OE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE E?NIOAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Iaeueiee TH??e Aiaoie?eiae/

OAeE 630*181:630*892.5

iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo e?niaeo ii??ae

i?ae?iaeeie Maloideae a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo

oa?eoi??e cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie

06.03.01 — e?nia? eoeueoo?e, naeaeoe?y, ian?iieoeoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Euea?a ( 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?niaeo eoeueoo? ? aea?aaeiiciaanoaa
Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
?ya/oe Aaneeue Iao?iae/, Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee e?nioaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e e?niaeo eoeueoo? ? aea?aaeiiciaanoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eae?i?/aiei
Ieaenaiae? Aianoan?eiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeaiae?ieia?? ? ioi?iie i?e?iaee;

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe Eaiioye A?eai??e I?ieiiiae/,
*a/aeueieoeueeee aenia?eiaioaeueiee AeEA aea?aeaaiiai
e?niainiiaea?nueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy «A?iieoeye?n», aee?aeoi?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo aeieia?? Ea?iao IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Euea?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 20 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1200 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.072.02 a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
e?nioaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 290057, Euea?a, aoe. aaia?aea
*oi?eiee, 103, cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 290057, Euea?a,
aoe. aaia?aea *oi?eiee, 101.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Caeainueeee I.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. C iaeyaeo ia oa, ui aeeei?ine? ieiaeia? ?ineeie ?
iaa?ae’?iiei eiiiiiaioii e?niaeo o?oioeaiic?a, caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue ?
oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny ye ?ineeiia ne?iaeia, aeooaeueiei ? aea/aiiy
?o aeieiai-a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e.

O iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? iaaeinoaoiuei oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia aeeiai?ea
ieiaeiiioaiiy aiane?aeie noi?nii? ae?? aeieiai-a?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, a
oaeiae aiaoii?/ieo ? o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a, a?iiao???
aaaaoaoeaieo ? ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aai?a ieiaeiaeo ia i?aenoaa? iayaiino?
ei?aeyoe?eieo ca’yce?a. A?aenooi? aeai? c i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
o?oiiae?i?aoeaieo ianaaeaeaiue ca ?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a caeai?
ianaaeaeaiiy aeeei?ineeo aeae?a.

Ia’?eoaie iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue noaee iaeiioe?ai?o? e?nia? ii?iaee
i?ae?iaeeie ssaeoiaaeo (Maloideae), a naia: ae?ae iaeiiiaoi/eiaee
(Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), ai?iaeia cae/aeia (Sorbus aucupar?a L.),
a?ooa cae/aeia (Pyrus commun?s L.) ? yaeoiy e?niaa (Malus
sylvestr?s M?ll.), ye? a cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie ? iniiaieie aeaeaie
aeey io?eiaiiy ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie aaaaoioe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy,
aoaeoeaieie o?oiiae?i?aoeaieie ii?iaeaie.

iie?ooieoe?iiaeueia cia/aiiy aeeei?ineeo aeae?a, iio?aaa a ca?eueoaii?
ia’?i?a caaio?ae? ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie aecia/eee iniiai? iai?yie
aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei ae??oaiiy ?yaeo iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue
ieiaeiiioaiiy ?ineei i?ae?iaeeie ssaeoiaaeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa iia’ycaia
c ?ic?iaeith iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e, a naia: «Oeyoe
ca?eueoaiiy ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa?/iaeo, e?ea?nueeeo ?
oaoi?/ieo iaaea?aaieo eiiiiiaio?a e?niaeo aeinenoai» (? UA01001938?) ?
«?ic?iaea caoiae?a aeey caa?aaeaiiy iiioeyoe?e oa i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaaea?aaieo eiiiiiaio?a o e?niaeo o?oioeaiicao»
(? 0195U007032).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy ?ioaa?iaaiiai aieeao
aeieiai-a?ieia?/ieo /eiiee?a ia ??no ? ?icaeoie aeeei?ineeo ieiaeiaeo
?ineei ? ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy ieiaeiiioaiiy a oiiaao
o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/aii aeine?aeeoe:

( oei?enoe/iee neeaae aea?aaieo ?ineei ?iaeeie ?iciaeo a ?ic??c?
i?ae?iaeei;

( ?io?iaeoeoe?th e aee?iaoecaoe?th e?niaeo aeae?a a oiiaao i?noa;

( oaiieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo aeeei?ineeo aeae?a a oiiaao
o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e;

( a?iiao?e/i? iieacieee aaaaoaoeaieo ? aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a ?ineei;

( i?e??no aea?aaeie ca ae?aiao?ii, ?? iae?i- oa i?e?iaoaeiao ye
iieacieee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a;

( iaiaeiai?noue aaaaoaoeaieo ? ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aai?a aeeei?ineeo
?ineei ye /eiiee aieeao ia ieiaeiiioaiiy;

( ai?no i?aiaio?a ieanoeae o eenoeao e?niaeo aeae?a ye e?eoa??e noaio
aea?aaieo ?ineei;

( aeeoo?caeaoi?noue ieeeo a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaiiai na?aaeiaeua ye /eiiee
ieiaeiiioaiiy;

( ieiaeiiioaiiy oa iaoiaee eiai i?iaiicoaaiiy;

( caeaaei?noue ieiaeiiioaiiy a?ae noi?nii? ae?? eiiieaeno oaeoi??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia i?aenoaa? cia/iiai
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo oa eiai aiae?co aea/aii e ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?niaeo ii??ae a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo
oa?eoi??e. Aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaii? noa?e oa
?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee i?iaiicoaaiiy ieiaeiiioaiiy. Neeaaeaii noaoenoe/ii
aeinoia??i? ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? aeey aecia/aiiy ieiaeiiioaiiy ?ineei.
Anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee i?ae ieiaeiiioaiiyi ? /eiieeaie, ui
eiai coiiaeththoue. Oia?oa a cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeaii
aiaoii?/io aoaeiao aea?aaeie e?niaeo ii??ae a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo
oa?eoi??e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii
o ae?iaieoeoai «?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c aa?ioaoi?ee ae?iuoaaiiy aeeei?ineeo
ieiaeiaeo» c iaoith nei?i/aiiy oa?i?io io?eiaiiy noaiaea?oieo
naaeaeaioe?a ia 1-2 ?iee. Cai?iiiiiaaii oanoeaaeueio oeaeo aecia/aiiy
??ai?a aee?iaoecaoe?? aea?aa ? /aaa?iee?a ca aoaiaie iioiaaiaco.
?ic?iaeai? «?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?iaiico a?iaeath ieiae?a ? ian?iiy
aea?aaieo ii??ae» iaoiaeii «i?i?iaeueiiai a?aeiiniiai i?e?inoo iaaii?a»
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ia?aaeaa/eoe e?euee?ni? iieacieee ieiae?a ?
ian?iiy ca 10-12 i?nyoe?a, ui aea? ciiao cacaeaeaa?aeue cae?enithaaoe
ieaioaaiiy ?o caaio?ae?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiaia /anoeia aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iaoa??aeo ia i?iaieo ieiuao c?a?aia aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii. Oai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy, iinoaiiaea caaea/?, ia?iaea ? aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iaoa??aeo c oaie aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiiai? aaoi?ii. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i-
oa i?e?iaoaeiae aea?aaeie i?iaiaeeeeny a eaai?aoi??? aea?aaeiiciaanoaa
eaoaae?e e?niaeo eoeueoo? ? aea?aaeiiciaanoaa, ai?noo i?aiaio?a ieanoeae
— a eaai?aoi??? o?c?ieia?? ?ineei eaoaae?e e?n?aieoeoaa,
aeeoo?caeaoiino? ieeeo — a eaai?aoi??? ian?iieoeoaa aioai?/iiai naaeo
Oe?AeEOO iniaenoi aaoi?ii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe oa
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ii?eethaeiai? ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo Oe?AeEOO (Euea?a, 1994 ( 1999), i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo «E?nioaoi?/ia ina?oa ? iaoea ia ?oaaae? XXI noie?ooy»
(Euea?a, 1995), «Eaniay iaoea ia ?oaaaea XXI aaea» (Aiiaeue, 1997),
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie e?ea?nueeiai
?ineeiieoeoaa» (Eoaie, 1996), iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo «Ia?eia?
eaiaeoaooe: ?io?iaeoeoe?y, a?o?oaeoo?i? oa a?ieiai-aeieia?/i? aniaeoe
ooieoe?iioaaiiy» (A?ea Oea?eaa, 1993), «?io?iaeoeoe?y oa?/iaeo ?
ei?iiaeo ?ineei» (Ee?a, 1994), «Aea/aiiy iioiaaiaco ?ineei i?e?iaeii? oa
eoeueoo?ieo oei? o aioai?/ieo caeeaaeao ?a?ac??» (Ee?a-Euea?a, 1994,
1995), eiioa?aioe?? «Cia/aiiy oa ia?niaeoeae noaoe?iia?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeey caa?aaeaiiy a?i??ciiiai?oiino?» (Euea?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o aeaio iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao, 7 ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 6 iaoa??aeao ? oacao
eiioa?aioe?e. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 15 i?aoeue, o
o./. 6 — o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 7
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
yeee aeeth/a? 266 iaeiaioaaiue. Iiaiee ianya ?iaioe 183 noi??iee
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 6 ?enoie?a, 34 oaaeeoe?, 3 aeiaeaoee.

