IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AAIEIA?*IEO IAOE

AeAI`ssIAIEI ?aai ?aaiiae/

OAeE 553.98+551.73/.78:550.8(477.4/5)

Iniaeeaino? ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a a
a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?oao IAOOIAACIIINIINO?

OAIA?ICITH AeI?I?IANUeEI-AeIIAOeUeEI? CAIAAeEIE

oa iniiai? i?eioeeie ?o iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 04.00.17 – Aaieia?y iaooe ? aaco

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a *a?i?a?anueeiio a?aeae?eaii? Oe?a?inueeiai
Aea?aeaaiiai aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueiiai ?inoeoooo Aea?aeeiiaaieia??
Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, Caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo i?e?iaeieo aac?a (i.Oa?e?a)

?noii?i Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/

Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee
ia?iaeii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aaieia?? ? ?ica?aeee
iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco

I?eia Ieaenaiae? Ieaenaiae?iae/

Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ia?aeiee aaieia Aea?aeaaiiai
aaieia?/iiai i?aei?e?inoaa Iieoaaiaooiaacaaieia?y

Aeni/ainueeee ?ea??ii Aieiaeeie?iae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo aaieia?? ? aaio?i?? ai?th/eo eiiaeei IAI

Oe?a?ie (i. Euea?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 12 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. ia 11 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.162.02 a ?inoeooo? aaieia?/ieo iaoe
IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252054, i. Ee?a – 54, aoe. I.Aii/a?a, 55 a.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aaieia?/ieo
iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 02 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe A.I.Eaaeeaeainueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueea caiaaeeia (AeAeC) ?
aieiaiei iaooiaaciaeaeiaoaiei ?aa?iiii Oe?a?ie. Iniiai? i?iaiici?
?ano?ne iaooe ? aaco ?anioae?ee oaeiae i?noyoueny a AeAeC. Oiio anaa?/ia
aea/aiiy aoaeiae ? iaooiaaciiiniino? ?aa?iio aeey iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yieo ? aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeyaeaiiy ? ?ica?aeeo
iiaeo iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco c iaoith noaa?e?caoe?? aeaeiaooeo oa
caaacia/aiiy i?e?ino?a caian?a aoaeaaiaei?a (AA) ia ia?niaeoeao ?
aaaeeeaei ? iaaaeueiei iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi. Ia ae??oaiiy
oeeo i?iaeai iaooiaaciai? aaieia?? iai?aaeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ?
oeie iaooiaaciiinieo ia`?eo?a, a?iniiao?e/i? eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a
iaooe ? aaco o ?ice?eoiio ?ic??c? oaia?icith AeAeC ni?eythoue
?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeai?o iai?yio iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a
aoaeaaiaei?a, aeicaieythoue i?iaiicoaaoe iiaeeea? aaieia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo ia`?eoao, ye? ua
ia aea/ai? ao??iiyi. ?ic?iaeaia i?eioeeiiaa aaaaoioaeoi?ia noaia iiooe?a
? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA, iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? iai?yie ? i?eioeeie
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?iaeai iaoiaeeee iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo
iieeaae?a a ianoeao ia?niaeoeaieo no?oeoo? oaia?icith, ui ni?ey?
iioei?caoe?? no/anieo iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ? i?aeaeuaiith ?o
aoaeoeaiino?.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa ia? aaciina?aaei?e
ca`ycie c iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie ?iaioaie Oe?AeA??, a yeeo aaoi? a?aa
o/anoue ye aeeiiaaaoeue, a?aeiia?aeaeueiee aeeiiaaaoeue ? iaoeiaee
ea??aiee c 1963 ?ieo, i?aoethth/e a *a?i?a?anueeiio a?aeae?eaii?
Oe?AeA??; aaeocaaith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?ia?aiith «Iiooe ? ?ica?aeea»;
iaoe?iiaeueiith i?ia?aiith «Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie»; iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith
«Oaeineiiaeaiiy ? aaieiai-aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeeee iiooe?a ?
?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu iaooe ? aaco a ??cieo aaieia?/ieo oiiaao c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ? iaae?eiino?
ioe?iee caian?a».

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aea/aiiy aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae ?
iaooiaaciiiniino? i?iaeoeoeaieo no?oeoo? oa ?o ianoie a ?ice?eoiio
?ic??c? oaia?icith AeAeC, aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae a?iniiao?e/ii?
eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco oa i?iaiic iiaeeeaeo a?iniiao?e/ieo
?ioa?aae?a iaooiaaciiiniino?, ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e uiaei i?iaeai
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aea/aiiy aaieia?? ? iaooiaaciiiniino? eieaeueieo no?oeoo? oaia?icith
AeAeC;

— aiae?c aoaeaaiaeiaaiai caiiaiaiiy ianoie, i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a,
no?oeoo? ? a?aeeeaae?a;

— aea/aiiy a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a AA ? iiaeeeainoae
aeyaeaiiy iiaeo a?iniiao?e/ieo ?ioa?aae?a iaooiaaciiiniino? a ?ic??c?
oaia?icienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a AeAeC;

— iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aaieia?/ieo iiaeaeae iniiaieo oei?a ?iaeiaeu oa
aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aieeao ?o ia aoaeoeai?noue iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee
iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco;

— aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae iniiaieo e?eoa???a iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee
iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco oa oeyo?a ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiaeeee aeyaeaiiy ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA a ?ice?eoiio ?ic??c?
oaia?icith AeAeC.

Iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy ae??ooaaeeny c aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? aaieiai-aaio?ce/ieo iaoa??ae?a c aaieia?? oa
iaooiaaciiiniino? no?oeoo?, ianoie, ?iaeiaeu, i?iaeoeoeaieo a?aeeeaae?a
oaia?icith ? ?aa?iio a oe?eiio. Aeei?enoai? ??ci? iaoiaee aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai a?iniiao??? iaooiaaciai? aaieia?? ? i?ioeano
iiooe?a oa ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco a AeAeC oa ?ioeo ?aa?iiao.

Oaeoe/iei iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaeeee aeai? c aaieia?? ?
iaooiaaciiiniino? 145 ?iaeiaeu, iaoa??aee 718 ieanoiaeo iieeaae?a AA c
onoaiiaeaieie aaniethoieie a?aei?oeaie iaooiaiaeyieo ? aaciaiaeyieo
eiioaeo?a (IAE ? AAE), ?acoeueoaoe ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei, ui ?ice?eee
a?aeeeaaee oaia?icith. Aiae?coaaeanue aaiethoe?y iioi/ieo aaio?ce/ieo ?
aaieia?/ieo iiaeaeae iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ia`?eo?a ia ??cieo
noaae?yo aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueiiai i?ioeano ia iaooo ? aac, aea/aeenue ?
a?aoiaoaaeenue /eneaii? iioae?eiaai? ? oiiaeia? ?oeiieni? iaoa??aee c
aaieia??, iaooiaaciiiniino?, iaoiaeeee iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee, i?ae?aooieo
oa ?iciiae?eo caian?a iaooe ? aaco a oaia?ici? AeAeC. E??i oiai,
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee ii Cao?aeii-Nea??nuee?e,
E?ii-Ooiaonuee?e, O?iaii-Ia/i?nuee?e ? Aieai-O?aeuenuee?e i?ia?ioe?yo,
I?aaeaii-Iaiaeoeaoeueeiio, I?ei`yonueeiio ? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiio i?iaeiao
oa ?ioeo ?aa?iiao. A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aaoi?a c aaieia?? ? iaooiaaciiiniino? oaia?icith AeAeC oa ?ioeo
?aa?ii?a, io?eiai? ca 35 ?ie?a aeeiiaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o a
*a?i?a?anueeiio a?aeae?eaii? Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueiiai ?inoeoooo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia:

a) ia ye?nii iiaiio ??ai? aea/aiino? AeAeC i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui iniiai?
oeie iaooiaaciiinieo no?oeoo? o a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith i?aaenoaaeai?
ia`?eoaie aioeee?iaeueii? ? aai?a?ao?aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae.
Iniaeea?noth iiaeaeueoeo ia?niaeoea ? oa, ui aiie aoaeooue iia`ycai?
ia?aaaaeii c iioiaaieie ? aeenaa?iii?eieie ??ciiaeaeaie. *a?ac cia/io
aea/ai?noue iane??cieo no?oeoo? ?o e?euee?noue na?aae iiaeo ia`?eo?a
aoaea iacia/iith.

a) iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae oa?i?io «no?oeoo?i?
ianoee», yeee aaeeaa?oueny a iaooiaacia?e aaieia??. Cai?iiiiiaaia
aaoi?ii o 1988 ?ioe? eeaneo?eaoe?y ianoie AeAeC aoea ia?oith
eeaneo?eaoe?th, yea iaaeaea nenoaiio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ii?oiaaiaoe/iiai
??ciiiai?ooy i?iaeoeoeaieo ianoie a ?aa?ii?.

a) aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? caiiaiaiiy ianoie AA ii a?aeiioaiith aei
a?iniiao??? no?oeoo?ieo ieai?a ? ci?ie aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa caiiaiaiiy
ianoie a?ae a?iniiao?e/iiai iieiaeaiiy iie??ae? iieeaae?a, anoaiiaeai?
oaiaeaioe?? caeaaeiino? ieiu? iieeaaeo a?ae ieiu? ianoie, aenioe
iieeaae?a a?ae aenioe ianoie, eiao?oe??ioa caiiaiaiiy ianoie a?ae aenioe
ianoie.

a) aia?oa cae?eniaii aiae?c a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a AA,
aeae?eai? a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? ? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe
iaooiaaciiiniino? a ?ic??c? a?aeeeaae?a oaia?icith.

ae) aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino? iioe?aiiy caian?a iaooiaeo, aaciaeo ?
aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aaniethoii? aeeaeie ?o caeyaaiiy.

a) aia?oa anoaiiaeaia ia??iaee/i?noue iiaoi?aiiy a?iniiao?e/ieo ??ai?a c
iaeneiaeueiith eiioeaio?aoe??th iieeaae?a AA. Oey iniaeea?noue
i?inoaaeo?oueny a ?ioeo iaooiaaciiinieo ?aa?iiao ? ia? i?ae?aa?iiaeueia
cia/aiiy. I?iaiico?oueny ?nioaaiiy iiaeo a?iniiao?e/ieo i?iaeoeoeaieo
?ioa?aae?a o a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith.

?) iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? aaieia?/i? iiaeae? aoaeiae iniiaieo oei?a
?iaeiaeu a a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?oao iaooiaaciiiniino? ? ?ic?iaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii iai?yieao ? eiioeaio?aoe?? ianya?a ao??iiy.

ae) aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? iniiaieo e?eoa???a iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee
?iaeiaeu, ?ic?iaeaia i?eioeeiiaa aaaaoioaeoi?ia noaia iiooe?a oa
?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA, ui i?eo?i/ai? aei iaaieo oei?a no?oeoo? ? ianoie
a ??cieo a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?oao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. A?eueo?noue i?iaiicieo a?iniiao?e/ieo
eieaeueieo iaeneioi?a iieeaae?a AA, ye? aaoi?ii ia?aaeaa/aeenue a
?ic??c? a?aeeeaae?a ?aa?iio ua a 1976 ?ioe?, i?aeoaa?aeeeenue
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieie ?iaioaie. Eieaeuei? iaeneioie aeyaeai? o
ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao a ?ioa?aae? i?ion 4250 – 4450 i ?
na?aaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo – ia aeeaei? i?ion 2950 i. sse ?
i?iaiicoaaeinue, o iacicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao eieaeueiee iaeneioi ia
aeyaeaii. ?aae?caoe?y iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie aeena?oaioa ia eiie?aoieo
ia`?eoao ni?eyea a?aee?eooth iiaeo iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco, io?eiaiith
i?e?ino?a caian?a ? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee
iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu o a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith. A?eueoa i?ae o
i`yoaeanyoe i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo, aeaeaieo aeena?oaioii ? a
ni?aaaoi?noa?, ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? iiaeaeueoiai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a AeAeC, ia ie?aieo ?? oa?eoi??yo
? ciiao, iaa?oioiaai? iai?yie ? iaoiaeeea iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo
?ia?o a ??cieo oeiao ianoie ia o?noaeanyoe /ioe?ueio ?iaeiaeuao.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo
iaa?oiooaaiiyo ieai?a aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a AeAeC ia 1982-1999
?.?., iino?eiei ni?aaaoi?ii yeeo aeena?oaio ?, ii/eiath/e c 1982 ?ieo.
Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ni?eyei a?aee?eooth iiaeo iieeaae?a AA o
na?iooianueeeo ? a?caenueeeo a?aeeeaaeao (Ia?eaeiyinueea,
I?aaeaiii-Iaian?anueea, Uo??anueea oa ?io? ?iaeiaeua), iioei?caoe??
iiooeiaeo ?ia?o ? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu
(Aiae??yo?anueea, Aacethae?anueea, Aanee?anueea, Aeoi?anueea,
Aieioe?anueea, Aieioiaueinueea, Ei?ae?anueea, Eooeaie?anueea,
Naaeie?anueea, Nio??anueea, Ni?aae?anueea, O?inoyiaoeueea, Ooinueea,
ss?io?anueea oa ?io?). O?eueee a?ae ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ai?iaaaeaeaieo ia
Aanee?anueeiio, Eeiiaiaeieeinueeiio, Eooeaie?anueeiio, Ia?eaeiyinueeiio,
I?aaeaiii-Iaian?anueeiio, ?oae?anueeiio, Nae?eae?anueeiio ?
*a?aiiicaaiaenueeiio ?iaeiaeuao, io?eiaii i?e??no caian?a 7,065 ie?ae.i3
aaco ? 0,740 iei.o iaooe ? eiiaeainaoo, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
a?aeiia?aeieie aeieoiaioaie. ?yae ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ciaoiaeeoueny ia
noaae?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
caeiaoaa/a iathoue i?yiee aeo?ae ia i?aeoeeo aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo
?ia?o ? iiceoeaii ni?eyoeiooue iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaiith i?ioeano iiooe?a
? ?ica?aeee iaooe ? aaco o a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith. Ca iniaenoee aianie a
?icaeoie aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ii ia?iuoaaiith
i?ia?aeueii-ne?iaeiii? aace Oe?a?ie aaoi?o aeena?oaoe?? i?enai?ii caaiiy
«Ii/aniee ?ica?aeiee iaae?».

