oaeeo ieai?a
aiie iae/ano?oa aaa/athoue o aeineoue a?aeaeaeaieo a?eiaeo ianooaaao:
35,0 % – o a?oe? 40 ?ie?a, 57,8 % – o a?oe? 30 ?ie?a. Oea aea? i?aenoaae
ioe?ithaaoe aeeoo?ao i???ioaoe?th ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a o noa??
?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oaeaeoa ye i??th, i?ae ieai, ?
aaaaeaoe, ui ooo i?enooiy inaaaeieiiiainaoi?ia ?aaeoe?y iniaenoino? ia
?ioo?oeaio i?enooith iaaiaaiai?noue o aeanieo iiaeeeainoyo.

Caaaeii i?e iecoe? iiceoeaieo ?en o aeeoo?aeo ieaiao (a?aenooi?noue
aeiaaee?a anioe?aeueii? i???ioaoe??, iaaia noae?noue, ona?aeiieai?noue ?
eiie?aoi?noue oiui) ni?yiiaai?noue ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a o nai?
i?ioan?eia iaeaooi? ia? nooo?a? aeyae iaaeineiiaeino?: o a?eueoino?
aeioneiee?a 10-??/ii? ? iaeaea o iieiaeie 12-??/ii? oeiee aeeoo?a? ieaie
a oe?e noa?? acaaae? a?aenooi?; ?ia?oie/? i?ioan??, ye? ia?aaeaa/ai?
oe?eueieie i?ia?aiaie, ia iia’ycothoueny c iaeaooi?i aeeooyi; eiei
aaaeaieo aeey iaieiae?iiy i?ioan?e aeineoue iaiaaeaia. Ae?aaeai?
oaiaeaioe?? aei iaaaeaeaaoii caieaeaieo aeeoo?aeo ieai?a, niiae?aaiiy ia
cia/io aeiiiiiao ?ioeo, anoaiiaeaiiy caiaaeoi a?aeaeaeaieo ia?niaeoea
?aae?caoe?? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye
inaaaeieiiiainaoi?ia ooai?aiiy.

Ioaea, niaoe?aeuei? oeiee-?ioa?iaoe aeey ne?ieo iathoue aeoea?coaaoe
?iaioo uiaei iineeaiiy i?io?ioi?ioaaiiy, i?ioi???ioaoe?? oa i?ioa?aeai?o
o/i?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?oi?o ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ? o?ce/ieo iiaeeeainoae.
Iaiao?aeii ia?aaeyiooe eiei aeinooiieo aeey ne?ieo i?ioan?e ? aianoe
a?aeiia?aei? ei?aeoeae o ci?no oe?eueii? ina?oe. Aeooaeueiei ? noai?aiiy
niaoe?aeueieo iaoiaeee i?ioae?aaiinoeee ne?ieo c iiaeyaeo
a?aeiia?aeiino? ?oi?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae
aeiiaai oeo /e ?ioeo i?ioan?e, iniaeeainoyi ?iai/eo i?noeue ?c
caiia?aaiiyi iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia caei?ia’y, nioe?ae?caoe?th
iniaenoino? ne?ii? ethaeeie. Iio?aao? cia/iiai iie?ioaiiy ?iaioa oeiee o
o?ni?e aca?iiae?? c n?i’yie ne?ieo ae?oae uiaei aeoiaaiiy a ieo
iiceoeaieo ?ioa?an?a, iaoee?a, cae?aiinoae, aeoeaii? aeeoo?ai? iiceoe??,
naiino?eiino?, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, a??e o aeani? iiaeeeaino?.

Aeae? a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny ieaie ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a uiaei
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy ( i?ae?icae?e 2.2) ? cacia/a?oueny,
ui a iniia? ?o oi?ioaaiiy eaaeaoue ciaiiy aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o oa
?aaeueiee aeina?ae ethaeeie. Naia iaiaaeai?noue oaeeo ciaiue ? aeina?aeo
aiane?aeie niaoeeo?/ieo oiia aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? o niaoeoeie?-?ioa?iao?
aeaoa?i?io? iniaeeaino? ieai?a ne?ieo o/i?a uiaei iaeaooiueiai
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy. Ia?aaeon?i ne?ae cacia/eoe ui oe?
ieaie aeyaeeenue caiaaeoi iioei?noe/ieie, a oi e ia?aaeueieie. Oae, noie
ia?aaeaa/oaaiiai uii?ny/iiai aeioiaeo eieeaathoueny a a?eueoi? /anoeie
iieooaaieo o iaaeao a?ae 500 aeiea??a (20,0 %) aei 1000 aeiea??a ?
a?eueoa (32,0 %). O?eueee 11,0 % o/i?a ieaiothoue oeae iieaciee o iaaeao
a?ae 45 aei 150 aeiea??a, a 12,0 % ia iiaeooue eiai iacaaoe acaaae?. I?e
oeueiio an? ?aniiiaeaioe ?ic?aoiaothoue ia iain?th ii ?iaae?aeiino?,
30,0 % iaiaaeothoueny o?eueee iath, a ua 12,0 % ieaiothoue io?eioaaoe
oaeiae aeiaeaoeiao aeiiiiiao a?ae aaouee?a. Ioaea, aei oaei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeoo?aeo ieai?a o oe?e noa??, ye ia?aaeuei?noue, iiaeia
aeiaeaoe ? iaae??a?noue, oiaoi iaaa/aiiy eiie?aoieo oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy
iae?aneaieo i???ioe??a. Aiaeia?/io ea?oeio aeyaeaii ? a ?ioeo iai?yiao
aioeoeeiiaaiiai iaoa??aeueiiai aeia?iaooo. Oae, 93,0 % iieooaaieo
ieaiothoue iaoe aeanio ie?aio eaa?oe?o, 50,0 % – eai?oaeueiee oeaaeyiee
aoaeeiie (aei ?a/?, oeae iieaciee, ca aeaieie ?. ?. Aieiaaoe, o c?y/eo
aeioneiee?a na?aaei?o oe?e cia/ii ne?iii?oee – 23,3 %).

I?i iaae??a?noue, ia?aaeuei?noue, iaona?aeiieai?noue aeeoo?aeo ieai?a
ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a o cacia/ai?e noa?? na?ae/eoue ? oa, ui ia
i?iiiceoe?th aecia/eoe, eiee iacaai? ieaie iiaeooue aooe cae?eniai?,
45,0 % o/i?a aeaee a?aeiia?aeue ia c?acie: “Aaaeei neacaoe”, a 19,0 %
i?yii a?aeiia?ee: “I?eiee”, aeciaaoe oei naiei, ui ?oi? ieaie a oeueiio
aeiaaeeo ? i?inoi i???th, oaioac??th.

Ii??aiyiiy aeaieo, io?eiaieo a?ae o/i?a 10 oa 12 eean?a ia ii/aoeo oa
iai?ee?ioe? iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo, cana?ae/eei neooaoeai?noue oa
iano?ee?noue aeeoo?aeo i???ioe??a o cacia/ai?e aaeoc?.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeai? eiie?aoii i?eeeaaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aan?ae
c? ne?ieie noa?oieeanieeaie oa c?noaaeaii iaea?aeaio ?ioi?iaoe?th c
aeaieie, cie?aia, i?i ?oi?e ?aaeueiee n?iaeiee aeinoaoie. Oea aea?
iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue caaeuaiiai ??aiy aeiiaaaiue ne?ieo
noa?oieeaniee?a a?ae aeia?iaooo n?i’?.

O oe?eiio aeeoo?a? ieaie ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a (iaa?oue aeioneiee?a
12-??/ii? oeiee) o noa?? iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy
aeyaeythoueny ianoi?iiaaieie ca ia?aiao?aie ?aaeueiino?, ae?eiaino?,
noaeino?, ona?aeiieaiino?. Oea aeooae?co? iaiao?aei?noue ?iaioe
niaoeoeiee o aaeoc? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe o/i?a (ia?aaeaa/aiee ae?th/ei
iaa/aeueiei ieaiii i?aaeiao “Iniiae aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue” yaii ia ae??oo?
oeueiai caaaeaiiy), aeoiaaiiy a ieo ?icoiieo, ?aaeueieo oeea?e?ciaaieo
iio?aa o noa?? iaoa??aeueiiai aeia?iaooo, oi?ioaaiiy iiaiioe?iieo
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a c iaia’yceiaei oi?iiyi iaaeaaaoe ?i ae?eia?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, oiaoi ona?aeiieaiiyi nioe?aeueii cia/oueo c oi/ee ci?o
i?aaiaeo oa ii?aeueieo ii?i niinia?a ?aae?caoe?? aaaeaieo ia?niaeoea.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.3. aiae?cothoueny aeeoo?a? ieaie ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a
o noa?? i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a c ?ioeie ethaeueie. Aea/aeeny oae?
aniaeoe oe??? noa?e, ye aaaeaia ae?oaei? ioi/aiiy ? aeania i?noea a
iueiio, iaeaooi? iiae?oaei? aeeooy.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii, ui aeeoo?a? ieaie ne?ieo o/i?a
aeioneieo eean?a uiaei anoaiiaeaiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a o
iaeaooiueiio naiino?eiiio aeeoo? iathoue iniaeeaino?, coiiaeai?
cieaeaiiyi aeoeaiino? a oe?eiio oa oiiaaie aeeooy a oeie?-?ioa?iao?,
cie?aia.

C iiaeyaeo a?eueo-iaio ?aae?noe/ieo oyaeaiue naiai aaaeaiiai
iaeaooiueiai a oe?e noa?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i
iayai?noue aeeoo?aeo ieai?a o aeioneiee?a 10-??/ii? niaoeoeiee aeey
ne?ieo o 73,0 % oa 89,0 % – o 12-oe ??/i?e oeie?. Oe? oeeo?e iaeaea ia
ci?iththoueny ia ii/aoeo ? a e?ioe? iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
iaaio noae?noue ? ona?aeiieai?noue oaeeo ieai?a. Uiaei ?ioeo iieaciee?a
?o noi?iiaaiino? ooo o ne?ieo aeyaeaii iaaio ye?nio nai???aei?noue,
nooo?ao, ia iao iiaeyae, aeey aeeaeiieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?oiuei?
ineoieia??. Oae, ia?aaeon?i oey nai???aei?noue aeyaey?oueny o
iaaiaaiaiino? ne?iiai a iiaeeeaino? aeciaiiy naaa ye iniaenoino?
ioi/oth/eie ethaeueie c oe?ieiai eiea ni?eeoaaiiy. Iaea?eueo aeinooiiei
? ?aaeueiei aeioneieee aaaaeathoue aeciaiiy ?o aaoueeaie ? aaea
ciaeiieie oaeeie ae ?iaae?aeaie ii ci?o oa ni?eeoaaiiy a oeueiio eie?.
Ioaea, ieaie ne?ieo /anoi aeyaeythoueny iaaaeaeaaoii caieaeaieie (a
na?aaeiueiio 83,0 % a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iayaieo ieai?a).
Aeioneieee aaaaeathoue, ui cia/iith i??ith ia aeciaiiy ?o aieeaaoeiooue
noa?? ca’ycee oa iniaeno?ni? ioe?iee, ye? ae?iaeeenue o ioi/oth/eo ca
?iee iaa/aiiy a oeie?. Oiio 71,0 % o/i?a ?ic?aoiaothoue ia oea aaea o
a?oe? aei 20 ?ie?a.

Ia iao iiaeyae, ?ioo?oeaii a?ae/oaath/e iani?iiiaei?noue
ca?aeiiaiaeoaaoe naaa aeniei iiceoeaii a ye?enue ae?yeueiino? /a?ac
iiaaiee c?? oa iaaeinoaoi?noue a?aeiia?aeieo aeina?aeo ? ni?eeoaaiiy,
aeioneieee oe?e aeey ne?ieo eeoa a 18,7 % aeiaaee?a aaaaeathoue ca
iaiiaeeeaa aeinyaoe aeciaiiy ioi/oth/eo i?ney 30 ?ie?a.

Iaaiee aieea ia no?oeoo?o ia?aaeaa/oaaieo i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a ia?
ieaioaaiiy iaeaooiuei? i?ioan??. Nai ii nia? aeo?ae ia iiaee ??aaiue
ni?eeoaaiiy o aeioneieo eeanao, c iaaiai?aiiyi ia?niaeoea ia iaeaooi?,
aea? ciiao o/iyi, ye? ?ai?oa ia i?eaaaethaaee aei naaa, i?aeiyoeny ia
aeuee ??aaiue.

Aieea ia ieaioaaiiy iaeaooi?o i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a ia? aioo??oiy
iniaeno?nia iiceoe?y o/i?a. O?, ooi caeia? noiniaii ioi/oth/eo iiceoe??
“aeoeaiino? i?ae iaoeneii”, “e?aeiuei? caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ioeo”,
“eai?ooeyoe?? ia?aae o?oaeiiuaie” (ca A. I. Aooe?iith), iae/ano?oa
ia?aaoaathoue o iani?eyoeeaeo noaoonieo eaoaai??yo i?ae /an iaa/aiiy a
oeie? ? caeaa?eueoiai ?oi? aeeoo?a? ieaie uiaei i?aeiniaeno?nieo
ni?eeoaaiue iaiaaeothoueny n?iaeiei eieii. Iioei?noe/i?oa (aea aeaeaei
ia caaaeaee ?aaeueii) aeioneieee oe?e aeey ne?ieo noaaeyoueny aei naiai
iaeaooiueiai iiae?oaeiueiai aeeooy. Ieaio?oueny noai?eoe n?i’th
ia?aaaaeii o a?oe? aei 23 ?ie?a o ia?? c ethaeeiith, yea iaoeia aenieo
ca?ia?oio ieaoo. I?e oeueiio noai ii?ooaiiy ci?o iaeaooiuei? ae?oaeeie
aai /ieia?ea ia ia? cia/aiiy. O oetha? ne?i? iae/ano?oa ?ic?aoiaothoue
ia “aeayeo aeiiiiiao” iaeaooiueiai /ieia?ea aai ae?oaeeie, aaouee?a,
?iaee/?a, ciaeiieo.

Iaaiee ianei?ci aeyaey?oueny i?e aecia/aii? e?eueeino? ae?oc?a o
iaeaooiueiio. A?eueo?noue (64,5 %) niiae?aathoueny iaoe 1–2 ae?oc?a,
16,5 % iieooaaieo acaaae? ia ?ic?aoiaothoue ia ae?oaei? ni?eeoaaiiy.

Oa?aeoa?ii ui ieaie o noa?? iaeaooi?o aca?iinoinoie?a c ?ioeie ethaeueie
ii??aiyii c aeeoo?aeie ieaiaie a ?ioeo noa?ao ? iaeiaio ona?aeiieaieie c
iiaeyaeo ?o ae??aino?. Oae, ia caieoaiiy i?i oa, ui ca?ac o?aaa ?iaeoe
aeey ?aae?caoe?? a?aeiia?aeieo ieai?a uiaei iiaoaeiae ni?eyoeeaeo
i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a, eeoa 11,0 % aeioneiee?a 12-??/ii? oeiee
ciiaee aeaoe oi/a a a?aeiinii eiie?aoio a?aeiia?aeue, ui a?aeaea? iai??e
aaeineiiaethaaoe nai? iniaeno?ni? yeino? c aeiiiiiaith naiiaeoiaaiiy
oiui. Aea cacia/eii i?e oeueiio, ui ne?i? noa?oieeanieee aeineoue oi/ii
oyaeythoue nia? ?ene ethaeae, yeeo aiie ia?aee a aeey ae?oaeiueiai
ni?eeoaaiiy. Na?aae ii?aeueii-oa?aeoa?ieia?/ieo iniaeno?nieo yeinoae
aaaeaiiai ae?oaa ia?aaeon?i iaceaathoueny eiai aioiai?noue aeiiiiiaoe,
/ani?noue, aeia?ioa, ne?iii?noue, a oaeiae a?oaeeoe?y,
aeeoo??aae?ni?noue. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeai? ?. I. Neiueiai?, io?eiai? a
aenia?eiaioaeueii-ineoieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? aca?iinoinoie?a ne?ieo o
oe?eueieo eieaeoeaao.

O oe?eiio ieaie ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a o cacia/ai?e noa?? iio?aaothoue
cia/ieo ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaieo coneeue oeiee uiaei iie?ioaiiy ?o ca oaeeie
e?eoa??yie, ye oe?ioa, aaeaeaaoi?noue, ona?aeiieai?noue ? ae??a?noue.
Oe?eueia i?aeoeea ia? caaaaoeoeny oaeeie oi?iaie, ye nioe?aeuei? ca’ycee
aeoiaaioe?a, aeoea?caoe?y ? oi?ioaaiiy o ieo oi?iiy ni?eeoaaoeny,
cie?aia /a?ac niaoe?aeuei? o?ai?iae, caeo/aiiy aei ona?aeiieaiiai
naiiaeoiaaiiy, ??ciia?/ia i?aeaioiaea aei iaeaooiueiai n?iaeiiai aeeooy,
ii?aeueia iiaoaeiaa i?aenoaoaaeo noinoie?a oiui.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.4. “AEeoo?a? ieaie ne?ieo aeioneiee?a o noa?? caiyoue o
a?eueiee /an” i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui a?eueiee /an ?ice?eaa? oe?ie?
iiaeeeaino? aeey ?icaeoeo ?ioa?an?a ? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae; o?ce/iiai ?
aeooiaiiai oaeineiiaeaiiy; ?aae?caoe?? iio?aa iniaenoino? o
naiiaecia/aii?, ni?eeoaaii?; aeoeaiiai canai?iiy eoeueoo?ieo,
ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo oe?iiinoae, i?aeaeuaiiy ?aaa?e?oiaaiino? iac?y/eo.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e ae?yeuei?noue iieiaeeo ethaeae o a?eueiee /an,
aeae?ey?ii aea? eiai ooieoe??: 1 – ?ae?aaoe??, iiiiaeaiiy o?ce/ieo ?
ineo?/ieo iioaioe?e; 2 – aeania ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? – caaaa/aiiy ??
o?ce/ieo ? aeooiaieo, aiioe?eieo oa ?ioaeaeooaeueieo noi??i, caaeaoe?a
oa cae?aiinoae.

?ai?oa i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy (?. I. Neiueiaa) iieacaee, ui a?eueiee
/an ne?ii? ethaeeie, yea ia iaa/a?oueny a oeie?-?ioa?iao?, a /anoi ia
i?aoeth?, ia? nai???aeiino?, iia’ycai? c iniaeeainoyie aeya?a aeoeaiino?
i?e ne?iio?, iayaiino? ?ioa?an?a oa i?aai?caoe?? ciai?oiueiai
noeioethaaiiy c aieo i?aei?e?inoa /e ia?aeiieo i?aai?caoe?e OOINo.

O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? aea/aeeny ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c a?eueiei /anii
noa?oieeaniee?a aaciina?aaeiuei o oeie?-?ioa?iao?, o ii??aiyii? c ?oi?ie
ieaiaie ia caiyooy i?ae /an aeica?eey i?ney iueiai. Cie?aia,
c’yniaoaaeeny: aaee/eia a?eueiiai /ano o/i?a oa eiai no?oeoo?a;
caaaeueia iioeaaoe?y i?iaaaeaiiy aeica?eey; iio?aae oa ?ioa?ane o
i?iaaaeaii? a?eueiiai /ano; caaeiaieai?noue a?eueiei /anii; oaeoi?e, ui
aieeaathoue ia noeeue i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueiiai /ano.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo aeaieo iieaco?, ui a?eueiee /an o/i?a oe?e-?ioa?iao?a
aeey ne?ieo ae?oae noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii 5 aiaeei ia aeiao ? aeeth/a? 12
aeineoue oeiiaeo na?aae iac?y/eo ae?oae aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, ye?
ieaiothoueny ? i?ney cae?i/aiiy oeiee. I?e oeueiio ci?no ieai?a uiaei
i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueiiai /ano i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae a?eo
noa?oieeaniee?a ? ? ?aeaioe/iei o 10 oa 12 eeanao.

C 12 aeae?a aeica?eueieo caiyoue iaeiioe?ai?oeie o ne?ieo i?aee?oe?a ?:
neooaiiy ?aae?i, oaeaia?aaea/, ioceee; ethaeoaeuenuee? caiyooy
(e?ieaiiy, a’ycaiiy, aea/aiiy ?iicaiieo iia); i?iaoeyiee ia na?aeiio
iia?o??.

Iae?ath/e aeae ae?yeueiino? ia aeica?ee?, iao? ?aniiiaeaioe ea?othoueny
caeaa?eueoiai aaaeaiiyi “io?eiaoe caaeiaieaiiy”, “i?inoi a?aeii/eoe”,
“io?eiaoe iiao ?ioi?iaoe?th”, “iini?eeoaaoeny c ae?ocyie”. Aeecueei
25,0 % aeioneiee?a aeyaeythoue iai??e o ?ac? iiaeeeaino? caeiyoenue
yeeienue iiaeie ni?aaaie, ?ic?aoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio ia aeiaeaoeiaee
ca?ia?oie.

O oe?eiio iac?y/? ia aeyaeythoue noo?aiaaiino? uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy
a?eueiiai /ano ye o oeie?, oae ? a iaeaooiueiio; aeuaiacaai? eiai oi?ie
aeey ieo cae/i? e aeinooii?; aoaeue-yea iiaiaaaaeaiiy iio?aao?
i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino?, iia’ycaia c i?iaeaiaie ia?anoaaiiy a i?inoi??,
iiaeieaiiy ??cieo ia?aoeiae. I?ioa oey noa?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iac?y/eo
iio?aao? oaeineiiaeaiiy ? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeiiiiiae.

AEeoo?a? ieaie ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a uiaei aeei?enoaiiy ieie a?eueiiai
/ano a?aeiia?aeathoue cae/iei ? iioe?aiiyi o ?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu?
oi?iai, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny iaie ye iiceoeai? a oiio ?icoi?ii?, ui aiie
ia caaaeathoue oeiaee ioi/oth/ei. Aea c iaeyaeo ia oa, ui aiie ia
ni?yiiaai? ia aeoeai? iiceoeai? ia?aoai?aiiy o nai?e aeani?e iniaenoino?
aai /iainue iaaeiei, ?o ca nioe?aeueiith ni?yiiaai?noth iiaeia aaaaeaoe
iaeo?aeueieie.

Iaiaaeaiiy aeoeaiino?, aeeeeeai? ii?ooaiiyie ci?o, a?aeaeaathoueny ia
aeai?? caiyoue ia aeica?ee?, ?o eiei aeyaey?oueny iaaeoi caoaeaiei:
iaeaea ia ieaiothoueny a?aea?aeoaaiiy oaao??a; caiyooy o?ceoeueoo?ith ?
nii?oii; oo?enoe/i? iioiaee, ui a?aeia?aaea? caaaeueio aeineoue ianeaio
aeeoo?ao iiceoe?th ne?ieo aeioneiee?a.

E??i ?iaioe uiaei ?icoe?aiiy eiea ?ioa?an?a ? iaoee?a ne?ieo o/i?a,
iaaeaiiy ?i noaeino? /a?ac ?icaeoie ia?aae? ao?oe?a, naeoe?e,
ia’?aeiaiue oiui c aeoiaeii ca iaae? ?ioa?iaoo ? iaaeaiiyi iiaeeeainoae
oe?iei? nioe?aeueii? i?acaioaoe?? aeinyaiaiue o/i?a o ??cieo aeaeao
aiaoi?nueei? ae?yeueiino? (A. THo??ia, ?. N. Ii?aoe?n, A. I. Noa?i?ia,
?. I. Neiueiaa oa ?i.), o oeieao ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe niaoe?aeuei? caiyooy
aeey oi?ioaaiiy o ne?ieo oi?iue i?aai?ciaoaaoe na?e /an ocaaae? ?
a?eueiee cie?aia. A aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
ci?noo ? iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy oaeeo caiyoue.

AENIIAEE

I?e aeoea?caoe?? inoaii?i /anii oaaae ineoieia?/ii? iaoee ?
oeoeiiaaeaaia?ee aei ieoaiue ?icaeoeo ? oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? a oiiaao
aeeaieiai ci?iaiai aeaoaeoo i?iaeaia aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo o/i?a,
iniaeeai a oaeee naiceoeaiee ia??iae ?o noaiiaeaiiy ye noa?oee oe?eueiee
a?e, aein? i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aoea.

sse na?ae/aoue aeine?aeaeaiiy, a caaaeuei?e ineoieia?? iniaenoino?,
a?eia?e ? iaaeaaia?/i?e ineoieia??, ?ioeo aaeocyo aeaoaeoieia??, cie?aia
no?aeiiaaeaaia?oe?, aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ieaioaaiiy iieiaeaeth naiai
iaeaooiueiai aeeooy ? ia?niaeoeaiei aeey iiaeeaeaiiai ?icoi?iiy
ineoieia?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, nioe?aeueieo ?
iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeaeae nioe?ae?caoe?? ethaeeie. Aino?ioa i?iaeaie
iineeth?oueny no/aniei aoaiii noaio noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae
aeooaeuei?noth caaaeaiue aoiai?caoe?? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy iieiae?.

O i?iaaaeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii?, iaoiaeieia?/ii iniiaaiiio ia i?eioeeiao
aeaoa?i?i?cio a ?icoi?ii? ineo?/ieo yaeu, ?aeiino? na?aeiiino? ?
ae?yeueiino?, iniaeno?niiai i?aeoiaeo, ia oai??yo i?i nioe?aeueio
neooaoe?th ?icaeoeo, neeaaeio no?oeoo?o aeaoaeoo, i?ia?aeio ?ieue
nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a o eiiiainaoe?? aeaoaeo?a aiiiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo,
aeiaaaeaii aae?aei?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaie, c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
ne?ieo, eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy ?oi?o aeeoo?aeo ieai?a,
ia??oioiaaii iniiai? noa?e iaeaooiuei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ne?ieo,
cia/ou? aeey ?o i?neyoe?eueii? ?ioaa?aoe?? a noni?euenoai, iniaeno?nii?
?aaa?e?oaoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaii oaeiae nenoaio e?eoa???a, iaiao?aeieo ?
aeinoaoi?o aeey ioe?iee yeinoae noi?iiaaiino? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo
noa?oieeaniee?a: nioe?aeueia ni?yiiaai?noue, oe?ioa, no?ee?noue,
ae??a?noue ? eiie?aoi?noue, ona?aeiieai?noue, ?aaeuei?noue ?
aaeaeaaoi?noue, ia?niaeoeai?noue aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ye cia/ouiai
eiiiiiaioa ? iieacieea ni?yiiaaiino? iniaenoino? o iaeaooi?.

Aiae?c c?a?aieo aii??e/ieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui a iacaaieo aeua noa?ao
iaeaooiuei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ieaie ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a (iaa?oue ca
?o iayaiino?, ui aeyaeaii aeaeaei ia o an?o o/i?a) noi?iiaai?
ia??aiii??ii: iaea?eueoa ?o aeyaeaii o noa?? caiyoue ia aeica?ee?,
iaeiaioa – o noa?ao iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy oa
i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a; i?e oeueiio ia io?eiaieo iieacieeao
ae?aaeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny aeina?ae ne?ieo o/i?a oe?e-?ioa?iao?a, cia/ii
iaiaaeaiee iniaeeaeie oiiaaie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa aeoiaaiiy.
Niaoeeo?/ieie ? ieaie o noa?? iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii-o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino?, ye? iaeaea ia iia’ycai? c oeie i?ioan?yie, ui aea/athoueny
o oeie? ca io?oe?eii ae?th/eie i?ia?aiaie. Oiaoi aeina?ae o/ano? o
o?oaeiaeo i?ioeanao a?ae?a?a? ooo oe?ae iaaaoeaio ?ieue. Oeiiaeie,
caaaeueieie aeey an?o noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ieai?a
ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a ? ?oiy iiceoeaii-iaeo?aeueia nioe?aeueia
ni?yiiaai?noue, caoaeai?noue, iaaeinoaoiy noaa?euei?noue, aeineoue
iiaa?oiaa ona?aeiieai?noue, ?aaeuei?noue, i?ioa a ia?aaeienaeueiiio
ii?aeiaii? caiaaeoi iioei?noe/ieo ioe?iie oiia iaeaooiueiai aeeooy c
iaaaeaeaaoii caieaeaiith ioe?ieith aeanieo iiaeeeainoae.

?aae?caoe?y ieai?a o a?eueoino? i???ioiaaia ia a?aeaeaeaio a /an?
ia?niaeoeao, iia’yco?oueny c? niiae?aaiiyie ia cia/io aeiiiiiao ?ioeo
ethaeae, aieiaiei /eiii n?i’?. ? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe aa?aae?ciaai? o/iyie
oe?e? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? a?eueoith i??ith i??yie, iaa?oue oaioac?yie,
i?ae ni?aaae? aeeoo?aeie ieaiaie. Oea ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye
inaaaeieiiiainaoi?ia iniaeno?nia ooai?aiiy aiane?aeie ?ioo?oeaii?
iaaiaaiaiino? o aeanieo neeao ? iiaeeeainoyo.

4. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe oaeiae
niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ieaioaaiiy ne?ieie o/iyie naiai iaeaooiueiai a
??cieo noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. Oae, e??i cacia/aieo aeua ?en, ieaie o
noa?? i?ioan?eii-o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? oeaothoue ia iaaeinoaoiuei
?aaeueio ioe?ieo iiaeeeainoae, a oaeiae o ?yae? aeiaaee?a ? iaaaeaeaaoii
caieaeaieie i?e a?aooaaii? aeanieo iiaeeeainoae i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy. Ieaie
o noa?? iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy a?aeaeaathoue a?ae
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue ? a?aenooi?noue a?aeiia?aeiiai aeina?aeo. Cia/ia
e?euee?noue ne?ieo aeioneiee?a ooo niiae?aa?oueny eeoa ia iain?? ii
?iaae?aeiino? i?e aeineoue (caiaaeoi) aenieeo caieoao uiaei iaeaooiueiai
aeia?iaooo. A?eueo?noue ieai?a o aaeoc? ni?eeoaaiiy c ?ioeie ethaeueie o
ne?ieo i?aee?oe?a iaaaeaeaaoii caieaeai?, a ca?aene – aeineoue
ianei?noe/i?, iaae??a? c oi/ee ci?o iai???a naiioaeineiiaeaiiy. Ia?aoo?,
aeineoue iaiaaeaii ? ianeaii ne?i? noa?oieeanieee oyaeythoue nia? ?
a?aeiia?aeii ieaiothoue iaeaooith ae?yeuei?noue o aaeoc? aeica?eueieo
caiyoue.

Ana oea iia’ycaia, ca iaoeie aeaieie, ia i?yii ?c cieaeaiith aeoeai?noth
ne?ieo ye iane?aeeii aeeaieiai aeaoaeoo ci?iai? ooieoe??, a c?
nai???aei?noth nioe?aeueii? neooaoe?? ?icaeoeo, yea ? oeiiaith aeey
ne?ieo aeoiaaioe?a a oiiaao niaoe?aeueii? oeiee-?ioa?iaoo ? ia’?eoeaii
ia?aoeiaeaea? noaiiaeaiith ?o aeoeaiino?, naiino?eiino? ye na?aeiieo ?
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo noa’?eo?a aeanii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

5. Ia i?aenoaa? ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co iniaeeainoae aeeoo?aiai
ieaioaaiiy ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a ie aeyaeee iniiai? iai?yie
ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaiiai aieeao ia oeae i?ioean ? ae?iaeee a?aeiia?aei?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iaaeaaia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaiee o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aei ieoaiiy i?i oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeueieo aeeoo?aeo ieai?a o ne?ieo
noa?oieeaniee?a // ?ioaa?aoe?y aiiiaeueii? aeeoeie a no/ani?e nenoai?
nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. – E., 1994. – N. 137–138.

2. Aei ieoaiiy i?i aea/aiiy aeeoo?aeo ieai?a o aaeoc? i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? aeioneiee?a oe?e ne?ieo //Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oeaio?
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey iieiae?. ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/iee atheaoaiue.
Aeia??a ? iaae?y, 1995. – ? 5. – N. 23–26.

3. ?ieue ?iaeeie o oi?ioaaii? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a iac?y/eo noa?oieeaniee?a.
Aeoiaaiiy ae?oae c iniaeeaeie iio?aaaie a n?i’?. –E., 1998. – N. 37–42.

4. Iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a. Iaoeia? caienee:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa /Oee. I. A. Aeieo?aiei, ?. I. Eia/eia, I. I.
Nei?iaiaaoueei, I. I. Neiiiaiei. – E.: IIO, 1998.– Aei. 1. – N. 153–158.

5. Eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae a oi?ioaaii? ni?yiiaaiino? iniaenoino? ne?ieo
noa?oieeaniee?a. Iaoeia? caienee: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa
/Oee. I. A. Aeieo?aiei, ?. I. Eia/eia, I. I. Nei?iaiaaoueei, I. I.
Neiiiaiei. – E.: IIO, 1998.– Aei. 2. – N. 104–109.

6. AEeoo?a? ieaie ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a // Aeaoaeoieia?y. – ? 3. –1998.
– N. 22–24.

Ionoaoa?a A. TH. Iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ne?ieo noa?oieeaniee?a. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 19.00.08 – niaoe?aeueia ineoieia?y /?inoeooo
aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie, E., 1998.– 187 n.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeyaeaii oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeueieo
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a aeioneiee?a oe?e aeey ae?oae c aeeaieeie ii?ooaiiyie
ci?o.

Aeiaaaeaii i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue aiae?co oa aieeao ia oe? ieaie c
?aiiueiai a?eo ? aei cae?i/aiiy oeiee c aieo a/eoae?a, aeoiaaoae?a oa
ineoieiaa oeiee.

Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeueieo aeeoo?aeo ieai?a a?ae
iaaooiai aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo ?iaae?ae?a ii ci?o.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeoo?a? ieaie, nioe?aeueia aaeaioaoe?y, aea?? i?ioan??,
aeica?eey ne?ieo, aeiiii?/i? caieoe iac?y/eo, i?aeiniaeno?ni? noinoiee
?iaae?ae?a ii ci?o.

Ionoaoaaa A. TH. Iniaaiiinoe aeeciaiiuo ieaiia neaiuo noa?oaeeannieeia.
– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 19.00.08 – niaoeeaeueiay ineoieiaey /Einoeooo
aeaoaeoieiaee AII Oe?aeiu, E., 1998. – 187 n.

Enneaaeiaaiea iinayuaii aeooaeueiie nioeeaeueiie e
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie i?iaeaia iioeaaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey o/aaiie e
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe neaiuo aeaoae e ineoieiaee eo iiaaaeaiey a
nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

?anniao?eaathony ineoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeeciaiiuo ieaiia neaiuo
noa?oaeeannieeia a nioeeieiae/aneii, nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneii e
iaaeaaiae/aneii aniaeoao, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue oa
i?ioeai?a/ey e i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua aicieeatho ia?aae auioneieeaie
oeie-eioa?iaoia aeey neaiuo aeaoae ia eo aeeciaiiii iooe.

Iniiauaaynue ia iieiaeaieyo oeoeiineoieiaee i oii, /oi oyaeaeue
naini?iue aeaoaeo io?aaeaaony ia ?acaeoee ee/iinoe, a oii /enea ia
?acaeoee aa nioeeaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae, e i?iyaeyaony a ia?aie/aiee
nioeeaeueiiai iiuoa, aicieeiiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo oa?aeoa?ieiae/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae neaiiai /aeiaaea auee auaaaeaiu:

Iauaeo: iai?aaeaiiinoue ee/iinoe neaiiai noa?oaeeannieea; i?aaeiao:
niaoeeoe/aneea oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey eo aeeciaiiuo ieaiia.

Aeiioaca enneaaeiaaiey ninoieo a oii, /oi aucaaiiia oyaeaeui naini?iui
aeaoaeoii naiaia?acea nioeeaeueiie neooaoeee ?acaeoey ee/iinoe
io?aaeaaony ia niaoeeoe/iinoe aa aeeciaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey, i?e oii, /oi
“yae?i ee/iinoe” – aa niaoeeaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue inoaaony nio?aiiie.

Ananoi?iiiee nenoaiiue ineoieiae/aneee aiaeec aeeciaiiuo ieaiia neaiuo
noa?oaeeannieeia iiiiaaao ii?aaeaeeoue aeaenoaaiiua ?aca?au oeo/oaiey
?aaiou iaaeaaiaia, oeieueiuo ineoieiaia, ?iaeeoaeae, ?aaioieeia
nioeeaeueiuo neoaea aeey iieiaeaaee e i?. a oi?aaeaiee i?ioeannaie
nioeeaeecaoeee, nioeeaeueii-o?oaeiaie aaeaioaoeee auioneieeia aeaiiiai
oeia niaoeoeie, eioaa?aoeee eo a iauanoaa.

I?iaeaia aeeciaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey a oeoeiineoieiaee enneaaeiaaia aia?aua
e aeey aa aiaeeca auaeaeaiu oaeea, i?eioeeieaeueii cia/eiua aeey
nioeeaeueiie aaeaioaoeee, iniiaiua noa?u aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iac?y/eo:
i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue, iaaeee/iinoiia iauaiea,
iaoa?eaeueii-auoiaia iaania/aiea, aeinoaiaua caiyoey.

A oai?aoe/aneie /anoe enneaaeiaaiey i?eaiaeeony nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneee,
ineoieiae/aneee e iaaeaaiae/aneee aiaeec iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee,
io?aaeathuee iauea e niaoeeoe/aneea iieiaeaiey aeaiiie i?iaeaiu, nooue
eioi?uo naiaeeony e ii?aaeaeaieth aa iniiaiuo iiiyoee, aeaaiuo aniaeoia
e eo niaoeeoe/aneeo i?iyaeaiee i?e ?acee/iuo aeaeao aiiiaeee ?acaeoey.

Iniiaiui iieiaeaieai aeey eco/aiey aeeciaiiuo ieaiia neaiuo
noa?oaeeannieeia auea eaeay E. N. Auaioneiai e aai iineaaeiaaoaeae i
oii, /oi ee/iinoiua iniaaiiinoe neaiuo aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu
niioaaonoaothueie nioeeaeueiuie oneiaeyie, i?e yoii o/eouaaeinue iiaiea
A. A. Eeoaaea, eioi?ue i?aaeinoa?aaaao io eaii?e?iaaiey oaeoi?ia i?yii
naycaiiuo ni neaiioie.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiey ii?aaeaeaii, /oi aeeciaiiua ieaiu neaiuo
noa?oaeeannieeia noi?ie?iaaiu iai?aaeeueii (a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aiiaua
ia noi?ie?iaaiu); aieueoeinoai eo naycaii n aeinoaiauie caiyoeyie;
iaeiaiaa – ni noa?aie iaoa?eaeueii-auoiaiai iaania/aiey e iaaeee/iinoiuo
ioiioaiee. Niaoeeoe/aneeie yaeythony i?ioanneiiaeueiua ieaiu.

Eae oeie/iia aeey anao noa? aeeciaiiuo ieaiia ?anniao?eaaaony eo
iiceoeaii-iaeo?aeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue, noaeaiiinoue, iaaeinoaoi/iay
noaaeeueiinoue, iiaa?oiinoiay iniuneaiiinoue, ?aaeueiinoue, ii a
ia?aaeienaeueiii niaaeeiaiee neeoeii iioeienoe/iuo ioeaiie oneiaee
aoaeouae aeecie n iaaaeaeaaoii caieaeaiiie ioeaieie nianoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae.

?aaeecaoeey ieaiia a aieueoeinoaa i?eaioe?iaaia ia ioaeaeaiioth
a?aiaiioth ia?niaeoeao, naycuaaaony n iaaeaaeaeaie ia iiiiuue ni
noi?iiu, a iniiaiii /eaiia naiuee. Anoue iniiaaiey n/eoaoue
aa?aaeece?iaaiua o/aueieny ieaiu a aieueoae noaiaie ia/oaie e aeaaea
oaioaceyie, /oi ?anniao?eaaaony eae inaaaeieiiiainaoi?iia ee/iinoiia
ia?aciaaiea aneaaenoaea eiooeoeaiie iaoaa?aiiinoe a nianoaaiiuo neeao e
aiciiaeiinoyo.

Oeaeue ?yae niaoeeoe/aneeo i?iyaeaiee aeeciaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey neaiuo
noa?oaeeannieeia (iaoa?eaeueiie noa?a, i?ioanneiiaeueii-o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe), ii aeaiiui enneaaeiaaiey, naycaiu ia i?yii ni
nieaeaiiie aeoeaiinoueth neaiuo eae neaaenoaeai aeoaieiai aeaoaeoa
c?aiey, a ni naiaia?aceai nioeeaeueiie neooaoeee ?acaeoey, eioi?ay
yaeyaony oeie/iie aeey iac?y/eo a oneiaeyo niaoeeaeueiie oeieu-eioa?iaoa
e iauaeoeaii iaoaao noaiiaeaieth eo aeoeaiinoe, naiinoiyoaeueiinoe eae
niciaoaeueiuo e ioaaonoaaiiuo noauaeoia nianoaaiiie
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia iniiaaiee ineoieiae/aneiai aiaeeca ieaie?iaaiey neaiuo
noa?oaeeannieeia ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
ei??aeoeeiiii-ainieoaoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey ia yoio i?ioeann e
?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iaaeaaiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeciaiiua ieaiu, nioeeaeueiay aaeaioaoeey, auai?
i?ioannee, aeinoa neaiuo, yeiiiie/aneea i?eoycaiey iac?y/eo,
iaaeee/iinoiua ioiioaiey neaiuo.

Gennady Y. Mustafayev. Life Planning Peculiarities of Blind Senior
School Students, — Typescript. – 187 ?.

Post-graduate paper for acquiring an academic degree of Candidate of
Psychological Sciences, specialty 19.00.08 – special psychology.
/Institute for Defectology of Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of
Ukraine, Kiev, 1998.

The research is focused on the relevant social, psychological and
pedagogical problem of motivating educational and labour activities of
blind children as well as psychological aspects of their behaviour in
the system of social relations.

The paper reveals psychological peculiarities of life planning of blind
children keeping an eye to social, psychological and pedagogical aspects
that makes it possible to determine contradictions and problems
confronting leavers of the special schools for the blind.

Based upon typhlopsychology theses saying that severe sensory deficiency
influences the process of personality development including his/her
social necessities, as well as restricts social experience and develops
certain character peculiarities of the blind children, there have been
determined:

Object: individual orientation of the blind senior students; Subject:
specific conditions of life planning.

Hypothesis drawn up in the course of this research is as follows:
Peculiarities of individual social development as a result of severe
sensory deficiency influence life planning, while the «personality
core», i.e. its specialty orientation is retained.

A comprehensive systematic psychological analysis of life planning of
blind senior students helps to reveal functional sources for improving
the work of teachers, school psychologists, parents, social service
employees for the young people, etc., while managing socialization
processes, social and labour adaptation of school leavers of special
schools and their social integrity.

The life-planning problem of typhlopsychology has been investigated for
the first time. There have been analyzed the basic life spheres of the
blind which are of primary importance for social adaptation, i.e.
professional activity, interpersonal communication, material and
household well-being and leisure.

The theoretical part of the research consists of social, philosophical,
psychological and pedagogical analysis of scientific research reflecting
general and specific issues of this problem aimed at defining its basic
notions, general aspects and their specific features at different types
of deficiencies.

The main concept of studying the process of life planning of the blind
senior students is based on the idea of L. Vyigotsky and his successors
saying that individual peculiarities of the blind are determined by the
corresponding social conditions. Alongside, there was taken into account
the viewpoint of A. Litvak who proposes not to neglect the factors
closely related to blindness.

As a result of research it has been determined that life plans of the
blind senior school students have been formed up incorrectly (in some
cases there were no plans whatsoever); most of the plans are related to
leisure; they are less related to the material, household spheres and
interpersonal relations. Professional plans are quite peculiar.

As a rule, all life plans are positively and neutrally oriented, they
are narrowed, lack stability, are of superficial comprehension, and
reality in which too optimistic estimates of the future life conditions
are opposed to inadequately undervalued estimates of one’s own
abilities.

The plans are mostly oriented to the remote time perspective, the blind
rely upon some external assistance basically from the members of their
families. One can treat the plans verbalized by the students as dreams
and even fantasy which corresponds to pseudocompensatory personal
development as a result of intuitive diffidence.

According to the research a number of specific features of life planning
by blind students (material sphere, professional and labour activities)
are not closely connected with lowered activity of the blind as a result
of serious eyesight deficiency, but rather with peculiar situation of
social development which is typical for the blind who are studying at
special schools and objectively prevents developing their activity,
independence as conscientious and responsible subjects of their own
vital activity.

Based upon the psychological analysis of life planning of blind students
there have been determined the main directions of correctional and
educational influence and developed some pedagogical recommendations.

Key words: life plans, social adaptation, choosing profession, leisure
of the blind, economic demand of blind people, interpersonal relations
of eyesight invalids.

Onueiai ca aeaieie ”?aciaiai iae?eo i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy ?iaae?ae?a ci?o“,
i?iaaaeaiiai OOINii o 1990 ?ioe?, ne?i? iiaeooue iaieiae?oe 50
i?ioan?yie ? aooe i?aoeaaeaooiaaieie ca ieie i?e iayaiino? a?aeiia?aeieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia.

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