18

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OE?A?INUeEEE O?AINII?OIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OEE?I ?AI? AIEIAeEIE?IAE*

OAeE 625.7 : 662.2

INIAEEAINO? AIEEAO I?AeCAIIEO A??IE*EO ?IA?O IA AAIIAO?E*I? IA?AIAO?E
AAOIIIA?EUeIEO AeI??A

05.22.11 — Aaoiiia?euei? oeyoe oa aa?iae?iie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio o?ainii?oiiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, A?eyoeinueeee
Ieaenaiae? Aioiiiae/, Oe?a?inueeee o?ainii?oiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?ith “I?iaeooaaiiy aei??a”, i. Ee?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, A?eaoo Aiaoie?e
?aaiiae/., Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??,
eaoaae?a “Aa?iii?oe”, i. Ee?a

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, Inyya TH??e Ieeieaeiae/., canooiiee
ea??aieea oi?aae?iiy ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aaoiaei?”, i. Ee?a

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: — Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a “I?nueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa”,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «14» aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1200 ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.059.02 i?e Oe?a?inueeiio
o?ainii?oiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252010, i. Ee?a, aoe. Noai?iaa
1, aoae. 333-a

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
o?ainii?oiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 252103, i. Ee?a, aoe. Ea?ea?aeca, 42

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 08 » 09 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Aecthaa I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo /eiiee?a, ui
aecia/athoue ye?niee noai aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae a oe?eiio, ? no?ee?noue
aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaiaio?a iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth c iiiaioo
aoaeoaaiiy ia oaanue ia??iae ?? aenieoaoaoe??.

Iioeiaeuei?noue aeai?o aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaiaio?a iicaeiaaeiueiai
i?io?eth aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaaaoueia oaeoi?aie:
?aeue?oii i?noeaaino?, a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieie, a?ae?iaaieia?/ieie ?
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie ? o.i. Aea a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae oa aiane?aeie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie
a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth, a
oaeiae ? aeaoi?iaoe?y an??? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae aae aei ??
?oeioaaiiy. Oae, a ?acoeueoao? ?ic?iaee ei?enieo eiiaeei i?aecaiiei
niiniaii (IA?) o iaae?ao caie? ooai?ththoueny ii?iaeia/? aaeeeeo
?ici???a, ye? caiiaiththoueny ii?iaeith i?ae aieeaii neee oyae?iiy oa
ia?ooaiiy iane ii??ae, ui ooai?ththoue e?iaeth ?ic?iaethaaiiai ieanoa.
A?ae c?ooaiiy a??ie/eo ii??ae ia iiaa?oi? caie? ooai?th?oueny ae?aa –
ioeueaea c?ooaiiy yea ?noioii aieeaa? ye ia ?aeue?o i?noeaaino? oae ? ia
aaoiiia?eueio aei?iao.

Iia??oaiiy ye?niiai noaio aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeiaeaoeiaeo caeoe?a, ye a aenieoaoaoe?? aei?iaeiueiai ainiiaea?noaa oae
? a aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiiyo, ye? iaoiiaeai? ?noioiei ca?eueoaiiyi
nia?aa?oino?, ciaioaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ? o. i.

Oaeei /eiii a?aooaaiiy aieeao ?ic?iaee ei?enieo eiiaeei i?aecaiiei
niiniaii ia aaoiiia?eueio aei?iao ? aeooaeueiith caaea/ath, yea iio?aao?
?ic?iaee iaoeiaeo iniia oa i?aeoe/ieo iaoiae?a ?? ae??oaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
ca?aeii oaiaoeee caaaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy c i?ei?eoaoieo
iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oi?aa?neoao?, yea ?ic?iaeaia oa
caoaa?aeaeaia a/aiith ?aaeith oi?aa?neoaoo aei 2000 ?ieo aeeth/ii:

 i?ia?aneai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo o?ainii?oiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Iaoa oa caaea/? ?iaioe. Aecia/eoe aieea ?ic?iaee ei?enieo eiiaeei
i?aecaiiei niiniaii ia aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e oa?aeoa?ieo ae?eyiie
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae i?e ??ciiiai?oieo oiiaao caeyaaiiy
?ic?iaethaaiiai aoaeao?eiath/iai ieanoa ? aaiiao?e/ieo iniaeeainoyo
oa?aeoa?ieo aeaiaio?a aei?iae aei aeaoi?iaoe??. Aeine?aeeoe aieea ci?ie
aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae ia ??
oaoi?ei-aenieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/aee oae? ieoaiiy:

– aea?? oa iaa?oiooaaiiy oaeoi??a, ye? ?noioii aieeaathoue ia i?ioean
in?aeaiiy aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae aiane?aeie ?ic?iaee ei?enieo
eiiaeei i?aecaiiei niiniaii;

 ?ic?iaea caaaeueii? iiaeae? ci?ie aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a oa?aeoa?ieo
ae?eyiie aei?iae a?ae i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o;

 ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia oa i?aeoe/ieo iaoiae?a ?aae?caoe?? iiaeae?
i?ioeano in?aeaiiy aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae aiane?aeie i?aecaiieo
?ic?iaie;

 ?ic?iaea caaaeueii? iiaeae? aieeao ci?ie aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ia
oaoi?/i? iieacieee aei?iae;

 ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ii io?eiaiith ?acoeueoao?a aeaoi?iaoe?? ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoeiii? ?aae?caoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. ?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/i? iniiae ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a
aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae ia i?ae?iaethaaieo oa?eoi??yo.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??
iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii?
aei?iae c a?aooaaiiyi i?aeaioiaee ao?aeieo aeaieo, ?oiuei?
o?ainoi?iaoe??, iaea?aeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo caeaaeiinoae ?
oaoi?ei-aenieoaoe?eii? ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a ??oaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeeeaaeaeeny ia: aaeocaa?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“AAOIAeI?IAEI?E EIIIEAEN OE?A?IE O NO*ANIEO OIIAAO: I?IAEAIE ? OEssOE
?ICAEOEO” i. Ee?a — 1998 ?.; i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?IAEAIU NO?IEOAEUeIIAI E AeI?IAEIIAI
EIIIEAENA”i.A?yinuee,-1998 ?

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Ca aeiiiiiaith no/anieo iaoiae?a
iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy noai?aia iiaeaeue aieeao i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo
?ia?o ia aaoiiia?eueio aei?iao. Aeeiiaii iaoeiia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeano
aeaoi?iaoe?? aei?iae i?e ??ciiiai?oieo oiiaao ?ic?iaee aoa?eueiiai
ieanoa. O ?acoeueoao? iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy
io?eiai? ?aa?an?ei? caeaaeiino? ?ic?aooieo aaee/eie iioee?a a?ae oiia
caeyaaiiy ieanoa.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 7 noaoae.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 103 noi??ieao
iniiaiiai oaenoo, ia? 41 ?enoiie, 7 oaaeeoeue, neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueiiai aeniiaeo, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, ui
aeeth/a? 124 iaeiaioaaiiy, aeiaeaoe?a, ye? neeaaeathoueny c 18
?enoie?a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/a?oueny iaoa oa
iaoiaeieia?/i? caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?eo ?icaeyiooi noai ieoaiiy ii a?aooaaiith aieeao
IA? ia aaoiiia?euei? aei?iae oa caaea/? eiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaeyiooi
noai aea/aiiy i?ioeano c?ooaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae ? caiii? iiaa?oi?..

Aeeiiaiee ei?ioeee iien iiiyoue oa ?ic?aooieiaeo oi?ioe, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aecia/aiiy c?ooaiiy caiii? iiaa?oi? i?ae aieeaii
IA?. I?eaaaeaii ocae/a?i? ?ic?aooieia? noaie ? a?ao?ee ?iciiae?eo
ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe??, ye? io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aaaaoi??/ieo
iaoo?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca aeaoi?iaoe?yie caiii? iiaa?oi? aiane?aeie
IA?.

O ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth iioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a i?i niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
aeaoi?iaoe?yie aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a i?ae aieeaii IA?, ei?ioei
?icaeyiooi noai aea/aiino? aeaii? i?iaeaie a ?ioeo aaeocyo
aoae?aieoeoaa, oiaoi o o?oaii?ia?aeiiio, cae?cie/iiiio oa aia?aaoe/iiio
aoae?aieoeoaao oa ?i.

Aeoiaey/e ?c ??cieoe? o aeiiaao aei i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoaa oa
aenieoaoaoe?? i?ae ??ciiiai?oieie oeiaie e?i?eieo ?iaeaia?ieo nii?oae,
aeey canoinoaaiiy aei ieoaiiy a?aooaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii?
aei?iae ? ooo/ieo nii?oae ia ieo, aeioe?eueii canoinoaaoe, c aeayeeie
ci?iaie oa aeiiiaiaiiyie coiiaeaieie iniaeeainoyie aenieoaoaoe??
o?ainii?oii? nenoaie, iaeiie/aiee aeina?ae a:

— cae?cie/iiio aoae?aieoeoa? – aeaoooaaiiy caieyiiai iieioia ? aenieeo
ianei?a ia i?ae?iaethaaieo oa?eoi??yo, ?ic?aooiie iai?oaeaiue a
a?oioiaiio ianea?, ia?aaea/a coneeue ? a??nueeiai oeneo, ae?aiaaei? ?
aiaeii?iionei? nii?oaee;

— o?oaii?ia?aeiiio o?ainii?o? — i?iaeooaaiiy ? aoae?aieoeoai ia?an?/aiue
o?ane aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae c eiioiaeueieie ?iaeaia?ieie nii?oaeaie,
aeaoooaaiiy eiiiainaoi??a ? aaneoae?a iai?oae a ooo/ieo iaoaeaaeo
nii?oaeao ia aeaoi?iiaaieo oa?eoi??yo;

— aoae?aieoeoa? aenieiaieueoieo EAI — ?ic?iaea cania?a caoenoo a?ae
aeieeiaiiy a nii?oaeao ia ieiu? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae (iii?e
oaeaa?aoieo oa aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae) iaaacia/ieo ii aaee/ei? iaoee?a ?
o?eaae?noue eiino?oeoe?e;

— aoae?aieoeoa? i?iieneiaeo ? aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a oa nii?oae –
i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoai oa aenieoaoaoe?y aoaeeie?a aei?iaeiueiai
ainiiaea?noaa.

Iaaaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoai “Aaoiiia?eueia aei?iaa” ? “Ioeueaea
in?aeaiiy” caiii? iiaa?oi? i?ae aieeaii IA?, aeae?eai? ia’?eoe
iiaeaethaaiiy. ?icaeyiooi ?o no?oeoo?i? noaie ie?aii e o aca?iiae??
(?en. 1).

Neeaaeaii aeie-noaie aeey aecia/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? iicaeiaaeiueiai
i?io?eth aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae i?ae aieeaii IA?, iioeeo oi?iioai?ii?
e?i?? ia?eno aeaoi?iiaaii? iiaa?oi?, iieaciee ??aiino? iie?eooy ca
iiooiaoii??ii, aeo?aoe iaeueiiai ii i?yioaaiith ia aeaoi?iiaaieo
ae?eyieao.

Aeae?eaii ia?oi/a?aiaa caaaeaiiy aea/aiiy aieeao IA? ia aaoiiia?euei?
aei?iae, oiaoi aecia/aiiy nooiaiy aieeao IA? ia iicaeiaaei?e
i?io?eue aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae acaeiaae ioeueaee in?aeaiiy a?ae
?ic?iaee iaeeii/iiai ieanoa, ia ae?eyioe? ioeueaee yea
i?e??aith?oueny aei i?eaoo aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae -100i oa o ie?aii
acyoiio ?ioa?aae? niinoa?aaeaiue ca aeaoi?iaoe?yie – 15-30i.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?noeoue a nia? oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae ?ic?aooieo
ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a i?ae aieeaii i?aecaiieo
?ic?iaie.

?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? aecia/aiiy ?ici???a ? oi?ie ioeueaee in?aeaiiy
caiii? iiaa?oi? i?ae aieeaii i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o ooaaeai?
a?aeiia?aeii aei ?nioth/eo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a oa iioae?eiaaieo
iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiaiith a?aei?ii?noth a?ae canoiniaoaaii? a
ia?eoaeaea?nuee?e ni?aa?, ? aecia/aiiy cia/aiue aa?oeeaeueieo in?aeaiue
o ia?aoeiao, oiaoi cai?noue ooieoe?? Aaona aeei?enoiao?oueny
caeaaei?noue, yea aoea cai?iiiiiaaia N.I. Eieaaieiaei. Oea aeicaieeei
ni?inoeoe i?ioean ?ic?aooieo aac oo?aoe oi/iino? ?acoeueoao?a, oiaoi
cai?noue aeene?aoieo cia/aiue aa?oeeaeueieo in?aeaiue o aeia?eueiiio
ia?aoeio aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee ia?ii ooieoe?iiaeueio caeaaei?noue, yeo
aoei aeei?enoaii aeey aecia/aiiy ?ioeo ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe??.

O ?icae?e? i?eaaaeai? ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy cia/aiue
ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? oi?iiooai?thth/i? e?i?? ia?eno aeaoi?iiaaii?
iiaa?oi?, ye? a?aoiaothoue aaiiao?e/i? iniaeeaino? oa?aeoa?ieo ae?eyiie
iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth e oiiae caeyaaiiy aoaeao?eiath/iai ieanoa,
oiaoi i?yiie?i?eieo (ai?eciioaeueii? ? iaoeeaii?) oa e?eaie?i?eieo
(aa?oeeaeueieo iioeei? e oaiooi? eieiaeo e?eaeo) ae?eyiie i?io?eth,
iiooaeiino?, eooa iaoeeo ieanoa oa aeeaeie ?ic?iaee.

I?e aeaoi?iaoe?? i?yiie?i?eieo ae?eyiie ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino?
aecia/aiiy eieaeueieo cia/aiue aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? o
iai?aioeueaeao ca iaae?iiyi oa ca iianoaiiyi aoaeooue iaoe aeaeyae:

— aa?oeeaeueia in?aeaiiy o aeia?euei?e oi/oe?
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21f01000000780008000000320a3406fc0e010000004c0008000000320ab0028e0f01000
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804a82403000000e4eef00008000000320a5b06e51d010000006e0008000000320a5b065
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0009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00102000
8000000320a20047a29010000002b0008000000320a20048322010000002d00080000003
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000b70008000000320ab0021d1c01000000b70008000000320a2004681601000000b7000
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4000000f001020008000000320ab002b11c01000000700008000000320ae705a31401000
000700008000000320a5e04740601000000680008000000320a59044e020100000068001
7000000fb02c0fd0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6
d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ab002fd1a0
1000000320009000000320a200417170300000073696e0008000000320ae705ef1201000
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7000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6
d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320a0305fb070
30000006d61780011000000fb02c0fd000000000000900100000002040200104d5420457
87472610002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a20045f11010000006
d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000b
c02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000
00000000000

aea, hmax – aaee/eia iaeneiaeueiiai in?aeaiiy o ioeueae? c?ooaiiy, i;

Ln – aeiaaeeia iai?aioeueae (L1– ca iaae?iiyi oa L2–ca iianoaiiyi) ,
i;

x – a?aenoaiue a?ae oi/ee c iaeneiaeueiei in?aeaiiyi aei ia?aoeio, i.

?aei? –iioee iaoeeaii? ae?eyiee aei?iae aei aeaoi?iaoe??, a aeieyo
iaeeieoe?;

b – eiao?oe??io yeee aei??aith? a?ae??ceo, ui a?aen?ea?oueny i?yiith
ia in? i?aeeiao, a?ae?aoiaoth/e a?ae ii/aoeo nenoaie eii?aeeiao.

