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Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo o?ceee

?oaei?oeueeee aaeaioei aiaoie?eiae/

OAeE 533.9.02; 537.525; 621.387.2

INIAEEAINO? CAIAETHAAIIss ? AI??IIss

AeAssEEO ?IC?ssAe?A IECUeEIAI OENEO

01.04.04 – o?ce/ia aeaeo?ii?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

eaiae. o?c.-iao. iaoe, noa?oee iaoe. ni?a?. Na?iei Aieiaeeie? Aioiiiae/

?inoeooo? yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoe.
ni?a?ia?oiee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe, n.i.n, Aii/a?ia Ieaen?e
Aioiiiae/

?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee .iaoe. ni?a?ia?oiee.

eaiae. o?c.-iao. iaoe, Aanai?i TH??e
Eaii?aeiae/

?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I. Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie, iaoe. ni?a?ia.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a o?ce/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee
(i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny « 17 »/a?aiy 1999 ?. i 1430 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.159.01 i?e ?inoeooo? o?ceee IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252022, Ee?a—22, i?. Iaoee 46.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?ceee

IAI Oe?a?ie. (Ee?a, i?. Iaoee 46).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee « 17 » o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiae. o?c.-iao. iaoe ?uoe A.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aei ?ic?yae?a iecueeiai oeneo a?aeiinyoueny oae?,
ui ai?youe i?e oeneao ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ? SYMBOL 163 \f “Symbol” \s 12 F
102 Ia. Oea aeineoue oe?ieee eean aeaeo?e/ieo ?ic?yae?a. sseui
?icaeyiooe aaciaa na?aaeiaeua i?e ? SYMBOL 163 \f “Symbol” \s 12 F 10-1
Ia, oi aa?oi caa?iooe oaaao, ui aeiaaeeia a?eueiiai i?ia?ao aeaeo?iia
a?eueoa ?ic?yaeiiai i?ii?aeeo. A oaeiio aeiaaeeo oo?oaeiai? oiiae
ooai?aiiy eaaei ?ii?caoe??. I?ioa i?e aeiiiiic? iaai?oiiai iiey oeyo
aeaeo?iia aei aiiaea iiaeia aeaeiaaeeoe, canoaaeaoe eiai aeeiioaaoe ?oo
ii neeaaei?e o?a?eoi???. Eiee oeyo, i?ieaeaiee aeaeo?iiii, noaia ??aiee
aeiaaeei? a?eueiiai i?ia?ao, cia/ii c?inoa? eiia??i?noue ?ii?caoe??
iaeo?aeueieo iieaeoe a ?ic?yaeiiio i?ii?aeeo. Oaeei /eiii, naiino?ei?
?ic?yaee iecueeiai oeneo iiaeooue caiaethaaoenue i?e iaai?e
eiio?ao?aoe?? aeaeo?iae?a, ?ici?uaieo o iaai?oiiio iie?. Iaeiei c oaeeo
?ic?yae?a ? a?aeaeaiee ?ic?yae oeio Iaii?iaa.

Aei ?ioeo ?ic?yae?a iecueeiai oeneo, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue iaie,
a?aeiinyoueny ?ic?yaee c aeia?iaoaaiei o aaeooi? aeaeo?iaeii. Cie?aia,
oea ianaiino?eiee ?ic?yae c iaeii??aeii aeia?iaoaaiei o aaeooi? aiiaeii
? aeaeo?iiii-io/eia? ?ic?yaee. Iniaeea?noth oeeo oei?a ?ic?yae?a ? oa,
ui oaieiaa iiooaei?noue naiiai ?ic?yaeo aai io/ea aeaeo?ii?a aeia?iao?
aeaeo?iae, oeei noai?th?oueny i?noeaaa i?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
iaeo?aeueieo /anoeiie (iieaeoe ia?e), aea ? a?aeaoaa?oueny iniiaia
?ii?caoe?y.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?yae?a iecueeiai oeneo ii/aee aeoeaii ?icaeaaoenue
i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie a ca’yceo c ?ic?iaeaie aeaea?ae ?ii?a aeey
i?enei?thaa/?a ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie. Aaaeeeaei aeei?enoaiiyi a?aeaeaieo
?ic?yae?a noaee iaai?oi?ic?yaei? ianine c oieiaeieie eaoiaeaie. Aea/aiiy
a?aeaeaiiai ?ic?yaeo Iaii?iaa oe?iei i?aeo?eioaaeinue ua e a ca’yceo c
?ioeie eiai canoinoaaiiyie a iaai?oi-?ii?caoe?eieo aeao/eeao c
oieiaeieie eaoiaeaie aeey aei??thaaiiy oene?a aac?a ? ia??a, aaia?aoi?ao
aeniei/anoioieo ooi?a ? ?aaoey?ieo eieeaaiue IA*, ieaciiaeo aeaea?aeao
aeaeo?ii?a ? ?iiieo aeaeaoiao. Iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
?ic?yaeo i?iaiaeeeenue a e?ioe? 50-o ? a 60-o ?ieao. A oeae /an aoea
noai?aia oai??y ?ic?yaeo, yeo i?aeo?eiothoue a?eueo?noue aaoi??a. I?ioa,
iiynithth/e iaei? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oaeoe, aiia aoaa? aacneeith i?e
iiyniaii? ?ioeo. Oey oai??y a?oioo?oueny ia oyaeaii? i?i ia’?ii? ca?yaee
? ciie i?aeaeuaii? ?ii?caoe??. I?ioa c oi/ee ci?o oe??? oai??? ia iiaeia
iiynieoe iii?/ai? a aenia?eiaio? iaiiiioiiiino? a caeaaeiinoyo iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a ?ic?yaeo a?ae ?iaeoeoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey. Cie?aia, i?i oea
aiai?youe iaiiiioiiiino? ia e?eaeo caiaethaaiiy, ai a iiiaio
caiaethaaiiy ?ic?yaeo ia’?ii? ca?yaee ? ciie i?aeaeuaii? ?ii?caoe??
a?aenooi?.