Ci?no ?iaioe

iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie, IAOIAeEEA OA IA’?EOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeeei?ine? ieiaeia? aea?aaii-/aaa?ieeia? ?ineeie ? iaa?ae’?iiei
eiiiiiaioii e?niaeo o?oioeaiic?a. Aiie aeeiiothoue ye nooi e?n?aie/?
ooieoe??, oae ? ca?eueoothoue caaaeii i?iaeoeoeai?noue e?n?a. A?aeiia
?ieue aeeei?ineeo ieiaeiaeo ye iioei?caoi??a eaiaeoaoo?a.

O?aai?caoe?y noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeo?niaiiyi ?c caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue
aai?eaaiieo aea?aaieo aeae?a ? cai?iith ?o iinooi- ? aacino?eeeie
aecioaie, a o aioo??oiueieaa?oaeueieo ianaaeaeaiiyo oaeiae ieiaeiaeie.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaiue ?icaeoeo aea?aaii-/aaa?ieeiaeo
ii??ae ia o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??yo noinoaaeanue ieoaiue no?eeino?
ie?aieo aeae?a (o o./. ? ieiaeiaeo) aei oiene/ieo ai?n?e (Aioeiia,
1957,1979; Ieeieaaaneee, 1964, 1979; Eeueeoi, 1971, 1978; Eoeaaei, 1974;
Oa?aa?ei, 1980; Na?aae/ee, 1984; Na?aae/ee, Na?aae/ee, 1990) ? caoiaee
aei ?? i?aeaeuaiiy (Aiiaea?aiei, Aeaiueei, 1982; Ouethnoii, 1982;
Ianoa?iae, Ai?ii, Iacaia, 1987).

Oai?aoe/i? iniiae ? i?aeoe/i? caoiaee ?io?iaeoeoe?? aea?aaieo ?ineei
ocaaaeueieee I.I. Aaceeaanueea oa A.I. Iao??iue (1984), ye? iieacaee, ui
a i?ioean? aee?iaoecaoe?? a?aeaoaaeeny ci?ie ?eoio ?icaeoeo ?ineei oa
aaiioeii? ci?ie.

Naciiiee ?icaeoie ?ineei aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ieiaeiaeo ye o e?niaeo, oae ? o caeaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo.
Aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeaiiai ieoaiiy i?iaaaeai? aaaaoueia
aeine?aeieeaie (Aaeaeaiai, 1974; Aoe(aei, 1979, 1982; ?ya/oe,
1985,1987,1995).

Aoiaeaeaiiy ?ineei o aaia?aoeaio oaco ?icaeoeo iia’ycothoue c ?icaeoeii
aaaaoaoeaii? noa?e, a oea?o?iiy ye c oioiia??iaeii, oae ? c caaa?oaiiyi
?inoo aaaaoaoeaieo iaaii?a (Ee?, Iieuenoa?, Oeaeea?, 1974) ? c
ai?iiiaeueiith oai???th ?icaeoeo ?ineei (*aeeaoyi, 1988).

aoaeiaa aea?aaeie iiaea neoaeeoe iieacieeii noaio aea?aaieo ?ineei a
oiiaao o?aiaaiiiai na?aaeiaeua. O cii? i?iiaeeeae?a ??cei cieaeo?oueny
o?eaae?noue eaia?aeueii? aeoeaiino? (Eiaaeaieaeca e ae?., 1990).

Aiane?aeie aea/aiiy oa e?eoe/iiai aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, ye? a
?yae? aeiaaee?a iathoue ??ci? iiaeyaee oa iani?aiaaeath/? noaeaeaiiy,
iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a ieo a?aenooi? aai iaaeinoaoiuei aeeaiei
aena?oeaia ieoaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?niaeo ii??ae a oiiaao
o?aai?ciaaiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?iaioe
i?iaaaeai? c aeei?enoaiiyi aeieia?/ieo, e?n?aie/eo, oaenaoe?eieo,
oaiieia?/ieo, o?c?ieia?/ieo, aiaoii?/ieo ? iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiaeee.

Einiaie/i-oaenaoeieio oa?aeoa?enoeeo aea?aainoaiia aea/aee ca
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie (Aio/ei, 1977). C iaoith aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo
aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a ieiaeiaeo o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeeny a ?ic??c? /ioe?ueio aeieiai-o?oioeaiioe/ieo iiyn?a (AOI),
aeae?eaieo ca A.I. Eo/a?yaei (1991): I AOI — i?ei?nuee? e?ne; ?? AOI —
i?nuee? e?niia?ee ? ia?eia? ianaaeaeaiiy, aaeee? caeai? ianeae; ??? AOI
— iaaaeee? ia?ee, i?nuee? neaa?e, ianaaeaeaiiy ana?aaeei? aeeoeiaeo
eaa?oae?a; IV AOI — aea?aai? ianaaeaeaiiy aoeeoeue ? ieiu, ui ia
noi?ioaaee o?oioeaiioe/iiai iie?eao.

I?e?iee?iaoe/i? iieacieee aea/aee iaeii/anii i?ae e?iiaie a?ia?oi, ia
a?aee?eoeo i?noeyo o iaaeao ianaaeaeaiue (aaeyaeie) ? ia a?aee?eoeo
i?noeyo iica ianaaeaeaiiyie ca?aeii iaoiaeeee A.?. A?oeaae/a (1962).
Aeey aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ? aieiaino? iia?o?y aeei?enoiaoaaee
ani??aoe?eiee iaoai?/iee ineo?iiao? IA-4I, ina?oeaiino? — etheniao?
TH-116.

I?iaaaeaiiy e aiae?c oaiieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue aacoaaeenue ia ?iaioao
a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo a/aieo (Oeaieaa, Oeiaithe, 1949,1962;
Oiaeea,1961; Caeoeaa, 1974,1981; Ooeueoe, 1981). I?e i?iaaaeaii?
niinoa?aaeaiue ?a?no?oaaee ianooii? oace c ?o i?aeoacaie: 1 —
aaaaoaoeaio; 2 — aooii?caoe??; 3 — ea?ooaaiiy; 4 — ieiaeiiioaiiy.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ieiae?a aecia/aee oae? iieacieee: aeiaaeeio /a?aoea,
ae?aiao? oa aeiaaeeio ieiaeo, iano a na?aeic?a?aiiio ? iia?o?yii-nooiio
noai? oa aaniethoio aieia?noue ieiae?a. Ieiaee a?aeae?aee ?c
na?aaeiueiai y?ono c ia?eoa??eieo /anoei e?iie a e?ioe? na?iiy —
aa?ani?, eiee ieiaee aeinyaaee ci?iaeueii? noeaeino?.

A?aea?? ac??oe?a aea?aaeie c ianooiiei ?o i?e?ii?aia?oaaiiyi
cae?enithaaee ca ?nioth/eie iaoiaeeeaie (ssoeaiei-Oiaeaaneee, 1954;
eiaaeaieaeca, 1989). Aoaeiao aea?aaeie aea/aee c o?aooaaiiyi ianooiieo
eneeioii?/ieo iciae: na?aaeiy oe?eia ??/ieo oa??a ? ?o e?euee?noue a
1 ni; ae?aiao? ii?iaeiei noaeei, e?euee?noue noaeei a iaeeieoe? ieiu?
(1 ii2), /anoea noaeei a ia’?i? noiaao?a.

a?aea?? ac??oe?a ? aecia/aiiy iaiaeiaiino? iaaii?a i?iaiaeeee ca
iaoiaeeeaie, aeeeaaeaieie a ?iaioao (Aeaaeueei, 1973; Aonaa, 1974;
Noeaeiaiia, 1974). I?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo c eiaeii?
aeine?aeii? ?ineeie uii?nyoey a?aeae?aee c iaaii?a 15 ac??oe?a. I?ney
oeueiai ac??oe? caaaeoaaee, aenoooaaee a nooeeuei?e oao? aei iino?eii?
iane.

Ai?no caeaieo ? aeiaoeo i?aiaio?a ieanoeae aecia/aee a aoeaoiiiaeo
aeno?aeoao ia niaeo?ioioiiao?? NO-16 a 6-e?aoi?e iiaoi?iino? (Ii/eiie,
1976). C?acee a?aeae?aee a na?ii? c i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? noi?iie c
aa?oiuei? /anoeie e?iie c iaaii?a inoaiiueiai ?ieo i?e?inoo. E?euee?noue
oei?io?e?a «a», «b» ? ea?ioeii?ae?a ?ic?aoiaoaaee ia aaniethoii nooo
iano.

Aecia/aiiy aeeoo?caeaoiino? ieeeo i?iaiaeeee oeyoii i?i?iuoaaiiy eiai a
0.3 I ?ic/ei? naoa?ice e 1%-iiio ?ic/ei? aeaeaoeio (Iyoieoeeee, 1961).
I?ae?aooiie i?i?ineeo ? iai?i?ineeo ieeeiaeo ca?ai i?iaiaeeee ia
eiaeiiio i?aaeiaoiiio neaeueoe? a i’yoe iieyo ci?o; a?aenioie i?i?ineeo
ca?ai ia/enethaaee a?ae ?o caaaeueii? e?eueeino?.

iaoiaeeea i?iaiicoaaiiy ieiaeiiioaiiy aaco?oueny ia e?euee?niiio iae?eo
ea?oie, caa’ycae, caeaieo ? noeaeeo ieiae?a ia iiaeaeuei?e a?eoe?
(Oiiia?, Aoeuaei, 1977).

Aeey c’ynoaaiiy aieeao i?e?inoo iaaii?a ia ieiaeiiioaiiy ?ineei ia
eiaei?e aeine?aei?e ?ineei? ?iaeee 35(40 cai???a i?e?inoo iaaii?a ca
inoaii?e ? ia?aaeinoaii?e ?iee (Nie?iia, 1964; Iie/aiia, Nie?iia, 1967).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a ioe?ithaaee noaoenoe/ieie iaoiaeaie ca
aeiiiiiaith ei?aeyoe?eiiai oa ?aa?aneaiiai aiae?c?a. Aeinoia??i?noue
??cieoe? ia?aa??yee ca e?eoa??yie Nouethaeaioa oa O?oa?a. Noaoenoe/io
ia?iaeo cae?enithaaee ca iaoiaeeeaie A.I. Caeoeaaa (1978), A.I.
Aeini?oiaa (1979).

Ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiue. Iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaee i?ioyaii
1993(1999 ??. ia oa?eoi??? i?aei?e?inoa e?niai? aaeoc? oa caeaieo
ianaaeaeaiue Euea?anueei? oa ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeanoae. Caeeaaeaii 36
iino?eieo i?iaieo ieiu c iayai?noth e?niaeo aeae?a i?ae?iaeeie
ssaeoiaaeo: aeiaeo iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai, ai?iaeie cae/aeii?, a?oo?
cae/aeii?, yaeoi? e?niai?.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?e?iaeieo oiia cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie. Ia i?aenoaa?
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e ?icaeyioo? aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy, aaieia?/ia
aoaeiaa, a?oioiaa iie?eooy, ee?iao, ?ineeii?noue, oeie e?no (Aa?aaeiee,
Oeoiaa, 1968; Aoiaithe, 1968; I?ioeue-E?aa/oe, 1968; Aiae?ouaiei, 1970;
Aain??oe, 1992; Aa?ooeinueeee, 1996). Aiae?c i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia
na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue ni?eyoeeaiai ?aaeeio aeey ae?inoaiiy e?niaeo
aeae?a i?ae?iaeeie ssaeoiaaeo.

Aeieiai-a?ieia?/i? INIAEEAINO? E?niaeo ii??ae

i?ae?IAeEIE Maloideae

Eeaneo?eaoe?eia noaia oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia ieiaeiiioaiiy
aeeei?ineeo aeae?a ?ic?iaeaia ia iniia? a?aeiieo iaoiaeee
(Iinoieianueeee, 1995; ?ya/oe, 1996) ? iieacaia ia ?en.1.

?en.1. Oaeoi?e ieiaeiiioaiiy e?niaeo ii??ae

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ae?iaeeie maloideae

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ae?iaeeie maloideae iaaaaeaia ca
eeaneo?eaoe??th A.E. Oaooaaeaeyia (1981,1987).

Iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?niaeo ii??ae a oiiaao i?noa

Aeeei?ine? ii?iaee ? iino?eieie eiiiiiaioaie e?niaeo ? caeaieo
ianaaeaeaiue ? a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? ?
ooieoe?iioaaii? ie?aieo ?ineeiieo oa?oioaaiue ? a?ioeaiic?a. a
aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao oae? aeaee ye ae?ae iaeiiiaoi/eiaee, ai?iaeia
cae/aeia, a?ooa cae/aeia ? yaeoiy e?niaa i?e ?io?iaeoeoe?? ?o o i?nueea
na?aaeiaeua aaeaioothoueny ? ?icaeaathoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei i?ia?ai,
i?eoaiaiieo ?o ?icaeoeo a oiiaao i?e?iaeieo ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiue.
Aeine?aeaeoaai? aeaee caaeia?eueii iiiiaeththoueny i?e?iaeiei oeyoii ia
eeoa o e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo, aea e o i?nueeeo o?oioeaiicao i?e
a?aeiia?aeieo oiiaao.

?ieue ? cia/aiiy aeae?a i?ae?iaeeie maloideae a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?

C iaoith ca?eueoaiiy o/ano? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a o neeaae? ye
e?niaeo, oae ? caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue iaie ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii o
ae?iaieoeoai ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaoiaee ae?iuoaaiiy naaeeaiiai iaoa??aeo
aeiaeo, ai?iaeie, a?oo?, yaeoi?, a o./. ? niin?a ?ici?eiaoaaiiy
i?i?inoe?a o oe?eueiiio a?aeae?eaii?. Aeaiee niin?a aea? iiaeeea?noue ia
1-2 ?iee nei?ioeoe oa?i?i ae?iuoaaiiy noaiaea?oiiai iaoa??aeo.

?io?iaeoeoe?y oa aee?iaoecaoe?y e?niaeo ii??ae a oiiaao i?noa

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ??aiy aee?iaoecaoe?? ?io?iaeoeiaaieo aeae?a iaie
i?iiiio?oueny oanoeaaeueia (a?ae 0 aei 5 aae?a) ioe?iea i?enoinoaaiiy
aei iiaeo oiia ?nioaaiiy, a iniiao yei? iieeaaeaii aeai? ?icaeoeo ?ineei
ia an?o aoaiao iioiaaiaco. Iaeaeuei ??aiai aee?iaoecaoe?? (5 aae?a)
ioe?ith?oueny i?enoinoaaiiy aeae?a, ye? o nai?io ?icaeoeo a iiaeo oiiaao
i?ioiaeyoue on? iniiai? aoaie iioiaaiaco. o?aaiaio oeaee ??ai?a
aee?iaoecaoe?? ?io?iaeooeaio?a ca aoaiaie iioiaaiaco iaaaaeaii a oaae.1.

Oaaeeoey 1

Oeaea ??ai?a aee?iaoecaoe?? ?io?iaeooeaio?a

Aae Aoaie

iioiaaiaco ??aaiue aee?iaoecaoe??

? = (5+(Ai) / 2 Noai ?icaeoeo

?ineeie a?aeie?athoue ia noaae?? noiae?a

I?ei?oea. P — ??aaiue aee?iaoecaoe??; (Eo — noia aoai?a iioiaaiaco.

Aoaie iioiaaiaco: L — eaoaioiee; I — ?iaoo?iee; J — thaai?eueiee; V —
a??a?iaeueiee; G — aaia?aoeaiee.

Aeei?enoaiiy aeaii? oeaee a e?niaiio ? caeaiiio ainiiaea?noaao oaea ia
ia?oeo aoaiao ?io?iaeoeoe?? aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe i?eaeaoi?noue
?io?iaeooeaioa aeey eiai i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy, a oaeiae niiniae
aaaaeaiiy eiai a eoeueoo?o.

AIEEA AEIEIA?*IEO OIIA O?AAI?CIAAIEO OA?EOI??E

IA ??NO ? ?ICAEOIE e?niaeo ii??ae

Oaiieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo

Ca ii/aoeii aaaaoaoe??, ?? o?eaae?noth ia aeine?aeieo i?iaieo ieiuao
ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai aiiiaeueieo a?aeoeeaiue o ?icaeoeo
aea?aaii-/aaa?ieeiaeo ii??ae ia aeyaeaii. O?eaae?noue ?icaeoeo (ii/aoie
niei?ooo-iiaaeaiiy anueiai eenoy) ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao 245 (yaeoiy
e?niaa) — 257 ae?a (ae?ae iaeiiiaoi/eiaee). ?nio? iaaia ??cieoey a
?icaeoeo ?ineei, aea aiia nooo?ai ia aieeaa? ia ?o a?coaeueii o?eniaai?
iciaee. Iacaai? ii?iaee iathoue oe?ieo aeieia?/io aiie?ooaeo
i?noeaae?inoaiiy, caaeia?eueii ?inoooue ? ?icaeaathoueny ia
o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??yo.

A?iiao?e/i? iieacieee aaaaoaoeaieo i?aai?a

a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaiiai na?aaeiaeua o aeiaeo iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai aeiaaeeia
? oe?eia eenoea aeinoia??ii ca?eueoeeanue (a?aeiia?aeii 15.7; 22.4%). O
a?oo? cae/aeii? aeai? iieacieee aeinoia??ii ciaioeeenue (9.5; 17.6%), o
ai?iaeie cae/aeii? aeiaaeeia eenoea aeinoia??ii ciaioeeanue (6.6%) c
iaeii/aniei ca?eueoaiiyi eiai oe?eie (24.5%). Aeinoia??ieo ci?i ca
aeine?aeaeoaaieie ia?aiao?aie o yaeoi? e?niai? ia aeyaeaii. o aeiaeo
iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai ? ai?iaeie cae/aeii? iane na?aeic?a?aiiai ? nooiai
eenoe?a aeinoia??ii ca?eueoeeenue (18.0; 72.3% ? 17.5; 18.0%), o a?oo?
cae/aeii? — aeinoia??ii ciaioeeenue (23.5; 20.9%), o yaeoi? e?niai? —
i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ieeenue. Aaniethoia aieia?noue eenoe?a aeinoia??ii
ciaioeeanue o ai?iaeie ? a?oo? (5.6; 6.7%).

A?iiao?e/i? iieacieee aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a

ca ia?aiao?e/ieie iieacieeaie ieiae?a niinoa??aa?oueny caaaeueia
oaiaeaioe?y aei ciaioaiiy aeiaaeeie /a?aoea (14.5-19.1%), ae?aiao?a
(5.4-21.6%) ? aeiaaeeie ieiaeo (2.7-26.3%) o an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo
aeae?a ca aeiyoeii aeiaeo iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai (ae?aiao? ieiaeo ca?eueoeany
ia 5.7%). iane ye na?aeic?a?aiiai, oae ? nooiai ieiaeo o ai?iaeie, a?oo?
? yaeoi? aeinoia??ii ciaioeeenue (11.8-18.5%), a o aeiaeo
iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai — aeinoia??ii ca?eueoeeenue (4.4%). Aeinoia??ia
ciaioaiiy a?aeaoeiny ca aaniethoiith aieia?noth ieiaeo o aeiaeo,
ai?iaeie ? yaeoi? (7.6-15.3%), a ca?eueoaiiy — o a?oo? (24.2%).

Aoaeiaa aea?aaeie ye iieaciee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?ineei

Na?aaeiy oe?eia ??/ieo oa??a o aeiaeo iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai, ai?iaeie
cae/aeii? ? a?oo? cae/aeii? aeinoia??ii ciaioeeany (11.5-35.2%), o
yaeoi? e?niai? — aeinoia??ii ca?eueoeeanue (44.0%). E?euee?noue ??/ieo
oa??a a 1 ni o aeiaeo, ai?iaeie ? a?oo? aeinoia??ii ca?eueoeeanue
(10.0-49.2%), o yaeoi? — aeinoia??ii ciaioeeany (32.2%). Ia aeine?aeieo
i?iaieo ieiuao aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy ae?aiao??a ii?iaeiei
noaeei ye o ?aae?aeueiiio oae ? oaiaaioaeueiiio iai?yiao, ui i?aeaeuo?
neeo ?o eai?ey?iino?, oi/ ? oaeaee?noue aiaeiiai iioieo i?e oeueiio
ciaioo?oueny. o an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ii??ae aeinoia??ii ca?eueoo?oueny
e?euee?noue noaeei a 1 ii2 (2.6-16.5%), ui ? iaiao?aeiei aeey
caaacia/aiiy aeno?aeiiai ? ieco?aeiiai o?ainii?oo ?a/iaei. i?ia?aeia
nenoaia noiaao?a i?e caaaeueiiio ciaioaii? ae?aiao??a noaeei ia?iuo? ?o
e?euee?noue. Aeey an?o ii??ae /anoea noaeei a ia’?i? noiaao?a
eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 21.0-26.9%, ui ? ii?iith aeey eenoyieo
?icn?yiinoaeeiieo ii??ae.

O?C?IEIAI — A?IO?I?*I? INIAEEAINO? ?ICAEOEO

e?niaeo ii??ae a oiiaao O?AAI?CIAAIEO OA?EOI??E

Iaiaeiai?noue iaaii?a e?niaeo ii??ae

Aeai? aeeiai?ee iaiaeiaiino? iaaii?a ieiaeiaeo a oiiaao i?noa ? a
e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo na?ae/aoue, ui iaea?eueoa aiaee a iaeii??/ieo
iaaiiao iaeiie/o?oueny a ia??iae ?o ?ioaineaiiai ?inoo a aeiaaeeio
(o?aaaiue-/a?aaiue) ? noaiiaeoue aeey aeiaeo 107.5% ? 113.1%, aeey
ai?iaeie 129.3% ? 125.4%, aeey a?oo? — 113.9% ? 118.2% , aeey yaeoi?
131.1% ? 135.8%. Iaeiaioiai cia/aiiy aeaiee iieaciee iaaoaa?,
caeaa?eueoiai, a ceiiaee ia??iae.

Ai?no i?aiaio?a ieanoeae o eenoeao e?niaeo ii??ae

Na?aae iaoai?ci?a aeieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue
no?oeoo?i? ci?ie aia?aoo oioineioaco. Iaea?eueoa ia oiiae o?aai?ciaaieo
oa?eoi??e ca ai?noii oei?io?eo «a» a?ae?aaaoaaee ae?ae iaeiiiaoi/eiaee ?
ai?iaeia cae/aeia. Aeaiee iieaciee o aeine?aeieo ?ineei aeinoia??ii
ciaioeany (23.5; 25.1%). O a?oo? cae/aeii? ? yaeoi? e?niai? ai?no
oei?io?eo «a» aeinoia??ii ciaioeany ia 7.1; 9.7%. Ai?no oei?io?eo «b»
nooo?ai ciaioeany a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e o ai?iaeie cae/aeii?
oa yaeoi? e?niai? (22.3; 24.1%). Aeaui iaioa, aea aeinoia??ia ciaioaiiy
aeaiiai iieacieea a?aecia/aii o aeiaeo iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai ? a?oo?
cae/aeii? (5.4; 9.7%). Noia oei?io?e?a «a»+»b» aeinoia??ii ciaioeeanue o
an?o aac aeiyoeo aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a ia 8.3-26.1%. Ai?no
ea?ioeii?ae?a «n» aeinoia??ii ciaioeany o aeiaeo, a?oo? e yaeoi?
(11.1-13.0%) ? nooo?ai ia ci?ieany o ai?iaeie (5.7%). A?aeiioaiiy
oei?io?e?a aei ea?ioeii?ae?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeineoue cia/ieie
aaee/eiaie (4.04-4.60) ? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui a ieiaeiaeo aeae?a a
oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e ii??aiyii c e?niaeie ianaaeaeaiiyie ia
iaeeieoeth ea?ioeii?ae?a neioaco?oueny iaioa oei?io?e?a.

IEIAeIIIOAIIss ? I?IAIICOAAIIss A?IAEATH

E?niaeo ii??ae a oiiaao O?AAI?CIAAIEO OA?EOI??E

?icaeoie aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a e?niaeo ii??ae

Iniaeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy ieeeo iieyaa? a oiio, ui a oiiaao i?noa an?
aeaee oi?iothoue /ieia?/? aaiaoe aeineoue aeniei? aeeoo?caeaoiino?, c
iaeaeueie iieacieeaie o ?-?? AOI ? iaeieae/eie o ?V AOI.

A oiiaao o?aai?ciaaiiai aeiae?eey a ai?iaeie cae/aeii? ca e?euee?noth
ea?o?a nooo?ai? ??cieoe? ia a?aei?/aii. Ia noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy caa’ycae,
ianoeaeeo ? noeaeeo ieiae?a aeaia ??cieoey neeaaea? 7.2-25.4% ? ?
nooo?aith. O i?ioeaioiiio a?aeiioaii? iaea?eueo a?ae/ooia ci?ia
e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a caa’ycae (15.3%): aiia aeaui i?aaeth?oueny ia
noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy ianoeaeeo ? noeaeeo ieiae?a ? neeaaea? 5.7-9.2% aei
eiio?ieth (?en. 2).

?en.2. Caeaaei?noue iieaciee?a ieiaeiiioaiiy a?ae ea?ooaaiiy o ai?iaeie
cae/aeii?

O a?oo? cae/aeii? ? yaeoi? e?niai? niinoa??aa?oueny iaeaea iaeiaeiaa
oaiaeaioe?y aei ??ceiai ciaioaiiy an?o e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a
aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a ai?iaeiaae aaaaoaoe?eiiai naciio. O aeiaeo
iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai ye iaeii? c iaeno?ee?oeo ii??ae e?euee?ni? iieacieee
ea?o?a, caa’ycae, ianoeaeeo ? noeaeeo ieiae?a aeinoia??ii ca?eueoeeenue.

I?iaiic oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a e?niaeo aeae?a

sse oai?aoe/i?, oae ? i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
o?oioeaiic?a, o o./. oi?ioaaiiy ian?iiy ? i?e?iaeia a?aeiiaeaiiy,
iiaeooue aooe oni?oii ae??oai? eeoa i?e iayaiino? aeaieo i?i ia??iaee
?yniiai ieiaeiiioaiiy aea?aaieo ?ineei. Iaie ?ic?iaeaii ? i?iiiio?oueny
iiaee niin?a aecia/aiiy no?ie?a (?ie?a) ianiaiai oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaieo
i?aai?a aea?aaieo ?ineei iaoiaeii «i?i?iaeueiiai a?aeiiniiai i?e?inoo
iaaii?a». Iniiaiei i?eioeeiii i?iiiiiaaiiai niiniao ? aeei?enoaiiy
ii?ooaiiy ii??aiyii noaeiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ?aae?aeueiei ? e?i?eiei
i?e?inoaie iaaii?a o ia??iae ?ioaineaiiai oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaieo
i?aai?a. I?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy aeaia aaee/eia iaaoaa? a ??e, yeee
ia?aaeo? ?ieia? ?ioaineaiiai (ianiaiai) ieiaeiiioaiiy ?ineei.

i?i?iaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?aae?aeueiiai ? e?i?eiiai i?e?ino?a aeiaaea?
ia ??e, ca yeei ianoa? ??e ianiaiai oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a.
sseui i?i?iaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?eiaaea? ia ??e «n», oi ?ieii
ianiaiai oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a aoaea ??e «n+1″(oaae.2).

Oaaeeoey 2

I?iaiic oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a iaoiaeii

«i?i?iaeueiiai i?e?inoo iaaii?a» ai?iaeie cae/aeii?

Iieaciee A?iiao?e/i? aeai? aaaaoaoeaieo oa aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

d, ii 15.5 12.5 9.0 6.5 4.0 —

(d, ii 3.0 3.5 2.5 2.0 2.5 —

l=( l, ni 17.0 21.0 13.0 12.0 12.0 —

(d/ (l 0.178 0.168 0.192 0.172 0.208 —

n ea?o?a, oo. — 270.1 304.7 215.9 288.6 196.8

N ieiae?a, oo. — 85.4 141.1 85.0 107.2 86.4

I?ei?oea. d — ae?aiao? iaaiio, (d — ??/iee i?e??no iaaiio ca ae?aiao?ii
(?aae?aeueiee), l — aeiaaeeia iaaiio, (l — ??/iee i?e??no iaaiio ca
aeiaaeeiith (e?i?eiee), n — e?euee?noue ea?o?a; N — e?euee?noue ieiae?a.

O ??cieo aeae?a ia??iae i?ae ?ieaie ianiaiai oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaieo
i?aai?a aoaa? ??ciei, iaeiae aeey iaei??? ? o??? ae ii?iaee a?i
caeeoa?oueny noaeei. I?iaiicoaaiiy a?iaeath, ia i?eeeaae? aeiaeo
iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai, aeaiei iaoiaeii iieacaii ia ?en.3, aea a?aeia?aaeaii
ye aaee/eio ??cieoe? i?e?ino?a, oae ? aiie?ooaeo ia??iaeo i?ae
o?iaeaeieie ?ieaie.

?en. 3. ia??iaee oi?ioaaiiy ieiae?a aeiaeo iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai

?ioaineaia ieiaeiiioaiiy e?niaeo ii??ae a oiiaao Eueaiaa a?aeaoaa?oueny
a yaeoi? e?niai? iaeei ?ac ca o?e ?iee, o aeiaeo iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai ?
a?oo? cae/aeii? — iaeei ?ac ca aeaa ?iee, a o ai?iaeie cae/aeii? —
ui??/ii.

CAEAAEI?NOUe IEIAeIIIOAIIss A?Ae eiiieaeno OAEOI??A

Ieiaeiiioaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae noi?niith ae??th aeieiai-a?ieia?/ieo
/eiiee?a, a?iiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a aaaaoaoeaieo ? aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a,
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a, iae?i- ? i?e?ino?oeoo?ieo iciae
aea?aaeie, a oaeiae iieiaeaiiy a nenoai? ?ineei. On? /eiieee, ui
aoiaeyoue aei aeua ia?ae?/aieo a?oi ae?thoue eiiieaenii ? iaeii/anii.
Aaaeei aecia/eoe aieiaiee oaeoi?, aieea yeiai iaea?eueo nooo?aee. Oiio
eia?/ii ?icaeyaeaoe aieea oaeoi??a o ?o noeoiiino? ? aecia/aoe /anoeo
eiaeiiai c ieo cie?aia.

*anoea aieeao oaeoi??a ? iieaciee?a, ui coiiaeththoue ieiaeiiioaiiy
iaaaaeaia a oaae.3. Iaenooo?a?oeie /eiieeaie, ui aieeaathoue a oiiaao
o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e ia ieiaeiiioaiiy aeiaeo, ? iieacieee
i?e?iaoaeiae (83%) ? iae?iaoaeiae (49%) aea?aaeie. O ai?iaeie ?noioii
aieeaathoue ia ieiaeiiioaiiy iieacieee i?e?iaoaeiae aea?aaeie (79%),
ia?aiao??a ieiae?a (49%) ? eenoe?a (45%). Iaea?eueoa aieeaathoue ia
ieiaeiiioaiiy a?oo? iieacieee i?e?iaoaeiae aea?aaeie (76%), a?iiao?e/i?
iieacieee eenoe?a (45%) ? ?o ia?aiao?e (38%). O yaeoi? ia i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaii? noa?e aieeaathoue iieacieee i?e?i- (92%) ?
iae?iaoaeiae (86%) aea?aaeie, a oaeiae — ai?noo i?aiaio?a ieanoeae o
eenoeao (46%).

Oaaeeoey 3

*anoea aieeao (R2) oaeoi??a ? iieaciee?a ia ieiaeiiioaiiy

Iieacieee

ieiaeiiioaiiy Ae?ae

iaeiiiaoi/eiaee Ai?iaeia cae/aeia A?ooa

cae/aeia ssaeoiy

e?niaa

Ia?aiao?e eenoe?a

0.19

0.34 0.45

0.18 0.38

0.27 0.34

0.07

A?iiao?e/i? iieacieee eenoe?a 0.09

0.21 0.05

0.17 0.45

0.16 0.30

0.16

Ia?aiao?e ieiae?a

0.05

0.04 0.49

0.11 0.07

0.37 0.20

0.25

A?iiao?e/i? iieacieee ieiae?a 0.10

0.03 0.22

0.25 0.01

0.10 0.29

0.19

Iieacieee iae?iaoaeiae aea?aaeie 0.49

0.07 0.30

0.13 0.07

0.30 0.86

0.21

Iieacieee i?e?iaoaeiae aea?aaeie 0.83

0.98 0.79

0.53 0.76

0.32 0.92

0.22

Nooi?iue iaiaeiaiino? iaaii?a 0.24

0.03 0.26

0.01 0.10

0.01 0.06

0.05

Ai?no i?aiaio?a ieanoeae o eenoeao 0.35

0.31 0.35

0.16 0.13

0.30 0.46

0.18

I?ei?oea. /enaeueiee — aeine?aei? i?iai? ieiu? (o?aai?ciaai? oa?eoi???),
ciaiaiiee — eiio?ieuei? i?iai? ieiu? (e?nia? ianaaeaeaiiy).

O e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo a?aenooi?e cia/iee aieea nooiaiy iaiaeiaiino?
iaaii?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a ia oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaii? noa?e o an?o
aac aeiyoeo ii??ae (1-5%) ii??aiyii c o?aai?ciaaieie oa?eoi??yie, aea
oeae iieaciee eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao a?ae 6% — o yaeoi? aei 26% — o
ai?iaeie. I/aaeaeii, oea iiynith?oueny iaioei aeao?oeeoii aieiae o
e?niaiio na?aaeiaeu? ? iia’ycaii c a?eueo ?icaeiaiith i?ia?aeiith
nenoaiith aea?aaeie, i?i ui na?ae/eoue /anoea aieeao iieaciee?a
i?e?iaoaeiae aea?aaeie (13-53%), ca aeiyoeii aeiaeo ye iaeno?ee?oiai aei
oiia o?aai?ciaaiiai na?aaeiaeua aeaeo.

Aeey eiaeiiai c aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e
?nio? naiy iaaia eiia?iaoe?y oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia ieiaeiiioaiiy.
Aea aaccaia?a/ii i?ia?aeieie c ieo ? iieacieee i?e?i- ? iae?iaoaeiae
aea?aaeie, ia?aiao??a ? ai?noo i?aiaio?a ieanoeae o eenoeao.

Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe ia i?ioe??/aoue ?ioo?oeaiiio oyaeaiith i?i
oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia ieiaeiiioaiiy, ui ? iia?/iei
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi a??ii aea?aiiai i?aeoiaeo oa iaae?eiino?
ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?aneaiiai aiae?co.

AENIIAEE

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeathoue ciiao, noiniaii aeine?aeaeaii? /anoeie
cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie, c?iaeoe aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ae?iaieoeoao:

 aeaiae?ioei?a ?iaeeie ?iciaeo i?aaenoaaeaia 135 oaeniiaie, a o./. 30
aaoiooiiieie ? 105 ?io?iaeoeiaaieie aeaeaie ? ?o a?aei?iaie. Iaeoe?oa
i?aaenoaaeaia i?ae?iaeeia ssaeoiaaeo (68 oaenii?a), aeaui aoae/a –
Neeaiaeo (27), Ni??aeieo (22) ? ?iciaeo (18). Ca aeeoo?aeie oi?iaie 60
aeae?a iaeaaeaoue aei aea?aa ? 75 – aei /aaa?iee?a.

 A oiiaao o?aai?ciaaiiai na?aaeiaeua iaea?eueo iioe?aieie
i?aaenoaaieeaie i?ae?iaeeie ssaeoiaaeo ? ae?ae iaeiiiaoi/eiaee, ai?iaeia
cae/aeia, a?ooa cae/aeia, yaeoiy e?niaa, ui a?aecia/athoueny aenieith
aeeoo?a?noth, i?ioiaeyoue iiaiee oeeee ?icaeoeo, i?ioa caciathoue iaaieo
a?aeoeeaiue ii??aiyii c e?niaeie ianaaeaeaiiyie, a naia:

 ca ii/aoeii aaaaoaoe?? oa ?? o?eaae?noth aiiiaeueieo a?aeoeeaiue o
?icaeoeo e?niaeo aeae?a ia aeyaeaii. O?eaae?noue ?icaeoeo (ii/aoie
niei?ooo-iiaaeaiiy anueiai eenoy) ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao 245 (yaeoiy) –
257 ae?a (ae?ae). ?nio? aeayea ??cieoey a ?icaeoeo ?ineei caeaaeii a?ae
i?noey ae?inoaiiy, aea aiia nooo?ai ia aieeaa? ia ?o a?coaeueii
o?eniaai? iciaee. Iacaai? aeaee a?aecia/athoueny cia/iith aeieia?/iith
ieanoe/i?noth, caaeia?eueii ?inoooue ? ?icaeaathoueny a oiiaao
o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e;

 ca a?iiao?e/ieie iieacieeaie aaaaoaoeaieo ? aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a
aeyaeaii ??ciee nooi?iue ?aaeoe?? ie?aieo aeae?a ia oiiae i?nueeiai
na?aaeiaeua. Ae?ae iaeiiiaoi/eiaee o i?nueeeo ianaaeaeaiiyo a?ae?aaaoaaa
ca?eueoaiiyi ia?aiao?e/ieo ? a?iiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a, ui ? na?ae/aiiyi
aeniei? no?eeino? e aaeaioaoe?? aeaeo aei iniiaieo /eiiee?a i?nueeiai
aeiae?eey. Oe? ae iieacieee o ai?iaeie cae/aeii? i?aeoe/ii ia
ci?ieeenue, ui aeaco? ia cia/io ieanoe/i?noue aeaiiai aeaeo aei
?ioaa?iaaiiai aieeao oaeoi??a i?nueeiai aeiae?eey. Iaenooo?a?o? ci?ie
a?aeaoeenue o ?icaeoeo aaaaoaoeaieo ? aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a a?oo?
cae/aeii? ? yaeoi? e?niai?, a yeeo aeine?aeaeoaai? iieacieee aeinoia??ii
ciaioeeenue. Ioaea, oe? aeaee aaae/a i?enoiniaothoueny aei oiia
ianaeaieo ioieo?a;

 ca aoaeiaith aea?aaeie ia iae?i- ? i?e?ino?oeoo?iiio ??aiyo
anoaiiaeaii, ui a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaiiai aeiae?eey o aeiaeo, ai?iaeie ?
a?oo? ciaioeeanue oe?eia ??/ieo e?eaoeue, aiaeii/an o yaeoi? aeaiee
iieaciee ca?eueoeany, a ae?aiao? ii?iaeiei noaeei ye o ?aae?aeueiiio,
oae ? oaiaaioaeueiiio iai?yiao ciaioeany, ca aeiyoeii a?oo?. Aeey an?o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a /anoea noaeei a ia’?i? noiaao?a eieeaa?oueny a
iaaeao 21.0-26.9%, ui ? ii?iith aeey eenoyieo ?icn?yiinoaeeiieo ii??ae.
Aeaiee iieaciee o ai?iaeie cae/aeii? ? yaeoi? e?niai? aeinoia??ii
ciaioeany a?aeiia?aeii ia 8.7 ? 10.0%, a a a?oo? cae/aeii? — ca?eueoeany
ia 32.9%. Ioaea, ciaioaiiy oe?eie ??/ieo e?eaoeue na?ae/eoue i?i aeayea
i?eai?/aiiy o?c?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a;

 ca iaiaeiai?noth iaaii?a anoaiiaeaii, ui o aeine?aeieo ?ineei aeaiee
iieaciee ia 2.5-6.5% iaioee, i?ae o eiio?ieueieo, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aaeaioaoe?th aeeei?ineeo ?ineei aei oiia o?aai?ciaaiiai aeiae?eey.
iaaeinoaoiy aieia?noue iaaii?a coiiaeth? oae? iaaaoeai? yaeua, ye
a’yiaiiy ? ia?aae/ania iiaaeaiiy eenoe?a, ea?o?a, ianoeaeeo ieiae?a, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ?o yeino? ? e?eueeino?, a ?iiae? ? aei iiaii?
a?aenooiino? ieiaeiiioaiiy;

 ca ai?noii oei?io?eo «a» iaenooo?a?oa ia oiiae o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e
a?ae?aaaoaaee ae?ae ? ai?iaeia. Aeaiee iieaciee o aeine?aeieo ?ineei
iaioee, i?ae o eiio?ie? a?aeiia?aeii ia 25.1 ? 23.5%. O a?oo? cae/aeii?
e yaeoi? e?niai? ai?no oei?io?eo «a» o aeine?ae? iaioee, i?ae o eiio?ie?
a?aeiia?aeii ia 9.7 ? 7.1%. Ai?no oei?io?eo «b» aeinoia??ii iaioee, i?ae
o eiio?ie?: o ai?iaeie cae/aeii? e yaeoi? e?niai? a?aeiia?aeii ia 29.1 ?
22.3%, o aeiaeo iaeiiiaoi/eiaiai ? a?oo? cae/aeii? a?aeiia?aeii ia 15.4
? 9.7%. Noia oei?io?e?a «a»+»b» aeinoia??ii ciaioeeanue o an?o aac
aeiyoeo aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a. Ai?no ea?ioeii?ae?a «c» aeinoia??ii
ciaioeany o aeiaeo, a?oo? oa yaeoi? (11.1-13.0%) ? nooo?ai ia ci?ieany o
ai?iaeie. A?aeiioaiiy oei?io?e?a aei ea?ioeii?ae?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aeineoue cia/ieie aaee/eiaie (4.04-4.60). Oea ? iieacieeii a?eueoi?
iai?oaeaiino? a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?ineei, ui ae?inoathoue a o?aiaaiieo
oiiaao;

 noiniaii aaia?aoeaiiai ?iciiiaeaiiy a oiiaao i?noa aeine?aeaeoaai?
aeaee oi?iothoue /ieia?/? aaiaoe aeinoaoiuei aeniei? aeeoo?caeaoiino? c
iaeaeuei iieacieeii o i?ei?nueeeo e?nao, e?niia?eiaeo ? ia?eiaeo
ianaaeaeaiiyo ? iaeieae/ei o i?nueeeo ianaaeaeaiiyo aoeeoeue ? ieiu, ui
na?ae/eoue ye i?i iiceoeaiee (aei aeayei? i??e), oae ? i?i iaaaoeaiee
(i?e cia/ieo a?aeoeeaiiyo) aieea aeiae?eey ia ?icaeoie aaia?aoeaii?
noa?e ?ineei;

 e?euee?ni? e ye?ni? iieacieee ieiaeiiioaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a a
oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e caeaaeaoue a?ae a?ioe/ieo ? aio?iiiaaiieo
oaeoi??a, a ia?oo /a?ao a?ae ?yniino? ea?ooaaiiy oa ee?iaoe/ieo oiia, o
yeeo oi?iothoueny ieiaee i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo.

 Caoiaee c ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeeei?ineeo ieiaeiaeo o caeai? ianaaeaeaiiy
iiaeooue aooe oni?oieie eeoa i?e oiia? aecia/aiiy ??aiy aaeaioaoe??
ie?aieo aeae?a aei oiia i?nueeiai aeiae?eey, oiio iaie cai?iiiiiaaii
oanoeaaeueio ioe?ieo (a?ae 0 aei 5 aae?a) aee?iaoecaoe?? ca aoaiaie
iioiaaiaco.

4. iaenooo?a?oeie /eiieeaie, ui aieeaathoue ia ieiaeiiioaiiy aeiaeo ?
iieacieee i?e?iaoaeiae (83%) ? iae?iaoaeiae (49%) aea?aaeie. O ai?iaeie
iae?noioi?oa aieeaathoue ia ieiaeiiioaiiy iieacieee i?e?iaoaeiae
aea?aaeie (79%), ia?aiao?e ieiae?a (49%) ? eenoe?a (45%). Iaea?eueoo
/anoeo aieeao ia ieiaeiiioaiiy a?oo? noaiiaeyoue iieacieee i?e?iaoaeiae
aea?aaeie (76%), a?iiao?e/i? iieacieee eenoe?a (45%) ? ?o ia?aiao?e
(38%). O yaeoi? ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaii? noa?e aieeaathoue
iieacieee i?e?iaoaeiae (92%) ? iae?iaoaeiae (86%) aea?aaeie, a oaeiae
iieacieee ai?noo i?aiaio?a ieanoeae o eenoeao (46%).

5. I?iaaaeaia ?iaioa c iioei?caoe?? aa?ioaoi?ee ae?iuoaaiiy aeeei?ineeo
ieiaeiaeo oeyoii cai?iiiiiaaiiai niiniao ae?iuoaaiiy naaeaeaioe?a —
?ici?eiaoaaiiy n?yioe?a o oac? i?i?inoe?a. Ae?iuoaaiiy naaeeaiiai
iaoa??aeo aeaiei niiniaii nei?i/o? oa?i?i io?eiaiiy noaiaea?oieo
naaeaeaioe?a ia 1-2 ?iee ? ciaioo? aeo?aoe ia ?o ae?iuoaaiiy a 1.25
?ace. ?ic?iaeai? «?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c aa?ioaoi?ee ae?iuoaaiiy aeeei?ineeo
ieiaeiaeo» ai?iaaaeaeaii a Euea?anueeiio i?nueeiio ae?iaie/iio o?ano?
caeaiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

6. ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ?aae?aeueiiai ? e?i?eiiai i?e?ino?a iaaii?a, yea
a ??e ianiaiai oi?ioaaiiy aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a aeinyaa? i?i?iaeueiiai
cia/aiiy, ?ic?iaeai? oaaeeoe? aeey aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueiiai a?aeiiniiai
i?e?inoo. ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a i?iaiico a?iaeath aeaa iiaeeea?noue ca
10-12 i?nyoe?a ia?aaeaa/aoe e?euee?ni? iieacieee ieiae?a ? ian?iiy, ui
aeaei ciiao cacaeaeaa?aeue cae?enithaaoe ieaioaaiiy eiai caaio?ae?.
?ic?iaeai? «?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?iaiico a?iaeath ieiae?a ? ian?iiy
aea?aaieo ii??ae» iaoiaeii «i?i?iaeueiiai a?aeiiniiai i?e?inoo iaaii?a»
ai?iaaaeaeaii o Euea?anuee?e ciiaeuei?e e?niian?ii?a?e noaioe??
«Oe?aea?aee?nian?iiy».

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

?ya/oe A.I., Cay/oe A.ss., Iaeueiee TH.A., Iinoieianeee Ae.A. Aeeyiea
ii?oiiao?e/aneeo iieacaoaeae noaiea e e?ii( ia o?iaeaeiinoue
aeeei?anooueo ieiaeia(o ?anoaiee Oe?aei( // Eani. aeo?i. — 1995. — ?6. —
N. 16-22.

?ya/oe A.I., Iaeueiee TH.A. Ai?iaeia cae/aeia — iaa?ae’?iiee eiiiiiaio
o?oioeaiic?a // Oe?. e?n. — 1995. — ?3-4. — N. 21-22.

Cay/oe A.ss., Iaeueiee TH.A., Iinoieianueeee Ae.i. Aeaye? iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a ieiaeiaeo ?ineei // Iaoe. a?niee:
E?n?aieoeuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?. — Aei.5. — Euea?a: Oe?AeEOO. —
1996. — N. 248-251.

Iaeueiee A.N., Iaeueiee TH.A. Oeaea ??ai?a aee?iaoecaoe?? aea?aa oa
/aaa?iee?a ca aoaiaie iioiaaiaco // Iaoe. a?niee: I?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa. — Aei.9.1. — Euea?a:
Oe?AeEOO. — 1998. — N. 129-130.

Iaeueiee TH.A. Aoaeiaa aea?aaeie ye iieaciee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?ineei
// Iaoe. a?niee: I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo e?niaiai
ainiiaea?noaa. — Aei.9.2. — Euea?a: Oe?AeEOO. — 1998. — N. 179-182.

Iaeueiee TH.A. Ai?no i?aiaio?a ieanoeae o eenoeao aeeei?ineeo ieiaeiaeo
aeae?a i?ae?iaeeie maloideae a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e cao?aeiiai
?aa?iio oe?a?ie // Iaoe. a?niee: No/ania aeieia?y ? i?iaeaie noaeiai
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. — Aei.9.7. — Euea?a: Oe?AeEOO. — 1999. —
N. 117-121.

?ya/oe A.I., Cay/oe A.ss., Iaeueiee TH.A. Aeeyiea yeieiae/aneeo e
eaniaiaenoaaiii-oaenaoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia ia oi?ie?iaaiea o?iaeaeiinoe
ieiaeiauo ?anoaiee a oneiaeyo I?eea?iaouey // Nai?i. iao/iuo o?oaeia
Einoeoooa eana IAI Aaea?one: Eaniay iaoea ia ?oaaaea XXI aaea. — A(i.
46. — Aiiaeue: EE IAI Aaea?one. — 1997. — N. 92-94.

Iaeueiee A.N., Iaeueiee TH.A., Ioeee I.I. Aecia/aiiy ??aiy
aee?iaoecaoe?? ieiaeiaeo ca aoaiaie iioiaaiaco // Aea/aiiy iioiaaiaco
?ineei i?e?iaeieo oa eoeueoo?ieo oei? o aioai?/ieo caeeaaeao ?a?ac??. —
E. — Euea?a: Oe?AeEOO. — 1994. — N. 130-131.

Iaeueiee A.N., Iaeueiee TH.A. Aieea o?aiaaiieo oaeoi??a ia ?icaeoie
aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a aea?aaieo ?ineei // Aea/aiiy iioiaaiaco ?ineei
i?e?iaeieo oa eoeueoo?ieo oei? o aioai?/ieo caeeaaeao ?a?ac??. — E.:
A-ai IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1995. — N. 87-88.

?ya/oe A.I., Iaeueiee TH.A. Ieiaeiai-ya?aei? a caeaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo //
Oace aeii. iaoe. eiio. «Ia?eia? eaiaeoaooe: ?io?iaeoeoe?y, a?o?oaeoo?i?
oa a?ieiai-aeieia?/i? aniaeoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy». — A?ea Oea?eaa: EI(EN. —
1993. — N. 70.

Iaeueiee A.N., Iaeueiee TH.A. Aeaiae?ioei?a I?eea?iaooy ye aeaea?aei
oa?/iaeo ? ei?iiaeo ?ineei // Iaoa?. iaoe. eiio. «?io?iaeoeoe?y oa?/iaeo
? ei?iiaeo ?ineei». — Ee?a: OeAN AI Oe?a?ie. — 1994. — N. 13-14.

?ya/oe A.I., Iaeueiee TH.A., Iinoieianueeee Ae.I. Caeaaei?noue
ieiaeiiioaiiy e?niaeo /aaa?iee?a a?ae ina?oeaiiy // Iaoa?. 46-?
iaoe.-oaoi. eiio. Oe?AeEOO (e?niaini. naeoe?y). — Euea?a: Oe?AeEOO. —
1994. — N. 194-195.

Iaeueiee TH.A. Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ieiaeiaeo caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue //
Oace I?aei. eiio. «E?nioaoi?/ia ina?oa ? iaoea ia ?oaaae? XXI»: no/aniee
noai, i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae». — Euea?a: I??ai?aea. — 1995. — N. 37.

Ee?ioe TH.A., Iaeueiee TH.A. I?iaiicoaaiiy a?iaeaeiino? oa oa?i?ie
caaio?ae? e?ea?nueei? ne?iaeie aeeei?ineeo ieiaeiaeo caoiaeo Oe?a?ie //
Oace aeii. I?aei. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. «I?iaeaie e?ea?nueeiai
?ineeiieoeoaa». — Iieoaaa: Ano?ay. — 1996. — N. 32-34.

Iaeueiee A.N., Iaeueiee TH.A. I?iaiic o?iaeaeieo ?ie?a aea?aaieo ?ineei
Ea?iao // Iaoa?. eiio. «Cia/aiiy oa ia?niaeoeae noaoe?iia?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeey caa?aaeaiiy a?i??ciiiai?oiino?». — Euea?a: «I?ino??
— I». — 1998. — N. 102-104.

Iaeueiee TH.A. iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo e?niaeo ii??ae i?ae?iaeeie Maloideae
a oiiaao o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.03.01 — e?nia?
eoeueoo?e, naeaeoe?y, ian?iieoeoai. — Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee
e?nioaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo aeeei?ineeo
ieiaeiaeo ii??ae a oiiaao e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue oa o?aai?ciaaieo
oa?eoi??e. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea aeieia?/ieo oiia ia ??no ? ?icaeoie
aeae?a i?ae?iaeeie Maloideae: Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Sorbus aucuparia
L., Pyrus communis L., Malus sylvestris Mill. Aecia/aii a?iiao?e/i?
iieacieee aaaaoaoeaieo ? aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a, aoaeiao aea?aaeie aeae?a,
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? iieacieee eenoe?a ? iaaii?a, iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo
ieiae?a ? ian?iiy a oiiaao i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua. ?ic?iaeaii e?eoa???
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a ? a?iaeath aea?aaieo ii??ae.
Aeaaaeaii oi?ioeo ??ai?a aee?iaoecaoe?? aea?aa ? /aaa?iee?a caeaaeii
a?ae aeieia?/ieo oiia na?aaeiaeua.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeei?ine? ieiaeia? aeaee, aee?iaoecaoe?y, oaiieia?y,
a?iiao??y, i?aiaioe, aaia?aoeai? i?aaie, i?iaiic o?iaeath, o?aai?ciaai?
oa?eoi???.

Iaeueiee TH.A. iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey eaniuo ii?iae iiaenaiaenoaa
Maloideae a oneiaeyo o?aaiece?iaaiiuo oa??eoi?ee caiaaeiiai ?aaeiia
Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.03.01 -eaniua
eoeueoo?u, naeaeoeey, naiaiiaiaenoai. — Oe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue
eanioaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey aeeei?anooueo
ieiaeiauo aeaeia a oneiaeyo eaniuo ianaaeaeaiee e o?aaiece?iaaiiuo
oa??eoi?ee. Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea yeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia ?ino e
?acaeoea neaaeothueo aeaeia iiaenaiaenoaa Maloideae: Crataegus monogyna
Jacq., Sorbus aucuparia L., Pyrus communis L., Malus sylvestris Mill.

Ii?aaeaeai aeaeiaie e oi?iiaie ninoaa aeaiae?ioei?u naiaenoaa Rosaceae,
eioi?ue a ?aaeiia enneaaeiaaiey ninoaaeyao 135 oaeniiia, a o./.
iiaenaiaenoai Maloideae — 68 aeaeia e oi?i. Aiaeec oaii?eoiia iieacae,
/oi i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?acaeoey enneaaeoaiuo aeaeia a oneiaeyo
o?aaiece?iaaiiuo oa??eoi?ee ninoaaeyao 245-257 nooie, /oi niioaaonoaoao
aeaiiiio iieacaoaeth a eaniuo ianaaeaeaiee, ii ia 5-7 nooie naeaeaaaony
ia aieaa ?aiiea n?iee. Aeiiao?e/aneea iieacaoaee eenoa (aeeeia e oe?eia)
o aiy?uoieea e ?yaeiu oaaee/eeenue niioaaonoaaiii ia 22.4 e 24.5%, ianna
— ia 17.5 e 18.0%, a aaniethoiay aeaaeiinoue eenoea o ?yaeiu e a?ooe
oiaiueoeeanue ia 5.6 e 6.7%.

Aeiiao?e/aneea iieacaoaee aaia?aoeaiuo i?aaiia oiaiueoeeenue, a o./.
aeeeia /a?aoea ia 14.5-19.1%, aeeaiao? ieiaeia ia 5.4-21.6%, aeeeia
ieiaeia ia 2.7-26.3%, ianna ieiaeia ia 11.8-18.5%, aaniethoiay
aeaaeiinoue ieiaeia ia 7.6-15.3%.

Eco/aiea no?iaiey ae?aaaneiu iieacaei oiaiueoaiea oe?eiu aiaee/iuo neiaa
ia 11.5-35.2% n iaeiia?aiaiiui eo oaaee/aieai a 1 ni ia 10.0-49.2%, a
oaeaea oiaiueoaiea aeeaiao?a ninoaeia a ?aaeeaeueiii e oaiaaioaeueiii
iai?aaeaieyo. Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa ninoaeia a 1ii2 ia 2.6-16.5%
eiiiaine?oao oiaiueoaiea eo aeeaiao?a.

Niaea?aeaiea ieaiaioia ieanoeae eenoa, eae aaaeiiai iieacaoaey
aaeaioaoeee ?anoaiee a oneiaeyo ai?iaeneie n?aaeu oiaiueoeeinue a o./.
ii oei?ioeeeo «a» o aiy?uoieea e ?yaeiu niioaaonoaaiii ia 23.5 e 25.1%,
a ii oei?ioeeeo «b» -ia 5.4 e 22.3%. Niaea?aeaiea ea?ioeiieaeia «n» o
enneaaeoaiuo aeaeia oiaiueoeeinue ia 11.1-13.0% ca eneeth/aieai ?yaeiu.

?acoeueoaou ii?aaeaeaiey aeecianiiniaiinoe iueueoeu enneaaeoaiuo aeaeia
a caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu aio?iiiaaiiiai aeeyiey a /aou?ao YOI iieacaee,
/oi iaeaunoea iieacaoaee ?anoaiey eiatho a I e II YOI, ieceea a IV YOI.

?ac?aaioaiu i?eioeeiu e e?eoa?ee i?iaiice?iaaiey ia?eiaee/iinoe
oi?ie?iaaiey aaia?aoeaiuo i?aaiia e ieiaeiiioaiey ae?aaaniuo ?anoaiee
iaoiaeii «ieieiaeueiiai ioiineoaeueiiai i?e?inoa iiaaaia».

I?aaeeiaeaia oeaea o?iaiae aeeeeiaoecaoeee aea?aaueaa e eonoa?ieeia ia
iniiaaiee iioiaaiaoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ?anoaiee, eioi?ay iicaieyao
ii?aaeaeeoue oniaoiinoue eio?iaeoeoeee ?anoaiee.

?ac?aaioaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiua niiniau aa?ioaoieee au?aueaaiey enneaaeoaiuo
aeaeia.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi oaeea aeeei?anoouea ieiaeiaua
eae aiy?uoiee iaeiiianoe/iue, ?yaeia iaueiiaaiiay, a?ooa iaueiiaaiiay e
yaeiiy eaniay — ae?aaaniua ii?iaeu, eioi?ua ia?niaeoeaiu aeey
au?aueaaiey ia oieueei a eaniii, ii e a caeaiii oicyenoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeei?anoouea ieiaeiaua aeaeu, oaiieiaey,
aeeeeiaoecaoeey, aeiiao?ey, ieaiaiou, aaia?aoeaiua i?aaiu, i?iaiic
o?iaeay, o?aaiece?iaaiiua oa??eoi?ee.

Melnyk Y.A. The specificity of development of forests species
(Maloideae) in west region of Ukraine urban areas. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree in agricultural sciences on specialty
06.03.01 — sylviculture, selection, seed management. — Ukrainian State
University of Forestry and Wood Technology, Lviv, 1999.

The investigation of wild fruiters development specificity in afforested
and urban areas has been the mission of the thesis. It has been examined
the effect of the habitat ecological factors upon the growth and
development of the following Maloideae family species: Crataegus
monogyna Jacq., Sorbus aucuparia L., Pyrus communis L., Malus sylvestris
Mill. The biometric parameters vegetative and generative organs, wood
structure, leaves and shoots physiological and biochemical indices,
fruits and seeds developmental specificity in urban environment have
been studied. The criteria for species generative organs development and
crop yield forecasting have been elaborated. The correlative formula of
interdependence between trees and shrubs acclimatization levels and
ecological factors of habitat has been deduced.

Key words: fruit species, acclimatization, phenology, biometrics,
pigments, generative organs, crop prognosis, urban areas.

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