– iioee o aeia?euei?e oi/oe?

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?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e
?ic?iaoe? i?ae aa?oeeaeueieie oaiooith oa iioeeith eieiaeie e?eaeie
aoaeooue iaoe aeaeyae:

— o iai?aioeueae? ca iaae?iiyi

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00000000000000000000

aea, ho – cia/aiiy ia?iaiaeeeoey?o o ?ic?aooieiaiio ia?aoeio,
i?iaaaeaiiai a?ae oi?aee aei aeoae e?eai? (no??eea aeoae eieiai?
e?eai?), i;

ho – in?aeaiiy o ?ic?aooieiaiio ia?aoei? ioeueaee in?aeaiiy, i;

R – ?aae?on eieiai? e?eai?, i.

? – iioee o ?ic?aooieiaiio ia?aoeio eieiai? e?eai?, a aeieyo
iaeeieoe?;

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8000000320a1303722201000000f70008000000320a0805722201000000f800080000003
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02101000000fa0008000000320a670bf02101000000fa0008000000320a950df02101000
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002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a730a3
11e01000000700008000000320a490a271401000000680008000000320a10024b1f01000
000700008000000320a1002a41801000000700008000000320a3c0367120100000068000
a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc020
00000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000
0000000000000000000

aea, Eioe – e?eaecia e?i?? ia?eno ioeueaee in?aeaiiy;

E?aae – e?eaecia eieiai? e?eai? aei aeaoi?iaoe??.

— o iai?aioeueae? ca iianoaiiyi

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a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc020
00000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000
0000000000000000000

picscalex94010009000003ae03000003001700000000000500000009020000000004000
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000c0ffffffa5ffffff60250000e50500000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650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000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616
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000520008000000320a6e025b2401000000780008000000320ae604401b010000004c000
8000000320a5e028a1d01000000780008000000320ae6043b12010000004c00080000003
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b0001000000690017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d657
3204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cce0040000002d01010004000000f001020008000
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4000000f001010008000000320a8003be22010000006d0010000000fb0240fe000000000
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3000000636f730009000000320a80033a0e0300000074616e0008000000320a8003dc080
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0009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cce004000
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000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f
001020008000000320a5e02751b01000000700008000000320a33021e110100000068000
8000000320a8b0338060100000068000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001
0000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002
d01020004000000f00101000300000000000000000000000000
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0009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccea04000
0002d01020004000000f001010009000000320a8006550b03000000f0e0e400090000003
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000320a3a09922501000000320008000000320a0807922501000000330008000000320ac
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0000000000000000000

Oaeiae, o ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? caeaaeiino? ?ic?aooieo iieacieea ??aiino?
iie?eooy ca iiooiaoii??ii i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? i?yiie?i?eii? ai?eciioaeueii?
ae?eyiee, ye? a?oioothoueny ia caeaaeiino? iieacieea ??aiino? ca
iiooiaoii??ii a?ae i?ina?oo i?ae o?ueio iao?iaith ?aeeith.

Aeey oaoi?ei-aenieoaoaoe?eii? ioe?iee aieeao IA? ia aaoiiia?eueio
aei?iao iaaaaeai? caeaaeiino? aeey ?ic?aooieo aaee/eie aeo?aoe iaeueiiai
i?e ?ooo aaoiiia?e?a ii aeaoi?iiaai?e ae?eyioe? (aeaiia iaoiaeaie, ye?
aoee i?enoiniaai? aei aeaieo oiia ? aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe aaee/eio
aeo?aoe iaeueiiai a caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?ie oaeaeeino? ?ooo oa
eiao?oe??ioo i?ioeae?? ei/aiith).

Caaaeyee oiio, ui ?ic?iaea ei?enieo eiiaeei i?aecaiiei niiniaii
i?ecaiaeeoue ia o?eueee aei ci?ie iioee?a, aea e aei ci?ie aaee/eie
iieacieea ??aiino? aoei aecia/aii aeey eiaeii? oa?aeoa?ii? ae?eueieoe? :

– oaeaee?noue ?ooo aaoiiia?ey, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?ie iioeeo ?
??aiino?;

 eiao?oe??io iii?o ei/aiith, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiino? ? oaeaeeino?;

 eiao?oe??io ian, ui iaa?oathoueny, a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeaeeino? ?ooo;

 aeeiai?/iee oaeoi? aaoiiia?ey, a caeaaeiino? a?ae iioeeo, i?enei?aiiy,
? eiao?oe??ioa iii?o ei/aiiy;

 aeo?aoo iaeueiiai, a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeeiai?/iiai oaeoi?o ?
oaeaeeino? aaoiiia?ey (aiae?oe/iei ? a?aoiaiae?oe/iei niiniaaie).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeai? ?ic?aooieia? noaie aeaoi?iaoe??
oa?aeoa?ieo ae?eyiie aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae oa iaoiaee/i? iniiae
ae??oaiiy caaea/? iiaoaeiae ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe??.

Ao?aei? aeai? aeey ?ic?aooie?a aeaoi?iaoe?? iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie:

— a??ie/i-aaieia?/i? – aeai?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue caeyaaiiy
aoaeao?eiath/iai ieanoa, oiaoi eoo iaae?iiy ieanoa, eiai iiooaei?noue ?
aeeaeia caeyaaiiy, ye? iiaeooue aooe io?eiai? o oao?aoe?a
ia?eoaeaea?nueeeo neoaea a i?aai?caoe?yo, aaaeo/eo i?aecaii? ?ic?iaee ia
aeai?e oa?eoi??? aai a i?ae?icae?eao,

ui aeeiiothoue niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeaiiai ?iaeo aeaoi?iaoe?yie;

– i?iaeoi? – aeai?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue iieiaeaiiy i?iaeoii? e?i??
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae, oiaoi: aenioi? a?aei?oee i?i?cii? /anoeie;
iicaeiaaei?e iioee ae?eyiee aei?iae oa ?? aeiaaeeio; ?aae?one eieiaeo
e?eaeo oa iioee o ?? e?aei?o oi/eao, ye? iiaeooue aooe io?eiai? aai c
?iai/eo i?iaeo?a ia aoae?aieoeoai aai ia ?aeiino?oeoe?th aei?iae, a oae
aea a?aeiiaeai? oeyoii aeooeoaaieo ?ia?o .

I?e iiaeaethaaii? aa??aio?a aca?iiae?? i?eeiaeeny na?aaei? cia/aiiy
(aeey ?aeii?a Aeiiaano) a??ie/i-aaieia?/i? ao?aei? aeai? (ca?aeii
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a ? ?acoeueoao?a iaoo?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue oao?aoe?a
ca c?ooaiiyi a??nueeeo ii??ae, ye? aoee iioae?eiaai?) oa a?aie/i?
cia/aiiy i?iaeoieo ao?aeieo aeaieo (ca?aeii ae?th/eo ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a).

A ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth ?acoeueoao?a iaoo?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca
aeaoi?iaoe?yie aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a i?ae aieeaii IA? aoee i?eeiyo?
aeiiouaiiy, ye? a?oioothoueny ia ?acoeueoaoao aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeaieo
a cae?cie/i?e, o?oaii?ia?aei?e, aia?aaoe/i?e ? a?ae?ioaoi?/i?e
aoae?aaeueieo aaeocyo, a oaeiae ia i?aenoaa? ?nioth/eo ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a :

1) oi?iiooai?thth/a e?i?y ia?eno aeaoi?iaoe?? iiacaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae iiae?aia e?i?? in?aeaiiy caiii? iiaa?oi?;

2) a?nue aei?iae ?ici?uaia ia aieiaieo ia?aoeiao ioeueaee in?aeaiiy
caiii? iiaa?oi? a?ae ?ic?iaee ei?enieo eiiaeei i?aecaiiei niiniaii;

3) aei?iaa i?ioiaeeoue a “ioeueiaeo” a?aei?oeao, oiaoi a?aenooi?
i?aeiyooy a?iaee a?oioiaiai iieioia iaae iiaa?oiath caie?;

4) a ?ic?aooieao ia ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy nooe?eueiino? iniia ?
iie?eooy i?i?cii? /anoeie, oaeiae ia a?aoiaothoueny iiaeoe?
i?oaeiino? oa??a aei?iaeiueiai iaeyao.

Aeeiiaii iiaeaethaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae o eieaeueieo
(ia i?yoiaaeoeyoe

iao?iaiio ?ioa?aae?) oa na?aaeiueicaaaeaieo (o iai?aioeueaeao) iaaeao a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia caeyaaiiy ieanoa oa aaiiao?e/ieo iniaeeainoae
oa?aeoa?ieo ae?eyiie iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth.

O aeiaaeeo aeaoi?iaoe?? ai?eciioaeueii? i?yiie?i?eii? ae?eyiee
ci?ithaaieie aaee/eiaie aoee o?eueee oiiae caeyaaiiy ieanoa, oiaoi
iiooaei?noue ?ic?iaethaaiiai ieanoa (a?ae 1i aei 5i), eoo iaoeeo ieanoa
(a?ae 0i aei 60i) oa aeeaeia ?ic?iaee (a?ae 75i aei 600i). ?ic?aooieiaa
noaia iaaaaeaia ia ?en.2.

I?e ?icaeyae? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoeeaii? i?yiie?i?eii? ae?eyiee (?en. 3) aei
oiia caeyaaiiy ieanoa aeiaea?oueny iicaeiaaei?e iioee ae?eyiee aei
aeaoi?iaoe?? (a iaaeao a?ae 30i/ii aei 90i/ii).

O aeiaaeeao ?ic?aooieo e?eaie?i?eieo ae?eyiie (?en. 4) aei oiia
caeyaaiiy ieanoa aeiaea?oueny ?aae?on eieiai? e?eai? (a?ae 1000i aei
10000i) oa iioee o e?aei?o oi/eao aeoae (a?ae 30i/ii aei 90i/ii).

Ii ?acoeueoaoai iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeano aeaoi?iaoe?? oa?aeoa?ieo
ae?eyiie aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae aiane?aeie IA? iiaoaeiaai? a?ao?ee
?iciiae?eo eieaeueieo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? ii aeiaaeei?
aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee oa caeaaei?noue ?o na?aaeiueicaaaeaieo aaee/ei
a?ae ci?ie oiia caeyaaiiy oa aaiiao?e/ieo aeanoeainoae iicaeiaaeiueiai
i?io?eth aei aeaoi?iaoe??.

Ia iniia? aeaieo, io?eiaieo a ?acoeueoao? iaoeiiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aa??aio?a aeaoi?iaoe?? ai?eciioaeueii? ae?eyiee i?ae aieeaii IA?,
cae?enieee ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a iiiaeeiii? ?aa?an??, yea oa?aeoa?eco?
caeaaei?noue i?ae iiooaei?noth ieanoa m (i), aeeaeiith i?ae?iaethaaiiy I
(i) oa na?aaeiueicaaaeaiei iioeeii o iai?aioeueaeao a a?e i?inoeeaiiy
ieanoa ic (i?ii?ea) i?e ??ciiiai?oieo cia/aiiyo eooa iaae?iiy ieanoa
a(a?aae). Oiaoi io?eiaee ?aa?an?ei? caeaaeiino? iioeeo aeaoi?iiaaii?
iiaa?oi? a?ae oiia caeyaaiiy ieanoa c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy ?o o ai??i?ieo
?ic?aooieao i?e iiooeo aa??aio?a iieiaeaiiy aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae ia
aeaoi?iiaai?e iiaa?oi? c iiaeaeueoei a?eueo aeaoaeueiei ?ic?aooieii
ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? ii caeaaeiinoyi 1-12.

Aoei ?icaeyiooi icaeyiooi aeiaaeie aieeao ioeueaee in?aeaiiy ia
ai?eciioaeueio ae?eyieo aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae i?e eoo? iaae?iiy
aoa?eueiiai ieanoa a=00.

Caaea/a iieyaa? a iiooeo ii ?acoeueoaoao aeaieo niinoa?aaeaiue iaae
ci?iieie iiooaeiino? ieanoa m oa aeeaeie caeyaaiiy ieanoa H. Iiooe
ia?aiao??a ?aa?an?? b0, b1, b2 cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith niiniao
iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a. Oiiaith i?i?ioio aeine?aeaeoaaii? ooieoe?? ?n (b0,
b1, b2) ? ??ai?noue ioeth ?? /anoeiaeo iio?aeieo.

I?ney a?aeiia?aeieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, io?eiaee ianooiio nenoaio
ii?iaeueieo ??aiyiue, a?aeiinii ia?aiao??a ?aa?an??
(na?aaeiueiacaaaeaiee iioee ia aeaoi?iiaai?e ae?eyioe? a?ae iiooaeiino?
oa aeeaeie ?ic?iaee aoa?eueiiai ieanoa)

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1000000320008000000320abf0a7f0501000000310008000000320ab5058d1b010000003
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00030000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000
000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f00101000
300000000000000000000000000

aea, ix, mx, Hx — aii??e/i? aeai?, ui aiae?cothoueny;

Oeth nenoaio e?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue c?o/ii ae??ooaaoe iao?e/iei
niiniaii.

Oaeei /eiii, cia/aiiy na?aaeiueicaaaeaiiai iioeeo o iai?aioeueae?
c?ooaiiy, iiooaei?noue ieanoa, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny ? aeeaeia caeyaaiiy
aoa?eueiiai ieanoa ca’ycai? ??aiyiiyi.

ic=b0+b1m+b2H

Aiaeia?/ii aeaaaeai? caeaaeiino? aeey iai?aioeueaee ca iaae?iiyi oa
iai?aioeueaee ca iianoaiiyi i?e iiaeeo?eaoe?? eooa iaae?iiy a?ae 00 aei
600.

Oaeiae aoee aeaaaeai? ?aa?an?ei? caeaaeiino? aeey ?ic?aooieo
na?aaeiueicaaaeaiiai iioeeo o iai?aioeueaeao i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoeeaii?
i?yiie?i?eii? ae?eyiee a?ae ?ic?iaee iaeeie/iiai ieanoa. I?iaaaeaii
aiae?c oi/iino? io?eiaieo ?aa?an?eieo caeaaeiinoae.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae, ye?
io?eiai? ca aeiiiiiaith iaoeiiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, aeicaieythoue
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae aeaye?
aeanoeaino? i?eoaiaii? aeey an?o oa?aeoa?ieo ae?eyiie, aea ? ? oae?, ui
? iniaenoith a?aeciaeith aeey ie?aieo ae?eyiie.

Oaaeeoey 1.

?aa?an?ei? caeaaeiino? ?ic?aooieo na?aaeiueicaaaeaiiai iioeeo.

Ia?aiao?eIai?aioeueaea ca iaae?iiyiIai?aioeueaea ca iianoaiiyi?aa?an?eia
caeaaei?noueNa?aae a?aeoeeaiiy?aa?an?eia caeaaei?noueNa?aae
a?aeoeeaiiyi=0o/oo; a=0o
4.024+3.408m-0.012H0.9894.024+3.408m-0.012H0.989i=0o/oo; a=30o
3.52+1.132m-0.01H0.9626.05+2.16m-0.017H1.62i=0o/oo; a=60o
1.01+0.31m-0.003H0.2863.761+0.997m-0.011H1.169i=30o/oo; a=0o
6.064+3.014m-0.017H1.4216.064+3.014m-0.017H1.421i=30o/oo; a=30o
3.493+1.179m-0.01H0.9816.138+2.139m-0.018H1.603i=30o/oo; a=60o
1.008+0.314m-0.003H0.293.806+0.987m-0.011H1.147i=60o/oo; a=0o
6.086+3.03m-0.017H1.4456.086+0.03m-0.017H1.445i=60o/oo; a=30o
3.489+1.16m-0.01H0.9386.362+2.197m-0.018H1.69i=60o/oo; a=60o
0.935+0.288m-0.003H0.4213.738+0.998m-0.011H1.164i=90o/oo; a=0o
6.31+3.017m-0.018H1.4776.31+3.017m-0.018H1.477i=90o/oo; a=30o
3.492+1.153m-0.01H0.7376.147+2.14m-0.018H1.601i=90o/oo; a=60o
1.008+0.313m-0.03H0.3023.678+0.995m-0.011H1.145Oae caaaeueieie
iniaeeainoyie aeey an?o ae?eyiie iiaeia aaaaeaoe:

 ca?eueoaiiy iiooaeiino? ?ic?iaey?iiai ieanoa caaaeaee i?ecaiaeeoue aei
i?iii?oe?eii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe??;



ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie caeyaaiiy ciaioo? cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe??;

 ca?eueoaiiy eooa iaae?iiy ieanoa iaeaea ia aeyaey? aieeao ia
iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy aaee/ei aeaoi?iaoe??, aea aieeaa? ia oa?aeoa?
?iciiae?eo o iai?aioeueaeao ca iaae?iiyi oa ca iianoaiiyi;

 i?ioyaii iai?aioeueaee cia/aiiy iioee?a iathoue iaeiaeiaee ciae
(ooieoe?y iiiioiiii ciaioo?oueny aai c?inoa? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
?icoaooaaiiy o iai?aioeueaeao ca iaae?iiyi aai ca iianoaiiyi).

Oa?aeoa?ieie aeanoeainoyie aeey i?yiie?i?eieo ae?eyiie iiaeia aaaaeaoe:

 ooai?aiiy “oyaiiai” ?aae?ono e?eaecie ia aeaoi?iiaaieo ae?eyieao;

 ia?en a?ao?e?a e?eaecie i?aeei?y?oueny ein?ioni?aeaeueiiio caeiio
?iciiae?eo, c oi/eaie aeno?aioio o 1/4 oa 3/4 aeiaaeeie iai?aioeueae;

Aeanoeainoyie, ye? i?eoaiaii? aeey i?ae?iaethaaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo eiei
aeo e?eaeo, iiaeia aaaaeaoe:

 ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?aae?on?a eieiai? e?eai? ?ioaineai?noue iiaeeo?eaoe??
cia/aiue ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? ciaioo?oueny;

 i?e aaee/ei? oi?aee eieiai? e?eai? iaioi? ca aeiaaeeio iai?aioeueaee
in?aeaiiy ia a?ao?eao i?enooiy oi/ea ia?aaeio, ui “ieaaa?”, yea
oa?aeoa?eco? e?aeith oi/eo eieiai? e?eai?;

 i?e aaee/ei? oi?aee eieiai? e?eai? iaioi? ca aeiaaeeio ioeueaee
in?aeaiiy ia a?ao?eao caaaeaee i?enooiy oi/ea ia?aaeio, yea ?icoaoiaaia
ia 1/4 oa 3/4 aeiaaeeie ioeueaee in?aeaiiy;

 i?e aaee/ei? e?aoiino? i?ae?iaethaaiiy iaioi? i?ae 100 e?eaa
?iciiae?eo na?aaeiueicaaaeaieo cia/aiue eieaeueieo ?aae?on?a i?eeia?
“oaeeaiiae?aiee” oa?aeoa?, yeui aea a?eueoa 100 — e?i?eiee;

 ?icoaooaaiiy oi/ie aeno?aioio ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? ci?ith?oueny a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia caeyaaiiy aoaeao?eiath/iai ieanoa ? aaiiao?e/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee eieiaeo e?eaeo;

 iioee a e?aei?o oi/eao eieiai? e?eai? ia aeyaey? aieeao ia aaee/eio
na?aaeiueicaaaeaiiai cia/aiiy eieaeueieo ?aae?on?a ii aeiaaeei?
aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee, aea aieeaa? ia oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo acaeiaae
iai?aioeueaee;

– o aeiaaeeo eiee oi?aea eieiai? e?eai? a?eueoa aeiaaeeie ioeueaee
in?aeaiiy iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy iioeeo ia ia?aaeuo? iaeneiaeueiiai
i?iaeoiiai.

? ? niaoeeo?/i? aeanoeaino? aeey eiaeii? ie?aii? oa?aeoa?ii? ae?eyiee:

– aeey iaoeeaii? i?yiie?i?eii? ae?eyiee – iioee i?yiie?i?eii? ae?eyiee
aeyaey? iacia/iee aieea ia ?ici??e ioeueaee in?aeaiiy, aea cia/ii
aieeaa? ia caaaeueiee iioee ae?eyiee, ui aeaoi?ioaaeany;

 aeey oaiooi? eieiai? e?eai? – iacaeaaeii a?ae oiia aca?iiae?? cia/aiiy
?aae?on?a ae?eyiee, ui aeaoi?ioaaeany, caaaeaee iaioa i?iaeoiiai
?aae?ono eieiai? e?eai?; o aeiaaeeao, eiee oi?aea eieiai? e?eai? iaioa
aeiaaeeie ioeueaee in?aeaiiy, iioeee a oi/eao ii?aeiaiiy eieiai? e?eai?
c i?yiie?i?eiith ae?eyieith caaaeaee a?eueoa i?iaeoieo;

 aeey iioeei? eieiai? e?eai? — iacaeaaeii a?ae oiia aca?iiae?? cia/aiiy
?aae?on?a aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee caaaeaee a?eueoa i?iaeoiiai ?aae?ono
eieiai? e?eai?; o aeiaaeeao, eiee oi?aea eieiai? e?eai? iaioa aeiaaeeie
ioeueaee in?aeaiiy, iioeee o oi/eao ii?aeiaiiy eieiai? e?eai? c
i?yiie?i?eiith ae?eyieith caaaeaee iaioa i?iaeoieo aei aeaoi?iaoe??.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?ie aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae i?ae aieeaii i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o.

Iath/e ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a eieaeueieo ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe??
ai?eciioaeueii? ae?eyiee a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeeaeie ?ic?iaee oa eooa
iaoeeo ieanoa, ia/eneth?ii aaee/eie iieacieea ??aiino? iie?eooy ca
iiooiaoii??ii. Ii aeaiei ?ic?aooie?a iiaoaeiaai? a?ao?ee, aiae?c yeeo
aea? iiaeeea?noue ?icaeyiooe oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo eieaeueiiai iieacieea
??aiino? iie?eooy ca iiooiaoii??ii acaeiaae aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae a?ae aeeaeie ?ic?iaee iaeeie/iiai
ai?eciioaeueiiai ieanoa i?e iiooaeiino? m=1i oa m=2i.

Oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo eieaeueiiai iieacieea ??aiino? iieaco?, ui i?noey
?icoaooaaiiy iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue ca?aathoueny ?c i?noeyie
iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue e?eaecie, oiaoi aiie ?icoaoiaai? o 1/4 oa 3/4
aeiaaeeie iai?aioeueaee.

C?inoaiiy iiooaeiino? ieanoa c 1i aei 2i i?ecaaei aei ca?eueoaiiy
cia/aiiy iieacieea ??aiino? iaeaea oaea?/?. Ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie ?ic?iaee
aoaeao?eiath/iai ieanoa i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy aeiaaeeie
aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee oa aei ciai oaiiy aaee/eie iieacieee ??aiino?.

?icaeyae a?ao?e?a caeaaeiino? na?aaeiueicaaaeaiiai cia/aiiy iieacieea
??aiino? a?ae oiia caeyaaiiy ieanoa aeiaiaeeoue, ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
iiooaeiino? ieanoa ca?eueoo?oueny ? na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee iieaciee
??aiino?. Aea ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie ?ic?iaee ciaioo? eiai cia/aiiy.

Ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiiy eooa iaoeeo ieanoa i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy
iieacieea ??aiino?, i?e/iio o iai?aioeueae? ca iaae?iiyi a?eueo
?ioaineaii i?ae o iai?aioeueae? ca iianoaiiyi (iaea?eueo aaaiia i?e
ca?eueoaii? eooa iaae?iiy ieanoa). Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe oie oaeo, ui i?e
ethaiio cia/aii? iiooaeiino? oa eooa iaoeeo ieanoa, yeee ?ic?iaey?oueny,
i?e aeeaei? ?ic?iaee iaio 250i a?aeaoaa?oueny no??iea c?inoaiiy
iieacieea ??aiino? iie?eooy ca iiooiaoii??ii, aea ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
aeeaeie ?ic?iaee a?aeaoaa?oueny oiia?eueiaiiy ci?ie cia/aiue iieacieea
??aiino?.

?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy aeieeeeo i?ae aieeaii IA? ci?i aaiiao?e/ieo
ia?aiao??a oa aieea oeeo ci?i ia iieaciee ??aiino? iie?eooy ca
iiooiaoii??ii aoee aeei?enoai? aeey oaoi?ei-aenieoaoaoe?eii? ioe?iee
aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae.

Aiae?c ioae?eaoe?e iieacaa, ui aieea aei?iaei?o oiia ia
oaoi?ei-aenieoaoaoe?ei? ia?aiao?e aaoiiia?e?a ?noioiee. Ca iniiaiee
e?eoa??e ioe?iee aieeao IA? ia aaoiiia?euei? aei?iae i?eeiyoi aeo?aoo
iaeueiiai, ine?eueee ii eiai ci?i? iiaeia noaeeoe i?i ?aaeeie ?iaioe
o?ainii?oieo cania?a, oiiae aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a oa aei??a ? o.i.
Aea canoinoaaiiy ?nioth/eo niinia?a ?ic?aooieo aeo?aoe iaeueiiai o
?aeiiao noeeueieo aei aeaoi?iaoe?e a?ae IA? ne?ooii (ia??aiii??i?noue
in?aeaiue i?ecaiaeeoue aei eieeaaiue aenioieo a?aei?oie, ye?
aeeeeeathoue ci?io oe?eiai ?yaeo oaoi?/ieo ia?aiao??a aei?iae), oiio
aoea i?iaaaeaia ni?iaa aaeaiooaaoe ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aei
i?noeaaeo oiia. No?oeoo?ia noaia aeey ?ic?aooieo aeo?aoe iaeueiiai a
oiiaao aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae i?eaaaeaia ia ?en. 5.

I?e oeueiio ?icaeyaea?oueny: ai?eciioaeueia i?yiie?i?eia ae?eyiea
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae IV oaoi?/ii? eaoaai???; eoo iaae?iiy aoa?eueiiai
ieanoa i?eeiaany a=00 oa a=600; iiooaei?noue ieanoa m=1i ? m=5 i;
aeeaeia caeyaaiiy aoa?eueiiai ieanoa I=400i; aaoiiia?e? ia?ie IAC-500a
oa C?E-130. Aeey ?ic?aooieo aeo?aoe iaeueiiai aaoiiia?eai IAC-500a aoei
aeei?enoaii a?aoiaiae?oe/iee iaoiae, aeey C?E-130 — aiae?oe/iee.

?icaeyae ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a iieaco?, ui ?c c?inoaiiyi iiooaeiino?
a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai ieanoa c 1i aei 5i c?inoa? e aeo?aoa iaeueiiai i?e
?ooo aaoiiia?e?a ia aeaoi?iiaai?e ae?eyioe? ca aeaieo oiia ?ic?iaee.
Oae, o ii??aiyii? c ?ooii aaoiiia?ey i?ioyaii iaaeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee
aei?iae, aeey IAC-500a aeo?aoa iaeueiiai ca?eueoeeanue ia 18% i?e a=00
oa ia 13% i?e a=600. Aeey C?E-130 ci?ia ca?eueoaiiy aeo?aoe iaeueiiai
aei??aith?: i?e a=00 11% aeey ii?iaeiueiai oa 15% aeey caaaioaaeaiiai
aaoiiia?ey, a i?e a=600 9% aeey ii?iaeiueiai oa 14% aeey caaaioaaeaiiai
aaoiiia?ey. Aea, i?e iaci?iiiio cia/aii? iiooaeiino? ieanoa, ca?eueoaiiy
eooa iaae?iiy ciaioo? ci?io aeo?aoe iaeueiiai ia 3…5%.

?icaeyae ?ic?aooieo i?e/ei ci?ie aeo?ao iaeueiiai aeiaiaeeoue, ui
ca?eueoaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ia no?eueee a?ae ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? ?ooo (o
iaoiio aeiaaeeo a?ae 5 aei 24%), ye a?ae ci?ie ?aaeeio ?ooo (oiaoi, a?ae
ia?aaea/?, ia ye?e cae?enith?oueny ?oo ? o.i.).

Iaeaea,i?iaaaeaia iiaeaethaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae a?ae
IA? aeicaieeei aecia/eoe ia?ae?e aeaieo, iaiao?aeieo aeey ?ic?aooieo
ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe??. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue a?aeiiino? i?i
aaaeaiiy a??ie

/eo ?ia?o ia aeai?e oa?eoi??? ? ieaiao ia ia?niaeoeao, oiio ui aiie
aieeaathoue ia aea?? i?eeiyoeo ??oaiue. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue: ?aeii
i?noeaaino?, o caeaaeiino? a?ae yeiai c ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a
aecia/athoueny eooe c?ooaiiy ? iaeneiaeueieo in?aeaiue; iiooaei?noue
iaeeie/iiai aoa?eueiiai ieanoa, aai naeoe ieano?a i?eaaaeaieo aei
aea?aaeaioiiai; eoo iaoeeo ieanoa, ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe i?inoi?iaa
iieiaeaiiy ae?iaeaiiy, yea aieeaa? ia oi?io ioeueaee in?aeaiiy; aeeaeia
?ic?iaee; oi?aae?iiy no??oith ? oaeaee?noue ?ic?iaee, ye? iaiao?aei?
aeey aecia/aiiy oa?i?i?a iiaieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? aeai?o ?ic?aooieiaeo
caeaaeiinoae.

Iath/e aeai? i?i oiiae ?ic?iaee (aeeaeio, iiooaei?noue ? eoo iaae?iiy
ieanoa), aeiaaeeio ioeueaee in?aeaiiy oa ?? iai?aioeueae, aaiiao?e/i?
ia?aiao?e iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae (iioee ?
aeiaaeeio i?yiie?i?eieo ae?eyiie, ?aae?on aa?oeeaeueieo e?eaeo ? iioee o
e?aei?o oi/eao) ca aeiiiiiaith caeaaeiinoae iiaeaii aecia/eoe ia?aiao?e
aeaoi?iaoe?? o aeia?eueiiio ia?aoei?, aai ?ioa?aae? niinoa?aaeaiue.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieyoue ioe?ieoe i?eeiyo? i?iaeoi? ??oaiiy
i?e i?iaeooaaii? aai ?aeiino?oeoe?? aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a. Oiaoi,
ciath/e oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? ia oa?aeoa?ieo
ae?eyieao iiaeia aecia/eoe i?iaeoia ??oaiiy i?i canoinoaaiiy oaeiai
iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth yeee ae iaea?eueo i?aeoiaeea ae aei aeaieo oiia
aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae aiane?aeie IA?.

Aieiaiei e?eoa???i i?ioeano iioei?caoe?? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ii ?ic?iaoe?
i?iaeoieo ??oaiue ? i?i?i?caoe?y iane?aee?a aieeao IA? ia aaoiiia?euei?
aei?iae, oiaoi iicaeiaaei?e i?io?eue iiaeiai caa??aaoe aaiiao?e/i?
ia?aiao?e, aai caciaaaoe iacia/ieo ci?i, i?ioyaii anueiai oa?i?io
aenieoaoaoe??. A?ae oeueiai caeaae?oue o?eaae?noue no?ieo neoaeae
aei?iae ? oaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, oa nia?aa?oino? oo?eiaiiy ye?niiai
noaio a caaeia?eueiiio noai?.

?c i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aa/eii, ui aeei?enoaiiy i?yiie?i?eieo
ae?eyiie i?e i?iaeooaaii? iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth ia ia? naino, o
ca?yceo ?c cia/ieie ci?iaie aaee/ei aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a
aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee (cia/aiiy iioeeo oa e?eaecie e?i?? ia?eno
aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee cia/ii a?eueoa i?iaeoieo).

Aeei?enoaiiy eieiaeo e?eaeo aeioe?eueii i?e cia/ieo aaee/eiao ?aae?on?a
caie?oaeaiiy, ui aeicaiey? cia/ii eiiiainoaaoe oe?aeeeaee aieea IA?.
I?e/iio, ca?eueoaiiy iioeeo a e?aei?o oi/eao eieiaeo e?eaeo ciaioo?
i?i?iaeueio iaaeo cia/aiiy ?aae?ono, i?e yeiio cae?enith?oueny iacia/ia
ci?ia aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth. Oae, i?e iioeeo
a e?aei?e oi/oe? aeoae ?=30i/ii i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy ?aae?ono, ui
i?iiiio?oueny, R=10000i, i?e ?=60i/ii aaee/eia ?aae?ono aaea neeaaea?
R=5000i, a i?e ?=90i/ii ?aae?on ia? cia/aiiy R=4000i.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? oa?aeoa?ieo ae?eyiie
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae aiane?aeie IA? iieaco?, ui ?ic?iaea ei?enieo
eiiaeei i?aecaiiei niiniaii caaaeaee aeyaey? cia/iee iaaaoeaiee aieea ia
aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae. A ?acoeueoao? i?ioeano
in?aeaiiy ci?ith?oueny ia o?eueee ?aeue?o i?noeaaino?, ia ye?e ?ici?uaia
aei?iaa, aea ? iicaeiaaei?e i?io?eue aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae. I?e/iio, a
aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e io?eiaiiio iie?ioaii? aeayeeo
aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a o?ane (oae, i?ae?iaethaaiiy iioeei? eieiai?
e?eai? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy ?aae?ono aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eyiee ?
ciaioaiiy aaee/eie iaeneiaeueiiai iioeeo) a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ia
iia??oaiiy ye?niiai noaio iie?eooy i?i?cii? /anoeie aei?iae oa
a?oioiaiai iieioia (ci?ia u?eueiino? aei?iaeiueiai iaeyao ? u?eueiino?
a?oioiaiai iieioia, iia??oaiiy ??aiino? iie?eooy, ieaaiino? i?iaeoii?
e?i?? aei?iae ? o. i.)

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c?iaeaii ianooii? aeniiaee:

1) Aecia/aii iniiai? oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia i?ioean aeaoi?iaoe??
iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae i?ae aieeaii ?ic?iaee
ei?enieo eiiaeei i?aecaiiei niiniaii.

2) Anoaiiaeaii, ui aa?oeeaeuei? aeaoi?iaoe?? a?ae IA? i?yii
i?iii?oe?ei? iiooaeiino? ?ic?iaey?iiai ieanoa ? iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?ei?
aeeaei? ?ic?iaee ? eooa iaae?iiy ieanoa;

3) ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae
a?ae IA?, yea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ci?ie oa?aeoa?ieo ae?eyiie
iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia caeyaaiiy aoa?eueieo
ieano?a.

4) Ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? io?eiai? ?aa?an?ei? caeaaeiino?
aecia/aiiy ci?ie iicaeiaaeiueiai iioeeo oa?aeoa?ieo ae?eyiie a?ae oiia
caeyaaiiy ?ic?iaethaaiiai ieanoa ? aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a o?ane aei
aeaoi?iaoe??

5) Aecia/aii a?aeiia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeaiei
io?eiaiei ca aeiiiiiaith i?aeoe/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeaoi?iaoe?yie
aeaiaio?a iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth.

6) I?e i?iaeooaaii? aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a ia i?ae?iaethaaieo oa?eoi??yo
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny iaoiaeeoe ?aeiie aea aeeaeia ?ic?iaee ieanoa iaioa 250i
oa e?aoi?noue i?e?iaeaiiy iaioa 100 iaeeieoeue, ciaioeoe iaeneiaeueii
aeiionoei? iioeee ia 20% o a?aeiia?aeiino? eaoaai??e aei??a, oa
ca?eueoeoe i?i?iaeueiee i?iaeoiee ?aae?on aa?oeeaeueieo e?eaeo aei
5000i;

7) ?acoeueoaoe aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e
i?iaeooaaii? aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a ia i?ae?iaethaaieo oa?eoi??yo
aiane?aeie i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia iniia? i?iaiico iiaeeeai?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ?o aeaiaio?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao:

 A?eyoeinueeee I.A., Iaiueeia A.A., Oee?i ?.A. Eiioeaioe?y
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie “Aaoiiia?euei? aei?iae ia
oaoiiaaiii-aeaoi?iiaaieo oa?eoi??yo “// Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie. 1996. -?3.
– N.35-37

 A?eyoeinueeee I.A., Iaiueeia A.A., Oee?i ?.A., Aoaaiiaa I.A. Aieea
i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia i?io?eue aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae //
Aaoiiia?euei? aei?iae ? aei?iaei? aoae?aieoeoai. 1997. — Aei.54.
-N.173-178

 A?eyoeinueeee I.A., Iaiueeia A.A., Oee?i ?.A. I?i aieea i?aecaiieo
a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia o?ano aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae // Aaoiiia?euei? aei?iae
? aei?iaei? aoae?aieoeoai. 1998. — Aei.55. -N.93-99

 A?eyoeinueeee I.A., Iaiueeia A.A., Oee?i ?.A. I?i aieea i?aecaiieo
a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia i?io?eue aei?iae ? aeo?aoo iaeeaa // Aaoiiia?euei?
aei?iae ? aei?iaei? aoae?aieoeoai. 1998. — Aei.56. -N.118-125

 Oeeei E.A. Iniaaiiinoe i?iaeoe?iaaiey aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia a
Aeiiaanna // Aaoiaei?iaei?e eiiieaen Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao: i?iaeaie
? oeyoe ?icaeoeo : Ca. iaoe. I?aoeue. –E.:OOO, -1998?. -N.97-98.

 Iaiueeia A.A., Oeeei E.A. Aaoiiiaeeueiua aei?iae ia iiae?aaaouaaaiuo
oa??eoi?eyo // Aaoiaei?iaei?e eiiieaen Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao:
i?iaeaie ? oeyoe ?icaeoeo : Ca. iaoe. I?aoeue. –E.:OOO, -1998?.
-N.98-99.

 Iaiueeia A.A., Oeeei E.A. Ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau enneaaeiaaiee
aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia ia iiae?aaaouaaaiuo oa??eoi?eyo // Aaoiaei?iaei?e
eiiieaen Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao: i?iaeaie ? oeyoe ?icaeoeo : Ca.
iaoe. i?aoeue. –E.:OOO, -1998?. -N.101-104.

Oeeei E.A. Iniaaiiinoe aeeyiey iiaecaiiuo ai?iuo ?aaio ia aaiiao?e/aneea
ia?aiao?u aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie
noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.11 –
aaoiiiaeeueiua aei?iae e ay?iae?iiu, Oe?aeineee o?ainii?oiue
oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999a.

Ii?aaeaeaiu oaeoi?u, eioi?ua ieacuaatho iaeaieaa cia/eiia aeeyiea ia
i?ioeann eciaiaiey aaiiao?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia aaoiiiaeeueiie aei?iae iiae
aicaeaenoaeai ?ac?aaioie iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo iiaecaiiui niiniaii.
Noi?ioee?iaaia i?eioeeieaeueiay ?an/aoiay noaia naeaeaeaiey caiiie
iiaa?oiinoe ia iniiaaiee eioi?ie iieo/aiu ?an/?oiua noaiu inaaeaiey
oa?aeoa?iuo yeaiaioia i?iaeieueiiai i?ioeey aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia iiae
aicaeaenoaeai ai?iuo ?ac?aaioie. ?ac?aaioai iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao
ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia aeaoi?iaoeee oa?aeoa?iuo o/anoeia aaoiiiaeeueiie
aei?iae aei?iae i?e ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo caeaaaiey oaeaniaea?aeauaai
ieanoa e aaiiao?e/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ?anniao?eaaaiuo o/anoeia
i?iaeieueiiai i?ioeey. I?aaeeiaeaiiay iaoiaeeea ?an/?oa ia?aiao?ia
aeaoi?iaoeee aaoiiiaeeueiie aei?iae niaeaniaaia n aeaenoaothueie
ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie, e aaeaeaaoia iaoiaeeeai, i?eiaiyaiui aeey
aiaeiae/iuo ?an/aoia aaee/ei aeaoi?iaoeee a niaaeiuo io?aneyo
no?ieoaeuenoaa e aaeaioe?iaaia e iniaaiiinoyi i?ioeanna inaaeaiey
aaoiiiaeeueiie aei?iae a neaaenoaee iiaecaiiuo ai?iuo ?ac?aaioie.
I?iaaaeaii iaoeiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeanna aeaoi?iaoeee i?yiieeiaeiuo
e e?eaieeiaeiuo o/anoeia i?iaeieueiiai i?ioeey aaoiiiaeeueiie aei?iae, n
o/?oii ?acee/iuo oneiaee iiae?aaioee. ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoia auee
eniieueciaaiu aeey auyaeaiey caeiiiia?iinoae ?ani?aaeaeaiey eieaeueiuo
cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia aeaoi?iaoeee ii aeeeia aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai o/anoea, a
oaeaea eo n?aaeiaacaaoaiiuo aaee/ei a caaeneiinoe io oneiaee caeaaaiey
ieanoa e aaiiao?e/aneeo iniaaiiinoae oa?aeoa?iuo yeaiaioia aei?iae.
Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua iiaeaee?iaaiey aeaoi?iaoeee i?yiieeiaeiuo o/anoeia
aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia auee eniieueciaaiu aeey auaaaeaiey ?aa?anneiiiuo
caaeneiinoae ?an/aoia i?iaeieueiuo oeeiiia io oneiaee caeaaaiey
?ac?aaaouaaaiiai ieanoa, eioi?ua ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue a
i?eeeaei/iuo ?an/aoao aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iioeiaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaaiiiai
iieiaeaiey o?annu ia oa??eoi?eyo iiaeaa?aeaiuo aeaoi?iaoeeyi a
neaaenoaee iiaecaiiuo ai?iuo ?aaio. Ii?aaeaeea iioeiaeueiia
?aniieiaeaiea o?annu ioiineoaeueii au?aaioaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa cia/aiey
ia?aiao?ia aeaoi?iaoeee ooi/iaiythony ii i?aaeeiaeaiiie iaoiaeeea.

I?iaaaeai oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec aeeyiey iiaecaiiuo ai?iuo
?ac?aaioie ia ea/anoaaiiia ninoiyiea aaoiiiaeeueiie aei?iae. Oae
i?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaeeee ii i?aeoe/aneiio eniieueciaaieth ?acoeueoaoia
iiaeaee?iaaiey aeaoi?iaoeee aaiiao?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia i?iaeieueiiai
i?ioeey aaoiiiaeeueiie aei?iae iiae aicaeaenoaeai naeaeaeaiey caiiie
iiaa?oiinoe, a /anoiinoe ii?aaeaeaiea aaee/eiu iieacaoaey ?iaiinoe
iie?uoey ii oie/eiia?o (iniiaaiiai ia caaeneiinoe iieacaoaey ?iaiinoe
iie?uoey ii oie/eiia?o io i?inaaoa iiae o?ao iao?iaie ?aeeie) e ?anoiaea
oiieeaa a?ociauie aaoiiiaeeyie i?e aeaeaeaiee ii aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiio
ai?eciioaeueiiio o/anoeo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?ac?aaioea iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo iiaecaiiui niiniaii,
ioeueaea inaaeaiey caiiie iiaa?oiinoe io iiaecaiiuo ai?iuo ?aaio,
iiae?aaioea aaoiiiaeeueiie aei?iae, aeaoi?iaoeey i?iaeieueiiai i?ioeey,
aa?oeeaeueiia inaaeaiea, i?iaeieueiue oeeii, e?eaecia iiaa?oiinoe,
?aaeeon cae?oaeaiey, iieacaoaeue ?iaiinoe iie?uoey ii oie/eiia?o,
?anoiae oiieeaa.

Oee?i ?.A. Iniaeeaino? aieeao i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia aaiiao?e/i?
ia?aiao?e aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy o/aiiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.22.11 —
aaoiiia?euei? oeyoe oa aa?iae?iie, Oe?a?inueeee o?ainii?oiee
oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999 ?.

Aecia/aii iniiai? oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia i?ioean aeaoi?iaoe??
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae i?ae aieeaii i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o, a oaeiae
?icaeyioo? ?ic?aooieia? noaie in?aeaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo aeaiaio?a
iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth a?ae i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o.

?icaeyiooi oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo eieaeueieo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a
aeaoi?iaoe?? ii aeiaaeei? aeaoi?iiaaii? iiaa?oi?. Aecia/aii caeaaeiino?
?iciiae?eo aaee/eie ia?aiao??a aeaoi?iaoe?? (eieaeueieo oa
na?aaeiueicaaaeaieo) a?ae oiia caeyaaiiy ieanoa ? aaiiao?e/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ae?eyiie iicaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth.

Io?eiaii ?aa?an?ei? caeaaeiino? iioee?a a?ae oiia caeyaaiiy aoa?eueiiai
ieanoa. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ii i?aeoe/iiio aeei?enoaiith
?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy ci?ie aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a iicaeiaaeiueiai
i?io?eth aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae i?ae aieeaii i?aecaiieo ?ic?iaie.

Eeth/iaa neiai: ?ic?iaea ei?enieo eiiaeei i?aecaiiei niiniaii, ioeueaea
in?aeaiiy caiii? iiaa?oi? a?ae i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o,
i?ae?iaethaaiiy aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae, aeaoi?iaoe?y iicaeiaaeiueiai
i?io?eth, aa?oeeaeueia in?aeaiiy, iicaeiaaei?e iioee, e?eaecia iiaa?oi?,
?aae?on caie?oaeaiiy, iieaciee ??aiino? iie?eooy ca iiooiaoii??ii,
aeo?aoa iaeueiiai.

Shilin I.V. Features of influence of underground mountain works on
geometrical parameters of highways. The dissertation on competition of a
scientific degree of the candidate of engineering science on a
speciality 05.22.11 — highways and air stations, Ukrainian transport
university, Kiev, 1999.

Are certain (determined) basic ?arameters deformations, influencing
process, of a highway under influence of underground mountain works and
the settlement circuits interactions of characteristic elements of a
longitudinal structure and funnel deformation of a terrestrial surface
are considered. Offered the technique of account of parameters of
deformation takes into account geometrical features of sites of a
longitudinal structure and uses operating time in similar branches of
construction with reference to conditions of process of deformation and
showed requirements to a longitudinal structure of a highway. The
techniques on practical use of results of modeling nhanges of
geometrical parameters of a longitudinal structure of a highway under
influence of underground development, in particular definition of a
parameter equals of a covering and charge of fuel by automobiles are
offered at movement on deformations to a horizontal site.

Key words: development of minerals by a underground way, funnel
deformation of a terrestrial surface from underground mountain works,
development under highways, deformation of a longitudinal structure,
vertical deformation, longitudinal inclination, curvature of a surface,
radius nurve, parameter equals of a covering, charge of fuel.

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