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiaeo, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: «Aeinoeaeaiey aaieiae/aneie iaoee ii
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeia ca aiaeu Niaaoneie aeanoe»(*a?i?a?a,
1967), «Yaiethoeey ieanoia-eieeaeoi?ia ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaooe e aaca
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu» (Iieoaaa, 1967),»I?ioeannu ?acaeoey
caiiie ei?u e iieaciua eneiiaaiua Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu»
(Ee?a-Iieoaaa, 1968), «Aii?inu aaieiaee e iaooaaaciiiniinoe Oe?aeiu,
aaioece/aneeo aiia?aoo?iuo ?ac?aaioie e ao?aiey neaaaeei» (Euea?a,
1969), «I?iaeaiu iieneia e ?acaaaeee iaooyiuo e aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee
Oe?aeiu» (*a?i?a?a, 1982), «I?iaeaiu onei?aiiiai auyaeaiey iiauo oeiia
eiaooae e ?ano?nu iaooe e aaca a Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeia»
(*a?i?a?a, 1987), «Ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau ?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiey
iaoiaeee iieneia e ?acaaaeee iaaioeeeeiaeueiuo eiaooae» (Oa?e?a, 1988),
«Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie» (Ee?a, 1994; Oa?e?a, 1996); ia nithcieo
(eieeoiueiai N?N?) iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo, iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia??
iaoeiai? ?aaee AI N?N?: «Iienee e inaiaiea iaooyiuo e aaciauo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee nieyiieoiieueiuo iaeanoae a i?aaeaeao NNN?» (Iineaa,
1968), «Ia?niaeoeau oaaee/aiey aaciauo ?ano?nia Oe?aeiu e nii?aaeaeueiuo
oa??eoi?ee a nayce n caaea/aie onei?aiiiai ?acaeoey aaciaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe» (Oa?e?a, 1969), «Iaoiaeeea iieneia no?aoea?aoe/aneeo e
eeoieiae/aneeo caeaaeae iaooe e aaca» (Aaeo, 1983),
«Iaooaaaciia?aciaaiea ia aieueoeo aeoaeiao» (Iineaa, 1986); ia
I?aeaea?aeaai?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeueiua aii?inu iaooyiie
iaeaiaaiii?oieiaee» (*a?i?a?a, 1994); ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
«Oaeoiie/aneea e iaeaiaaiii?oieiae/aneea aniaeou iaooaaaciiiniinoe»
(Ee?a – N?ioa?iiieue, 1996); ia ?? I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi?
«Iao?aaeeoeeiiiua enoi/ieee oaeaaiaei?iaeiiai nu?uey e i?iaeaiu aai
inaiaiey» (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1997); ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaay aaca ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue: ninoiyiea e
ia?niaeoeau» (I?inuee, 1997); ia 5-o?e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaooa
– aac Oe?a?ie – 98» (Iieoaaa, 1998); ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao
Aea?aeeiiaaieia?? Oe?a?ie, AeAI «*a?i?a?aiaooiaacaaieia?y» ?
«Iieoaaiaooiaacaaieia?y», A/aieo ?aaeao Oe?AeA?? oa *a?i?a?anueeiai
a?aeae?eaiiy Oe?AeA??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ioae?eoaaeeny o
niaoe?aeueieo aeaeaiiyo aeaaeai?/ieo ? aaeocaaeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?inoeooo?a Oe?a?ie oa aeecueeiai ca?oa?aeaey,
ca??ieeao ? aeiiia?aeyo Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie. Ii oai?
aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 75 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, na?aae yeeo 1 aaieia?/ia
ea?oa aeiaa?oiueiia?inueeeo a?aeeeaae?a Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei?
caiaaeeie, 41 noaooy, 33 iaoa??aee ? oace aeiiia?aeae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui caoeuathoueny:

Aia?oa onoaiiaeaia aeene?aoi?noue a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo
aoaeaaiaeiaaeo iieeaae?a a ?ic??c? oaia?icith AeAeC, ui ae?aaea?oueny a
iayaiino? a?iniiao?e/ieo iaooiaaciiinieo ??ai?a, ye? aeyaeai? aaoi?ii o
1976 ?ioe?. Aia?oa aeae?eai? a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? ? ?aa?iiaeuei?
iiaa?oe iaooiaaciiiniino? iathoue ??cio aenioo, ??ci? caeiiii??iino?
eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a ? ?o caian?a.

A?iniiao?e/i? ??ai? c iaeneiaeueiith eiioeaio?aoe??th iieeaae?a
ia??iaee/ii iiaoi?ththoueny /a?ac iaai? ?ioa?aaee, ui aea? ciiao
i?iaiicoaaoe ?nioaaiiy iiaeo i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a. Onoaiiaeaia
cai?ioia caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa caiiaiaiiy ianoie a?ae a?iniiao?e/ii?
aeeaeie iie??ae? iieeaae?a AA.

Iniaeeaino? iaooiaaciiinieo ia`?eo?a ??cii? aoaeiae aecia/athoueny
oaiaeaioe??th ciiaeueiiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ianoie c ??ciei caiiaiaiiyi
?o aoaeaaiaeiyie, a?aenooi?noth ocaiaeaeaiiy a?iniiao??? no?oeoo?ieo
ieai?a ? aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa caiiaiaiiy ianoie.

Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? iiaeae? aoaeiae iniiaieo oei?a ?iaeiaeu a
a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?oao iaooiaaciiiniino?, ye? a?aoiaothoue ??ci?
aa??aioe aoaeiae ?ica?aeoaaeueieo oa iiooeiaeo ia`?eo?a ? caaacia/othoue
iioeiaeueio ?ica?aeeo ?iaeiaeu, aeyaeaiiy iiaeo iieeaae?a o ianoeao
oaia?icith ? io?eiaiiy i?e?inoo caian?a iaooe oa aaco.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia ?
ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny i?eioeeiiaa aaaaoioaeoi?ia noaia iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee
aoaeaaiaeiaaeo iieeaae?a ia ia`?eoao c ??cieie a?iniiao?e/ieie oiiaaie.
Aiia aaco?oueny ia aoaeia? ia?niaeoeaieo ? i?iaeoeoeaieo no?oeoo?,
i?iiiiiaaieo ianyaao ao??iiy, ?ici?uaii? naa?aeeiaei ? /a?aiaino? ?o
aoae?aieoeoaa. Aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? iniiaieo e?eoa???a oa iaa?oioiaai?
i?iiiceoe?? aei i?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y, caaaeueiei ianyaii 308 noi??iie,
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae. ?ethno?iaaia 50 ?enoieaie, 3 oaaeeoeyie ? 12 oaenoiaeie
aeiaeaoeaie. A?ae?ia?ao?y 233 iacae. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a *a?i?a?anueeiio
a?aeae?eaii? Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueiiai
?inoeoooo Aea?aeeiiaaieia?? Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi? aaey/iee aaieiaai Aea?aeeiiaaieia?? oa Aea?aeiaooiaaci?iio
Oe?a?ie, ?o aaieia?/ieo ? aaio?ce/ieo i?aei?e?inoa ca iaaeaiee oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae ? ae?eiaa ni?eeoaaiiy. Aaeeeo iiaeyeo aeneiaethth I.O.Oiaeo,
I.I.?aaitho?, ?.?.*aaaiaieo, A.E.Aaa?eoo, I.TH.Eoe?io, A.I.E?athoe?io,
A.I.Eaaeoaao, ?.N.Aeai?yieio, A.I.Eei/eo, A.N.Oieiaaieo ca ie?ai?
e?eoe/i? ? eiino?oeoeai? caoaaaeaiiy , ye? ni?eyee aeeiiaiith ?iaioe.
Aeyeoth eieaaai *a?i?a?anueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy Oe?AeA?? ca aeiiiiiao a
oaoi?/iiio ioi?ieaii? aeena?oaoe??.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

I?IAEAIA AEA*AIIss IIAA?O?A O ?ICE?EOIIO ?IC??C? OAIA?ICITH
AeI?I?IANUeEI-AeIIAOeUeEI? CAIAAeEIE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a iaooiaaciiiniino? AeAeC
iia`ycaia c aeae?eaiiyi iiaa?o?a a aaieia?? acaaae?, noaiii aea/aiiy
??cieo ieoaiue ?o aoaeiae a eiie?aoieo oiiaao oaia?icith,
iaooiaaciiiniino? ? iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a ?aa?ii?.

Iiaa?oe – ci?no ? iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o aeae?eaiiy a aaieia?/ieo eiiieaenao.
«Iiaa?o» – oa?i?i, yeee aaeeaa?oueny a ??cieo aaeocyo. Aea caaaeueiei ?
oa, ui iiaa?o iaiaaeo?oueny ieiueiaie. Oiio ana, ui ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae
ieie, ia?aaoaa? ia iaeiiio ??ai?. O aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeuei?e aaeoc?
oa?i?i «iiaa?o» ia? nai? iniaeeaino?. Iiyniaiiy (ooi/iaiiy) eiai, oiaoi
yeee iiaa?o, caeaaeaoue a?ae iaiao?aeiino? eiie?aoecoaaoe eiai a?aeiinii
ia`?eoo, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny. Oae, c oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo iiceoe?e
iiooe?a iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi ?
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e a?aeeeaae?a ?aa?iio – oiaoi aeae?eaiiy ?
aea/aiiy iiaa?o?a no?oeoo?ieo (no?oeoo?ieo iiaa?o?a). A
aaieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oeae oa?i?i ? iaea?eueo iioe?aiei. No?oeoo?iee
iiaa?o i?aaenoaaey? niaith a?oio aaieia?/ieo eiiieaen?a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaeiaeiaith aoaeiaith no?oeoo?ieo ieai?a, nooiaiai
iaoaii?o?/ieo ci?i oa i?iyaaie ?ioeo i?ioean?a. No?oeoo?iee iiaa?o
iaiaaeo?oueny ?aa?iiaeueieie eooiaeie iaca?aeiinoyie ? a?aeiia?aea?
ie?aiiio aoaio oaeoii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia oa?eoi??? eiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
(Aiaaeaiia, 1963; Naeoi, 1957; Oa?i, 1964). A iaaeao no?oeoo?iiai
iiaa?oo ia??aeei aeae?eythoueny i?aeiiaa?oe. Eiaeiee ?c ieo iaiaaeaiee
??ceith ci?iith oi?iaoe?e ? iaocaiaeaeaiiyie (Aiaaeaiia, 1963), i?noeoue
a?oio ii??ae aeae?eueeio no?oeoo?ieo y?on?a, ye? aoiaeyoue aei iiaa?oo
no?oeoo?iiai (Naeoi, 1957), i?aaenoaaey? eiiieaene a?aeeeaae?a,
?icae?eaieo iiaa?oiyie eooiaeo iaca?aeiinoae a na?aaeei? no?oeoo?ieo
y?on?a (Aaa?eo, 1965). No?oeoo?i? y?one ? /anoeiith iiaa?oo, aaieia?/i?
oi?iaoe?? yeeo noi?ioaaeenue ca ei?ioeee i?ii?aeie /ano. ss?one
iaiaaeothoueny ?aa?iiaeueieie eooiaeie iaca?aeiinoyie (Oaonueeee, 1957;
Oaoaeia, 1962; Oiinii, 1963), eieaeueieie ia?a?eaaie oa eieaeueieie
eooiaeie iaca?aeiinoyie (Naeoi, 1957), iiaa?oiath iaca?aeiino?
(A?oaiaaeuenueeee, 1962). ?acii c oeei no?oeoo?iee y?on ?yaeii
aeine?aeiee?a aaaaea?oueny neiii?iii no?oeoo?iiai iiaa?oo (Oa?i, 1964),
aai cian?i ia aeae?ey?oueny (Aiaaeaiia, 1963). Aiae?c iieacaa, ui
iioe?aiee a aaieia?? oa?i?i iiaa?o no?oeoo?iee (no?oeoo?iee iiaa?o) ?
iaea?eueo iaa?oioiaaiei ? a?aeiia?aea? yeui ia iiai?noth, oi a iniia?
naiai ci?noo, oyaeaiiyi ia?aaaaeii? /anoeie aeine?aeiee?a. Uiaei
no?oeoo?ieo i?aeiiaa?o?a ? y?on?a, oi a?aeiioaiiy aei ieo o
aeine?aeiee?a iaiaeiicia/ia.

Iiaa?oe a ?ice?eoiio ?ic??c? oaia?icith AeAeC. Aea/aiith aaieia?/ii?
aoaeiae ? iaooiaaciiiniino? a?aeeeaae?a oaia?icith AeAeC ni?eyee
aeine?aeaeaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino? iaoeiaoe?a, aaieia?a ? aaio?cee?a.
Na?aae ieo A.I.Aaa?ue?a, TH.I.A?n???e, I.I.Aaeooianueeee, ?.A.Aa?aiia,
A.I.A?eee, A.A.Aiiaea?/oe, A.?.Aaea?/oe, N.A.Aa?e/aa, A.I.A?oaiei,
A.E.Aaa?eo, I.?.Aaeaaoaea, A.A.Aeooei, ?.N.Aeai?yiei, ?.?.Aeai`yiaiei,
A.Ae.Caaaea, I.A.Ca??oeueeee, I.I.?noii?i, A.I.Eaaeoaa, A.?.Ea?iia,
A.?.E?oee, A.I.Eei/ei, E.A.Eo?eethe, E.TH.Eaie?i, A.I.Eaa?aeue,
A.A.Ia?oeiia, C.A.I?ooi?ia, A.?.I`ynieeia, A.E.Iaaeioiaaiei, A.TH.Iaein,
I.O.Iaoiaa, A.A.Ieioei, A.ss.?aaec?a?e, A.A.?aaeeie?n, ?.N.?ineee,
E.?.?ya/oi, A.?.Naa/aiei, ?.I.Nea/aaeoa, Ae.A.Nieeae?ia,
A.?.Nicainueeee, A.A.Nieiaoa, A.?.Oiee?i, I.N.Oioeia, I.E.Oeeiei,
?.?.*aaaiaiei, I.A.*e?aeinueea, I.N.Oaonueeee, I.O.Oiae ? aaaaoi ?ioeo.

Ia ??cieo aoaiao aea/aiiy AeAeC a aoaeia? ?? aaieia?/iiai ?ic??co
aeae?eyeenue no?oeoo?i? iiaa?oe, i?aeiiaa?oe ? y?one. Oae, iai?eeeaae,
aeoiaey/e c ?ai?oa iaaaaeaieo oyaeaiue i?i no?oeoo?i? iiaa?oe ? y?one oa
c ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio A.A.Ia?oeiiaei,
?.?.Aeai`yiaieii, I.?.N??iaei (1967) a ?ic??c? a?aeeeaae?a AeAeC
aeae?eai? o?e no?oeoo?i? iiaa?oe: ieaei?e (iie??aey ooiaeaiaioo – aa?oiy
/anoeia aa?oiueioaiainueeiai i?ae`y?ono), na?aaei?e (oo?iaenueeee y?on –
a?aoea?eoiaa na?oa aa?oiueiai ea?aiio) ? aa?oi?e (ieaeiy ia?i – iaiaai).
Ieaei?e no?oeoo?iee iiaa?o ia? o?e no?oeoo?i? y?one, na?aaei?e – aeaa ?
aa?oi?e – /ioe?e. O eiaeiiai c ieo aecia/ai? iniiai? no?oeoo?i? ieaie.
Ca no?oeoo?ieie iniaeeainoyie ? oi?iaoe?eii-?a/iaeiiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith
?ic??co a?aeeeaae?a AeAeC A.E.Aaa?eo, C.I.Eyoeaae/ (1989) aeae?eeee
i`youe no?oeoo?ieo iiaa?o?a (y?on?a), aai no?oeoo?ii-no?aoea?ao?/ieo
eiiieaen?a ca A.A.Aiiaea?/oeii (1961). Na?aae ieo:
na?aaeiueiaeaaiinueeee ieaooi?iiee, aa?oiueiaeaaiinueeee ?eooiaee,
eai`yiiaoa?eueii-ieaeiueiia?inueeee neiaee?cii-i?iaaineiee?iaeueiee,
iacicienueeee ieaooi?iii-neiaee?ciee ? eaeiicienueeee ieaooi?iiee.
Eiaeiee c ieo iaiaaeo?oueny iaca?aeiinoyie. TH.I.A?n???e, I.E.Oeeiei
(1994) a no?oeoo?? oaia?icith AeAeC aeae?eeee i`youe iiaa?o?a ?
/ioe?iaaeoeyoue i?aeiiaa?o?a, iaiaaeaieo a?aeiia?aeii ?aa?iiaeueieie ?
ciiaeueieie ia?a?eaaie. A /ene? iiaa?o?a:
na?aaeiueiaeaaiinueei-na?aaeiueio?ainueeee,
aa?oiueio?ainueei-ieaeiueia?caenueeee,
aa?oiueia?caenueei-ieaeiueiia?inueeee, iacicienueeee, eaeiicienueeee.
No?oeoo?i? iiaa?oe, i?aeiiaa?oe ? y?one, aeae?eai? aeuaaeacaieie
aaoi?aie oa ?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie ? ?acoeueoaoii aea/aiiy no/anii?
no?oeoo?e AeAeC, ?? aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo, iathoue iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

A?ae?iaaieia?/i? oiiae ?ice?eoiai eiiieaeno ii??ae a AeAeC
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue A.?.Aaa?ioeai, ?.N.Aaa?eeaiei, E.E.Aooeaeii,
?.?.Eicae, A.A.Eieiae??i, A.I.E?eaioa?e, A.O.?iiaitheii, A.A.Oa?auaieii,
E.I.Oaa?i oa ?ioeie. A ?ic??c? AeAeC aeae?eai? aeaa a?ae?iaaieia?/i?
iiaa?oe – iiaa?o aa?oeeaeueiiai ia?ai?uaiiy ieanoiaeo aiae (aeaaii –
oo?ia, ui caeyaathoue ia aeeaeiao a?eueoa 3600 i) ? iiaa?o eaoa?aeueiiai
ia?ai?uaiiy (Aaieia?y ? iaooiaaciiini?noue AeAeC, 1989).

Aea/ath/e iaooiaaciiini?noue AeAeC, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a
i?iaeoeoeaiee ?ic??c oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeoiaey/e c aeae?eaieo
iaooiaaciiinieo eiiieaen?a. Inoaii? neeaaeathoueny c ii??ae-eieaeoi??a,
ye? ai?uothoue neoi/aiiy iaooe ? aaco, oa ?aa?iiaeueii? iie?eoee, ui
?cieth? eiiieaene caa?oo. Aeae?eythoueny aeaaiinueeee,
oo?iaenueei-ieaeiueia?caenueeee, aa?oiueia?caenueei-na?iooianueeee,
na?aaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueiee,
aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueiee-ieaeiueiia?inueeee ? o??an-th?nueeee
eiiieaene, ye?, aeoiaey/e c aiae?co aeeiiaieo iiaoaeia (Aeai`yiaiei,
1998), iathoue ciiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy AA. Inoaii?i /anii
aeae?eaii iiaee eiiieaen, iia`ycaiee c aeyaeaiiyi aoaeaaiaei?a a
ooai?aiiyo ooiaeaiaioo. A iniia? iaca i?iaeoeoeaieo eiiieaen?a
ia?aaaaea? ?o no?aoea?ao?/ia i?eo?i/ai?noue. ?ai?oa iiae?ai?
iaooiaaciiini? eiiieaene ?iaioaaeenue no?aoea?ao?/ieie ??aiyie
iaooiaaciiaeiie/aiiy (Ai?iaeia, 1962). Aea/aiiy eiie?aoii
iaooiaaciiinieo iiaa?o?a o oaia?icienueeiio ?ic??c? AeAeC ia? iaiaaeaiee
oa?aeoa?.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aa?iiaeueieo iie?eoie aeae?eythoueny th?nueeee,
o??aniai-aa?oiueiia?inueeee,
ieaeiueiia?inueeee-aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueiee,
na?aaeiueieai`yii-aoa?eueiee ? ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueiee no?aoea?ao?/i?
iiaa?oe i?iieneiai? iaooiaaciiiniino? (Caa`yeia, 1973). ? iiaa?oe
iaooiaaciiiniino?, a iniia? aeae?eaiiy yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny iane/ai?noue
oeth?aeaie ii??ae ??cieo ca iioiaeaeaiiyi. Ca oaeei i?eioeeiii a iaaeao
i?ai?/iiai ai?oo aeae?eai? ieaei?e iiaa?o iaooiaaciiiniino?,
i?aaenoaaeaiee ii?iaeaie e?enoae?/iiai ooiaeaiaioo, ? aa?oi?e iiaa?o
iaooiaaciiiniino?, neeaaeaiee a?aeeeaaeaie inaaei/iiai /ioea (Aeai?yiei,
Eei/ei, *aaaiaiei, 1996). Iaaaaeai? oa ?io? aeai? na?ae/aoue ca oa, ui
iaooiaaciiini? iiaa?oe a AeAeC aeae?eythoueny ia ??cieo i?eioeeiao. Ana
oea coiiaeth? ?o iaiaeiicia/i?noue ca ci?noii ? ianyaaie. A no/aniiio
?icoi?ii? iiaa?oii iaooiaaciiiniino? ?iaeiaeua, ?aa?iio, aanaeio
aaaaea?oueny ?ioa?aae ?ic??co (a iao?ao) a?ae ia?oiai cieco aei naiiai
aa?oiueiai i?iaeoeoeaiiai ai?eciioo. Aeoiaey/e c oaeiai aecia/aiiy
iiaa?oo iaooiaaciiiniino?, aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? i?iaeaio a?iniiao?e/ieo
iiaa?o?a iaooiaaciiiniino? a ?ice?eoiio eiiieaen? oaia?icith AeAeC ia
?aeei?e iniia? – aeaieo aaniethoieo aeeaei onoaiiaeaieo IAE ? AAE
ieanoiaeo iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco. Oea aeicaiey? ia iaoa??aeao
a?iniiao??? ?aaeueieo iieeaae?a aeyaeyoe noai, caeiiii??iino? ?
oaiaeaioe?? eieae?caoe?? oaeoe/ieo iieeaae?a oa ?o caian?a o ?ic??c?
oaia?icith ? i?iaiicoaaoe iia? i?iaeoeoeai? ?ioa?aaee.

Aea/aiiy a?iniiao?e/iiai iieiaeaiiy ieanoiaeo iieeaae?a AA a ?aa?ii?
aaoi?ii caii/aoeiaaii o 1976 ?ioe?. Ia iniia? aiae?co aeaieo 473
iieeaae?a, a?aee?eoeo c 1936 ii 1971 ?. ia 70 ?iaeiaeuao, onoaiiaeai?
?aa?iiaeuei? ? eieaeuei? iaeneioie e?eueeino? ? u?eueiino? iieeaae?a o
?ic??c?.

Eieaeuei? iaeneioie /anoioe iathoue nai? iniaeeaino?. Oae, o a?aeeeaaeao
ieaeiueiai ea?aiio c aeeaeie –1250 i aei –2250 i aiie iiaoi?ththoueny
/a?ac 500 i, ieae/a – /a?ac 700 i; o na?aaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo –
iaeneioie /anoioe aecia/ai? ia aeeaeiao i?ion 1750i ? i?ion 2250 i; o
ieaeiueiia?inueei-aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueiiio eiiieaen? eieaeuei?
iaeneioie caeiiii??ii iiaoi?ththoueny /a?ac 500 i (-1750i, -2250i,
-2750i, -3250i ? –3750i). Iaeneioie /anoioe a iacicienueeiio eiiieaen?
ii??ae iiaoi?ththoueny /a?ac 200 i, aea iaea?eueoa iieeaae?a
neiioeaio?iaaii ia aeeaeiao -1350i oa -1550i. O 1996 ?.
A.I.E?eaioay ? I.O.Iaoiaa iia?aeiieee, ui ui ? ca ?oi?ie ?acoeueoaoaie
aea/aiiy aaiaeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? AeAeC, ?iciiae?e iieeaae?a AA ia?
ia??iaee/io ciiaeuei?noue, iaeneioie yei? ciaoiaeyoueny ia aeeaeiao
1620-3380-5120i.

Onoaiiaeaia caeiiii??i?noue iiaoi?aiiy eieaeueieo iaeneioi?a /anoioe
/a?ac iaaiee ?ioa?aae aeicaieeea ia?aaeaa/eoe [1], ui a ni?eyoeeaeo
aaieia?/ieo oiiaao /a?aia? eieaeuei? iaeneioie /anoioe a
ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueiiio eiiieaen? ii??ae ne?ae /aeaoe ia aeeaeiao
–4350i ((100i) ? –5050i ((100i). O a?aeeeaaeao na?aaeiueiai ea?aiio
eieaeueiee iaeneioi i?iaiicoaaany ia aeeaei? –2950i ((100i). A
ieaeiueiia?inueei-aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueiiio eiiieaen? eieaeuei?
iaeneioie /anoioe i?iaiicoaaeenue ia aeeaeiao -4250i ((100i) ? –4750i
((100i). A?aoiaoth/e aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy ii??ae iacicith oa ?o
a?ae?iaaieia?/i? oiiae, aaaaeaeinue, ui iieeaaee o a?aeeeaaeao o??ano ?
th?e iaa?yae /e iiaeia aeyaeoe, a i?iaiicoaaoe eieaeuei? iaeneioie
/anoioe a ieo iaiiaeeeai. Iiaeaeueoeie ?iaioaie a?eueo?noue i?iaiicieo
eieaeueieo iaeneioi?a i?aeoaa?aeeeanue. Oae, o ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo
a?aeeeaaeao eieaeueiee iaeneioi aeyaeaii a ?ioa?aae? aeeaei i?ion 4250i
— 4450i, a na?aaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo – ia aeeaei? –2950i. sse ?
i?iaiicoaaeinue, ia aeyaeaii /a?aiaee eieaeueiee iaeneioi o
iacicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao.

A ?acoeueoao? oaia??oi?o aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo ca iaoa??aeaie 145
?iaeiaeu, aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a AA,
i?iaiico?oueny ?nioaaiiy iiaeo ?ioa?aae?a /enea iieeaae?a, caian?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu o ?ic??c? oaia?icith AeAeC. Aeae?eai? a?iniiao?e/i?
iiaa?oe iaooiaaciiiniino?: caaaeuei?, iaiaaeai? a?aei?oeaie eiioaeo?a
aa?oiueiai ? ieaeiueiai ieanoiaeo iieeaae?a, ?aa?iiaeuei? – ?ioa?aaee
iaea?eueoi? eiioeaio?aoe?? iieeaae?a ? caian?a, a oaeiae eieaeuei?
?ioa?aaee, ye? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ?aa?iiaeueieo ? caaaeueieo
iiaa?o?a. A?iniiao?e/ia eieae?caoe?y iieeaae?a AA a ?ic??c? oaia?icith
iia`ycaia c eieaeueieie no?oeoo?aie ? iiaeaeyie ?o aoaeiae, ianoeaie ?
caiiaiaiiyi ?o aoaeaaiaeiyie oa ?ioeie oaeoi?aie.

AIAE?C IAOOIAACIIINIEO A?AeEEAAe?A, OEI?A I?IAeOEOEAIEO NO?OEOO?,
A?iniiao?e/ieo INIAEEAINOAE AOAEAAIAeIAAIAI CAIIAIAIIss IANOIE,
AI?ECIIO?A ? EIIIEAEN?A

A ieai? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a
iaooiaaciiiniino? caeiaoaa/ai aiae?cothoueny iaooiaaciiini? a?aeeeaaee ?
oeie i?iaeoeoeaieo no?oeoo?. Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy aoaeiae
? oei?caoe?? ianoie ii ?yaeo iaooiaaciiinieo ?aa?ii?a iniiaio oaaao
i?eae?eaii aea/aiino?, oei?caoe?? ? aiae?co iaooiaaciiiniino? ianoie,
oo?eioth/eo iieeaaee aoaeaaiaei?a a ?ice?eoeo eiiieaenao oaia?icith
AeAeC.

A?aeeeaaee oaia?icith AeAeC ? iniiai? oeie no?oeoo? c i?iieneiaith
iaooiaaciiini?noth. A aoaeia? ?ice?eoiai inaaei/iiai /ioea oaia?icith
AeAeC aa?ooue o/anoue a?aeeeaaee eaeiicith, iacicith ? iaeaicith, ye?
caeyaathoue ia a?oae-i?ioa?icienueeeo ooai?aiiyo ooiaeaiaioo. I?iieneia?
iieeaaee AA aeyaeai? a iacicienueeeo (th?nueeeo, o??aniaeo) oa
iaeaicienueeeo (ieaeiueiia?inueeeo, eai`yiiaoa?eueieo, aeaaiinueeeo)
eiiieaenao ? ii?iaeao ooiaeaiaioo. Iniiaieie i?iaeoeoeaieie ?
iaooiaaciia?niaeoeaieie ? ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?euei? a?aeeeaaee. A
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeeeaaee ioa?aeoa?eciaai? no?aoea?ao?/ii ? e?oieia?/ii a
ianyc? a?aeae?eo, a aeaye? a iaaeao y?ono ? ai?eciioo. Caa?oa?oueny
oaaaa ia ?yae oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaaee ia oi?ioaaiiy a?aeeeaae?a
oaia?icith [6, 10, 12, 14, 19, 34, 43, 45, 49], no?oeoo?o AeAeC [4] oa
?? iaooiaaciiini?noue [4, 35]. Oeie i?iaeoeoeaieo no?oeoo? aaoi?ii
aecia/ai? ca ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae ?
iaooiaaciiiniino? 145 ?iaeiaeu, ye? iathoue ??ci? ?aca?aoa?e [48],
iaiaeiaeiao e?euee?noue iieeaae?a AA oa ?o no?aoea?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy a
?ic??c? oaia?icith.

Iaooiaaciiinieie ? no?oeoo?e aeaio oei?a – aioeee?iae?, a?ao?aioeee?iae?
(i?aeiyooy) ? aai?a?ao?aioeee?iae?, na?aae yeeo aeae?eythoueny
iane??ci?, iioiaai? ? aeenaa?iii?ei? ??ciiaeaee. C i?aeiyooyie iia`ycaii
76% aea/aieo ?iaeiaeu ? 24% c aai?a?ao?aioeee?iaeyie. Inoaii?
i?aaenoaaeai? iai?aneeai?iiyie ? iacaieiooeie a?ao?aioeee?iaeyie (47%),
oa?anaie (23%) ? no?oeoo?ieie iinaie (10%), a oaeiae oaeoii?/ieie
aeieaie (20%). A?eueo?noue no?oeoo? (90-95%) on?o oei?a oneeaaeiaia
ii?ooaiiyie. Iniiaieie no?oeoo?aie a i?iaeoeoeaieo eiiieaenao oaia?icith
AeAeC ? iane??ci? oa iioiaai? i?aeiyooy ? aai?a?ao?aioeee?iae?, aei yeeo
i?eo?i/aii a?aeiia?aeii 63% ? 36% ?icaeyiooeo ?iaeiaeu. Aeenaa?iii?ei?
no?oeoo?e ia ia?aaeuothoue 1%, aea a i??o aea/aiiy ?aa?iio na?aae
aeyaeaieo ia`?eo?a iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueiiai ao??iiy aoaea
ca?eueooaaoenue /enei iioiaaieo oa, ?iia??ii, aeenaa?iii?eieo no?oeoo?,
ye? a?aeii? a ??cieo no?oeoo?ii-aaieia?/ieo oiiaao AeAeC.

I?eioeeie oei?caoe?? ianoie o iaooiaacia?e aaieia?? oa eeaneo?eaoe?y
ianoie iaooe ? aaco AeAeC. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth caaaeueieo
eeaneo?eaoe?e ianoie iaooe ? aaco ? oa, ui aiie aacothoueny ia aaiacen?
? ii?oieia?? ianoie (Aa?aiiae/, 1948; Aani?ae/, 1952; Aoae?i, 1975;
??aiaiei, 1968; Eeoaia, 1978; Eaai?nai, 1958; I??nii, 1961; ?annae,
1958; Naainoueyiia, 1981; Oa?i, Nieieia, 1987 oa ?io?). C a?aooaaiiyi
caaaeueieo eeaneo?eaoe?e aeine?aeieee aeeiiothoue oei?caoe?th ianoie
?iaeiaeu Naoa?e (Aeaen?i, 1976), O?iaii-Ia/i?nueei? (Iaea?aae/,
Aaeeaiia, 1984) ? E?ii-Ooiaonueei? (I?eueieeia, Iaceieia, Eauaiei, 1984)
iaooiaaciiinieo i?ia?ioe?e, I?aaeaiii-Iaiaeoeaoeueeiai (THoa?ia,
Aaneeue?a, Aaa?eeia oa ?io., 1972) ? I?ei`yonueeiai (Neie/ea, 1984)
i?iaei?a oa ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a. Caaaeueiei aeey a?eueoino? ?aa?iiaeueieo
eeaneo?eaoe?e ? aeae?eaiiy ianoie, ye? ?iaiothoueny no?oeoo?ieie,
no?aoea?ao?/ieie, e?oieia?/ieie (e?oiaaiieie), ?eoiaaiieie ?
eiia?iiaaieie. A eiaeiiio aa??aio? eeaneo?eaoe?e ?o aaoi?e a?aoiaoaaee
oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ianoie, ?o iaooiaaciiini?noue oa ?io? oaeoi?e, ui
aeicaieythoue ciaoiaeeoe a ianoeao noiae?noue ? a?aei?ii?noue. ?acii c
oeei, aeoiaey/e c aaieia?/ieo iiceoe?e, aaaaeath, ui ianoee, ye?
caooueny a eeaneo?eaoe?yo no?oeoo?ieie, iaa?yae /e aeathoue /?oea
oyaeaiiy i?i ieo. No?oeoo?a – oea oi?ia caeyaaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae. A
oie aea /an on? aeae?eai? oeie ianoie iia`ycai? c oi?iaie caeyaaiiy
ii??ae, ? oiae?, aeio?eioth/enue oeueiai i?eioeeio, aiie iiaeii?
?iaioaaoeny no?oeoo?ieie. A oea icia/a?, ui ianoie ?ioeo oei?a ia iiaea
aooe, ine?eueee a i?e?iae? iaia? aacoi?iiiai caeyaaiiy ii??ae. Oiio,
a?aoiaoth/e ci?no oa?i?io «no?oeoo?a» a?ae aeae?eaiiy ianoie, iacaaieo
no?oeoo?ieie, i?iiiioth oo?eioaaoeny [44]. A?aeiinii ?ioeo ??ciiaeae?a
ianoie, iaaaaeaieo o eeaneo?eaoe?yo aeuaoeacaieo ?aa?ii?a, oi aiie
aeae?eai? c a?aooaaiiyi ??cieo oaeoi??a ? iai?aaeai? ia ae??oaiiy
caaaeueii? i?iaeaie iaooiaaciai? aaieia?? ? aeyniaiiy ?ioeo ieoaiue
eieaeueiiai ? ?aa?iiaeueiiai cia/aiiy.

Aoaeiaa ? iaooiaaciiini?noue ianoie o a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith AeAeC
?icaeyaeathoueny a ?iaioao I.ss.Aa?aiianueei?, ?.A.Aeni/ainueeiai,
A.E.Aaa?eoa, E.I.Aieiaaoeueeiai, ?.E.Aii/a?iaa, ?.N.Aeai?yieia,
?.?.Aeai`yiaiea, A.I.Eaaeoaaa, ?.A.Ea?iaiea, A.I.Eei/ea, A.O.E?eaioa?aa,
ss.A.Eaca?oea, A.I.Eaaaaey, A.I.Eenei/oea, I.TH.Eoe?ia, A.A.Ieioea,
O.I.I?eaa??ii?, A.?.Naa/aiea, A.?.Nicainueeiai, A.?.Nieaeaoaiea,
I.A.Ooaeeea, A.I.Oa?aeaiiaa oa ?ioeo. ?acii c oeei, iacaaaeath/e ia
i?iaaaeaiiy ??cieo aeae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, caaaeueia eeaneo?eaoe?y ianoie
iaooe ? aaco aeey oiia AeAeC aeiaaee /an aoea a?aenooiy. Oiio, c
a?aooaaiiyi aeuaiaaaaeaiiai aeina?aeo oeeaaeaiiy caaaeueieo ?
?aa?iiaeueieo eeaneo?eaoe?e, aaoi?ii a 1988 ?. aoea ?ic?iaeaia ia?oa
eeaneo?eaoe?y ianoie [9]. Cai?iiiiiaaii ianoee ?icae?eyoe ia
aioeee?iaeuei? ? iaaioeee?iaeuei? c iiaeeeaei ianooiiei aeae?eaiiyi a
ieo oa?aeoa?ieo ??ciiaeae?a, a?aoiaoth/eo iniiai? eeaneo?eaoe?ei?
iciaee, na?aae yeeo i?eo?i/ai?noue ianoee aei oeio no?oeoo?e,
ii?ooaii?noue ianoee ? aeae ae?aio. I?iiiioth/e oaeee i?aeo?ae aei
eeaneo?eaoe??, aaoi? aeoiaeea c oiai, ui i?e oi?ioaaii? ianoie,
ia?aaaaeia cia/aiiy ia? oaeoii?/iee oaeoi?. Naia a?ae oeueiai
caeaaeeoue, a iniiaiiio, oi?ia a??nueeeo ii??ae, ie?eaoeai? ? ?ic?eai?
aeeneieaoe??, iayai?noue ocaiaeaeaiue ? iaocaiaeaeaiue a ?ic??c?
a?aeeeaae?a. Oiaoi oea an? o? iniiai? oiiae ? ia?aaeoiiae, ye?
iaiao?aei? aeey ooai?aiiy ??cieo oei?a ianoie AA. Aaoi?ii ianoee AeAeC
ca?oiiaai? ca eeanaie, i?aeeeanaie, aeaeaie ? oeiaie. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?o
iaaaaeaia ia i?eeeaaeao ?icaeyiooeo ?iaeiaeu. Ia?oa ia oie /an
eeaneo?eaoe?y nenoaiaoecoaaea iniiai? ianoee iaooe ? aaco a ?aa?ii?.
Iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy ianoie aeicaieythoue ?o eeaneo?eoaaoe a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iai?aaeaiino? ? ae??oaiiy ??cieo ieoaiue, iia`ycaieo c
aaieia??th iaooe ? aaco AeAeC. I?eeeaaeaie oaeeo aa??aio?a ?
oaoiieia?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y ianoie (Naa/aiei, 1994), eeaneo?eaoe?y ianoie
ca aeoioethth/ith ? ai?uoth/ith caeaoi?noth oa eeaneo?eaoe?y eiaeiiai
oeio ianoie (Aeni/ainueeee, 1991-1995), iiaeae? ?iia??ieo ianoie a ciiao
?icou?eueiaiiy e?enoae?/iiai ooiaeaiaioo (Aeni/ainueeee, Eei/ei, 1992).
?icoe?ythoueny iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue ianoie. Aeey i?iaiico
iaaioeee?iaeueieo ? eiia?iiaaieo ianoie i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeaie oeeee?/iino?
iaeaino?oeoo?ii-aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo (Aaa?eo, 1995), ne?ae a?eueoa
oaaae i?eae?eyoe i?e?iaeiiio ca`yceo no?oeoo?a – ianoea – iieeaae
(A?eee, 1995). A oe?eiio i?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?? ianoie a AeAeC
i?iaeiaaeo? aeine?aeaeoaaoenue, ui aoaea ni?eyoe i?ciaiith
iaooiaaciiiniino? oaia?icith ? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a ?aa?ii?.

Aoaeaaiaeiaaa caiiaiaiiy ianoie i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a,
no?aoea?ao?/ieo eiiieaen?a, iane??cieo ? iioiaaieo no?oeoo?. E?euee?nia
ioe?iea ? aiae?c aoaeaaiaeiaaiai caiiaiaiiy ianoie caneoaiao? ia oaaao,
aeoiaey/e ?c aeaio iniiaieo iieiaeaiue. Ii-ia?oa, a?ae iayaiino? aeaieo
i?i caiiaiaiiy AA ianoie i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a ? no?aoea?ao?/ieo
eiiieaen?a, ye? caeyaathoue ia ??cieo a?iniiao?e/ieo ??aiyo, aaaaoi a
/iio caeaaeeoue iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iiooeiaeo ? ?ica?aeoaaeueieo
?ia?o. Ii-ae?oaa, iniaeeaino? aoaeiae ??cieo oei?a ianoie ?
eiao?oe??io?a ?o caiiaiaiiy AA, aecia/ai? ca iaoa??aeaie ?ica?aeaieo
iieeaae?a, aeathoue ciiao aeei?enoiaoaaoe oe? aeai? i?e ioe?ioe?
iaooiaaciiiniino? eiie?aoieo ia?niaeoeaieo no?oeoo? ia iaaea/ai?e
oa?eoi???. Eiao?oe??ioe caiiaiaiiy ianoie aecia/ai? (? iaaaaeai? a
oaaeeoeyo) aeey ianoie i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a, i?ae`y?on?a, y?on?a,
a?aeae?e?a, nenoai acaaae? ? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaciaiai noaio iieeaae?a
a ?ice?eoeo eiiieaenao oaia?icith, ie?aii a ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo
a?aeeeaaeao, a oaeiae iane??cieo ? iioiaaieo no?oeoo?ao ieaeiueiai
ea?aiio. A oe?eiio ae na?aaei?e eiao?oe??io caiiaiaiiy ??aeeeie ?
aaciiiae?aieie AA noaiiaeoue aeey ianoie ai?eciio?a: eai`yiiaoa?eueieo
a?aeeeaae?a – 0,53, ieaeiueiia?inueeeo – 0,70, th?nueeeo – 0,26,
oaia?icienueeeo — 0,50. Ianoee iniiaieo iaooiaaciia?niaeoeaieo
ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaae?a iathoue na?aaei?e eiao?oe??io
caiiaiaiiy 0,53 (iaooith – 0,38, aacii – 0,54). Caiiaiaiiy aoaeaaiaeiyie
ianoie ??cieo oei?a no?oeoo? iaiaeiaeiaa. Na?aaei?e eiao?oe??io
caiiaiaiiy ianoie iane??cieo no?oeoo? noaiiaeoue 0,53 (iaooith – 0,36;
aacii – 0,57), a oiio /ene? aioeee?iaeueieo ianoie ia a?ao?aioeee?iaeyo
– 0,51 (iaooith – 0,36; aacii – 0,56) ? iaaioeee?iaeueieo ia
aai?aioeee?iaeyo – 0,60 (aacii). Aioeee?iaeuei? ianoee ia iioiaaieo
a?ao?aioeee?iaeyo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny na?aaei?i eiao?oe??ioii caiiaiaiiy,
??aiei 0,47 (iaooith – 0,46, aacii – 0,48). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aoaeaaiaeiaaiai caiiaiaiiy ianoie aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?aeoeoe?
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ? i?e i?iaiic? iaooiaaciiiniino?
ia?niaeoeaieo cii c ianoeaie ??cieo oei?a.

Oaiaeaioe?? aoaeaaiaeiaaiai caiiaiaiiy ianoie a i?iaeoeoeaieo
a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith. Aeeiiaia aaoi?ii e?euee?nia ioe?iea
aoaeaaiaeiaaiai caiiaiaiiy ianoie aeaea iiaeeea?noue ia?aeoe a?ae
aiae?co ie?aieo ia`?eo?a, yeeie ? ianoea, ai?eciio ? eieaeueia no?oeoo?a
aei ?icaeyaeo aoaeaaiaeiaaiai iane/aiiy a?aeeeaae?a a oe?eiio. A
?acoeueoao? aeyaeaii ?yae iniaeeainoae ? oaiaeaioe?e. Anoaiiaeaii [16],
ui caiiaiaiiy ianoie aoaeaaiaeiyie ia? ciiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ?
iaocaiaeaeo?oueny c a?iniiao???th no?oeoo?ieo ieai?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieeaae?a, ye? ?ica?aeai? a oaia?icienueeeo ?, cie?aia, o
ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao, iieacaee, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae
c?inoaiiy aaniethoii? aeeaeie iie??ae? iieeaae?a eiao?oe??io caiiaiaiiy
ianoie ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy. C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai i?e
?ice?eoo? iieeaaeo ia aaniethoi?e a?aei?ooe? 6000 i eiao?oe??ioe
caiiaiaiiy ianoee a ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao ne?ae
i/?eoaaoe c na?aaeiueith aaee/eiith 0,40 (i?e eieeaaii? a iaaeao
0,08-0,72), a a oe?eiio a eiiieaenao oaia?icith 0,50 (c iaaeath
a?aeoeeaiiy 0,08-0,84). I?e ca?eueoaii? aaee/eie ieiu? eai`yiiaoa?eueieo
ianoie ca?eueoaiiy ieiu? iieeaae?a ae?aaea?oueny ona?aaeiaiith e?eaith
?iia??ii? caeaaeiino?. Ca?eueoaiiy ieiu? iieeaaeo c ?inoii ieiu? ianoee
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia??aiii??ii ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aecia/aiei ciaioaiiyi ??
i?e?inoo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aenioe iieeaae?a ? ianoie ia
?iaeiaeuao, aeyaeaieo o a?aeeeaaeao ieaeiueiai ea?aiio, ia?aaoaathoue a
e?eaie?i?ei?e ?iia??i?e caeaaeiino?. I?e ca?eueoaii? aenioe ianoee
ca?eueoo?oueny ? aenioa iieeaaeo, aea aaee/eia ca?eueoaiiy ia ia?aaoaa?
a i?iii?oe?ei?e caeaaeiino?. E?eaie?i?eia caeaaei?noue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aenioe iieeaae?a ? ianoie ia? i?noea ? a i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciioao
?icaeyiooeo a?aeeeaae?a oaia?icith. ?acoeueoaoii aiae?co aenioe ianoie ?
eiao?oe??ioa ?o caiiaiaiiy ? ? oa, ui a ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo ?
oaia?icienueeeo i?iaeoeoeaieo a?aeeeaaeao a oe?eiio i?e ca?eueoaii?
aenioe ianoie eiao?oe??io ?o caiiaiaiiy ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy.

Aeyaeai? caeiaoaa/ai aeuaiaaaaeai? oaiaeaioe?? na?ae/aoue i?i
??ciiiai?oi?noue iaooiaaciiiniino? eieaeueieo ia`?eo?a oa ?nioth/?
iniaeeaino? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaia?icienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a, na?aae yeeo
aeii?ioth/eie ? iaooiaaciiane/ai? a?aeeeaaee ieaeiueiai ea?aiio.
E?euee?nio ioe?ieo ia?aiao??a ianoie ? iieeaae?a, onoaiiaeai?
iniaeeaino? ? oaiaeaioe?? i?iiiio?oueny a?aoiaoaaoe i?e i?iaiic?
iaooiaaciiiniino? a i?aeoeoe? iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia iaooo ?
aac.

CAEIIII??IINO? ? I?IAIIC A?INIIAO?E*II? EIEAE?CAOe?? IIEEAAe?A
AOAEAAIAeI?A

Aeyaeai? aaoi?ii caeiiii??iino? a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a AA
iaaiaeyoueny ca ?acoeueoaoaie aea/aiiy iaoa??ae?a 718 ieanoiaeo
iieeaae?a c onoaiiaeaieie IAE ? AAE ia aaniethoieo aeeaeiao caeyaaiiy
a?ae 200 aei 5400 i ia 145 aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaeiaeuao a ??cieo
iaooiaaciiinieo ?aeiiao AeAeC.

E?euee?niee ? /anoioiee a?iniiao?e/iee ?iciiae?e iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a.
?iciiae?e iieeaae?a AA ca aaniethoieie aeeaeiaie caeyaaiiy a ?ice?eoiio
?ic??c? AeAeC oi/ ? ia??aiii??iee, aea ia? iaaio caeiiii??i?noue ye a
oaia?ici?, oae ? a ie?aieo eiai eiiieaenao. A ?ic??c? oaia?icith
a?iniiao?e/iee caaaeueiee iiaa?o iieeaae?a AA aeae?ey?oueny a ?ioa?aae?
aaniethoieo aeeaei 200-5400 i (aenioa 5200 i), a ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o
i?eo?i/aiee aei aaniethoieo aeeaei a?ae 600 aei 4750 i (aenioa 4150 i).
I?e oaiaeaioe?? ciaioaiiy c aeeaeiith /enea neoi/aiue AA ? /anoioe ?o
cono??/? a a?iniiao?e/iiio ?aa?iiaeueiiio iiaa?n? aeyaeaia
ia??iaee/i?noue iiaoi?aiiy eieaeueieo i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a /enea
iieeaae?a a na?aaeiueiio /a?ac 150 i. Oea aeicaieeei aaoi?o i?iaiicoaaoe
?nioaaiiy a oaia?icienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao AeAeC ia aeeaei? c a?aei?oeaie
i?ion 5100-5850 i iiaiai i?iaeoeoeaiiai ?ioa?aaeo aenioith 250-750 i.
Caaaeueiee iiaa?o iieeaae?a AA, aeyaeaieo a ?ic??c? iaeaicienueeeo
a?aeeeaae?a a?iniiao?e/ii ? ca aenioith ni?aiaaea? c oaia?icienueeei.
A?iniiao?e/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o iieeaae?a iaeaicith iaiaaeaiee
aaniethoieie aeeaeiaie 800-4750 i (aenioa 3950 i). