NAEAEOe?EII-AAIAOE*IEE ?INOEOOO

OE?A?INUeEI? AEAAeAI?? AA?A?IEO IAOE

AANEEUeE?ANUeEEE Noai?neaa Iao?iae/

OAeE 633.11.”324”:631.528.62

Iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco i?e noai?aii? aeo?aeiiai
iaoa??aeo aeey naeaeoe?? ioaieoe?

06.01.05 – naeaeoe?y ? ian?iieoeoai

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a A?eioea?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie Iieioeueeee Ieoaeei sseiae/,
A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
naeaeoe?? ? ian?iieoeoaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
i?ioani? Ieeuei?a

Aaeaioei Ieoaeeiae/, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee
?inoeooo, i?ioani? eaoaae?e naeaeoe??, aaiaoeee ? caoenoo ?ineei;

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, Caneoaeaiee ae?y/
iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie Ae?en??aa Ieaia Naiai?aia, Iiae?euenueea
aea?aeaaia aa?ioaoi?/ia aeaaeai?y, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith ?ineeiieoeoaa
? naeaeoe??;

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Ea?/aiei
Eaoa?eia Aiae???aia, ?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie,
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iooaaaiaco.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, i. Ee?a

eaoaae?a naeaeoe??, ian?iieoeoaa oa o?c?ieia?? ?ineei

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “1”aeiaoiy1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 41.363.01 Naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iiai
?inoeoooo OAAI ca aae?anith: 270036, i. Iaeana, Ia?ae?iiieuenueea
aei?iaa, 3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe?
Naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iiai ?inoeoooo OAAI ca aae?anith: 270036, i. Iaeana,
Ia?ae?iiieuenueea aei?iaa, 3.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “19”na?iiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
Noaieaae/ A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aoaeoeai?noue naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny
aaaaoueia oaeoi?aie, iaeiae i?iaeaia noai?aiiy aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo a
no/ani?e naeaeoe?? aenooia? ia ia?oa i?noea. Aeo?aeiee iaoa??ae ? o??th
iaoa??aeueiith aacith, c aeei?enoaiiyi aaiaoe/iiai ??ciiiai?ooy yei?
naeaeoe?iia?e aeaiaeyoue iia? ni?oe. O ca`yceo c oeei iniaeeaiai
cia/aiiy iaaoaa? oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a ?iaeoeiaaiiai iooaaaiaco,
noai?aiiy aaiaoe/ieo eieaeoe?e iooaio?a c aeaoa?i?iiaaieie iciaeaie e
aeanoeainoyie, aea/aiiy aaiaoe/iiai eiio?ieth i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa
?ic?iaea niinia?a ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy a naeaeoe?? ioaieoe?.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaiaoeee eaoaae?e naeaeoe?? oa ian?iieoeoaa
A?eioea?-e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Aea?aeaaiee
?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? 0197O018184).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue aoei oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy oi?iioai?/iai i?ioeano a iceii? i`yei? ioaieoe? i?e
o?i?/iiio iooaaaiac?, aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a aeiai?o iooaio?a c
aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?iiaaieie iciaeaie, canoinoaaiiy iiaoi?iiai iooaaaiaco
e i?aeiooaioii? oa iooaioii-ni?oiai? a?a?eaeecaoe?? aeey noai?aiiy
aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo c eiiieaenii ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieo iciae ?
aeanoeainoae. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/aeinue
ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaea/:

— aea/eoe oeeoiaaiaoe/io e iooaaaiio ae?th aee?eoth/eo AeIE niieoe oa
iiaeeea?noue ?? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy c canoinoaaiiyi ia?a-ai?iiaaicieii?
eeneioe ia naeaeoe?eieo ni?oao iceii? ioaieoe?;

— aea/eoe iooaa?euei?noue naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a ??ciiai aaia?ao?/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy ca ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieie iciaeaie;

— oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaee aeiai?o naeaeoe?eii oe?iieo oi?i ca ie?aieie
e?euee?nieie iciaeaie a iieie?iiyo eiinoaioieo ? aaiaoe/ii ianoaa?eueieo
iooaio?a;

— i?iaanoe ioe?ieo e aeia?? ?iaeoeiaaieo iooaio?a ca aeaiaioaie
i?iaeoe-oeaiino? eieina, no?ee?noth aei ai?ioienoi? ?ine e ao?i? ??ae?,
ca ie?aieie iieacieeaie yeino? ca?ia oa a?iaeaeiino?;

— aea/eoe oa?aeoa? oniaaeeoaaiiy e?euee?nieo iciae ? oi?iioai?/ee
i?ioean o iieie?iiyo i?aeiooaioieo ? iooaioii-ni?oiaeo a?a?eae?a;

— noai?eoe aaiaoe/ii ??ciiiai?oio eieaeoe?th iooaio?a c ainiiaea?nueei e
naeaeoe?eii oe?iieie iciaeaie aeey iiaeaeueoi? naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aecia/ai? iniaeeaino?
i?ieeaino?, oniaaeeoaaiiy e oniaaeeiaoaaiino? ii?oieia?/ieo, a?ieia?/ieo
oa ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieo iciae ? aeanoeainoae o iooaio?a iceii?
ioaieoe?, ?iaeoeiaaieo o?i?/ieie iooaaaiaie.

Iaa?oioiaai? oai?aoe/i? iniiae e ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee aeiai?o a iieie?iiyo
ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a (I3-I10) oi?i c aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?ii-aaieie
iciaeaie aeaiaio?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? eieina oa aenioe noaaea.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy iiaoi?ii? ae?? iooaaai?a ia iooaioe,
aeei-?enoaiiy i?aeiooaioii? oa iooaioii-ni?oiai? a?a?eaeecaoe??
aeicaiey? iaea?-aeoaaoe aaiioeie c eiiieaenii ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieo
iciae ? aeanoeainoae.

Iieacaii, ui a a?a?eaeieo iieie?iiyo, iaea?aeaieo a?ae no?auoaaiiy
eiinoaioieo iooaio?a i?ae niaith aai c naeaeoe?eieie ni?oaie e,
iniaeeai, c caeo/aiiyi ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a i?io?ea? iaaecae/aeii
aaaaoee oi?ii-oai?/ee i?ioean. I?e/iio, nooi?iue i?iyao e?euee?nieo
iciae o F1 iiaea aa??thaaoe a?ae aeai?an?? (hp -1) aei iaaeaeii?ioaaiiy
(hp +1), ui coiiaeth? ooai?aiiy a ianooiieo iieie?iiyo oaiioei?a c
aeanoeainoyie a?aenooi?ie a aaouee?anueeeo oi?i.

Io?eiai? iia? aeai?, ye? aeieacothoue iiaeeea?noue ?iaeoeoaaiiy e
aeiai?o a naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a iooaioieo oi?i c i?aeaeuaiei eiao?oe??ioii
ainiiaea?nueei? aoaeoeaiino? oioineioaco oa ai?noii i?ioa?io e
eeaeeiaeie a ca?i?, oa no?eeino? aei oai?ia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ? aianeii o ?ic?iaeo i?aeoe/ieo iaoiae?a naeaeoe??, a
oaeiae aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iooaaaiaco, ui ni?ey? iiaeaeueo?e eiai
o?ainoi?iaoe?? c oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie o aoaeoeaiee i?eeeaaeiee iaoiae
noai?aiiy aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oeyoii o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco iiaeia ?iaeoeoaaoe a
naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a iceii? ioaieoe? noia?ea?eeee (32-39 ni), a oaeiae
oi?ie, ye? iathoue ei?ioeinoaae?noue, i?aeaeuaio e?euee?noue ca?ai
(52-61 oo.) ? iano ca?ia aieiaiiai eieina (2.5-3.0 a), aenieee ai?no
i?ioa?io (aei 16 %) ? eeaeeiaeie (aei 36 %), aenieo iano 1000 ca?ai
(50-52 a), neeo ai?ioia (iiiaae 280 iae.a.), i?aeaeuaio iieueiao
no?ee?noue aei ai?ioienoi? ?ine e ao?i? eenoeiai? ??ae?.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui ia?iaea ian?iiy ia?a-ai?iiaaicieiith eeneioith a noi?o? c
noia?iooaaaiaie cieaeo? /anoioo o?iiiniiieo aaa?aoe?e o ee?oeiao
ia?enoaie ca?iaeeiaeo ei?ai?a, i?aeaeuo? eiai iieueiao noiae?noue, ui
aea? iiaeeea?noue canoiniaoaaoe a?eueo aei?noe? eiioeaio?aoe??
iooaaai?a.

Noai?aia eieaeoe?y iooaio?a, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny a iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e
?iaio? eaoaae?e naeaeoe?? oa ian?iieoeoaa AAeAO ii aea/aiith aaiaoeee
e?eue-e?nieo iciae, oa?aeoa?o ?o oniaaeeoaaiiy a i?aeiooaioi?e oa
iooaioii-ni?-oia?e a?a?eaeecaoe?? oa ye iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae o
i?aeaioiaoe? oao?aoe?a aeey aa-?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno. Ocaaaeueiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?en-oai? a i?ae?o/ieeao c naeaeoe?? e
aaiaoeee, ni?aaaoi?ii yeeo ? aeena?oaio.

Ia?niaeoeai? iooaioe e i?aeiooaioi? a?a?eaee aeeth/ai? o aeu? aoaie
naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano eaoaae?e, a oaeiae ia?aaeai? aeey iiaeaeueoi?
?iaioe a Ie?ii?anueeee ?inoeooo ioaieoe? OAAI c iaoith aei?iaoaaiiy e
i?aeai-oiaee aeey ia?aaea/? ia Aea?aeaaia ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy ye iiaeo
ni?o?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaio iniaenoi ocaaaeueiea ?acoeueoaoe
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aea?aa iai?yi, aecia/ea
caaea/? e ?ic?iaea i?ia?aio aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Naiino?eii i?ia?a
oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, noaoenoe/io
ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ia IE “ViewSonic 14 AS” ? ?o
ocaaaeueiaiiy. I?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii? eaai?aoi?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ae?iaie/iio aei?iaoaaii? iooaio?a. C i?aaenoaaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe?? iaoa??ae?a 89 % iaeaaeeoue aaoi?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeeaaeai? a iaoa??aeao
aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeeny e aoee noaaeai? ia: ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeiaa caaacia/aiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno O?N?” (A?ea Oea?eaa, 1990); ui??/ieo Ananithcieo ia?aaeao c
aeei?enoaiiy o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco a naeaeoe??, ye? i?aai?ciaoaaa
a?aeae?e o?i?/ii? aaiaoeee ?inoeoooo o?i?/ii? o?ceee AI N?N? (Iineaa,
1982- 1991??.); V c`?cae? Ananithciiai oiaa?enoaa aaiaoee?a ?
naeaeoe?iia??a (Iineaa, 1987); V? c`?cae? aaiaoee?a oa naeaeoe?iia??a
Oe?a?ie (Iieoaaa, 1992); ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe??
“Yenia?eiaioaeueiue iooaaaiac e aai eniieueciaaiea a naeaeoeee ?anoaiee”
(*a?ieaia, 1989); I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Aa?iaeieia?/i? ? aeiiii?/i?
i?iaeaie o?i?caoe?? AIE Oe?a?ie” (Oiaiue, 1997); V? I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iao?aaeeoeeiiiia ?anoaieaaiaenoai,
yeieiaey e caei?iauea” (Aeoooa, 8-14 naioya?y 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiaoeeith aeine?aeaeaiue ii aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii
32 noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa iaoa??aeao
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, c ieo 21 o oaoiaeo, a oiio /ene? 8 iaeiiin?aieo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioo
aeeeaaeaii ia 280 noi??ieao noaiaea?oiiai ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, aiia
i?noeoue 92 oaaeeoe?, 35 ?enoie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 432 iaeiaioaaiiy, a oiio /ene? 58 eaoeinueeei o?eooii.

Iniiaiee ci?no

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Ei?ioea ?noi??y ? no/aniee noai noai?aiiy aeo?aeiiai
iaoa??aeo iaoiaeii o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco a naeaeoe?? iceii? ioaieoe?”
iiaea?oueny aiae?c noaio aea/aiino? aaiaoe/iiai eiio?ieth ii?oieia?/ieo
iciae ? iaoai?ci?a i?iaeoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a iceii? ioaieoe? oa
aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a noai?aiiy aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo c
aeaoa?i?iiaaieie iciaeaie oa aeanoeainoyie. Ocaaaeueiai? e aeae?eai?
iaaeinoaoiuei aea/ai? ieoaiiy o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco, ae??oaiiy yeeo ia?
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy a caaaa/aii? aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo aeey
naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iiai iie?ioaiiy ni?o?a iceii? ioaieoe?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oiiae ? iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue”
iienai? i?noea, oiiae, iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

?iaioa ii noai?aiith aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo iaoiaeii o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco
aeeiioaaeany i?ioyaii 1981-1998 ?ie?a a oiiaao aeine?aeiiai iiey
A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (AAeAO),
eaai?aoi??yo aoco oa Ie?ii?anueeiai ?inoeoooo ioaieoe? OAAI.

Aeine?aeia iiea ?icoaoiaaia ia oa?eoi??? o/aiai-aeine?aeiiai
ainiiaea?-noaa AAeAO. A?oioe aeine?aeiiai iiey – /i?iicaie aeeaie?
iaeiaoioni? aeeoaiaai? noaeeieia?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iecueeeie
o?ce/ieie aeanoeainoyie, iecueeith i?iieei?noth ? neaaeith aa?aoe??th.
Ai?no aoiono eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 3-3.6 %. Caaaeueiee ai?no acioo, ui
eaaei a?ae?ie?co?oueny, ?ooiieo oi?i oinoi?o e eae?th eieeaa?oueny a?ae
iecueeiai aei na?aaeiueiai. A?ae?ie?oe/ia eeneioi?noue a?oioo (?I
nieueiai? aeoyaeee) ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 5.9-6.7.

Iiaiaei? oiiae ca ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. O aeaye? ?iee
niinoa??aaeeny a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae na?aaei?o aaaaoi??/ieo iieaciee?a, ui
iaaiith i??ith aieeaaei ia oi?ioaaiiy o?iaeath ? yeino? ca?ia,
no?ee?noue aei aeeyaaiiy oa o?aaeaiiy oai?iaaie, oiaoi aoee oa?aeoa?ieie
aeey i?aaiaa?aaeii? /anoeie e?ninoaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie, aeaoaeueiee
aiae?c yeeo i?eaaaeaiee o ?iaio?.

Aea/aee oeeoiaaiaoe/io ? iooaaaiio ae?th ainueie aee?eoth/eo AeIE
niieoe: N-i?o?ici-N-iaoeena/iaeia (IIN), N-i?o?ici-N-aoeena/iaeia (IAN),
N-i?o?iciaeeiaoeena/iaeia (IAeIN), aeeiaoeenoeueoao (AeIN),
aeeaoeenoeueoao (AeAN), i?o?iciiaoeea?o?ao (IIA), 1,
4-a?nae?aciaoeaoee-aooai (AeAA), aoeeai?i?i (A?). sse iiaeeo?eaoi?
oeeoiaaiaoe/ii? ae?? iooaaai?a aea/aee ia?a-ai?iiaaicieio eeneioo
(IAAE). Iooaaaie e IAAE neioaciaai? o a?aeae?e? o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco
?inoeoooo o?i?/ii? o?ceee (Iineaa) ? etha`ycii iaaeaaaeeny iai aeey
?iaioe caa?aeoth/ei a?aeae?eii E.A. ?aiiii?oii.

Iooaaaiio ae?th oeeo niieoe aea/aee ia ni?oao a?o/eciyii? e ca?oa?aeii?
naeaeoe?? oa ?iaeoeiaaieo iaie a oeeo ni?o?a iooaioao I3-I7. Ca ia??iae
aeine?aeaeaiue ae?? iooaaai?a i?aeaeaaaee iiiaae 50 ni?oic?ace?a,
ia?ae?e yeeo i?eaaaeaiee o aeena?oaoe??. C?acee naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a
a?o/eciyii? e ca?o-a?aeii? naeaeoe?? aeey aeine?aeaeaiue iaea?aeoaaee c
eieaeoe?eiiai ?icnaaeieea Ie?ii?anueeiai ?inoeoooo ioaieoe? OAAI.

Oeeoiaaiaoe/io aeoeai?noue iooaaai?a aea/aee ca /anoioith o?iiinii-ieo
aaa?aoe?e o ee?oeiao ia?enoaie ca?iaeeiaeo ei?ai?a ia oei/aniaeo
aoeaoiea?i?iiaeo i?aia?aoao o i?ci?e aiaoac? e ?aii?e oaeioac?.

A?ae noiae?a aei aeic??aaiiy aaee niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ?ineeiaie I1. Iae?e
ci?iaieo oi?i o I1 aaee ca e?euee?noth ?ineei, a a I2 – ci?iaieo n?iae.

?ineeie c ii?oieia?/ieie ci?iaie a?aeae?aee, i?iaiaeeee
?iaeea?aeo-aeueiee a?iiao?e/iee aiae?c ? aen?aaee aeey ia?aa??ee ca
iioiinoaii o I2 oa ianooiieo iieie?iiyo. ?aooo ?ineei I1 cae?aee,
i?iaiaeeee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aiae?c ? aen?aaee eieinnyie (aieiaiee
eiein), ui aa?ai-ooaaei aeeeth/aiiy iaoai?/iiai cani?/aiiy ?ioeie
oi?iaie.

O ?iaio? c iieie?iiyie eiinoaioieo iooaio?a canoiniaoaaee
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aeia?? ca naeaeoe?eii e ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieie
iciaeaie, o ianoaa?eueieo – aacia?a?aiee aeia?? ca iaoiaeii iaae?a?? a
ii?aeiaii? c ianiaei a?aeai?ii iethn-aa??aio?a o o?aoueiio-aeaa`yoiio
iieie?iiyo i?ney aeae?eaiiy iooaioii? ?ineeie.

A?iiao?e/i? aiae?ce i?iaiaeeee ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie a e?euee?ni?e
aaiaoeoe? iaoiaeaie ii na?aaeiueiio c?aceo 20-30 ?ineei.

Ioe?ieo iieueiai? no?eeino? iooaio?a aei ao?i? ??ae? i?iaiaeeee ca
caaaeueiii?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith ca oeaeith O.Ae. No?aoiaa (I.ss.
Iieioeueeee, N.I. Aaneeuee?anueeee, A.?. Eiycthe, 1995), o?aaeaiiy
ai?io-ienoith ?inith — ca oeaeith A.A. Aaoaea (A.I. Iiaethoa oa ?i.,
1986).

Ieiua iae?eiaeo ae?eyiie aa??thaaea caeaaeii a?ae aoai?a ?iaioe. O
eieaeoe?eiiio e naeaeoe?eiiio ?icnaaeieeao iooaio?a ? a?a?eae?a aiia
aecia/aeany e?euee?noth ian?iiy naeaeoe?eiiai c?acea. O noa?oeo I (F)
iieie?iiyo c? ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? ian?iiy iae?eiaa ieiua ae?eyiie
c?inoaea a?ae 1 i2 aei 50 i2, a iiaoi?aiiy – a?ae 2 aei 6.

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aeaieo i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeaie iieniai? noaoenoeee,
ei?aeyoe?eiiai, aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?c?a (?ieeoeeee I.O., 1973,1974; A.O.
Eaeei, 1990; A.A. Aeiniaoia, 1979) oa ANOVA-MANOVA ca i?ia?aiith
“Statistica”, aa?n?y 5.0, Windows-95 ia ia?niiaeueiiio eiii`thoa??
“ViewSonic 14 ES”.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oi?iioai?/ee i?ioean i?e o?i?/iiio iooaaaiac?”
iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oeeoiaaiaoe/ii? ae?? o?i?/ieo
iooaaai?a ia i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy I0, ??no, ?icaeoie, iooaa?euei?noue
?ineei I1-I2 oa oi?iioai?/iai i?ioeano e aeiai?o a iieie?iiyo aaiaoe/ii
ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a iceii? ioaieoe?.

Noia?iooaaaie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ciiiai?oi?noth nai?? ae?? ia ee?oeie
?ineei. Aaaaoueii c ieo aeanoeaa aeineoue ae?aaeaia oeeoioiene/ia ae?y.
Iaoai?ci oeeoioiene/iiai aoaeoo a?aeia?aaea? oe?ieee ?iciao aca?iiae??
o?i?/ieo aaaio?a, caeaoieo anooiaoe a ?aaeoe?th ye c aaiiei iaoa??aeii,
oae ? c oeeoiieaciaoe/ieie oa?iaioaie. Ioaea, oiene/ia ae?y iooaaai?a
iiaea aooe i?e/eiith no?oeoo?ieo iioeiaeaeaiue o?iiinii aai ?iaeoeaaoe??
aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo oa?iaio?a, ui i?eai?/o? ??no ca?iaeeiaeo ei??i/ee?a.
?o aeiaaeeia aa??thaaea o an?o ni?o?a caeaaeii a?ae aeice iooaaaia.

Niinoa??aaeany i?yia caeaaei?noue: c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe??
iooaaaia ciaiooaaeany aeiaaeeia ca?iaeeiaeo ei??i/ee?a. On? iooaaaie a
eiioeaio?aoe?? 0.05 % ni?e/eiyee ?? cieaeaiiy a on?o ni?o?a. Iaeiae,
ae?y iaeiiai e oiai ae iooaaaia iaiaeiaeiai i?iyaeyeany ia ??cieo
aaiioeiao. IAN o eiioeaio?aoe?? 0.0125 % o an?o ni?o?a i?iyaeyea
noeioethth/o ae?th ia aeiaaeeio ca?iaeeiaeo ei??i/ee?a, yea aeinoia??ii
ia?aaeuoaaea eiio?ieue.

On? iooaaaie a eiioeaio?aoe?? 0.05 ? 0.025 % o an?o ni?o?a cieaeoaaee
iieueiao noiae?noue ian?iiy ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai ? iaa?oue
ni?e/eithaaee iiaio eiai caaeaaeue. Anoaiiaeaia /?oea caeaaei?noue: c
i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? iooaaaia cieaeo?oueny iieueiaa noiae?noue
ian?iiy. Oi/a ?iiae? oey oaiaeaioe?y (caeaaeii a?ae aaiioeio ni?oo)
ii?ooo?oueny oae, ui i?e aeu?e eiioeaio?aoe?? (0.05%) iieueiaa
noiae?noue aoaa? aeuith, i?ae i?e 0.025%. IAeIN, AeIN, AeAN, IIA ? AeAA
a 0.05 %-i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?thoue aeaui i`yeoa ii??aiyii c
i?o?iciiaoeena/iaeiith oa aoeeai?i?iii.

Iooaoe?y aeieea? aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? iooaaaia c aaiaoe/iei iaoa??aeii
ee?oeie. Ia oeyoo aei oeueiai eiioaeoo iooaaai ai?oo?oueny a
iaoaaie?/iee aaeain ? iiaea ni?e/eiyoe ??ciiiai?oi? ii?ooaiiy
aioo??oiueiee?oeiii? ??aiiaaae oa o?aaeaiiy ae?eyiie aaiiia. Oiio ia?o?
i?ioeane, ui i?io?eathoue aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney caii/oaaiiy ian?iiy a
?ic/ei? iooaaaia ni?e/eiythoue iioeiaeaeaiiy ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai? e
ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?e o?iiinii.

Ca /anoioith o?iiiniiieo aaa?aoe?e ie aea/aee ae?th oanoe iooaaai?a ia
i`yoe ni?oao. Iooaaaie ii?ooothoue o?iiiniiiee aia?ao ? ii?iaeueia
i?io?eaiiy i?oico a ee?oeiao ca?iaeeiaeo ei??i/ee?a. *anoioa ii?ooaiue
caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? iooaaaia. Aeey an?o iooaaai?a ? ni?o?a
aeyaeaia i?yia caeaaei?noue: c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? iooaaaia
c?inoa? /anoioa o?iiiniiieo aaa?aoe?e.

Iaeaeuo aeoeai?noue ca ae??th ia i?oioe/iee aia?ao ee?oeie na?aae
iooaaai?a, ye? ie aea/aee, i?iyaeyee IIN ? A?.

Aiae?c a?ao?e?a (?en. 1) i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui aeoeai?noue
iooaaai?a i?iyaey?oueny iaiaeiaeiai ia ??cieo aaiioeiao.

Anoaiiaeaii (?aiiii?o E.A., Aaneeueaaa N.A., Aeaaie/aiei E.N., 1979), ui
IAAE i?aeaeuo? ?aia?aoe?eiee i?ioean o i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ? aeoeao?
oa?iaioe. Aeoiaey/e c oi?aa?naeueiino? iaoai?ci?a ?aia?aoe?? AeIE, ie
aeiioneaee, ui oey aeanoea?noue iiaea i?iyaeyoeny ? ia aeueo i?aai?ciao.
Oiae? canoinoaaiiy IAAE c iooaaaiaie iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
i?aeae-uaiiy iieueiai? noiaeino? ian?iiy a ??e eiai ia?iaee iooaaaiaie.
O ?aco-eueoao? oeueiai aenia?eiaioo, ie aia?oa aeyaeee iiaeeo?eoth/o
ae?th IAAE iioeiaeaeaiue o?iiinii, coiiaeaieo ae??th iooaaai?a o
ee?oeiao ioaieoe?.

Oae, /anoioa o?iiiniiieo aaa?aoe?e o ee?oeiao ia?enoaie ca?iaeeiaeo
ei??i/ee?a aeey an?o iooaaai?a ? ni?o?a aoea ieae/ith ia 7-12 %
ii??aiyii c aa??aioaie aac canoinoaaiiy IAAE. Iaeiae ciaioaiiy
e?eueeino? no?oeoo?ieo ii?ooaiue o?iiinii ia i?ecaaei aei cia/iiai
i?aeaeuaiiy iieueiai? noiaeino? ian?iiy. A ian?iiy o?ueio ni?o?a,
ia?iaeaia A? ? IAAE i?e 8.6-16.8 % o?iiiniiieo aaa?aoe?e, acaaae? ia
c?eoei.

?en. 1 *anoioa o?iiiniiieo aaa?aoe?e (%) o ee?oeiao ia?enoai ca?iaeeiaeo
ei??i/ee?a ian?iiy , ia?iaeaiiai iooaaaiaie, o ni?o?a iceii? ioaieoe?
(1981 – 1983 ??.) 1 – IAN; 2 – IIA; 3 – IAeIN; 4 – IIA; 5 – AeAN; 6- A?;
E – eiio?ieue (iaii/aia o aiae?)

Ioaea, cieaeaiiy iieueiai? noiaeino? ian?iiy ia ? iane?aeeii aaiaoe/ii?
caaeaae?, ni?e/eiaii? eeoa aaa?aoe?yie o?iiinii. Iaeiia??i?oa caaeaaeue
ia?inoe?a ni?e/eiy?oueny ye aaiaoe/iei, oae ? iaaaiaoe/iei iaoai?ciii,
yeee coiiaeth?oueny aieiaiei /eiii aeieoaaiiyi aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo
oa?iaio?a oiene/ieie i?iaeoeoaie ?iciaaeo iooaaai?a.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ae?? o?i?/ieo iooaaai?a ia nooi?iue i?iyao
e?euee?nieo iciae (aenioa noaaea, aeiaaeeia, e?euee?noue eieine?a ?
ca?ai aieiaiiai eieina) o ?ineei I1 ??cieo ni?o?a iieaco?, ui o aenieeo
aeicao aiie coiiaeththoue a?ae`?ii?, a a neaaeeo – iaeaea caaaeaee
?iaeoeothoue iiceoeai? iiaeeo?eaoe??. Iaeiae iiyaa aeene?aoieo ye?nieo
iciae (inoeno?noue-aacino?noue, /a?aiia-a?ea caaa?aeaiiy eieina), oi/a e
c aeoaea iecueeith /anoioith, ye? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?ino?
iaiaeaethth/?, aeaco? ia iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy iooaoe?e o ?ineei o
I1. Oea aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iooaoe?ei? ci?ie iiaeooue
aeieeaoe a aaiao c iaeei e?euee?niei aoaeoii, ye? ooai?ththoue iie?aaii?
nenoaie. *a?ac oa, ui e?euee?ni? iciaee (aeiaaeeia noaaea ? eieina oa
?i.), ui aeaoa?i?iothoueny iie?aaiii, ooai?ththoue aacia?a?aiee ?yae
i?ieeaino?, oi iooaoe?ei? ci?ie ie?aieo iie?aai?a o oe?e nenoai?
iiaeooue ianeoaaoeny iiaeeo?eaoe?yie.

Iooaaaie, ui iaeaaeaoue aei eeano aee?eoth/eo AeIE niieoe i?iyaeyee
iaiaeiaeiao oeeoiaaiaoe/io e o?c?ieia?/io ae?th ye ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao
?inoo e ?icaeoeo, oae ? ia oi?ioaaiiy e?euee?nieo iciae aeaiaio?a
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe? a I1.

Aiae?c ?ineei I1 aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui e?euee?noue iniaei c
/?oei ae?aaeaieie ci?iaie oaiioeio a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae
aaiioeio ni?oo e iooaaaia. O a?eueoino? ni?o?a o I1 aeey an?o iooaaai?a
? eiioeaio?aoe?e ci?iai? ?ineeie ia cono??/aeeny aai ?o e?euee?noue aoea
iacia/iith (0.3-0.8 %).

O a?eueoino? ?ineei, a?ae?a?aieo o I1 ca iaoeiiaei aeey aeo?aeiiai ni?oo
oaiioeiii, ci?ie noinoaaeeny ii?oieia?? eieino: inoeno?noue oa
iai?ainoeno?noue o lutescens, aacino?noue ? iai?ainoeno?noue o
erythrospermum, i?aeaeuaia u?euei?noue eieina, neaa?oaaei?noue,
eiiiaeoi?aei?noue, noaeiiiae-oi?aei?noue, niaeueoi?aei?noue, iiooaiiy
eieineiaeo eonie oa ?i.

O aaenaiei?aeieo aeae?a ioaieoe? anoaiiaeai? aeiaaeee caeaaeiino? iciaee
a?ae aeice aaia. Oiaoi i?e eoioeyoeai?e ae?? nooi?iue i?iyao iciaee
iineeth?oueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi aeice aaia (aaaA aaAA aAAA AAAA).
I/aaeaeii, ui oa?aeoa? oaiioeiiaiai ?icuaieaiiy iooaio?a, ye? ianooue
??cio e?euee?noue aeii?iaioieo aeaeae, aoaea a?aeaoaaoeny ii ??ciiio.

Iai?ainoeno? iooaioe iiyaeythoueny a I1 /ano?oa ii??aiyii c ?ioeie
ci?iaie ii?oieia?/ieo iciae eieino, aea a 91.6 % aeiaaee?a aeathoue
?icuaieaiiy a I2 ? 77.1 % – o I3, ui aeaco? ia ?o aaoa?iceaioi?noue.
Iaeiae, cono??/athoueny a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae cae/aeiiai iiiia?a?eaeiiai
?icuaieaiiy. Ia iao iiaeyae oea iiynith?oueny ?aaa?n??th iooaioiiai
aaia-?ia?aeoi?a inoenoino? c ?aoeaneaiiai noaio a aeii?iaioiee.

Ii?oieia?/i? iciaee eieino ian oe?eaaeee aieiaiei /eiii ye ia?ea?e aeey
aeyaeaiiy iooaoe?e. Iaeiae aieiaia iaoa iaoa iieyaaea a iaea?aeaii?
iooaoe?e c ainiiaea?nueei ei?enieie iciaeaie, oiio i?e a?aeai?? iooaio?a
ie ei?enooaaeeny ? e?euee?nieie iciaeaie: aenioa noaaea, /enei e iana
ca?ia aieiaiiai eieina, o?eaae?noue aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo,
ceiino?ee?noue, no?ee?noue aei oai?ia, aeeyaaiiy oa ?i. Ei?enooth/enue
eiiieaenii iacaaieo iciae, iiaeaaeyth/o a?eueo?noue iooaio?a a?aeae?aee
a I2-I3.

O ae?oaiio e o?aoueiio iieie?iiyo iiyaeyeeny ye aeii?iaioi?, oae ?
?aoeaneai? iooaoe??. Ia?aaaaeii oea aoee i?ciueinoeae? oi?ie, iecueei- e
aeniei?ine?, neaa?oaaei?, iai?ainoeno?, c aeuith e ieae/ith ica?iai?noth
oa i?iaeoeoeai?noth eieino ii??aiyii c aeo?aeieie ni?oaie. O ianooiieo
iieie?iiyo ioe?ithaaee ?o ca ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieie iciaeaie e
aeanoeainoyie. E?au? eiinoaioi? iooaioi? e?i?? aeeth/aee a naeaeoe?eiee
?icnaaeiee.

Iooaoe??, ui ci?iththoue aeiaaeeio noaaea, niinoa??aathoueny /anoi. O
iaoeo aeine?aeao iooaioe I2 ? I3 c iaioith aai a?eueoith aenioith
noaaea, i?ae o aeo?aeieo ni?o?a, cono??/aeeny c /anoioith 15.9-86.8 %
(oaae. 1).

Iooaioe, a?ae?a?ai? a I1-I2 ca ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie, ui ??cieeeny
a?ae aeo?aeieo ni?o?a, aeaaaee ?icuaieaiiy. Oiaoi, ye i?aaeei, aiie aoee
aaoa?iceaioieie ca ia?ea?ieie iciaeaie. Oiio a ianooiieo iooaioieo
iieie?iiyo ie aaee aeia?? ca iaoiaeii iaae?a??.

Oae, o ?icnaaeieeo aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo a 1985 ?. aea/aeiny 165 e?i?e
I3, c yeeo 73.3 % aeinoia??ii a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae aeo?aeieo ni?o?a ca
aenioith noaaea. Aeo?aei? ni?oe (Ie?ii?anueea 25, Eeyiea e Iie?nueea 70)
iaeaaeaoue aei a?oie na?aaeiuei?ineeo (96-110 ni). ?c 165 e?i?e 44
iaee oaeo ae aenioo noaaea ye aeo?aei? ni?oe, 23 aoee aeniei?ineeie
(111 ni), 86 iaeaaeaee aei a?oie iecueei?ineeo (81-95 ni) ? eeoa 12 –
aei iai?aea?eee?a (66-80 ni). sse a 1985, oae ? a 1986 ?ioe? a
?icnaaeieeo aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo na?aae iooaioieo e?i?e ia aeyaeaii
aeiaeiiai ea?eeea (oaae.1). O 1986 ?. o ?icnaaeieeo aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo
aea/aeenue e?i??, iaea?aeai? c na?aaeiuei?ineeo ni?o?a Aacinoa 1,
A?eioea?e?anueea 18 ? A?eioea?e?anueea 47.

Oaaeeoey 1

?iciiae?e iooaio?a ca aenioith noaaea a ?icnaaeieeo aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo

Aeo?aei? ni?oe, Aea/a-einue *Aenioa noaaea, ni

% iooaoe?e ca iooaioee?i?e, oo.51-6566-8081-9596-110 111aenioith
noaaea1985 ?.Iooaioe I31651286442373.3Aeo?aei? ni?oe33-1986 ?. Iooaioe
I222597168.2Iooaioe I37627391086.8Aeo?aei? ni?oe33-1987 ?.Iooaioe
I312281936302930.3Aeo?aei? ni?oe8215-1988 ?.Iooaioe
I23371165433.3Iooaioe I32751342318.5Aeo?aei? ni?oe7142-1990 ?.Iooaioe
I2571221147326.3Iooaioe I369739154415.9Aeo?aei? ni?oe13292*Eeaneo?eaoe?y
ca aenioith noaaea i?eaaaeaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
eeanneoeeaoi?ii NYA ?iaea Triticum L.» E., 1984.- 84 n.

O ianooii? ?iee (1987, 1988, 1990) aea/aeiny a?ae 8 aei 19 e?i?e, ye? ca
aenioith noaaea (aei 65 ni) iaeaaeaee aei ea?eee?a. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui
ca oeei iieacieeii ?icoe?eany iaa?? aeo?aeieo ni?o?a, c yeeo ?iaeoeiaai?
oe? iooaioe. Aiie i?aaenoaaeai? iai?aea?eeeaie, iecueei- ?
na?aaeiuei?ineeie. Na?aae aeo?aeieo ni?o?a 1987, 1988 ? 1990 ?ie?a ?
iaea?aeai? iaie iooaioe I3-I7, ian?iiy yeeo iiaoi?ii i?aeaeaaaee ae??
iooaaai?a.

Ioaea, canoinoaaiiy o?i?/ieo iooaaai?a aea? iiaeeea?noue ?iaeoeoaaoe
oe?ieee niaeo? iooaoe?e ca aenioith noaaea. Aca?iiae?th/e c aaiaoe/iei
iaoa??aeii ni?o?a, iooaaaie ia?aoai?ththoue ?o a aaoa?iaaii? iiioeyoe??,
c yeeo iiaeia a?ae?a?aoe oi?ie ca oe?iieie naeaeoe?eieie e
ainiiaea?nueeeie iciaeaie.

A?iiao?e/iee aiae?c a?ae?a?aieo iooaioieo ?ineei ? ?o iioiinoa iieacaa,
ui cia/ia e?euee?noue iooaoe?e aeieeaea e i?iyaeyeany o aeaeyae?
oaiioeiiaeo ci?i oi?ie e aeiaaeeie eieina, /enea eieine?a o eiein? oa
aeiaaeeie noaaea.

Aenioa noaaea a ioaieoe? eiio?ieth?oueny neeaaeiith aaiaoe/iith
nenoaiith, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeyoue niaoeeo?/i? e ianiaoeeo?/i?
?aoeaneai? e aeii?iaioi? ie?aiaaie, iie?aaie c iaeeie aoaeoaie.

Ca an? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ie ia aeyaeee aeiaeii? iooaioii? ?ineeie c
na?aaeiueiu?eueiei eieinii caaaeiaaeee iiiaae 15.5 ni. O a?eueoino?
iooaoe??, ui ci?ithaaee aeiaaeeio eieino iaeaaeaee aei eiiiaeoi?ae?a aai
niaeueoi?ae?a. Eiiiaeoi?aee i?aeaeuoaaee u?euei?noue ? aei?i/oaaee eiai
aeiaaeeio. Niaeueoi?aei? iooaioe /anoi iaee aeoaea aeiaaee eiein (aei 17
ni), aea aoee aeniei?ineeie (iiiaae 120 ni), noeeueieie aei aeeyaaiiy, a
oiio aea?aeiaoaaeeny.

Ioaea, o ?iaio? c iooaioaie aeiaaeeia eieino iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny
eeoa ye aeiaeaoeiaee iieaciee aeey aeiai?o i?ney ?o ioe?iee ca ?ioeie
naeaeoe?eii oe?iieie iciaeaie.

Iana ca?ia c eieino ? aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii i?iaeoeoeaiino?, yeee
iaia`yceiai a?aoiao?oueny i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeae? ni?oo. Ii??aiyii c
aeo?aeieie ni?oaie iooaioi? e?i?? I3 ca ianith ca?ia c eieino
?iciiae?eyeeny ii-??ciiio. E?euee?noue e?i?e c ianith ca?ia c eieino
iiiaae 2.0 a, ui ia?aaaaea? aeo?aei? ni?oe ia 50 % ? a?eueoa, aoea
iacia/iith ? eieeaaeany a iaaeao 5.5-30.2 %.

O aeo?aeieo ni?o?a a?o/eciyii? naeaeoe??, ui iaeaaeaoue aei e?ninoaiiai?
i?aaeaiii? (oe?a?inueei?) aeieia?/ii? a?oie a?eueoa iaea?aeaii iooaioieo
e?i?e c ianith ca?ia c eieino iiiaae 2.0 a, i?ae o ni?o?a ?iicaiii?
naeaeoe??, iaaaeaioiaaieo aei oiia aeaii? ciie.

I?e aea/aii? iooaoe?e ie cono??/aee aeiaaeee, eiee iooaioe, aeae?eai? a
I1, caeeoaeeny ca ci?iaiith iciaeith eiinoaioieie a ianooiieo
iieie?iiyo, a oaeiae aeae?eai? a I1, I2 aai I3 oi?ie a ianooiieo
iieie?iiyo aeaaaee ?icuaieaiiy, a yeiio a?aei?/aeiny ye ni?aiaaeaiiy,
oae ? a?aeoeeaiiy /enaeueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue a?ae oai?aoe/ii
i/?eoaaiiai.

Iaaiee ia??iae ie aea?aeiaoaaee oae? oi?ie, oiio ui aieiaiith iaoith ia
oeueiio aoai? ?iaioe aoei aeae?eaiiy, ca iaeei?iooee oa?i?i, iooaio?a c
ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieie iciaeaie, ye? a no?eei caa??aaeeny a ianooiieo
iieie?iiyo. Iaeiae, iniaeeao oaaao i?eaa?oaee aeiaaeee oaiioeiiaiai
?icuaieaiiy a ianooiieo iieie?iiyo ie?aieo iooaio?a, a?ae?a?aieo a I2, c
iiyaith iciae, ui noia?a/eee oai?aoe/ii i/?eoaaiei. Oiio ye ia?ea?aie ie
ei?enooaaeeny oaeniiii?/ieie iciaeaie ??ciiaeaeiinoae i`yei? ioaieoe? –
iayai?noue aai a?aenooi?noue iiooaiiy eieineiaeo eonie, inothe?a oa
caaa?aeaiiy eieineiaeo eonie, ye? neeaaeathoue iaiaeaethth/?
aeueoa?iaoeai? iciaee.

O?i?/i? iooaaaie iiaeooue ni?e/eiyoe aaiaoe/io ianoaa?euei?noue
iooaio?a, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icuaieaiiyi i?ioyaii aaaaoueio
iieie?iue (ie i?inoaaeeee aei I10), ui cia/ii iiaeiaaeo? e oneeaaeith?
a?aea?? eiinoaioieo aaiioei?a, iaeiae oea iiaea ieoieoeny iaea?aeaiiyi
naeaeoe?eii oe?iieo oi?i.

Aiane?aeie ?icuaieaiiy a iieie?iiyo aaiaoe/ii ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a
i?io?ea? aaaaoee oi?iioai?/ee i?ioean c iiyaith ?ineei c iiaeie
ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie e aeanoeainoyie, yeeo ia iaee aeo?aei? ni?oe.
I?eaiaeeii ?acoeueoaoe aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co iaeiiai c oaeeo aeiaaee?a
(?en.2).

?en. 2. Noaia ?icuaieaiiy e aeiai?o ca aenioith noaaea a iieie?iiyo
ianoaa?eueiiai iooaioa 432.

Canoiniaoth/e aacia?a?aiee aeia?? ca iaoiaeii iaae?a??, o iieie?iiyo
ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a, iaie a?ae?a?ai? ?aoeaneaiee ea?eee I-432/5 c
aenioith noaaea 34 ni (?en. 2), na?aaeiuei?ine? – I-152/5-1, I-152/5-2,
? iecueei?ine? – I-419/1-2-1, I-419/1-2-6, I-419/1-2-9 ? I-419/1-2-15 c
aenieith ica?iai?noth (3.0-3.25 ca?ai o eieineo ? 52.4-61.2 – o eiein?)
oa aenieith ianith ca?ia c eieino (2.6-3.1a), ye? noaiiaeyoue i?aeoe/iee
?ioa?an.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?eaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeiai?o iooaio?a iceii?
ioaieoe? ca aeaiaioaie i?iaeoeoeaiino? eieino. Aeaiaioe no?oeoo?e
o?iaeath i?aeaeathoueny e?euee?niiio e ye?niiio aiae?co e iaaiith i??ith
a?aeia-?aaeathoue nooi?iue ?o aaiaoe/ii? aeaoa?i?iaoe??. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie noaoenoe/-iiai aiae?co aeae?eyee e?au? oi?ie e aeeth/aee a
ianooiiee aoai naeaeoe??.

E?euee?noue eieine?a o eiein? ? iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo aeaiaio?a
i?iaeoeoeaiino? eieino, oi/a iiaeyaee ia iiaeeea?noue aeiai?o a
a?a?eaeieo iieie?iiyo ca oeei iieacieeii ia ?aii?o aoaiao naeaeoe?eiiai
i?ioeano aeineoue noia?a/eea?.

O aea/ai?e iaie e?oa?aoo?? c ?iaeoeiaaiiai iooaaaiaco, ia cono??/aeiny
aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? aeiai?o ?iaeoeiaaieo iooaio?a iceii?
ioaieoe? ca /eneii eieine?a o eiein?. Aeine?aeieee, ye i?aaeei,
ii??aithaaee ca oeei iieacieeii aeo?aei? ni?oe e iooaioe a ia?oee ??e ?o
aeyaeaiiy, ? ca ??aeeei aeeeth/aiiyi, o ae?oaiio-o?aoueiio iieie?iiyo
i?ney aeiai?o. Iaie i?iaaaeaiee noaoenoe/iee aiae?c ? ioe?iea iooaio?a
i`yoiai-iaeeiaaeoeyoiai iieie?iiy ca /eneii eieine?a aieiaiiai eieino.

Na?aaeiy aaaaoi??/ia e?euee?noue eieine?a aieiaiiai eieino a on?o
iooaio?a eieeaaeany a iaaeao 16.1-20.3 oo. *anoea i?ieeaino?, coiiaeaia
aaiioeiii (h2), o caaaeueiiio aa??thaaii? /enea eieine?a o eiein? a
iooaio?a (o an?o aeo?aeieo ni?o?a) eieeaaeany a?ae 0.4 % aei 45.0 %.

?c on??? e?eueeino? iooaio?a, ui aeeth/aeeny o naeaeoe?eiee ?icnaaeiee,
eeoa a o?ueio, I-42/2, I-153/5-1 ? I-153/5-2, aeinyaiooi iacia/ia
naeaeoe?eia c?ooaiiy (R), yea noaiiaeei 0.9, 1.1 ? 1.4 eieinee
a?aeiia?aeii.

E?euee?noue ca?ai aieiaiiai eieina o aeo?aeieo ni?o?a eieeaaeany a
iaaeao 35.5-36.9 oo. O na?aaeiueiio ca 7-11 ?ie?a 5 iooaio?a (180,
159/1, 313/4, 153/5-1 ? 153/5-2) c aenieei ??aiai aeinoia??iino?
ia?aaaaeaee aeo?aeiee ni?o Aacinoa 1 ca e?euee?noth ca?ai aieiaiiai
eieino.

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an ca oeei iieacieeii noaiiaeyoue iooaioe 153/5-1 ?
153/5-2. Na?aaeiy ca 7 ?ie?a e?euee?noue ca?ai o aieiaiiio eiein? a ieo
ia 25.1-25.7 % ia?aaeuo? aeo?aeiee ni?o Aacinoo 1, o yei? oeae iieaciee
noaiiaeoue 1.95, a a I-153/5-2 ? I-153/5-1 – 2.06 ? 2.1 oooe
a?aeiia?aeii. Oe? iooaioe, ye eiinoaioi? oi?ie, a?ae?a?ai? a 1990 ?. o
nueiiiio iieie?ii? ianoaa?eueiiai e?oiiieieiniai iooaioa, aeae?eaiiai a
I2 (1985 ?.) ?c ni?oo Aacinoa 1.

O an?o aeo?aeieo ni?o?a (ca aeeeth/aiiyi Iie?nueei? 70) ?iaeoeiaai?
iooaioe iaee a?eueoo e?euee?noue ca?ai o aieiaiiio eiein? caaaeyee
i?aeaeuaiith ?o /enea a iaeiiio eieineo.

Eiao?oe??io oniaaeeiaoaaiino? e?eueeino? ca?ai aieiaiiai eieino a
iooaioieo e?i?e ? aeo?aeieo ni?o?a aeuee i?ae ca /eneii eieine?a. sseui
aeiey aaiioeio o oaiioeiiaiio i?iya? e?eueeino? eieine?a o eiein? a on?o
iooaioieo e?i?yo eieeaaeany a iaaeao 0.4-45.0 %, oi ca /eneii ca?ai aiia
noaiiaeea 14.3-89.4 %. Ioaea, aeuee eiao?oe??io oniaaeeiaoaaiino? (h2 =
0.143-0.894) e?eueeino? ca?ai o eiein? iiaea aeaoe iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe
i?e aeiai?? iooaio?a ca oe??th iciaeith.

Iana ca?ia aieiaiiai eieino o aeo?aeieo ni?o?a eieeaaeany a?ae 1.14 a
(Aacinoa 1) aei 1.51 a (Eeyiea), a eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? — a?ae 10.4 %
(Aeiinueea iai?aea?eeeiaa) aei 20.7 (Iie?nueea 70). O iooaio?a, ye? ca
eiiieaenii ain-iiaea?nueeeo ? naeaeoe?eii oe?iieo iciae caeeoai? ye
ia?niaeoeai?, na?aaeiy aaaaoi??/ia iana ca?ia aieiaiiai eieina
aa??thaaea a?ae 1.45 a o I-260/6 aei 2.04a o I-153/5-1. Iaea?eueoo
e?euee?noue iooaio?a, ui ia?aaaaeathoue aeo?aei? ni?oe ca ianith ca?ia
aieiaiiai eieino ?iaeoeiaaii o Aacinoi? 1.

I?eaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i iiaeeea?noue ?iaeoeoaaiiy e aeiai?o
iooaio?a c aeuith ianith ca?ia aieiaiiai eieino a naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a.
Iaeiae, aaee/eia eiao?oe??ioa oniaaeeiaoaaiino? a a?oiao “aeo?aeiee ni?o
— iooaioi? e?i??” aa??th? a oe?ieeo iaaeao: a?ae h2 = 0.02 aei h2 =
0.664.

Iano ca?ia aieiaiiai eieino, o iaai?e i???, iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye
eiiieaeniee iieaciee, yeee coiiaeth?oueny iaeii/anii ianith iaei???
ca?i?aee e caaaeueiith ?o e?euee?noth a eiein?.

Iooaoe?? a iie?aaiieo iciaeao, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue aeiaaeeia eieino,
e?euee?noue eieine?a ? ca?ai, iana ca?ia aieiaiiai eieino, noai?ththoue
aaoa?iaaii?noue o iooaioieo iieie?iiyo, oiio /anoi iioiinoai
?iaeea?aeoaeueii a?ae?a?aii? iooaioii? ?ineeie aea? ia e?i??, a
iiioeyoe?? ca oeeie iciaeaie. Nooi?iue i?ieeaino? e?euee?nieo iciae,
coiiaeaia aaiioeiii o oaeeo iiioeyoe?yo, caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, ne?eueeio
iie?aai?a oi?eioeeny iooaoe??. Oiio a iaeieo iooaio?a iaeii?aciaei
aeiai?ii iiaeooue aooe aeae?eai? aiiiceaioi? oi?ie, ? iiaeaeueoee aeia??
ca oaiioeiii iaaoaeoeaiee, a ?ioeo – aaoa?iceaioi?noue caa??aa?oueny a
e?eueeio iieie?iiyo ? aaaaoi?aciaee ianiaee aeia?? o I3-I5
iethn-aa??aio?a aea? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe. Aoaeoeai?noue a?aeai?o ca
oeeie iciaeaie caeaaeeoue a?ae ?? caaaeueii? i?ieeaino? e nooiaiy
aaiaoe/ii? aeaoa?i?iaoe??.

No?ee?noue aei oai?ia. Ui??/ii iooaioi? e?i?? c ?icnaaeieeo aeo?aeiiai
iaoa??aeo, i?ney aei?noeiai aea?aeiaoaaiiy, aeeth/aee a naeaeoe?eiee
?icnaaeiee aeey aea/aiiy ca eiiieaenii naeaeoe?eii oe?iieo iciae, o
oiio /ene? e no?ee?noth aei ai?ioienoi? ?ine (erysiphe graminis DC) i
ao?i? ??ae? (Puccinia rekondita f.sp.tritici Rob.ex.Desm.).

I?ia?aiith aeine?aeaeaiue ia ia?aaeaa/aeiny aea/aiiy aaiaoeee ?ioi?oaoo,
canoinoaaiiy i?iaieaoe?eieo oii?a oa ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?an iaoiaai?a. Oiio
ioe?ithaaee naeaeoe?eiee iaoa??ae ? aeo?aei? ni?oe ca iieueiaith
no?ee?noth.

O naeaeoe?eieo ?icnaaeieeao 1985-1991 ??. aea/aii 510 iooaioieo e?i?e, c
yeeo 392 ?iaeoeiaaii c ni?o?a a?o/eciyii? e ca?oa?aeii? naeaeoe?? oa 118
— c aeanieo iooaio?a i?e iiaoi?i?e ?o ia?iaoe? ?ic/eiaie o?i?/ieo
iooaaai?a.

C 392 e?i?e 34.7 % ia?aaaaeaee aeo?aei? ni?oe ca no?ee?noth aei
ai?ioien-oi? ?ine oa 12.0% iaee aeuo iieueiao no?ee?noue aei ao?i?
eenoeiai? ??ae?.

I?e iiaoi?i?e ia?iaoe? iooaio?a aaeaeiny aeae?eeoe oi?ie c ieae/ith
ni?eeiyoeea?noth, i?ae aeo?aei? e?i??. E?euee?noue e?i?e c i?aeaeuaiith
iieueiaith no?ee?noth aei ao?i? ??ae? eieeaaeanue a?ae 0.0 % aei 15.8 %
caeaaeii a?ae aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo.

I?e ioe?ithaaii? naeaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo ca no?ee?noth aei oai?ia
aaaeeeai aeyaeoe e a?ae?a?aoe oi?ie, ye? a aeiaaee /an caa??aaee
no?ee?noue. Iooaio 180 a?ae?a?aiee o I1 o 1984 ?. ye oaeee, ui ia
o?aaeoaaany ao?ith eenoeiaith ??aeath, caa??aaa no?ee?noue aei oe???
oai?iae i?ioyaii 1985- 1989 ??., a o?aaeaiiy ai?ioienoith ?inith
c?inei eeoa c 0.8 a 1986 ?. aei 1.54-1.2 aaea a 1987-1989 ??.

O ?acoeueoao? iiaoi?ii? ia?iaee iooaaaiaie e?i?e 159/1 ? 42/2 iai
aaeaeiny aeae?eeoe c ieo oi?ie 313/4, 260/6 ? 320/1, ye? iathoue neaaea
o?aaeaiiy, aai neaaeo ni?eeiyoeea?noue aei ai?ioienoi? ?ine.

Aaiaoe/ia i?ieea?noue ni?e/eiaia ae??th o?i?/ieo iooaaai?a, ooai?th?
cia/io ??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i ca no?ee?noth aei oai?ia o naeaeoe?eieo
ni?o?a ? iooaio?a ca ?o iiaoi?ii? ia?iaeaie iooaaaiaie. Oaeiae
anoaiiaeaii, ui c aeuith ?acoeueoaoeai?noth iiaeia aeae?eeoe oe?ii? ca
no?ee?noth aei oai?ia iooaioe, ?iaeoeiaai? a naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a, ui
iaeaaeaoue aei aeieia?/iiai oeio oa?aeoa?iiai aeey ciie, aea aaaeaoueny
naeaeoe?eia ?iaioa.

Iooaoe?? a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? ca?ia. Ai?no a?eea, eeaeeiaeie oa
?? yeino? aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?iiaai?, oi/a a cia/i?e i??? aa??ththoue
caeaaeii a?ae oiia ae?iuoaaiiy. I/aaeaeii, ui eiaeiee i?inoee a?eie ?
aaciina?aaei?i i?iaeoeoii ooieoe?iioaaiiy no?oeoo?iiai aaia.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ??cieoey ca ai?noii i?ioa?io i?ae I-42/2 ? aeo?aeiei
ni?oii ?ee?/?aea ia ?noioia. Oi/a ca i?i?iaeueiei ? iaeneiaeueiei
iieacieeaie ai?noo ne?iai a?eea oeae iooaio ia? iaai? ia?aaaae. Ni?o
?ee?/?aea ca ai?noii a?eea a ca?i? aeinoia??ii iinooia?oueny iooaioo
320/1, yeee iaea?aeaiee oeyoii iiaoi?ii? ia?iaee I-42/2 0.05 %-iei
?ic/eiii IAeIN o 1987 ?.

?enoiie 3 (ye iaeei ?c i?eeeaae?a) iaaeyaeii i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iiaeeea?noue
?iaeoeoaaiiy iooaoe?e, ui ci?iththoue aaiaoe/io nenoaio eiio?ieth
a?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e a?ineioaco a ee?oeiao ? iaeiie/aiiy caianieo a?ee?a
o ca?i? naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a.

Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui a?aei?iiino? i?ae oeeie ni?oic?aceaie ca ai?noii
ne?iai a?eea, o iaai?e i???, coiiaeai? aaiioeiii. ?acoeueoaoe
aeenia?n?e-iiai aiae?co iieacothoue, ui a oe?e a?oi? ni?oic?ace?a
(?ee?/?aea, I-42/2, I-320/1) aa??thaaiiy ai?noo i?ioa?io a ca?i?
coiiaeaia a a?eueo?e i??? oiiaaie ?ieo. Ia?aoeiiaa aa??aina (i2) cia/ii
ia?aaeuo? aaiioeiiao (r2), oiio /anoea aa??thaaiiy ai?noo ne?iai a?eea a
ca?i?, coiiaeaia aaii-oeiii (h2), noaiiaeoue eeoa 11.5 %. Iaeee
naeaeoe?eiee aeeoa?aioe?ae (S) ? iecueeee eiao?oe??io oniaaeeiaoaaiino?
(h2) coiiaeththoue, o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo, iacia/ia aaiaoe/ia iie?ioaiiy ca
ai?noii a?eea (R = S . h2). Oae, o I-42/2 R = 0.06 %, I-320/1 — R = 0.1
% a?aeiinii aeo?aeiiai ni?oo ?ee?/?aea.

?en. 3 Ai?no ne?iai a?eea, iioeaea e na?aaei? eaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy
o aeo?aeiiai ni?oo e iooaio?a (1988–1996)

Na?aae iooaio?a, ?iaeoeiaaieo ?c ni?oo Iie?nueea 70, eeoa iaeei (I-75/2)
ca ai?noii i?ioa?io (14.90.3 %) a na?aaeiueiio ca 9 ?ie?a aeinoia??ii
ia?aaeuoaaa aeo?aeiee ni?o. Naeaeoe?eiee aeeoa?aioe?ae (S) ca ai?noii
ne?iai a?eea a ca?i? iooaioii? e?i?? 75/2 ii??aiyii c aeo?aeiei ni?oii
Iie?nueea 70 noaiiaeoue 1.1 %, a naeaeoe?eia c?ooaiiy — 0.41 %.

I?eaaaeai? aeua ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aeiieeai iieacothoue
iiaeeeaino? ci?ie ai?noo caianieo a?ee?a o ca?i? naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a
iceii? ioaieoe? iaoiaeii o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco. ?icaeyaeath/e ee?oeio,
?ineeio, ni?o ye a?aee?eoo a?ieia?/io nenoaio, iiaeia eiinoaiooaaoe, ui
e?euee?niee ? ye?niee neeaae a?ee?a aoaea ci?ithaaoeny caeaaeii a?ae
oiia na?aaeiaeua. *a?ac oa, ui ?o neioac aeaoa?i?io?oueny aaiaie, oi
?iciao i?ieeaino? aecia/a?oueny ii?iith ?aaeoe?? aaiioeio ni?oo /e
iooaioii? e?i??. Oeei ie iiynith?ii aa??aaaeuei?noue ai?noo a?eea a
ca?i? aeo?aeieo ni?o?a ? iooaio?a caeaaeii a?ae oiia ?ieo.

I?yia ae?y o?i?/ieo iooaaai?a /a?ac ii?ooaiiy eiiieaiaioa?ieo ca`yce?a o
?acoeueoao? cai?uaiue ? iai?yia, iia`ycaia c iiieeeaie ?aia?aoe?e a
iieaeoe? AeIE, ni?e/eith? iooaoe??, ye? ci?iththoue ia?aa?a a?io?i?/ieo
?aaeoe?e neioaco e iaeiie/aiiy a?eea a ca?i?.

Aeoiaey/e c ?nioaaiiy iiiaeeiiiai aeae?cio aai?a caianieo a?ee?a o
ioaieoe?, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iooaoe?? a iiiaeeiieeo no?oeoo?ieo
aaiao o a?eueoino? iaea?aeaieo iaie iooaio?a iaei ci?ithaaee ai?no
caianieo a?ee?a o ca?i?. Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoeai?noue aeiai?o a?io?i?/ieo
iooaoe?e i?aeaeueoueny eeoa i?e iaia`yceiaiio aecia/aii? ai?noo a?eea a
ca?i? eiaeii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii a?ae?a?aii? iooaioii? ?ineeie. Ca ioe?iee
iooaio?a ca ai?noii a?eea, ii/eiath/e c eiio?ieueiiai ?icnaaeieea,
ao?a/a?oueny yeanue e?euee?noue oe?iieo iooaoe?e oiio, ui aiie
aea?aeiaothoueny ca ?ioeie iciaeaie, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o cai?ioiiio
ei?aeyoe?eiiio ca`yceo c e?euee?noth a?eea, ua aei i?iaaaeaiiy
a?io?i?/ieo aiae?c?a.

Cieaeaiiy ai?noo a?eea a ianooiieo iieie?iiyo i?ney aeiai?o, ui
niinoa??aaeiny a iooaio?a 132/2, 79/2, 142/4, 160, ie iiynith?ii yaeuai
aaoa?iceaioiino? aai?a, ni?e/eiaii? iooaoe??th, ui iiaea coiiaethaaoe
aoaeo aaoa?iceno, yeee cieaeoaaany c i?aeaeuaiiyi aiiiceaioiino?.

Ai?no eeaeeiaeie a ca?i? aeo?aeieo ni?o?a ? iooaio?a aa??th? ii ?ieao
a?ae iacia/iiai (V = 5.1 %) aei na?aaeiueiai (V = 13.5 %).

Iooaioe iaea?aeai? ?c ni?oo Iie?nueea 70 iaee aeuee na?aaei?e
aaaaoi??/iee ai?no eeaeeiaeie a?aeiia?aeii a?ae 26.6 aei 29.8 %, i?ioe
25.5 % o aeo?aeiiai ni?oo. Ca ai?noii eeaeeiaeie I-75/2 i? ?aco ia
iinooiaany Iie?nuee?e 70 ai?iaeiaae aeaa`yoe ?ie?a ii??aiyiiy a
iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao.

?acoeueoaoe aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co iieacothoue, ui ??cieoey ca ai?noii
eeaeeiaeie a a?oi? iooaio?a, iaea?aeaieo ?c ni?oo Iie?nueea 70,
i?aeoaa?aeaeo-?oueny ia aenieiio ??ai? aeinoia??iino?. O caaaeueiiio
aa??thaaii? ai?noo eeaeeiaeie ii ?ieao o oe?e a?oi? e?i?e 49.4 %
coiiaeaii aaiioeiii. Ioaea, o ni?oo c iecueeei ai?noii eeaeeiaeie
aaeaeiny ?iaeoeoaaoe iooaoe??, ui ci?ieee ia?aa?a a?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e
ooai?aiiy ? iaeiie/aiiy eeaeeiaei-ieo a?ee?a ? aeae?eeoe oi?ie c
i?aeaeuaiei ?? ai?noii. Naeaeoe?eia c?ooai-iy ca ai?noii eeaeeiaeie o
I-75/2 noaiiaeoue 2.1 %.

I?i?iaeueiee ai?no eeaeeiaeie ca 5 ?ie?a o I-320/1 noaiiaea 27.0 % i?ioe
23.4 % a ?ee?/?aee ? 24.6 % o I-42/2, iaeneiaeueiee — 36.0 % i?ioe 29.4
? 31.6 % o aeo?aeieo aaiioei?a a?aeiia?aeii. Naeaeoe?eia c?ooaiiy /?oei
aeaeii ia ?enoieo 4. Ii??aiyii c aeo?aeiei ni?oii ?ee?/?aea a iooaioa
320/1 ai?no eeaeeiaeie c??n ia 5 %.

?acoeueoaoe aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ??cieoeth ca
ai?noii eeaeeiaeie i?ae aeo?aeiei ni?oii ? iooaioaie i?e ? = 0.95.
Aaiioeiiaa aa??aina (2r) ai?noo eeaeeiaeie a aeai?e a?oi? (aeo?aeiee
ni?o-iooaioi? e?i??) noaiiaeoue 3.8, a eiao?oe??io oniaaeeiaoaaiino?
(h2) — 0.355. Aaiaoe/ia iie?ioaiiy (R = S . h2) ca ai?noii eeaeeiaeie o
I-320/1 noaiiaeoue 1.8 %.

Ioaea, aeinoia??ia i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo eeaeeiaeie a iooaio?a 75/2, 320/1,
79/1 o ?acoeueoao? aeiai?o ?iaeoeiaaieo iooaoe?e aea? iai i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui o?i?/iee iooaaaiac ? aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii ?icoe?aiiy
aaiaoe/iiai ??ciiiai?ooy a naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a ca ai?noii eeaeeiaeie.

?en. 4 Na?aaei?e ai?no, aeaa?aoa e noaiaea?oia iioeaea iieacieea
eeaeeiaeie a iooaio?a, iaea?aeaieo ia aac? aaiioeio ni?oo ?ee?/?aea
(1988–1996 ??.)

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
ae??th o?i?/ieo iooaaai?a o aoaeue-yeiai naeaeoe?eiiai ni?oo iiaeeeai
?iaeoeoaaoe iooaoe??, ui ci?iththoue ia?aa?a a?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e
neioaco e iaeiie/aiiy caianieo a?ee?a o ca?i? ioaieoe?.

Aeae?eaii iooaioi? e?i?? c aeuei iieacieeii neeiaeaeiino? (I-75/2, I-180
? I-313/4), ai?noii a?eea (I-75/2, I-320/1, I-180, I-159/1 ? I-260/6) oa
eeaeeiaeie (I-75/2, I-105/5, I-320/1) ii??aiyii c aeo?aeieie ni?oaie. Ca
na?aaei?i o?ueio??/iei iieacieeii neee ai?ioia a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai
neeueieo ioaieoeue iooaioe 320/1, 313/4 ? 260/6.

Iiaoi?iith ia?iaeith iooaaaiaie ian?iiy iooaioieo e?i?e (I-42/2 ?
I-159/1) ?iaeoeiaaii iooaoe?? c aeuei ai?noii a?eea, eeaeeiaeie oa
e?auith neeith ai?ioia (I-320/1 ? I-313/4, I-260/6 a?aeiia?aeii).

O i`yoiio ?icae?e? “Aeei?enoaiiy iooaio?a o a?a?eaeecaoe??” i?eaaaeai?
?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ?icuaieaiiy ca iaiaeaethth/eie iciaeaie o
a?a?eae?a F2, iaea?aeaieo ca no?auoaaiiy eiinoaioieo ? aaiaoe/ii
ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a, oniaaeeoaaiiy e?euee?nieo iciae o i?aeiooaioieo
? iooaioii-ni?oiaeo a?a?eae?a oa ioe?iea e aeia?? a?a?eae?a ca
a?iaeaei?noth, oa ?ioeie ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieie iciaeaie.

Aeey aea/aiiy oi?iioai?/iai i?ioeano i?e caeo/aii? aei a?a?eaeecaoe??
iooaio?a, ie i?iaiaeeee no?auoaaiiy ca noaiaie: ni?o o iooaio, iooaio o
ni?o ? iooaio o iooaio. I?e aiae?c? a a?a?eaeieo iieie?iiyo ca oaiioeiii
ye ia?ea?aie ei?enooaaeeny iciaeaie ??ciiaeaeiinoae, ii?oieia?/ieie
ni?oiaeie iciaeaie, ye? a a?a?eaeieia?/iiio aiae?c? aaaeooue naaa ye
i?ino? iaiaeaethth/?.

Oae, i?e no?auoaaii? eiiiiiaio?a, ui iaeaaeaoue aei ??ciiaeaeiinoae
erythrospermum i lutescens ie ia?ii ni?aao c i?aeaeaeueiith aca?iiae??th
aai?a: ?aoeaneai?noue ? aeii?iaioi?noue. Inoeno?noue (erythrospermum),
ye ?aoeaneaio iciaeo, iiaeia iicia/eoe aa, aacino?noue (lutescens) – AA
aai Aa. Aiiiceaioi?noue ca aeii?iaioieie iciaeaie a iooaio?a, ye?
caeo/aee aei a?a?eaeecaoe??, ia?aa??yee, ye i?i?ioi, i?ioyaii o?ueio
iieie?iue iaoiaeii ia?an?ao e aiae?co iaea?aeaiiai iioiinoaa. sseui
no?auoaaee iooaio I2-I3, ui iaa aeii?iaioio ia?ea?io iciaeo, oi ae?oaei
eiiiiiaioii aeei?enoiaoaaee naeaeoe?eiee ni?o aai iooaio c ?aoeaneaieie
aeaeyie. O oaeeo eiia?iaoe?yo i?i aiii- /e aaoa?iceaioi?noue iooaioa
noaeeee ii F1.

No?auoaaiiy oi?i, ui iaeaaeaoue aei ??ciiaeaeiinoae ferrugineum i
lutescens, iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeea?a?eaeia. Oaea no?auoaaiiy o F2
aeaaaei /ioe?e a?oie oaiioei?a, ui oaeiae ni?aiaaea? c oai?aoe/ii
i/?eoaaiei.

Eeoa iaeia eiia?iaoe?y (I-419/1 o I-260/6) c 29 a F2-F6 aeaaaea
oaiioeie, iiyaa yeeo noia?a/eoue oai?aoe/ii i/?eoaaiei (?en. 5).
Aaiaoe/ii ianoaa?eueiee iooaio 419 ye ? I-260/6 iaeaaeeoue aei
??ciiaeaeiino? erythrospermum. ?ineeie F1 a 1992 ?. iaee iciaee oe???
ae ??ciiaeaeiino?. O F2 na?aae ?ineei erythrospermum aeae?eaia iaeia
?ineeia lutescens, ian?iiy (97 oo.) a?ae yei? aen?yii aeey aiae?co a
F3. A 1994 ?. a F3 iaea?aeaii aea? a?oie oaiioei?a: lutescens i
erythrospermum, ui oe?eeii ni?aiaaea? c oai?aoe/ii iiaeeeaei, yeui
aeo?aeia ?ineeia aoea aaoa?iceaioiith (Aa). Iaeiae ii??aiyiiy
e?euee?niiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ineei aeaio oaiioei?a ca e?eoa???i 2
aeaco? ia a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae oai?aoe/ii i/?eoaaiiai 3:1 (?en. 5). Ia
ia?oee iiaeyae oeth iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iiaeia aoei a iiynieoe
aeiaaeeiaith caaeaaeeth ?ineei, ui coiiaeei ii?ooaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
3:1. C ?ioiai aieo iiaeia aeiionoeoe, ui oea ii?ooaiiy ni?e/eiaii
ci?iith aai a?aenooi?noth aeaeueieo aai?a aiane?aeie /iai a a?a?eae?a F1
i?io?ea? iaoeiiaee e?ineiaiaa? i?e oi?ioaaii? aaiao. Oiio a iaaii?
/anoeie aaiao iiaea aooe ii?ooaiee aaiiee aaeain, ui a?aeiia?aeii
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cieaeaiiyi aeeoo?caeaoiino? e iaa?oue caaeaaeeth
yei?nue e?eueeino? aaiao. Oea iiaea ni?e/eieoe ci?io ni?aa?ae-iioaiiy
oaiioei?a i?e ?icuaieaii? a?a?eae?a. Iaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co F3-F6
aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iiyaa ?ineei c iiaeie nenoaiieie
iciaeaie, yeeo ia iaee aaouee?anuee? oi?ie ni?e/eiaia aaiaoe/iith
ianoaa?euei?noth iooaioa 419/1. Oae, a F3 o iioiinoa? erythrospermum
aeyaeaii 3 ?ineeie ??ciiaeaeiino? caesium, a F4 o lutescens –
barbarossa, ferrugineum i milturum, o erythrospermum – hostianum. A F5 o
iioiinoa? ??ciiaeaeiino? barbarossa aeyaeai? ?ineeie milturum, o
ferrugineum – pseudocaesium.

Caeo/aiiy aei a?a?eaeecaoe?? aaiaoe/ii ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a, iaa?oue
ca i?inoeie iaiaeaethth/eie iciaeaie, coiiaeth? cia/iee oi?iioai?/ee
i?ioean.

?en. 5. Noaia ?icuaieaiiy a?a?eaeiiai iioiinoaa F2 – F6, iaea?aeaiiai
a?ae no?auoaaiiy aaiaoe/ii ianoaa?eueiiai (I-419/1) ? noaa?eueiiai
(I-260/6) iooaio?a

* Iiyaa oaeeo oaiioei?a o ii?i? iaiiaeeeaa

O a?a?eaeieo iieie?iiyo oi?iothoueny iciaee, iiyaa yeeo iaiiaeeeaa i?e
cae/aei?e i?aeni?oia?e a?a?eaeecaoe?? oa c caeo/aiiyi noaa?e?ciaaieo
iooaio?a.

Aeey aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o oniaaeeoaaiiy aenioe noaaea oa aeaiaio?a
i?iaeoeoeaiino? eieino a iooaioii-ni?oiaeo ? i?aeiooaioieo a?a?eae?a
ei?enooaaeeny iieacieeii nooiaiy aeii?iaioiino? (hp).

Ii 29 a?a?eaeieo eiia?iaoe?yo F1 iieaciee aeii?iaioiino? ca eiaeiith
e?euee?niith iciaeith aa??thaaa a?ae hp -1 aei hp + 1 (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

?iciiae?e (%) iooaioii-ni?oiaeo ? i?aeiooaioieo a?a?eae?a F1 iceii?
ioaieoe? ca aaee/eiith hp (1989-1997 ??.)

E?euee?ni? iciaeehp -1 (aeai?an?y)-1 hp -0.5 (a?ae`?iia
aeii?ioaaiiy)-0.5 hp +0.5 (i?ii?aeia oniaaeeoaaiiy)+0.5 hp +1
(iiceoeaia aeii?ioaaiiy)hp +1 (aaoa?i-cen)F1Aenioa
noaaea34.520.720.710.313.8Aeiaaeeia aie.
eieino17.220.724.231.027.6E?euee?noue eieine?a aie.
eieino17.210.324.127.620.7E?euee?noue ca?ai aie.
eieino17.213.820.713.834.5Iana ca?ia aie.
eieino10.37.031.020.731.0Iaaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui oa?aeoa?
aaiaoe/ii? aeaoa?i?iaoe?? aeiaaeeie noaaea oa aeaiaio?a i?iaeoeoeaiino?
eieino aeineoue neeaaeiee ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny an?ia a?aeiieie ae?yie e
aca?iiae?yie aai?a. I?e/iio nooi?iue aeii?iaioiino? (hp) iciaee iiaea
ci?ithaaoeny caeaaeii a?ae aaiioeiiai? iniaeeaino? eiiiiiaio?a
no?auoaaiiy.

Oniaaeeoaaiiy e?euee?nieo iciae, ye? aeaoa?i?iothoueny iie?aaiii, ia?
aeoaea neeaaeio i?e?iaeo. Oiio iieaciee nooiaiy aeii?iaioiino? (hp)
aeaco? eeoa ia iaaio oaiaeaioe?th oniaaeeoaaiiy o??? /e ?ioi?
ainiiaea?nueei oe?iii? iciaee a eiie?aoieo eiia?iaoe?yo no?auoaaiiy.
*a?ac oa, ui o F2 ? ianooiieo iieie?iiyo ?icuaieaiiy ca iie?aaiieie
iciaeaie ooai?th? ia aeene?aoi?, a aacia?a?ai? ?yaee (caeii ii?iaeueiiai
?iciiae?eo), oi aeey aoaeoeaiiai aeiai?o oe?iieo aaiioei?a eeoa
iieacieea aeii?iaioiino? iaaeinoaoiuei. Ca hp, o iaai?e i???, iiaeia
noaeeoe i?i eiia?iaoe?eio caeaoi?noue eiiiiiaio?a no?auoaaiiy. Iaeiae
i?iaiicoaaoe ?acoeueoaoea-i?noue aeiai?o ca oeei iieacieeii i?aeoe/ii
iaiiaeeeai. Oiio i?e aea/aii? naeaeoe?eii? oe?iiino? iooaio?a ye
eiiiiiaio?a aeey a?a?eaeecaoe?? ie ei?enooaaeeny e ?ioeie
aaiaoeei-noaoenoe/ieie iieacieeaie eiiiiiaio?a i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

O a?oi? iaiiaieo ?aoeei?ieieo a?a?eae?a F1 aecia/aee eiao?oe??io
oniaaeeiaoaaiino? (h2) aenioe noaaea e no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a
i?iaeoeoea-iino? eieino.

I?aeoe/ii a on?o a?a?eaeieo eiia?iaoe?yo (iooaio o iooaio, ni?o o
iooaio, iooaio o ni?o) iai oaeaeiny aeae?eeoe e?i??, ye? ca aenioith
noaaea iaeaaeaoue aei ea?eee?a (65-70 ni) ? iai?aea?eee?a (75-90 ni).

Ooo/iee aeia?? o a?a?eaei?e iiioeyoe?? ae?? ia ia ie?ai? iciaee e aaie,
a ia oe?e?niee oaiioei. Oiio aeia?? ca iaeiei ?c aeaiaio?a
i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaieio/a coiiaeth? ci?ie an?o iciae, ye? aeathoue na?e
aianie o nooi?iue i?iyao aieiaii?, aai noia?iciaee.

O an?o iooaioii-ni?oiaeo, i?aeiooaioieo a?a?eae?a ? ?o aaouee?anueeeo
oi?i aea/aee ei?aeyoe?ei? ca`ycee i?ae aeaiaioaie no?oeoo?e aieiaiiai
eieino (aeiaaeeia, e?euee?noue eieine?a ? ca?ai, iana ca?ia) oa ianith
ca?ia e oeeie aeaiaioaie. Aiae?c ?o iieaco?, ui iana ca?ia aieiaiiai
eieino ia? iiceoeaiee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca`ycie c aeiaaeeiith, e?euee?noth
eieine?a oa ca?ai aieiaiiai eieino.

Iana ca?ia aieiaiiai eieino iaeo?ni?oa ei?aeth? c e?euee?noth ca?ai. O
an?o a?a?eae?a F2 eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae oeeie iieacieeaie
eieeaaany a?ae 0.567 aei 0.850, a a F4 – a?ae 0.831 aei 0.997. O?niee
ca`ycie ca oeeie iieacieeaie aoa ? a aaouee?anueeeo oi?i (ye iooaio?a,
oae ? ni?o?a).

Eiao?oe??io aeaoa?i?iaoe?? (r2xy) ia? i?yia a?aeiioaiiy aei iieaciee?a
neee aieeao oaeoi??a ia ?acoeueoaoeaio iciaeo. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui
eiao?oe??io aeaoa?i?iaoe?? a a?a?eae?a F4 i?ae ianith ca?ia aieiaiiai
eieino oa eiai aeiaaeeiith eieeaaany a iaaeao 19.8-43.8 %. Cia/ii aeuith
aoea caeaaei?noue iane ca?ia a?ae e?eueeino? eieine?a o eiein? (r2xy=
0.480-0.880) ? iaeaeuith (r2xy= 0.831-0.997) — i?ae ianith ca?ia ?
e?euee?noth ca?ai. Oea aeaco? ia aeioe?euei?noue aeiai?o ca oeeie
iciaeaie ii/eiath/e c F2.

Aeenia?n?eiee aiae?c e?eueeino? ca?ai ? iane ca?ia aieiaiiai eieino c
aenieei ??aiai aeinoia??iino? (Fo F0.01) i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aaiioeiiai
coiiaeaio ??cieoeth i?ae e?i?yie F4, ye? iioiaeyoue c iaei??? a?a?eaeii?
eiia?iaoe?? (oaae. 3).

Aaiioeiiaa aa??aina (r2) ? eiao?oe??io oniaaeeiaoaaiino? (h2)
iieaco-thoue, ui a caaaeuei?e oaiioeiia?e i?ieeaino? e?i?e ca
e?euee?noth ca?ai, /a-noea coiiaeaia ?o aaiioeiaie noaiiaeoue 75.2 %, a
ca ianith ca?ia – 90.4 %.

Ioaea, oe? aeai? a?aeia?aaeathoue caaaeueio ea?oeio: ii/eiath/e c F2
iino?eiei aeiai?ii ca e?euee?noth ca?ai ? ianith ca?ia aieiaiiai eieino
iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?aina?aneai? oi?ie, o yeeo aenie? iieacieee oeeo iciae
ii?aeiothoueny a iaeiiio aaiioei?.

Oaaeeoey 3

?acoeueoaoe aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co e?eueeino? ca?ai ? iane ca?ia
aieiaiiai eieino a e?i?e F4, a?ae?a?aieo a F2 c a?a?eaeii? iiioeyoe??
597

Aa??thaaiiyssdfmsFAa??ainah2oaeo.i?e ? = 0.012r2oCa e?euee?noth
ca?aiCaaaeueia477395E?i?e3372.531124.173.826.146.261.40.752Aeiaaeeiaa140
0.59215.2Ca ianith
ca?iaCaaaeueia28.395E?i?e24.938.3225.926.10.340.370.904Aeiaaeeiaa3.4920.
04O F1 ca e?euee?noth ca?ai o 34.5 %, a ianith ca?ia o 31.0 % a?a?eaeieo
eiia?iaoe?e niinoa??aa?oueny iaaeaeii?ioaaiiy, yea ca oeeie iciaeaie
cono??/a?oueny ? a F2 c /anoioith 20.0 % ? 14.3 % a?aeiia?aeii. Oiio i?e
aeiai?? a F2 aei iethn-aa??aio?a iiaee iiiaaeaoe aaoa?iceni? ?ineeie, a
yeeo o ianooiieo iieie?iiyo aaoa?iceaioi?noue ciaiooaaeany, o
?acoeueoao? /iai a F4-F5 oae? e?i?? cieaeothoue i?iaeoeoeai?noue eieino
e aea?aeiaothoueny. Oiio c 396 e?i?e, a?ae?a?aieo a F2 c 29 a?a?eaeieo
eiia?iaoe?e ? caeeaaeaieo i?ae F3, aei F6-F7 caeeoeeiny eeoa 17,
iiaeaeueoo aeieth yeeo ae??ooaaee ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiiy ca
a?iaeaei?noth oa ?ioeie ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieie iciaeaie.

C 11 a?a?eae?a eeoa aeaa (456/2 ? 593) iinooiaeeny ni?oo-noaiaea?oo
Ie?ii?anueea 61 ia 8.1-5.8 % ? Aeiinuee?e iai?aea?eeeia?e — ia 5.8-2.8
%. ?aooa a?a?eae?a ia?aaeuoaaea iaeaeaa ni?oe-noaiaea?oe. Ie?ii?anueea
61 iaea aeuo a?iaeaei?noue ii??aiyii c ni?oii Aeiinueea iai?aea?eeeiaa
(oaae. 4). Oiio aiae?c o?iaeaeiino? i?eaiaeeii a ii??aiyii? c
Ie?ii?anueeith 61.

Aeuo ia 29.0-31.5 % ca 1996-1998 ??. na?aaeith a?iaeaei?noue ii??aiyii c
noaiaea?oii iaee aeaa (570/1 ? 573/7) ? ia 12.9-18.6 % — i`youe
a?a?eae?a (574/14, 571, 592/3, 596 ? 572). Eeoa ia 8.3-10.9 % iaee aeuo
a?iaeaei?noue ii??aiyii c Ie?ii?anueeith 61 a?a?eaei? eiia?iaoe?? 595/2
? 575/1 a?aeiia?aeii.

Aeiai?ii (ii/eiath/e c F2) iai oaeaeiny a?ae?a?aoe c a?a?eaeieo
eiia?iaoe?e e?i??, ye? a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee ca aeiaaeeiith noaaea
iaeaaeaoue aei iai?aea?eee?a ? iathoue aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue. Iaeiae
iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui a iooaioii-ni?oiaeo ? i?aeiooaioieo
a?a?eae?a, ye ? i?e cae/aei?e i?aeni?oia?e a?a?eaeecaoe??, oi?ioaaiiy ?
i?iya ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieo iciae ? a?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae aieiaiei
/eiii caeaaeeoue a?ae eiiiiiaio?a no?auoaaiiy. Oae, ?aiiueinoeae?
ea?eeeia? iooaioe 396/2 ? 260/6 iathoue na?aaeith ceiino?ee?noue. Ia?oee
?iaeoeiaaiee o ni?oo Aeiinueea iai?aea?eeeiaa, ae?oaee – iiaoi?iith
ae??th iooaaai?a ia I-159, yeee a naith /a?ao iaea?aeaiee ia aac?
aaiioeio ni?oo Aacinoa 1. Aeei?enoaiiy oeeo iooaio?a ye iaoa?einueeeo
oi?i aeaei a?a?eaei? eiia?iaoe?? 456/2 ? 593, ui ca ni?eyoeeaeo oiia
iaee aenieo ceiino?ee?noue, a a aeno?aiaeueieo aiia noaiiaeea eeoa 25 %
? 30 % a?aeiia?aeii. O a?a?eae?a 595/2 ? 596, iooaio 396/2
aeei?enoiaoaaanue ye caieethaa/ ? a 1997 ?. o ieo ia?aceioaaei 75 % ? 65
% ?ineei (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4

O?iaeaei?noue ? ceiino?ee?noue iooaioii-ni?oiaeo ? i?aeiooaioieo
a?a?eae?a iceii? ioaieoe? (1996-1998 ??.)

Naeae-O?iaeaei?noueAenioaCeiin-oe?eiee iiia?Eiia?iaoe??
no?auoaaiiyna?aaeiy,

a/i2a % aei noaiaea?oonoaaea,

nio?ee?noue,

%456/2I-396/2 o I-22347891.96925-90570/1I-236 o
I-42/2684131.57975-95571I-236 o THiao iaeanueeee597114.87390-95572I-42/2
o THiao iaeanueeee617118.67585-95573/7THiao iaeanueeee o
439/2671129.07190-95574/14Aacinoa 1 o I-236587112.98182-95575/1Aacinoa 1
o I-42/2577110.97680-95592/3Aeiinueea iai?aea?eeeiaa o
I-42/2606116.57170-95593I-260/2 o I-42/249094.27230-92595/2437/2-1 o
I-396/2563108.38375-90596437/2-2 o I-396/2610117.38565-95Ie?ii?anueea 61
(1-e st)52008875-95Aeiinueea iai?aea?eeeeiaa (2-e
st)50496.98163-90A?a?eaee, iaea?aeai? a?ae no?auoaaiiy eiinoaioieo
iooaio?a i?ae niaith aai c naeaeoe?eieie ni?oaie, ye? ??ciyoueny ca
nenoaiieie iciaeaie, i?e ?icuaieaii? a iieie?iiyo aeathoue ni?aiaaeaiiy
oai?aoe/ii i/?eoaaieo ? oaeoe/ii iaea?aeaieo a?oi oaiioei?a ye i?e
cae/aei?e i?aeni?oia?e a?a?eaeecaoe??. Caeo/aiiy ae aei a?a?eaeecaoe??
aaiaoe/ii ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iiyaith oai?aoe/ii
iai/?eoaaieo oaiioei?a.

Aeae?eai? ia?niaeoeai? iooaioii-ni?oia? e i?aeiooaioi? a?a?eaee, ye? ca
a?iaeaei?noth ca?ia ia 10.9-31.5% ia?aaeuothoue ni?o-noaiaea?o
Ie?ii?anueea 61.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? “Ioe?iea e aeia?? iooaio?a ca a?iaeaei?noth oa
ie?aieie a?ieia?/ieie aeanoeainoyie” aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ioe?iee oa
aeiai?o iooaio?a ca a?iaeaei?noth ? iieacieeii ?? aiiainoaoe/iino?,
i?eaeaoi?noth aei oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy oa eiao?oe??ioii
ainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oioineioaco.

AEi?noea aea?aeiaoaaiiy ? aeia?? iooaio?a o naeaeoe?eiiio ?
eiio?ieueiiio ?icnaaeieeao ia i?aeaeuaio i?iaeoeoeai?noue eieino c
iaeii/aniith ioe?ieith ?o ca no?ee?noth aei aeeyaaiiy, o?aaeaiiy
oai?iaaie e ceiino?ee?noth aeaee iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaoe ?yae oi?i, ui
noaiiaeyoue i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an. Oae? iooaioe aeeth/aeeny a iiia?aaei?
aei?iaoaaiiy aeey ioe?iee ?o ca a?iaeaei?noth.

I?iya aeniei? aiiainoaoe/iino?, ye i?aaeei, iia`ycaiee c iaioith
aa??aaaeuei?noth a?iaeath ca iaeieo ? oeo aea e?i?ooth/eo oaeoi??a
na?aaeiaeua. O iaoeo aeine?aeao iooaioe e noaiaea?o ae?iuoaaeeny ca
iaeiaeiaeo oiia, a oiio aeey an?o ni?oic?ace?a ci?ithaaeeny eeoa
iiaiaei? oiiae, ye? neeaaeaeeny a ??ci? ?iee. Iaeaeuee ?iciao i?ieeaino?
a?aei?/aiee o ni?oo Ie?ii?anueea 61 (min = 50.4 oe/aa, max = 70.4
oe/aa). A?aeiia?aeii oeae ni?o iaa iaeaeuo aeenia?n?th (S2 = 132.7) ?
na?aaei?e eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? a?iaeaeiino? (V = 19.7 %). Iooaio 42/2
ca aeuiai ?iciaoo i?ieeaino? a?iaeaeiino? (min = 51.6 oe/aa, max = 73.6
oe/aa) iaa iaioo aeenia?n?th (S2 = 73.8) ? eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? (V =
13.6 %) ii??aiyii c ni?oii-noaiaea?oii. Iooaioe 105/5, 180 ? 79/1 ca
ieae/i? (oi/a ? iaaeinoia??ii) na?aaeiuei? a?iaeaeiino?, aoae/iai
?iciaoo ?? i?ieeaino? (lim) iaee a?aeiia?aeii iaioo aeenia?n?th (S2) ?
ieae/ee eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? (V, %) ii??aiyii c I-42/2 oa
ni?oii-noaiaea?oii (oaae. 5).

Oaaeeoey 5

Aiiainoaoe/i?noue iooaio?a iceii? ioaieoe? ca a?iaeaei?noth ca?ia
(na?aaei? ca 1988-1993 ??.)

Iooaioe?ie?a
niinoa-picscalex147010009000003a6000000030017000000000005000000090200000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spicscalex77010009000003a60000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400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,

oe/aaLim, oe/aa

S2

S

V, %

Hom?aaeaiueminmaxIe?ii?anueea 61 (St)457.150.470.4132.711.519.7283

464

336

449

556

578

307

544I-42/2663.251.673.673.88.613.6I-150657.749.774.397.79.917.1I-105/5653
.246.662.439.36.311.8I-79/1654.344.259.228.35.39.8I-75/2557.452.966.332.
75.79.9I-180553.545.469.187.19.317.4I-159/1459.051.967.541.36.410.8Iaeie
i ?c oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aiiainoaoe/iino? ? aeia?? iooaio?a c aeinoia??ii
aeuith na?aaeiueith o?iaeaei?noth ? aeuith noaa?euei?noth ii??aiyii c
noaiaea?oii i?e eieeaaii? iaeiio?ieueiaaieo iiaiaeieo oiia.

?iaeoeiaai? iooaoe?? a naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a, o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?,
aeathoue oi?ie, ye? iinooiathoueny i?iaeoeoeai?noth aeo?aeiei ni?oai ?
noaiaea?oai. Iaeiae iiaeia aeyaeoe iooaoe?? c iiceoeaieie ci?iaie oe???
iciaee. Aeia?? oaeeo iooaio?a iio??aii aanoe ca ?acoeueoaoaie
o?ueio??/iiai aei?iaoaaiiy I5-I7.

A?ae?a?ai? iaie iooaioe 42/2, 79/1, 75/2 ? 159/1 ia?aaaaeathoue aeo?aei?
ni?oe e noaiaea?o Ie?ii?anueea 61 ca a?iaeaei?noth ? iieacieeii ??
aiiainoaoe/iino?.

Ca a?iaeaei?noth ? eiao?oe??ioii ainiiaea?nueei? aoaeoeaiino?
oioinei-oaco (Eaini.) e?i?? iooaioiiai iioiaeaeaiiy 159/1, 153/5-1,
260/6, 320/1 ? 447 ia?aaeuothoue aeo?aei? ni?oic?acee e ni?o-noaiaea?o.

?aaeoe?th iooaio?a 42/2 ? 150, ye? aeae?eeeeny ca ?acoeueoaoaie
iiia?aaeiueiai ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy, aea/aee a ii??aiyii? c ?aeiiiaaieie
ni?oaie ca o?aaeeoe?eiith oa ?ioaineaiith oaoiieia?yie ae?iuoaaiiy
(oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoey 6

A?iaeaei?noue ni?o?a ? iooaio?a iceii? ioaieoe? caeaaeii a?ae oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy, oe/aa

Ni?o, iooaioO?aaeeoe?eia?ioaineaia1989 ?.1990 ?.1991
?.picscalex147010009000003a600000003001700000000000500000009020000000004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 ?.1990 ?.1991
?.picscalex147010009000003a600000003001700000000000500000009020000000004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 oiiIie?nueea
7072.739.537.649.982.947.449.359.9Eeyiea75.637.140.250.969.549.256.658.4
Ie?ii?anueea
6176.042.647.155.281.654.763.066.4I-42/281.541.149.457.388.152.361.467.2
I-15067.338.343.949.877.651.256.261.7Iecueeee oiiIie?nueea
7035.134.826.932.361.551.238.650.4Eeyiea34.535.332.734.262.254.039.752.0
Ie?ii?anueea
6138.236.728.234.462.458.746.155.7I-42/243.541.236.640.369.956.547.357.9
I-15037.735.133.535.454.653.739.649.3
I??0.53.11.92.13.11.92.1Iaeaeuee i?e??no o?iaeath ca ?ioaineaii?
oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy ia iecueeiio aa?ioii? ii??aiyii c o?aaeeoe?eiith
aoa o ni?oo-noaiaea?oo Ie?ii?anueea 61. O na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee a?i
noaiiaea 21.3 oe/aa. O iooaioa 42/2 oeae iieaciee nyaaa eeoa 17.6 oe/aa.
Iaeiae ca o?aaeeoe?eii? oaoiieia?? ia iecueeiio aa?ioii? iooaioe 150 ?
42/2 oi?ioaaee aeuee o?iaeae ii??aiyii ?c naeaeoe?eieie ni?oaie. Oi/a
oea ia?aaeuaiiy aoei aeinoia??iei eeoa o I-42/2.

Ie oe?eeii iiae?ey?ii iiceoe?th E.A. ?aiiii?oa (1988), ui ?ioaineaia
oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ni?o?a ia?aaeaa/a? aenie? aeo?aoe aeey
?aae?caoe?? ?o iioaioe?aeo i?iaeoeoeaiino?. ?noeiii ae ?ioaineaieie
iiaeia aaaaeaoe eeoa ni?oe c i?aeaeuaiith ?ioaineai?noth oioineioaco,
caeaoi? ca ?aooiie niaaeei-aeo i?enoinoaaiue i?ioenoiyoe iani?eyoeea?e
ae?? aa?ioe/ieo ? a?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a ? caaeiaieueiyoe aeiiae ca ??aiai
o?iaeaeiino? oa yeino? i?iaeoeoe??.

?iaeoeiaai? iooaoe?? ii?ooothoue aaiaoe/i? e o?c?ieia?/i? ei?aeyoe??
aeanoea? aaiioeio eiaeiiai ni?oo, ui oi?ioaaeeny aeiai?ii o
naeaeoe?eiiio i?ioean?. O iooaio?a c ii?oieia?/ieie ci?iaie ia?aa?a
o?c?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aacoiiaii aoaea iaoe iaai? a?aei?iiino?
ii??aiyii c aeo?aeieie ni?oaie. Oiio ie aeiioneaee iiaeeea?noue
aeyaeaiiy iooaioieo oi?i c i?aeaeuaiith ?ioaineai?noth oioineioaco, i?i
yeo noaeeee ca aaee/eiith eiao?oe??ioa ainiiaea?nueei? aoaeoeaiino?
(Eaini.).

Ii??aiyii c ?ioeie ni?oaie a Aacinoi? 1 iaea?eueoa iaea?aeaii oaeeo
e?i?e. C ?enoiea 6, ia yeiio i?eaiaeeii aeai? eeoa ii o?ueio iiia?ao,
/?oei aeaeii ??cieoeth i?ae aeo?aeiei ni?oii ? iooaioaie ca ie?aieie
iciaeaie. On? iooaioe iathoue aeinoia??ii ei?iooa noaaei ii??aiyii c
aeo?aeiei ni?oii. I-180 ? I-159/1 iathoue a?eueoo e?euee?noue ca?ai ?
iano ca?ia aieiaiiai eieino, ui coiiaeth? a ieo aeuo i?ae o Aacinoi? 1
o?iaeaei?noue. Iaeiae oe?ii?noue ?o iieyaa? a oiio, ui c i?aeaeuaiith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth oe? iooaioe iathoue aeuee ai?no a?eea ii??aiyii c
aeo?aeiei ni?oii Aacinoa 1. Iooaio 153/5-1 aeaui iinooia?oueny
aeo?aeiiio ni?oo e?euee?noth eieine?a aieiaiiai eieino, iaeiae ia?
cia/ii aeuo ica?iai?noue eieino e iano 1000 ca?ai, a oiio iana ca?ia
aieiaiiai eieino a iueiai noaiiaeoue 2.0 a, ui cia/ii ia?aaaaea? Aacinoo
1. Oeae iooaio ia? aenieee iioaioe?ae i?iaeoeoeaiino?, iaeiae ca ai?noii
eeaeeiaeie e a?eea a?i iinooia?oueny aeo?aeiiio ni?oo.

?en. 6. Ii??aiyiiy ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieo iciae o aeo?aeiiai ni?oo
Aacinoa 1 ? noai?aieo ia eiai iniia? iooaio?a (1994 – 1996 ??.)

Na?aae aeae?eaieo iaie ia?niaeoeaieo iooaio?a iniaeeao oaaao i?eaa?oa?
I-42/2, iaea?aeaiee noi?nii c aeioeaioii eaoaae?e naeaeoe?? AAeAO
Eiyctheii A.?. ?c ni?oo ?ee?/?aea. Ca a?iaeaei?noth ? cai?ii a?eea
I-42/2 ia?aaeuo? ni?oe-noaiaea?oe Ie?ii?anueeo 61 ? Aeiinueeo
iai?aea?eeeiao. Oeae iooaio ia? /?oei ae?aaeaio aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?iiaaio
iciaeo: ia 6-8 /eaieeao na?aaeiuei? /anoeie eieiniaiai noa?aeiy
oi?io?oueny ia ii iaeiiio, a ii aeaa eieinee. Oey iciaea ? aaiaoe/iei
ia?ea?ii ? noaa?eueii caa??aa?oueny a iieie?iiyo iooaioa. Oiio I-42/2
iiaea aooe oe?iiei eiiiiiaioii no?auoaaiiy a aaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
oa noai?aii? ni?o?a c /?oei ae?aaeaieie ia?ea?ieie iciaeaie, ui ia?
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy i?e ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ni?oiaiai oiiaeo.

Iooaio 42/2 noaiiaeoue i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an aeey i?yiiai aeei?enoaiiy ye
ni?oo ia a??oeo iiia?aaeieeao ? ia iecueeiio aa?ioii?.

I/aaeaeii, ui a no/anieo e?eciaeo oiiaao o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
ae??oeoe i?iaeaio noaa?eueii? aeniei? a?iaeaeiino? iceii? ioaieoe? eeoa
ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ni?o?a ?ioaineaiiai oeio iaiiaeeeai. Oiio iinoa?
iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ni?o?a iai?a?ioaineaiiai oeio c aenieith
aaiaoe/iith aiiainoaoe/i?noth i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

Aeniiaee

1. Oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy e i?iaaaeai? aaiaoe/ii-naeaeoe?ei?
aenia?e-iaioe aeathoue i?aenoaao oaa?aeeoe i?i iiaeeea?noue cia/iiai
caaaa/oaaiiy oi?iioai?/iai i?ioeano a iceii? ioaieoe? oeyoii o?i?/iiai
iooaaaiaco, cie?aia canoinoaaiiyi aee?eoth/eo AeIE niieoe. Oeei iaoiaeii
oaea?oueny ?iaeoeoaaoe oi?ie c? ci?iaieie ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie,
a?ieia?/ieie, a?io?i?/ieie e o?c?ieia?/ieie aeanoeainoyie, /anoeia c
yeeo ? ei?enieie c oi/ee ci?o ainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy.

2. I?iaaaeai? aaaaoi??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ca iaeii?aciai?
ae?? iooaaai?a ia ae/a?io?oueny iiaeeea?noue ?iaeoeoaaiiy oi?i iceii?
ioaieoe? c naeaeoe?eii oa ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieie iciaeaie e
aeanoeainoyie. Canoino-aaiiy iiaoi?ii? ae?? iooaaai?a ia iooaioe oa
ianooiii? i?aeiooaioii? ? iooaioii-ni?oiai? a?a?eaeecaoe?? aeicaiey?
noai?thaaoe e a?aeae?aoe aaii-oeie c aaaeaieie iciaeaie, yeeo ia iaee
aeo?aei? ni?oe e iooaioi? oi?ie.

3. A?a?eaee, iaea?aeai? a?ae no?auoaaiiy eiinoaioieo iooaio?a i?ae
niaith aai c naeaeoe?eieie ni?oaie, ye? ??ciyoueny ca nenoaiieie
iciaeaie, i?e ?icuaieaii? a iieie?iiyo aeathoue ni?aiaaeaiiy oai?aoe/ii
i/?eoaaieo ? oaeoe/ii iaea?aeaieo a?oi oaiioei?a ye i?e cae/aei?e
i?aeni?oia?e a?a?eaeecaoe??. Oa?aeoa? aaiaoe/ii? aeaoa?i?iaoe?? aenioe
noaaea oa aeaiaio?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? eieino (aeiaaeeia, e?euee?noue
eieine?a ? ca?ai, iana ca?ia) o i?aeiooaioieo ? iooaioii-ni?oiaeo
a?a?eae?a aeineoue neeaaeiee ? coiiaeth-?oueny an?ia a?aeiieie oeiaie
aca?iiae?? aai?a. I?e/iio, nooi?iue aeii?iaio-iino? (hp) e?euee?nieo
iciae o F1 iiaea aa??thaaoe a?ae aeai?an?? (hp -1) aei iaaeaeii?ioaaiiy
(hp +1) caeaaeii a?ae aaiioei?a eiiiiiaio?a no?auoaaiiy.

4. Aeiai?ii (ii/eiath/e c F2) ca aenioith noaaea e aeaiaioaie
i?iaeoeoeaiino? aieiaiiai eieina (e?euee?noue ca?ai ? iana ca?ia) iiaeia
a?ae?a?aoe c iooaioii-ni?oiaeo ? i?aeiooaioieo a?a?eaeieo eiia?iaoe?e
oi?ie, ye? ii?aeiothoue ei?ioeinoaaeia?noue c aenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth
eieino. Oaeei iaoiaeii aeae?eai? c iooaioii-ni?oiaeo (I-42/2 o Aacinoa
1, I-42/2 o THiao iaeanueeee, Aeiinueea iai?aea?eeeiaa o I-42/2) oa
i?aeiooaioieo a?a?eaeieo iiioeyoe?e (I-236 o I-42/2) ia?niaeoeai? e?i??,
ye? a F4-F6 iathoue oei?i/aia noaaei e ca a?iaeaei?noth ca?ia (a/i2) ia
10.9-31.5 % ia?aaeuothoue ni?o- noaiaea?o Ie?ii?anueea 61.

5. I?ae ianith ca?ia e no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie aieiaiiai eieino
(aeiaaeeia, e?euee?noue eieine?a ? ca?ai) o iooaio?a ? a?a?eae?a ia ?o
iniia? ?nio? iiceoeaiee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca`ycie. Iaeiae iana ca?ia
aieiaiiai eieino iaeo?ni?oa ei?aeth? c e?euee?noth ca?ai. O an?o
a?a?eae?a F2 eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae oeeie iieacieeaie eieeaaany
a?ae 0.567 aei 0.850, a a F4 — a?ae 0.831 aei 0.997. Eiao?oe??io
aeaoa?i?iaoe?? (rxy) o F4 nyaaa 0.831-0.993. Oiio a ?iaio? c
i?aeiooaioieie a?a?eaeaie ? aeioe?eueiei aeia?? ca ica?iai?noth eieino,
yeee ne?ae ii/eiaoe c F2.

6. O?i?/i? iooaaaie iiaeooue ?iaeoeoaaoe aaiaoe/io ianoaa?euei?noue
iooaio?a, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icuaieaiiyi i?ioyaii aaaaoueio
iieie?iue (ie i?inoaaeeee aei I10), ui cia/ii iiaeiaaeo? ? oneeaaeith?
a?aea?? eiinoaioieo oi?i c naeaeoe?eii e ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieie
iciaeaie. Aiane?aeie ?icuaieaiiy a iieie?iiyo ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a
i?io?ea? aaaaoee oi?iioai?/ee i?ioean c iiyaith oi?i c iiaeie
ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie e aeanoeainoyie, yeeo ia iaee aeo?aei? ni?oe.

7. O i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? aaiaoe/ii ianoaa?euei? iooaioe, ye i?aaeei,
aea?aeiaothoue oaea a I3, ui iicaaaey? naeaeoe?iia??a iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy cia/iiai ??ciiiai?ooy oi?i, ui ooai?ththoueny ca o?i?/iiai
iooaaaiaco. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieacothoue, ui canoiniaoth/e
aacia?a?aiee aeia?? ca iaoiaeii iaae?a?? a iieie?iiyo (I4-I10) aaiaoe/ii
ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a iiaeia iaea?aeaoe oi?ie c naeaeoe?eii oe?iieie
iciaeaie. Oaeei iaoiaeii iaie iaea?aeaiee ?aoeaneaiee ea?eee I-432/5
(aenioa noaaea 32-39 ni), na?aaeiuei?ine? (I-153/5-1, I-153/5-2) ?
iecueei?ine? (I-419/1-2-1, I-419/1-2-6, I-419/1-2-9 ? I-419/1-2-15)
oi?ie c aenieith ica?iai?noth (3-2.5 ca?i?aee a eieineo ? 52.4-61.2 – a
eiein?) oa ianith ca?ia aieiaiiai eieino 2.6-3.1 a, ye? noaiiaeyoue
i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an.

Caeo/aiiy aei no?auoaaiiy aaiaoe/ii ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a iaaecae/aeii
iineeth? oi?iioai?/ee i?ioean o iieie?iiyo c iiyaith oai?aoe/ii
iai/?eoaaieo oaiioei?a ca aioo??oiueiaeaeiai? a?a?eaeecaoe??.

1. Iooaoe?? iie?aai?a e?euee?nieo iciae (aenioa noaaea, aeiaaeeia
eieino, e?euee?noue eieine?a ? ca?ai o eiein?, iana ca?ia eieino oa ?i.)
noai?ththoue ?o aaoa?iceaioi?noue, ui a iooaioieo iieie?iiyo coiiaeth?
?icuaieaiiy, yea ca oaiioeiii ii oeeo iciaeao aea? aacia?a?aiee ?yae
i?ieeaino?. Oiio i?e iaea?aeai? iecueei?ineeo iooaioieo e?i?e ?
aoaeoeaiei aacia?a?aiee aeia?? o I3-I5-7 i?ion-aa??aio?a, a a naeaeoe??
ia i?aeaeuaio i?iaeoeoeai?noue eieina – iethn-aa??aio?a.

2. Aaiaoe/ia i?ieea?noue, ?iaeoeiaaia ae??th o?i?/ieo iooaaai?a,
ooai?th? cia/io ??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i ca no?ee?noth aei oai?ia ye o
naeaeoe?eieo ni?o?a, oae ? a iooaio?a ca ?o iiaoi?ii? ia?iaee
iooaaaiaie. Nenoaiaoe/iei aeiai?ii o iieie?iiyo iooaio?a iiaeia
aeae?eeoe oi?ie c i?aeaeuaiith no?ee?noth aei ai?ioienoi? ?ine ? ao?i?
eenoeiai? ??ae?, ui aeaco? ia aoaeoeai?noue o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco ye
iaoiaeo noai?aiiy aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo a naeaeoe?? iceii? ioaieoe? ia
no?ee?noue aei oai?ia.

3. Iaie ia aeyaeaii niaoeeo?/iino? ae?? a iooaaai?a a?oie aee?eoth/eo
AeIE niieoe. Eiaeai ?c oeeo iooaaai?a ?iaeoeo? iooaoe?ei? ci?ie
aoaeue-yei? iciaee iacaeaaeii a?ae ni?oo. I?ioeaio ?iaeoeiaaieo iooaoe?e
caeaaeeoue a?eueoa a?ae aaiioeio ni?oo i?ae a?ae iooaaaia, ui iaeaaeeoue
aei oe??? a?oie. Iaeiae o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? iooaoe?? ca
e?euee?nieie iciaeaie iinooiathoueny aeo?aeiei ni?oai.

4. Oeeoiaaiaoe/ia aeoeai?noue iooaaai?a o I0 ca /anoioith o?iiiniiieo
aaa?aoe?e o iceii? ioaieoe? ciaoiaeeoueny a i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o
eiioeaio?aoe?? ? aeniiceoe?? caii/oaaiiy ian?iiy. Iaeaeuo aeoeai?noue ca
ae??th ia i?oioe/iee aia?ao ee?oeie i?iyaeyee IIN ? A?, a iaeiaioa
ii?ooaiue no?oeoo?e o?iiinii ni?e/eiyee AeAN ? IIA. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
canoinoaaiiy IAAE cieaeo? a ia?enoai? ca?iaeeiaeo ei?ai?a /anoioo
o?iiiniiieo aaa?aoe?e, ni?e/eiaieo ae??th o?i?/ieo iooaaai?a ? aeaui
i?aeaeuo? iieueiao noiae?noue ian?iiy I0, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue iaoe
a?eueoa ?ineei I1, a ioaea, ? n?iae I2 aeey aeiai?o iooaoe?e.

5. O?i?/i? iooaaaie (IIN, A?, IAN, AeAN, AeIN, AeAA ? IIA) a 0.05 %
eiioeaio?aoe??, i?aeoe/ii, o an?o ni?o?a coiiaeththoue aeai?an?th
i?ioean?a ?inoo e ?icaeoeo ?ineei I1. ?c cieaeaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae
0.025 aei 0.0125 % o a?eueoino? ni?o?a iooaaaie i?iyaeythoue
noeioethth/o ae?th, ui coiiaeth? iiceoeai? iiaeeo?eaoe??, ye?
oneeaaeiththoue aeia?? iooaoe?e ca e?euee?nieie iciaeaie. Oiio a
i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? ?aeiiaiaeo?ii IAN, AeAN, AeIN, AeAA ? IIA
canoiniaoaaoe a eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae 0.025 aei 0.05 %, IIN ? A? – a?ae
0.0125 aei 0.025 %. I?e canoinoaaii? IIN ? A? 0.05 % nei?i/oaaoe
aeniiceoe?th caii/oaaiiy ian?iiy aei 4-12 aiaeei.

6. O ?acoeueoao? ?iaioe noai?aii eieaeoe?th iooaio?a c aeuei iieacieeii
neeiaeaeiino? (I-75/2, I-180 ? I-313/4), ai?noii a?eea (I-75/2, I-320/1,
I-180, I-159/1 ? I-260/6) oa eeaeeiaeie (I-75/2, I-105/5, I-320/1)
ii??aiyii c aeo?aeieie ni?oaie e noaiaea?oaie. Ca na?aaei?i o?ueio??/iei
iieacieeii neee ai?ioia (W iae.a.) a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai neeueieo
ioaieoeue iooaioe 320/1, 313/4 ? 206/6.

7. Iooaioe aeeth/ai? a iiaeaeueoo naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/io ?iaioo eaoaae?e
naeaeoe?? ? ian?iieoeoaa AAeAO oa aeei?enoiaothoueny ye iaa/aeueiee
iaoa??ae i?e i?aeaioiaoe? oao?aoe?a aeey aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno.
Ia?aaeaii a Ie?ii?anueeee ?inoeooo ioaieoe? OAAI aeey iiaeaeueoi?
naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe eiinoaioi? iooaioi? oi?ie 447, 320/1, 313/4, 180,
75/2, 159/1, 42/2, 260/6, 153/5-1 oa i?aeiooaioi? ? iooaioii-ni?oia?
a?a?eaee 455, 573/7, 570/1, 593/9, 456/12 c i?aeaeuaiith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth oa eiiieaenii aeia?eo oaoiieia?/ieo iieaciee?a yeino?
ca?ia.

O Aea?aeaaiiio ni?oiaei?iaoaaii? ciaoiaeeoueny na?aaeiuei?aii?e
aeniei-i?iaeoeoeaiee ?c a?oiiaith no?ee?noth aei ai?ioienoi? ?ine, ao?i?
??ae? oa oaa?aei? naaeee ni?o iceii? ioaieoe? Aeni?iio, ni?aaaoi?ii
yeiai ? aeena?oaio.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

1. Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. Aaiaoe/iee aoaeo aeiai?o ca e?oii?noth ca?ia
iooaio?a iceii? ioaieoe? // A?niee A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue.- A?ea Oea?eaa, 1996.- Aei. 1.-
N. 91-94.

2. Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. Oa?aeoa? oniaaeeoaaiiy e?euee?nieo iciae o
iooaioii-ni?oiaeo a?a?eae?a iceii? ioaieoe? // A?niee A?eioea?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue.- A?ea Oea?eaa,
1996.- Aei. 1.- N. 94-97.

3. Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. Ei?aeyoe?eiee ca`ycie iane ca?ia aieiaiiai
eiei-na c aeaiaioaie eiai no?oeoo?e o iooaioii-ni?oiaeo a?a?eae?a iceii?
ioaieoe? // A?niee A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?ne-oaoo: Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue.- A?ea Oea?eaa, 1997.- Aei. 2.- *. 2.-
N. 15-20.

4. Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. Oi?iioai?/ee i?ioean o iieie?iiyo aaiaoe/ii
ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a iceii? ioaieoe? // A?niee A?eioea?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaa-iiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue.- A?ea Oea?eaa,
1997.- Aei. 2.- *. 2.- N. 20-24.

5. Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. O?i?/iee iooaaaiac a naeaeoe??
aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo ni?o?a iceii? ioaieoe? // Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue Oiainueei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai??.- E.: Ii?a-i??io, 1997.- N. 182-185.

6. Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. Aoaeoeai?noue aeiai?o iooaio?a iceii? ioaieoe?
ca aeiaaeeiith noaaea // A?niee A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue.- A?ea Oea?eaa, 1998.-Aei. 4.-
*. 2.- N. 7-12.

7. Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. O?i?/iee iooaaaiac o noai?aii? ei?ioeinoaaeiaeo
oi?i iceii? ioaieoe? // A?niee A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo: Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue.-A?ea Oea?eaa, 1998.-Aei. 4.- *. 2.- N.
10-12.

8. Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. Aiiainoaoe/i?noue iooaio?a iceii? ioaieoe? ca
a?iaeaei?noth ca?ia: Ca. iaoe. i?. ?inoeoooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI.-E.,
1999.- Aei. 1-2.- N. 140-144.

9. Aaneeueeianeee N.I., Eiycthe A.E., Iaeeiieee I.N. Eiaeooee?iaaiea
oeie/aneeo iooaoeee o ni?oia iceiie ioaieoeu // I?iaeaiu iauae e
iieaeoey?iie aeieiaee: ?anioaeeeaineee iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue iao/i.na.- E.:
Aeua oeiea, 1984.- N. 14-20.

10. Eiycthe A.E., Aaneeueeianeee N.I. Aoaeoeaiinoue oeie/aneiai
iooaaaiaca a oeo/oaiee oicyenoaaiiuo i?eciaeia iceiie ioaieoeu //
Naeaeoeey, naiaiiaiaenoai e ni?oiaay aa?ioaoieea ca?iiauo e ei?iiauo
eoeueoo?: Na. iao/. o?. Ie?iiianeiai IEE naeaeoeee e naiaiiaiaenoaa
ioaieoeu. – Ie?iiiaea, 1985.- N. 46-50.

11. Aaneeueeianeee N.I., Eiycthe A.E., Eaooaa O.O. Yooaeoeaiinoue
oeie/aneiai iooaaaiaca a nicaeaiee enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea aeey naeaeoeee
iceiie ioaieoeu // Eioaineoeeaoeey naeaeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna ca?iiauo
eoeueoo?: Na. iao/. o?. — Ie?iiiaea, 1987.- N. 69-75.

12. Aaneeueeianeee N.I., Eiycthe A.E. Aeeyiea oeie/aneeo iooaaaiia ia
iieaaoth anoiaeanoue naiyi e iooaaeeueiinoue ni?oia // I?ia?ann a
naeaeoeee iceiie ioaieoeu eae oaeoi? eioaineoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
ca?ia: Na.iao/.o?.- Ie?iiiaea, 1988.- N. 18-20.

13. Eiycthe A.E., Aaneeueeianeee N.I., Iaeeiieee I.N. Eciai/eainoue
ni?oia iceiie ioaieoeu, eiaeooee?iaaiiay oeie/aneeie iooaaaiaie // Iiaua
ni?oa, nicaeaiiua iaoiaeii oeie/aneiai iooaaaiaca.- I.: Iaoea, 1988.- N.
123-125.

14. Aaneeueeianeee N.I., Eiycthe A.E., Iaeeiieee I.N. Aeeyiea IAAE ia
?inoiaua e oeceieiae/aneea i?ioeannu o ?anoaiee ioaieoeu // Oeie/aneea
iooaaaiu e ia?a-aieiiaaicieiay eeneioa a iiauoaiee o?iaeaeiin-oe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?anoaiee.- I.: Iaoea, 1989.- N. 249-251.

15. ?aaeoeey ni?oia iceiie ioaieoeu ?acee/iiai aaia?aoe/aneiai
i?ien-oiaeaeaiey ia oeie/aneea iooaaaiu / A.A. Oaeaiia, A.A. Aeanaiei,
A.E. Eiycthe, N.I. Aaneeueeianeee // Aeieiae/aneea ?aca?au iiauoaiey
o?i-aeaeiinoe ca?iiauo eieiniauo eoeueoo?: Na.iao/. o?.- Ie?iiiaea,
1989.- N. 14-19.

16. Iaeeiieee I.N., Aaneeueeianeee N.I., Eiycthe A.E. Aeeyiea
ia?aaeiinaaiie ia?aaioee naiyi ia?a-aieiiaaicieiie eeneioie ia o?iaeae
iceiie ioaieoeu // Eioaineaiua oaoiieiaee a ?anoaieaaiaenoaa e
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa.- E.: ONOA, 1991.- N. 44-47.

17. Iieo/aiea enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea aeey auaaaeaiey ni?oia iceiie
ioaieoeu, i?eaiaeiuo aeey au?aueaaiey ii eioaineaiie oaoiieiaee /
N.I.Aaneeue-eianeee, A.E. Eiycthe, I.N. Iaeeiieee, O.O. Eaooaa, A.A.
Oaeaiia, A.A. Aeanaiei // Eioaineaiua oaoiieiaee a
?anoaieaaiaenoaa e ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa.- E.: ONOA, 1991.- N. 35-39.

18. E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea iooaioia iaeioi?uo eo/oeo ioa/anoaaiiuo
ni?oia iceiie ioaieoeu /A.A. Oaeaiia, A.A. Aeanaiei, E.Ae. I?ieiiaiei,
A.E. Eiy-cthe, N.I. Aaneeueeianeee // Naeaeoeeiiiua e aa?ioaoie/aneea
iooe iiauoaiey o?iaeaeiinoe ca?iiauo eieiniauo eoeueoo?: Na.iao/. o?.-
Ie?iiiaea, 1992.- N. 44-49.

19. Naeaeoeeiiiay oeaiiinoue iooaioia iceiie ioaieoeu / N.I.
Aaneeueeianeee, O.O. Eaooaa, A.E. Eiycthe, I.N. Iaeeiieee // Oeie/aneee
iooaaaiac e caaea/e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.- I.: Iaoea,
1993.- N. 34-36.

20. C ?noi??? noai?aiiy ni?oo iceii? ioaieoe? Aeni?iio / A.A.Aeanaiei,
A.A.Oaeaiia, E.I. AEeaioeia, N.I. Aaneeuee?anueeee, A.?. Eiycthe, E.A.
Eiei-i??oeue, A.O. Eieth/ee, A.I. Eiaaeeoeia // A?niee
A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaa-iiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- A?ea Oea?eaa,
1996.- Aei. 1.-N. 97-101.

21. Iieioeueeee I.ss., Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. Noai?aiiy aeo?aeiiai
naeaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo iceii? ioaieoe? ia iniia? o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco
// A?niee A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- A?ea
Oea?eaa, 1997. Aei. 3. *. 2.- N. 54-58.

Oace aeiiia?aeae

1. Aaneeueeianueeee N.I., Eiycthe A.E. Oeie/aneee iooaaaiac a nicaeaiee
enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea // Oacenu aeiee. V nuacaea AIAeN ei. I.E. Aaaeeiaa.
-I., 1987.- O. IV, /.1- N.73.

2. Onoie/eainoue iooaioia iceiie ioaieoeu e a?eaiui caaieaaaieyi
/N.I. Aaneeueeianueeee, A.E.Eiycthe, O.O. Eaooaa, I.N.Iaeeiieee //
Oacenu aeiee. ?ani. eiio. “Yenia?eiaioaeueiue iooaaaiac e aai
eniieueciaaiea a naeaeoeee ?anoaiee”.– E., 1989.- N. 24-25.

3. Naeaeoeeiiiay oeaiiinoue iooaioia iceiie ioaieoeu / A.E.Eiycthe, N.I
Aaneeueeianueeee, O.O. Eaooaa, I.N. Iaeeiieee // Oacenu aeiee. ?ani.
eiio. “Yenia?eiaioaeueiue iooaaaiac e aai eniieueciaaiea a naeaeoeee
?anoaiee”.– E., 1989.- N. 39-40.

4. ?aia?e?othuaa aeaenoaea ia?a-aieiiaaicieiie eeneiou i?e oeie/aneii
iooaaaiaca / I.N. Iaeeiieee, N.I. Aaneeueeianueeee, A.E. Eiycthe,
O.O. Eaooaa // Oacenu aeiee. ?ani. eiio. “Yenia?eiaioaeueiue
iooaaaiac e aai eniieueciaaiea a naeaeoeee ?anoaiee”. – E., 1989.- N.
59-60.

5. Aaneeueeianueeee N.I., Eiycthe A.E. Iieo/aiea onoie/eauo e aieaciyi
iooaioia iceiie ioaieoeu iaoiaeii oeie/aneiai iooaaaiaca // Oacenu
aeiee. VI nuacaea Oe?aeineiai iauanoaa aaiaoeeia e naeaeoeeiia?ia
ei. I.E. Aaaeeiaa.– E., 1992.- N. 111.

6. Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I., Nei?ee ?.ss. A?aea?? iooaio?a iceii? ioaieoe?
ca ai?noii ne?i? eeaeeiaeie ? iieacieeii ?AeE // Oace aeii. iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiio. “A/ai? AAeAO – ae?iaieoeoao”.– A?ea Oea?eaa, 1994.– N. 19-20.

7. Aaneeueeianueeee N.I. Oeie/aneee iooaaaiac a nicaeaiee aaiaoe/aneiai
?aciiia?acey enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea aeey naeaeoeee iceiie ioaieoeu //
Iaoa?eaeu VI Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/.-i?aeoe/. eiio. “Iao?aaeeoeeiiiia
?anoaieaaiaenoai, yeieiaey e caei?iauea”.-Neioa?iiieue, 1997.-N. 240.

Aaneeuee?anueeee N.I. Iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco i?e
noai?aii? aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo aeey naeaeoe?? ioaieoe?.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.05 — naeaeoe?y
oa ian?iieoeoai.- Naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iee ?inoeooo OAAI, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi noai?aiiy aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo
iaoiaeii o?i?/iiai iooaaaiaco a naeaeoe?? iceii? ioaieoe?. O
aeena?oaoe?? iieacaia iiaeeea?noue iineeaiiy oi?iioai?/iai i?ioeano a
iceii? ioaieoe? canoinoaaiiyi aee?eoth/eo AeIE niieoe. Aecia/ai?
iniaeeaino? i?ieeaino? e oniaaeeoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae oa
ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieo iciae o ?iaeoeiaaieo iooaio?a iceii? ioaieoe?.
Aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue aeae?eaiiy oi?i c eiiieaenii naeaeoe?eii oe?iieo
iciae aacia?a?aiei ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei aeiai?ii ca iaoiaeii iaae?a?? a
iieie?iiyo aaiaoe/ii ianoaa?eueieo iooaio?a. Noai?aia eieaeoe?y iooaio?a
c e?aueie iieacieeaie aeaiaio?a i?iaeoeoeaiino?, yeino? ca?ia oa aeuei
iioaioe?aeii o?iaeaeiino? ii??aiyii c aeo?aeieie ni?oaie e noaiaea?oaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeo?aeiee iaoa??ae, o?i?/i? iooaaaie, ?iaeoeiaai?
iooaioe, ianoaa?euei? iooaioe, naeaeoe?y, ioaieoey.

Vassylkivskyi S.P. The utilization peculiarities of chemical mutagenesis
at creation of initial material for wheat breeding. –Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor of agricultural sciences degree on speciality
06.01.05 – breeding and seed production. – Plant Breeding and Genetic
Institute of UAAS, Odessa, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the questions of initial material creation by
chemical mutagenesis in winter wheat breeding. The possibility of
variation intensification has been shown by use of alkylating DNA
compounds for winter wheat. The variability and inheritance
peculiarities of byological properties and agronomic traits have been
determined in induced mutants of winter wheat. The screening possibility
of plants combining valuable traits and properties has been proved after
continuous individual selection in the genetically unstable mutant
generations by a pedigree method. The mutants collection has been
created; they are characterized by better yield components, grein
quality and higher yield potential when compared to the initial
cultivars and standard varieties.

Key words: initial material, chemical mutagenes, induced mutants,
unstable mutants, breeding , wheat.

Aaneeueeianeee N.I. Iniaaiiinoe eniieueciaaiey oeie/aneiai iooaaaiaca
i?e nicaeaiee enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea aeey naeaeoeee ioaieoeu.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.05 — naeaeoeey e naiaiiaiaenoai.-
Naeaeoeeiiii-aaiaoe/aneee einoeooo OAAI, Iaeanna, 1999.

Iiiaieaoiea enneaaeiaaiey oaaaeeoaeueii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
aiciiaeiinoe cia/eoaeueiiai iaiaauaiey oi?iiia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna
o iceiie ioaieoeu iaoiaeii oeie/aneiai iooaaaiaca.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iiauoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee iooaaaiia n 0.025 % aei 0.05 %
iiauoaao /anoioo o?iiiniiiuo aaa??aoeee, nieaeaao iieaaoth anoiaeanoue
naiyi, oaiaoaao nei?inoue i?i?inoaiey ca?iaeuoaauo ei?aoeia, i?ioeannu
?inoa e ?acaeoey ?anoaiee I1.

I?eiaiaiea ia?a-aieiiaaicieiie eeneiou (IAAE) i?e ia?aaioea naiyi
iooaaaiaie nieaeaao /anoioo o?iiiniiiuo aaa??aoeee ia 7-12 % a eeaoeao
aieeaeueiie ia?enoaiu ca?iaeuoaauo ei?aoeia e iiauoaao iieaaoth
anoiaeanoue naiyi.

Aeeeee?othuea AeIE iooaaaiu i?iyaeyee iaiaeeiaeiaia oeeoiaaiaoe/aneia e
oeceieiae/aneia aeaenoaea, eae ia ia/aeueiuo yoaiao ?inoa e ?acaeoey,
oae e ia oi?ie?iaaiea eiee/anoaaiiuo i?eciaeia i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ?anoaiee
iceiie ioaieoeu a I1. Eiee/anoai ?anoaiee n /aoei au?aaeaiiuie
eciaiaieyie oaiioeia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaeneo io aaiioeia ni?oa e
iooaaaia.

A I2-I3 iiyaeyeenue eae aeiieiaioiua, oae e ?aoeaneaiua iooaoeee aeeeiu
noaaey, oi?iu e aeeeiu eieina, /enea eieineia e ca?ai a eieina, n
eciaiaiiie aeeeiie aaaaoaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea e onoie/eainoueth e aieaciyi
ii n?aaiaieth n enoiaeiuie ni?oaie.

Oeie/aneea iooaaaiu iiaoo eiaeooee?iaaoue aaiaoe/aneoth ianoaaeeueiinoue
iooaioia, eioi?ay nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?anuaieaieai ai iiiaeo iieieaieyo (iu
i?iaiaeece?iaaee aei I10). Iieacaii, /oi aani?a?uaiui ioai?ii ii iaoiaeo
iaaeea?e a iieieaieyo (I4-I10) aaiaoe/anee ianoaaeeueiuo iooaioia iiaeia
iieo/eoue oi?iu n naeaeoeeiiii-oeaiiuie i?eciaeaie. Oaeei iaoiaeii iaie
iieo/ai ?aoeanneaiue ea?eee (aeeeia noaaey 32-39 ni), n?aaeia- e
iecei?ineua oi?iu n aunieie ica?iaiiinoueth (3-2.5 ca?iiaee a eieinea e
52.4-61.2 – a eieina) e iannie ca?ia aeaaiiai eieina 2.6-3.1 a, eioi?ua
i?aaenoaaeytho i?aeoe/aneee eioa?an.

Iooaoeee iieeaaiia eiee/anoaaiiuo i?eciaeia (aeeeia noaaey e eieina,
/enei eieineia, ca?ai, ianna ca?ia eieina e ae?.) nicaeatho eo
aaoa?iceaioiinoue, /oi a iooaioiuo iieieaieyo au?aaeaaony ?anuaieaieai,
eioi?ia oaiioeie/anee ia?acoao iai?a?uaiue ?yae eciai/eainoe. I?e
nicaeaiee iecei?ineuo iooaioiuo eeiee aoaeao yooaeoeaiui aaci?a?uaiue
ioai? a I3-I5-7 ieion-aa?eaioia, a a naeaeoeee ia iiauoaiioth
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue eieina – iethn-aa?eaioia.

Aaiaoe/aneay eciai/eainoue, eiaeooee?iaaiiay aeaenoaeai oeie/aneeo
iooaaaiia nicaeaao cia/eoaeueiia ?aciiia?acea oi?i ii onoie/eainoe e
aieaciyi eae o naeaeoeeiiiuo ni?oia, oae e a iooaioia i?e iiaoi?iie eo
ia?aaioea iooaaaiaie. Iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue ioai?a oi?i n iiauoaiiie
iieaaie onoie/eainoueth e io/ienoie ?ina e ao?ie eenoiaie ?aeaa/eia.

Oeie/aneea iooaaaiu eiaeooee?otho iooaoeee, eciaiythuea oiae
aeioeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee neioaca e iaeiieaiey caianiuo aaeeia a ca?ia
ioaieoeu. Auaeaeaiu iooaioiua eeiee, eioi?ua ii n?aaeiei iiiaieaoiei
iieacaoaeyi noaeeiaeaeiinoe e neeu ioee, niaea?aeaieth aaeea e
eeaeeiaeiu i?aainoiaeyo enoiaeiua ni?oa.

Iieacaii, /oi oa?aeoa? aaiaoe/aneie aeaoa?ieiaoeee aeeeiu noaaey e
yeaiaioia i?iaeoeoeaiinoe eieina a iieieaieyo iaaeiooaioiuo e
iooaioii-ni?oiauo aea?eaeia neiaeiue e nii?iaiaeaeaaony anaie ecaanoiuie
aeaenoaeyie e acaeiiaeaenoaeyie aaiia. Iieacaoaeue aeiieiaioiinoe a F1
ii eaaeaeiio eiee/anoaaiiiio i?eciaeo aa?uee?oao io hp -1 aei hp +1. Ec
yeaiaioia i?iaeoeoeaiinoe eieina naiue aunieee eiyoeoeeaio
ianeaaeoaiinoe o iooaioii-ni?oiauo e iaaeiooaioiuo aea?eaeia ioia/ai ii
/eneo ca?ai (h2 aei 0.75) e ianna ca?ia aeaaiiai eieina (h2 aei 0.90).

Ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo iannie ca?ia e /eneii ca?ai aeaaiiai eieina
aa?uee?oao io n?aaeiae aei neeueiie. O anao aea?eaeia F2 eiyoeoeeaio
ei??aeyoeee iaaeaeo yoeie iieacaoaeyie eieaaaeny io 0.567 aei 0.850, a a
F4 – io 0.831 aei 0.997. Eiyoeoeeaio aeaoa?ieiaoeee (r2xy) iaaeaeo
iannie ca?ia e /eneii ca?ai ninoaaeyao a F4 83.1-99.3 %, /oi oaeaea
oeacuaaao ia oeaeaniia?aciinoue ioai?a ii yoei i?eciaeai ia/eiay n F2.

Nicaeaia eieeaeoeey iooaioia n eo/oeie iieacaoaeyie yeaiaioia
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe, ea/anoaa ca?ia e aunoei iioaioeeaeii o?iaeaeiinoe ii
n?aaiaieth n enoiaeiuie ni?oaie e noaiaea?oaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoiaeiue iaoa?eae, oeie/aneea iooaaaiu,
eiaeooee?iaaiiua iooaiou, ianoaaeeueiua iooaiou, naeaeoeey, ioaieoea.

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