C /anii aea/aiiy ?ic?yae?a iecueeiai oeneo ?icoe?eeinue, ai aeiee iiaee
iai?yiie iaoeiaeo ? i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue – aaeooiii-ieaciiaa
oaoiieia?y ia?iaee iiaa?oi? oaa?aeiai o?ea. Oaea oaoiieia?y iiaea a
aeaoe aenieo ye?noue ia?iaee ? o?i?/io /enoioo iaea?aeaieo ie?aie ?
iie?eoo?a. Oeei aeiiaai a?aeiia?aeaea ieacia ?ic?yae?a iecueeiai oeneo.
Oea ? aecia/eei ?icaeoie aea/aiiy noaoe?iia?ieo aeaeo?e/ieo ?ic?yae?a c
iaeii??aeii aeia?iaoaaiei o aaeooi? aeaeo?iaeii, oiaoi eiee iaeanoue
aeia?iaoaaiiy ni?anoaaethaaia c ?ici??aie ?iai/i? iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaea.
Eieaeueia aeia?iaoaaiiy ?c eaoiaeii? ieyie aeineoue eaaei ?aae?co?oueny
ia i?aeoeoe?, aea ia? ?yae iaaeie?e?a. Iniaeeai na?aae ieo
aeae?eythoueny oae?: iaiaaeai?noue ?iai/eo ?a/iaei oiiaaie ooai?aiiy
ieyie ? iayai?noue e?aiaeueii? oace a ieaciiaeo iioieao. Oeeo iaaeie?e?a
ia ia? aeoaiaee ?ic?yae a ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea c? ooo/ii ?icaea?aiei
eaoiaeii, ui aea/aany iaie. Ia ia?oee iiaeyae iiaea caeaoeny, ui oai??y
oaeiai ?ic?yaeo ia? aooe aiaeia?/iith oai??? aeia?a aea/aieo aaciaeo
?ic?yae?a iecueeiai oeneo c ?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii, ? a??ii aoaea
canoiniaoaaoe aei ia? oyaeaiiy oa o?ce/i? iiaeae? iiceoeaiiai noiaia
?ic?yaeo ia aac?, ieaciiaeo iano?eeinoae oiui. I?ioa niaoeeo?ea
?ic?yaeo, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie, aeieea? /a?ac a?aie/i? oiiae ia
aiiae?, yeee aaia?o? ?iai/a na?aaeiaeua ?ic?yaeo – ia?o, ? iiyao aaeeeeo
a?aae??io?a eiioeaio?aoe?? iaeo?aeueieo ? ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie a
?ic?yaeiiio i?ii?aeeo, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie oiia ?icaeoeo eaaei
?ii?caoe?? ? ieaciiaeo iano?eeinoae. Aei oiai ae iiiaaeaiiy
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo /anoeiie ?c ?ic?yaeiiai i?inoi?o ia aeia?iaoaaiee oa
?io? aeaeo?iaee oneeaaeith? aca?iica’ycie ia’?iii-?ic?yaeieo ? a?aie/ieo
oiia. Iaoooaaiiy oeeie iniaeeainoyie ia aea? ciiae iiynieoe iaa?oue
aieueo-aiia?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo a ia?ao iaoa??aeo
aiiaea c ?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii. Iac?icoi?eeie c oi/ee ci?o eeane/ii?
oai??? aeoaiaeo ?ic?yae?a o ?ic??aeaeaieo aacao ? ?yae ye?nii iiaeo yaeu
o oeueiio ?ic?yae?. Cie?aia, ia iiyniaii c?ea ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo
aeiaeaoeiaei aeaeo?iaeii. Ana oea aiai?eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaiiai ?ic?yaeo ? noai?aiiy o?ce/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a,
ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iueiio.

Oaeeie ae iaei aea/aieie c o?ce/ii? oi/ee ci?o ? aeaeo?iiii-io/eia?
?ic?yaee, a yeeo ?iai/a na?aaeiaeua noai?th?oueny aeia?iaoaaiiyi
oaa?aeiai o?ea aeaeo?iiiei i?iiaiai o aaeooi? ? ye? oaae
canoiniaothoueny aeey iaea?aeaiiy ieacie oaa?aeeo ?a/iaei. Cie?aia,
a?aee?eoei caeeoa?oueny ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueiiai oeneo ia??a
aeey caiaethaaiiy ?ic?yae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia e iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aa?eoee a aeena?oaoe?th, aoee aea?ai? o ca’yceo c
?iaioith iaae i?ia?aiaie ?inoeoooo yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie,
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao
iaoee e oaoiieia?e. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoai? a ?aieao
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie a?aeae?eo o?ceee
ieacie ?inoeoooo yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie «Aenia?eiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo i?eioeei?a aaia?aoe?? aonoi?
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? aaci?ic?yaeii? ieacie» (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
01.90.0061103 a?ae 1994 ?., iaoeiaee ea??aiee oaie – aeieo. o?c.-iao.
iaoe, i?ioani? Ee?e/aiei A.N.), a oaeiae aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
oaie «?ic?iaee ieaciio?i?/iiai ?aaeoi?a aeey iaianaiiy oiieeo ie?aie ?
iie?eoo?a» (oaiaea i?ae I?i?noa?noaii Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoee e
oaoiieia?e oa ?inoeoooii yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?2/1290-97, iaoeiaee
ea??aiee oaie – eaiae. o?c.-iao. iaoe, noa?oee iaoe. ni?a?ia?oiee
Na?iei A.A.), oae ? ii ?yaeo ainiaeiaia??ieo ?ia?o.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoa
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie o?ceee ?ic?yae?a iecueeiai oeneo – aecia/aiiy ?
iiyniaiiy ?oi?o iniaeeainoae caiaethaaiiy e ai??iiy, a naia, ooi/iaiiy
iiaeae? i?ioeano caiaethaaiiy a?aeaeaiiai ?ic?yaeo Iaii?iaa, iiyniaiiy
iaoai?cio ai??iiy ? aieueo-aiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c
iaeii??aeii aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii, aieeao o?aoueiai aeaeo?iaea ia
iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic?yaeo c aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii, aecia/aiiy oiia
noaa?eueiiai caiaethaaiiy ? ai??iiy o??iaeii? nenoaie aeaeo?iae?a
?ic?yaeo a ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea ? io/eiai-ieaciiaeo ?ic?yae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aia?oa ?ic?aoiaai? e aeine?aeaeai? inoeeeyoe?? aeaeo?ii?a, ooai?aieo ia
eaoiaeao o?eaei??ii? eii??ee Iaii?iaa. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? a
o?a?eoi??yo ?ooo oeeo aeaeo?ii?a: a caeaaeiino? a?ae cia/aiiy ?iaeoeoe??
iaai?oiiai iiey ? aiiaeii? iai?oae aeaeo?ii iiiaaea? aai ia aiiae, aai
ia eaoiae /e inoeeeth? a eii??oe?, iiee ia c?oeiaoueny c ?ioith
/anoeieith. E??i oiai, aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? a caeaaeiino? aeiaaeeie
o?a?eoi??? aeaeo?ii?a a?ae aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a eii??ee, ?iaeoeoe??
iaai?oiiai iiey, aiiaeii? iai?oae i?e iiaeaethaaii? ?ooo aeaeo?iia c
aaeooiiei ?iciiae?eii iioaioe?aeo eii??ee, oiaoi a iiiaio caiaethaaiiy
?ic?yaeo iecueeiai oeneo. Oia?oa iaea?aeai? e?ea? caiaethaaiiy ?ic?yaeo
a eii??oe? Iaii?iaa c iaiiiioiiiei oiaeii. Onoaiiaeaii ca’ycie
iniaeeainoae ?ooo oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a ?c iaiiiioiiiei oiaeii e?eaeo
caiaethaaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiee ianaiino?eiee ae?iaeiee ?ic?yae ?c aeia?iaoaaiei o
aaeooi? aiiaeii. Iiyniaiee o?ae aieueo-aiia?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic?yaeo,
aeyaeaiee ? iiyniaiee aieea iaioneo aaco ia oeth caeaaei?noue.
Aeine?aeaeaia o??iaeia nenoaia aeaeo?iae?a, iiyniai? niaoeeo?/i? aeey
ia? aoaeoe. Cie?aia, ?ice?eoa nooue c?eao ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo no?oiii
o?aoueiai aeaeo?iaea. Iieacaii, ui aeaia ?ic?yaeia nenoaia i?iyaey?
aeanoeaino? iiaiai oeio ?ic?yaeo, yeee cai?iiiiiaaii iacaaoe o??iaeiei
?ic?yaeii ?c aeia?iaoaaiei o aaeooi? aiiaeii. Aeyaeai? oiiae i?aeneeaiiy
?ii?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a o ieaci? o??iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo. Oia?oa iiyniaiee
o?ae aieueo-aiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee o?aoueiai aeaeo?iaea.

A aeena?oaoe?? ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioieo
ieacie. Aeyaeaii eiiiainiaai?noue ieaciiaiai iioieo e oiiae ?nioaaiiy
a?ae’?iiiai ieaaath/iai iioaioe?aeo a iueiio. Onoaiiaeaii caoaeaiiy
ae?aa?aie iai?aaeaiino? iioieo ieacie ianaiino?eiiai ae?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo
c aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii i?e iaeeaaeaii? iicaeiaaeiueiai iaai?oiiai iiey
? ?? ?icoe?aiiy a o??iaeiiio ?ic?yae?.

Onoaiiaeaii i?i?iaeueiee oene ia??a ? i?i?iaeueia iiooaei?noue
aeaeo?iiii? aa?iaoe, iaiao?aei? aeey ai??iiy io/eiai-ieaciiaiai ?
io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiiai ?ic?yae?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?icoe?ai? oyaeaiiy i?i inoeeeyoe?? aeaeo?ii?a o eii??oe? Iaii?iaa.
Aeyaeai? niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? inoeeeyoe?e aeaeo?ii?a, ooai?aieo ia
eaoiaeao. Onoaiiaeaiee ca’ycie i?ae oeeie iniaeeainoyie e
iaiiiioiii?noth e?eaeo caiaethaaiiy ?ic?yaeo a eii??oe? Iaii?iaa. Oea
aea? iiaeeea?noue ooi/ieoe oai??th aeaiiai ?ic?yaeo, iiaeaeue i?ioeano
caiaethaaiiy ? aaeineiiaeeoe ?nioth/? i?eno?i?.

Aeyaeai? ae?aiaciie aiiaeieo iai?oa, ?iaeoeoe?? iaeii??aeiiai iaai?oiiai
iiey e oeneo aaco aeey iaaii? eii??ee Iaii?iaa, i?e yeeo
niinoa??aathoueny ciie ianoaa?eueiiai ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo. Oae? ae?aiaciie
aeey aeia?eueiiai ae?aiao?a e aeiaaeeie eii??ee Iaii?iaa iiaeooue aooe
aecia/ai? i?e aeiiiiic? ?ic?iaeaii? i?ia?aie, ui aeiaea?oueny a
«Aeiaeaoeao».

Iiyniai? aieueo-aiia?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee e ?yae ?ioeo caeaaeiinoae
ia?aiao??a ?ic?yaeo a?ae aiiaeiiai no?oio e no?oio ia aeiaeaoeiaee
aeaeo?iae o ianaiino?eiiio aeoaiaiio ?ic?yae? c iaeii??aeii
aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii. Oea ia? cia/aiiy ye aeey noai?aiiy oai???
?ic?yaeo, oae ? aeey ?ic?iaee e oaeineiiaeaiiy aeaea?ae ieacie oaa?aeeo
o?e, ieaciio?i?/ieo ?aaeoi??a.

?icoi?iiy iniaeeainoae aieueo-aiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ic?yaeo aea?
iiaeeea?noue aeae?aoe iioeiaeuei? aeaea?aea aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy aeey
i?eno?i?a. Oea aaea aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe iaoiae aaciaiai caiaeaiiy
ianaiino?eiiai aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii. Aeena?oaio
a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o eiai ?ic?iaeaii?, oiio o?ce/i? iniiae
oeueiai iaoiaeo iienai? a aeena?oaoe??.

Iiyniaiee aoaeo c?eao ai??iiy ianaiino?eiiai aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c
aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii no?oiii aeiaeaoeiaiai aeaeo?iaea ? i?eaaaeai?
iaoiaee noaa?e?caoe?? ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo. Oaeei /eiii, aeey i?aeoeee
?iaioe aeaea?ae ieacie aaaeeeai, ui onoaiiaeai? oeyoe ca?eueoaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa ?ii?caoe?? i?e iiaeeeaino? iaae?eiiai ea?oaaiiy ai??iiyi
?ic?yaeo.

Iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Oaeaee? aeaeo?iie, ye? ooai?ai? ia eaoiaeao eii??ee Iaii?iaa, iiaeooue
inoeeethaaoe acaeiaae ? iiia?ae eii??ee iaa?oue i?e iaioeueia?e
ii/aoeia?e oaeaeeino?. *enei N iicaeiaaei?o inoeeeyoe?e aeaeo?iia
iaiiiioiiii caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie ?iaeoeoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey B i?e
noae?e aiiaei?e iai?oc? VA ? aaiiao??? eii??ee. Ca?aene aeo?ea?
iaiiiioiii?noue e?eaeo caiaethaaiiy ?ic?yaeo Iaii?iaa, ye?
aecia/athoueny oiiaith caiaethaaiiy naiino?eiiai ?ic?yaeo a eii??oe?.
Iaiiiioiii?noue e?eaeo caiaethaaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueii.

Niaae aieueo-aiia?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee (AAO) ianaiino?eiiai aeoaiaiai
?ic?yaeo a ia?ao aiiaea iaoiiaeaiee c?inoaiiyi oeneo ia?e ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie i?e c?inoaii? ?ic?yaeiiai no?oio ia ii/aoeia?e noaae??
?ic?yaeo, a i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? aiiaeiiai no?oio AAO
a?aeiia?aea? eeane/i?e caeaaeiino? VA=const.

3. Aaaaeaiiy iiceoeaiiai a?aeiinii eaoiaea aeiaeaoeiaiai aeaeo?iaea o
?ic?yaeiee i?ii?aeie ae?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo c aeia?iaoaaiiyi aiiaea
i?eaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy iiaiai oeio ?ic?yaeo, yeee i?iiiio?oueny
iacaaoe «o??iaeiei ?ic?yaeii c aeia?iaoaaiei aeaeo?iaeii». ?ic?yae ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe a ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? ye ae?iaeiee ?ic?yae o aaeooi? c
ieaciiaei eaoiaeii. Oea iiynith? c?inoath/ee oa?aeoa? AAO o??iaeiiai
?ic?yaeo. Eiai AAO iiaea noaoe niaaeath/ith o aeiaaeeo ?aaeia?iaoaaiiy
?iai/i? ?a/iaeie c aeiaeaoeiaiai aeaeo?iaea.

A o??iaeiiio ?ic?yae? c?inoa? eiao?oe??io ?ii?caoe?? ieacie,
?icoe?th?oueny ae?aa?aia iai?aaeaiino? iioieo ieacie ? caa??aa?oueny
eiai eaac?iaeo?aeuei?noue.

Io/eiai-ieaciiaee ? io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiee ?ic?yaee c aeia?iaoaaiiyi
?iai/i? ?a/iaeie caiaeththoueny i?e oeneo ia??a iaae iiaa?oiath ?icieaao
SYMBOL 126 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ~ 1Ia.

5. ?ic?iaeaiee ia iniia? ae?iaeiiai ? o??iaeiiai ?ic?yae?a c
aeia?iaoaaiiyi aiiaea ? iaioneii ?aaeoeaiiai aaco i?eno??e ? iiaei oeiii
oaoiieia?/ieo ieaciio?i?/ieo ?aaeoi??a neioaco oiieeo ie?aie ?
iie?eoo?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iniiaiee aianie c?iaeaiee aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe??.
I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiaeee, aanue eiiieaen
aei??thaaiue, a oaeiae aiae?oe/i? oa /eneia? ?ic?aooiee aeeiiai?
caeiaoaa/ai naiino?eii. A?i a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a aiae?c?
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, i?aeaioiaoe? iaoeiaeo noaoae ? aeiiia?aeae aei
ioae?eaoe??. Cie?aia aeena?oaioii i?e aeiiiiic? /enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a,
i?iaaaeaieo ia AII, aeyaeai? inoeeeyoe?? oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a aeey
o?eaei??ii? eii??ee Iaii?iaa [8]. Anoaiiaeaiee ca’ycie i?ae
iniaeeainoyie ?ooo oeeo aeaeo?ii?a ? iaiiiioiiiinoyie ia e?eaeo
caiaethaaiiy, aecia/ai? ii/aoeia? oiiae oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a, ye? aa?ooue
iaea?eueoo o/anoue o i?aeo?eiaii? eaaei ?ii?caoe?? i?ae /an caiaethaaiiy
?ic?yaeo [4]. Aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? iiyniea aieueo-aiia?io oa?aeoa?enoeeo
aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c ?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii o ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea ia
iniia? ci?ie oeneo ia??a o ?ic?yaeiiio i?ii?aeeo [1, 5], oaeineiiaeea
iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ?ii?caoe?? iioieo ieacie i?e iayaiino?
?iiiiai ?icii?ioaiiy [7], iiyniea i?e/eio c?eao aeia?iaoaaiiy aiiaea i?e
iaioneo aaco [9], aeine?aeea ?aae?aeueiee ?iciiae?e ?iiii? eiiiiiaioe ?
ieaaath/iai iioaioe?aeo a aeoaiaiio ?ic?yae? c aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii
[11]. Iei iiyniaiee c?ea ai??iiy aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c aeia?iaoaaiei
aiiaeii ia iniia? ca’yceo i?ae aeiaeaoeiaith ?ii?caoe??th, yeo
i?iaiaeeoue no?oi aeiaeaoeiaiai aeaeo?iaea ? oaieiaith iiooaei?noth, yea
ia?aaea?oueny aiiaeo a?ae ?ic?yaeo [2, 6]. Aeyaea iniaeeaino? ai??iiy
?ic?yaeo a ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea c o?ao?i aeaeo?iaeii ? cai?iiiioaaa
iacaaoe ?ic?yae «o??iaeiei ?ic?yaeii c aeia?iaoaaiiyi aeaeo?iaea o
aaeooi?» [3]. Aecia/ea i?i?iaeueiee oene ia??a iaae ?icieaaii iio??aiee
aeey caiaethaaiiy aeaeo?iiii-io/eiaeo ?ic?yae?a [10].

Aianie ni?aaaoi??a ioae?eaoe?e o iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe oaeee: Na?iei
A.A. cae?enithaaa caaaeueia iaoeiaa ea??aieoeoai ?iaioith, a?aa o/anoue
o iinoaiiaoe? caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiai?aii? oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
io?eiaieo aeaieo; Ai?enaiei A.A. a?aa o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? e ?aae?caoe??
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiaeee ? iaaiai?aii? ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii
yaeuao a ?ii?ciaaieo aacao (ICPIG XXIII International Conference on
Phenomena in Ionized Gases, Ooeoca, 1997 ?.); XVIII-io i?aeia?iaeiiio
neiiic?oi? ii ?ic?yaeao ? aeaeo?e/i?e ?cieyoe?? o aaeooi? (XVIIIth
International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in
Vacuum, Aeiaeoiaai, 1998 ?.); I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie o?ce/ii? e a?iiaaee/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee» (Ee?a, 1997
?., 1998 ?.); 8-io I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? «Oiie? ie?aee a
aeaeo?ii?oe?» (Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.); IV Ana?in?enuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ii
iiaeeo?eaoe?? aeanoeainoae eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a io/eaie
ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie (Oiinuee, 1996 ?.); I?aeaaeocaaiio
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? c o/anoth caei?aeiiieo niaoe?ae?no?a
«Aaeooiia iaoae?caoe?y» (Oa?e?a, 1996 ?.); 2-io iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio
neiiic?oi? «Aaeooii? oaoiieia?? e iaeaaeiaiiy» (Oa?e?a, 1998); ui??/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo IOe «?inoeooo yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue» ca 1995-1997 ??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ia?o iioae?eiaai? a 29 ?iaioao, ?c ieo
8 a i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, aeiaeaoea. ?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 162
noi??ieao. Aiia i?noeoue 54 ?enoiea, c yeeo 20 ia ie?aieo noi??ieao,
nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 166 iaeiaioaaiue, aeiaeaoie ia 4-o
noi??ieao.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue ?iaioe, aeacaii
ca’ycie aea?aiiai iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue c ieaiaie, i?aai?caoe??, aea
aeeiioaaeanue ?iaioa, aecia/aii iaoo ?iaioe ? caaea/?, ye? iaiao?aeii
ae??oeoe aeey ?? aeinyaiaiiy, a oaeiae aeae?eaii iaoeiao iiaecio ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii iaeyae ?ia?o ca oaiith. I?eae?eaii aaaaoi
oaaae ?iciiae?eo iioaioe?aeo a eii??oe? Iaii?iaa c oieiaeieie eaoiaeaie
? iaoiaeai eiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aecia/aiiy (iaoiae ciiaeoaaiiy
eii??ee aeaeo?iiiei io/eii, iaoiae aei??thaaiiy iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey caaaeyee Ooa?e-aoaeoo oa ?io?). Iienaii iniiai? ?iaioe
ii aeine?aeaeaiith o?a?eoi??? ?ooo aeaeo?ii?a a eii??oe? Iaii?iaa.
Na?aae ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeue, a yeeo iienothoueny iiaeae? ? oai???
neaaeino?oiiaiai ?ic?yaeo Iaii?iaa, caa?iooi oaaao ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
Schuurman W., Jepsen R.L., Knauer W., ?aeo?oaeaey A.I.,
Nie?ieoeueei? A.A., Iiiiaa TH.N. oa ?ioeo. Iaea?eueo aaeaeith aeyaeeanue
ni?iaa oai?aoe/ii iienaoe ? iiynieoe e?ea? caiaethaaiiy ?ic?yaeo
Nie?ieoeueeith A.A. ? Iaoai Oeo O?. I?ioa a iaeano? neaaeeo iaai?oieo
iie?a, aeecueeeo aei oeo, i?e yeeo caiaeth?oueny ?ic?yae, o?ae e?eaeo
caiaethaaiiy ia anoaiiaeaii ? ia iiyniaii ?iceeae aenia?eiaioaeueii
iaea?aeaieo oi/ie.

Ia iniia? iaeyaeo ?ia?o ii aeoaiaiio ?ic?yaeo a ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea
c? ooo/iei ?icaea?aiiyi eaoiaea anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo oe?iei oeae
?ic?yae aeei?enoiao?oueny a oa?ii?iiiiio iaieeaii?, yea noeioethaaei
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii i?aeaeuaiith eiao?oe??ioa ?ii?caoe?? ieacie aeey
aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiiai aiiaa?aeoaaiiy ie?aie ? iie?eoo?a, ye?
iaieeththoueny. Iienaii canoinoaaiiy c oe??th iaoith no?auaieo
aeaeo?e/iiai ? iaai?oiiai iie?a, a oaeiae ia?niaeoeaiee iaoiae –
aaaaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai iiceoeaiiai a?aeiinii cacaieaiiai eaoiaea
aeaeo?iaea. Iaaaaeaii iniiai? o?oaeiiu?, ye? aeieeathoue i?e
aeei?enoaii? o??iaeii? oi?ie ?ic?yaeo. Cie?aia, oea – c?ea ai??iiy
?ic?yaeo no?oiii o?aoueiai aeaeo?iaea, a?aenooi?noue iyniaiiy aieeao
oi?ie, ?ici?uaiiy ? iioaioe?aeo aeaeo?iaea ia ?ic?yae i?ae eaoiaeii ?
aiiaeii. Oea ? aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue o?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?yaeo
c aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii, aeey yeiai ia iiyniaii iaa?oue aieueo-aiia?ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Iaeyae ?ia?o ii aeaeo?iiii-io/eiaei ?ic?yaeai ioiieth? ye aeine?aeaeaiiy
?ic?yae?a a aacao (a?ae a?aee?eooy io/eiai-ieaciiaiai ?ic?yaeo a 1961
?ioe?) oae ? a?eueo no/ani? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?yae?a c aeia?iaoaaiei
aeaeo?iaeii. Aeyaeai? ia?aaaae (o?i?/ia /enoioa ieacie, aenieee
eiao?oe??io ?ii?caoe?? ? iiaeeea?noue ?ii?caoe?? ia?e i?e aenieeo
oaeaeeinoyo aeia?iaoaaiiy) aeaeo?iiii-io/eiaeo ?ic?yae?a aiai?youe i?i
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?o aea/aiiy c iaoith canoinoaaiiy aeey
iaieeaiiy oa a ?iiieo aeaea?aeao, cie?aia, i?i iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy
i?i?iaeueiiai oeneo ia??a iaae ?icieaaii, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
?ic?aoiaoaaoe oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e aeaeo?iiieo aa?iao ? oeae?a aeey
aeia?iaoaaiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aena?oeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? aeena?oaioii
ii ?ic?yaeo a eii??oe? Iaii?iaa c oieiaeieie eaoiaeaie. Aea/aeanue
oeee?iae?e/ia eii??ea c ae?aiao?ii aiiaea D=18 ii ? aeiaaeeiith L=40 ii.
Aeey aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia aiiae iiaeaaaeanue iai?oaa
VA>1000 B a?ae noaa?e?ciaaiiai ii iai?oc? aeaea?aea iino?eiiai no?oio, ?
acaeiaae in? noai?thaaeinue iaeii??aeia iaai?oia iiea ?iaeoeoe??th
B>350.10-4 Oe.

Oai?aoe/i? ?ic?aooiee ?ooo oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a, ye? ooai?eeenue ia
eaoiaeao a ?acoeueoao? aoi?eiii? ?iiii-aeaeo?iiii? ai?n?? ? iiaeooue
i?aeo?eioaaoe eaaeie ?ii?caoe?? a eii??oe? Iaii?iaa, i?iaiaeeeenue ia
AII ca i?ia?aiith, neeaaeaiith ia iia? i?ia?aioaaiiy Oi?o?ai-77.
Ia/eneaiiy o?a?eoi??e ?ooo ii ??aiyiiyo ?ooo aeaeo?iia a no?auaieo
aeaeo?e/iiio ? iaai?oiiio iieyo, aeei?enoiaoth/e /enaeueiee iaoiae
?oiaa-Eoooa /aoaa?oiai ii?yaeeo oi/iino?. Aeey ?ica’ycoaaiiy ??aiyiue
?ooo /enaeueiei iaoiaeii iio??aii aecia/eoe ?iciiae?e iioaioe?aeo a
aeai?e eii??oe? Iaii?iaa. Iiaeia nei?enoaoenue ??aiyiiyi Eaieana.
Ia’?iiee ca?yae o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia a?aoiao?oueny. Oea iia’ycaii c
aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae
caiaethaaiiyi, eiee ia’?iiee ca?yae ua ia noi?ioaaany. ?ica’ycie
??aiyiiy Eaieana aoa aecia/aiee ? aeei?enoiaoaaany o aeaeyae?

, (1)

aea R – ?aae?on aiiaea, ?i – iiaea?i?ciaaia ooieoe?y Aannaey, E=0, 1, 2

Iaea?aeai? o?a?eoi??? iieacaee, ui oaeaeeee aeaeo?ii iiaea inoeeethaaoe
a iicaeiaaeiueiio ? iiia?a/iiio iai?yieo aei iaai?oiiai iiey. E??i oiai
aeyaeaii, ui oe? eieeaaiiy iiaeeea? eeoa a iaaiiio ae?aiacii? cia/aiue
?iaeoeoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey aeey eiie?aoii aea?aieo ia?aiao??a eii??ee ?
cia/aiue VA.

Aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii aaeeeo e?euee?noue o?a?eoi??e ? aeciaii
aeioe?eueiei aaanoe iiaee ia?aiao? – e?euee?noue inoeeeyoe?e N. Iaeia
inoeeeyoe?y aecia/a?oueny ye iaeia a?aeaeaaiiy a?ae aoaeue-yeiai
eaoiaea. Oaeee ia?aiao? iiaea oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aeiaaeeio oeyoo aeaeo?iia,
ui cae?enith? inoeeeyoe??, ai aeey ae?aiaciio cia/aiue ?iaeoeoe??
iaai?oiiai iiey A, i?e yeeo a?aeaoaathoueny inoeeeyoe??, oa?aeoa?iei ?
oa, ui aeiaaeeia oeyoo a?ae iaeiiai eaoiaea aei ?ioiai o aeaeo?ii?a c
aeecueeeie ii/aoeiaeie oiiaaie aeey ??cieo A iaei a?ae??ciy?oueny. Oea
iiaeia iaa?oiooaaoe oei, ui, i?iaeooth/e ?oo ia ieiueio, yea iiia?a/ia
aei aaeoi?a ?iaeoeoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey, ie niinoa??aa?ii ?oo ii
oeeeei?ae?. Oeeeeio?iiia /anoioa oeueiai ?ooo aeecueea aei /anoioe
inoeeeyoe?e oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a (eieeaaiue i?ae ieiueiaie eaoiae?a), aea
aenioa oeeeei?aee cia/ii iaioa a?ae aiie?ooaee iicaeiaaei?o eieeaaiue.

Caeaaei?noue N(A) aeey inoeeethth/eo oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a ia? aaeeeo
e?euee?noue iaeneioi?a ? i?i?ioi?a. I?ioa na?aae ieo aoee aeyaeai?
iaeneioie c aaeeeei cia/aiiyi N ? aeeaie? i?i?ioie (N=0), ye?
a?aeoai?ththoueny aeey aeaeo?ii?a c ?ioeie ii/aoeiaeie oiiaaie
(ii/aoeiaa e?iaoe/ia aia?a?y, i?noea ooai?aiiy ia eaoiae?, eoo aeeueioo)
i?e caa?aaeaii? iaci?iieie aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a eii??ee ? VA.

Oaeaee? aeaeo?iie, ye? ooai?ai? a ?acoeueoao? ?iiii-aeaeo?iiii? ai?n??,
iiaeooue i?aeo?eioaaoe eaaeie ?ii?caoe?? i?ae /an caiaethaaiiy ?ic?yaeo
a eii??oe? Iaii?iaa, yeui eiia??i?noue ?ii?caoe?? ieie iaeo?aeueieo
/anoeiie aeecueea aei iaeeieoe?. Oea iiaeeeai i?e cia/aiiyo ?iaeoeoe??
iaai?oiiai iiey, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeneioiai caeaaeiino? N(A). ?,
iaaiaee, ?nioaaiiy i?i?ioi?a N(A) i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ciaioaiiy aai
a?aenooiino? eaaei ?ii?caoe?? i?e a?aeiia?aeieo A. Aenia?eiaioaeueii
io?eiai? e?ea? caiaethaaiiy a eii??oe? Iaii?iaa i?aeoaa?aeeee oeth
aeoieo. E?ea? caiaethaaiiy naiino?eiiai ?ic?yaeo Iaii?iaa a a?aii?
aeey aeua iaaaaeaieo ?ici???a eii??ee iieacaee, ui aeey oene?a 10-3
SYMBOL 184 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ? 10-1 Ia niinoa??aa?oueny ?o aiiiaeueiee
o?ae, oiaoi aoei aeyaeaii oae? cia/aiiy A2, i?e yeeo ?ic?yae ia ai??a,
i?ioa niinoa??aaeinue eiai ai??iiy i?e A1 ? A3, i?e /iio A1>?Amin iiyaey?oueny
ae?eyiea, yea a?aeiia?aea? eeane/iiio aaciaiio ?ic?yaeo c ?icaea?aiei
eaoiaeii, VA=const. Iaione aaco a ?ic?yaeio eaia?o iieacaa, ui i?e
oeneao aaco ?, i?e yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/iee eiai aieea ia aiiaeio
iai?oao ianaiino?eiiai aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo a ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea c
aeiaaaeith aaco, AAO ?ic?yaeo a aac? i?e a?aenooiino? o
aiaeiioieiaeaeoaaiiio oeae?-aiiae? ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ? c?inoath/ith ia
a?aei?io a?ae niaaeath/i? AAO ?ic?yaeo c aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii aeey
iaaaeeeeo ?A. Iiyniaiiy oeueiai oaeoo iniiaaia ia aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ui
iieacothoue c?inoaiiy iiooaeiino? ?ic?yaeo, ?iiiiai no?oio ?? oa
oaeaeeino? iaieeaiiy ia i?aeeeaaeeieo i?e ca?eueoaii? no?oio ?ic?yaeo c
aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii. Ciaioaiiy VA a ?ic?yae? a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac
c?inoaiiy oeneo ia??a iaoa??aeo aiiaea ? i?aeneeaiiy ?ii?caoe?eieo
i?ioean?a a ieaci?.

Ia?ao?ae aei aeiooaiiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe eaoiaea i?e ca?eueoaii? ?A a
?ic?yae? c aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy VA.
Iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy VA o oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaiaaeo?oueny aeae?eaiiyi ia
eaoiae? oaei? iiooaeiino?, i?e ye?e ii/eia?oueny naii?ic?a??aaiiy
eaoiaea ?iiiei aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi. Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy no?oio
oa?iiai?n?? aeaeo?ii?a c eaoiaea ? niaaeaiith VA iaa?oue o aenieiio
aaeooi?.

Aeae? ni?inoiao?oueny oyaeaiiy aeayeeo aeine?aeiee?a i?i ?nioaaiiy 2-o
oi?i aeaiiai ?ic?yaeo: aenieiaieueoio, c aiiaeieie iai?oaaie VA=102 –
103 B, ? iecueeiaieueoio, c VA a aeanyoee aieueo. Aenie? VA a ?ic?yae? c
aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii iaoiiaeai? aai aeiooaiei ?aaeeiii ?iaioe eaoiaea,
aai ae iaiao?aei?noth i?aeo?eiaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai oeneo ia??a ?i*=0,1
SYMBOL 184 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ? 1 Ia. Iecuee? cia/aiiy aiiaeii? iai?oae
niinoa??aathoueny o a?eueiiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe eaoiaea ia ae?eyioe? AAO,
eiee VA=const, ui aiai?eoue i?i iaeo caeaaei?noue VA a?ae IA ? oeneo
ia??a iaoa??aeo aiiaea ?i a ?ic?yaeiiio i?ii?aeeo, oiaoi a?aeiia?aea?
eeane/iiio aeoaiaiio ?ic?yaeo c ?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii a aac? iecueeiai
oeneo, eiee VA ni?anoaaethaaia ii aaee/ei? c iioaioe?aeii ?ii?caoe??
?iai/i? ?a/iaeie. Oaeei /eiii ?nio? iaeia oi?ia aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo a
ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea, aea i?e ??cieo oiiaao i?aeo?eiaiiy eiai ai??iiy,
eiee aecia/aeueio ?ieue a?athoue i?ioeane aai ia aiiae?, aai ia eaoiae?.

I?eaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ianaiino?eiiai ae?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo a ia?ao
iaoa??aeo aiiaea c aeiaaaeith aaco ii caeaaeiino? VA ? oaeaeeino?
iaieeaiiy ie?aee ia i?aeeeaaeeioe? a?ae ?. Oea aeaei ciiao ?icae?eeoe
iaeanoue ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo a eii?aeeiaoao ? ? IA ia aea? ciie: ? –
?ic?yae a iniiaiiio ai?eoue ia aac?, ? ae??oaeueiee aieea ia
aieueo-aiia?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aecia/a?oueny aacii; ?? – ?ic?yae ai?eoue
o ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea c aeiaaaeith aaco. Ine?eueee ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo
ia aac? i?e iaeeo no?oiao a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e cia/ii iaioeo VA i?ae o
ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea (aaeee? VA iio??ai? aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy
i?i?iaeueiiai oeneo ia??a), oi caiaethaaiiy ianaiino?eiiai ae?iaeiiai
?ic?yaeo a ia?ao iaoa??aeo aiiaea e?aua cae?enithaaoe ia /a?ac noaae?th
aaeooiiiai ae?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo, ui iio?aao? aenieeo VA ii?yaeeo
e?eiaieueo, a i?e iaioneo aaco, oiaoi a ?ic?yae? ia aac?. Oea eyaei a
iniiao «iaoiaeo aaciaiai caiaethaaiiy», yeee aea? iiaeeea?noue ni?inoeoe
nenoaio aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaii iio?e ieacie ianaiino?eiiai ae?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo a ia?ao
iaoa??aeo aiiaea. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ye caeaaeaoue i?ioeane
?ii?caoe?? a ieaci? a?ae ?A, oeneo aaco a ?ic?yaei?e eaia??. ?acii c
oeei aeine?aeaeoaaany ?iiiee no?oi ia i?aeeeaaeeieo ? ieaaath/ee
iioaioe?ae iioieo ieacie Vf. Anoaiiaeaii, ui Vf

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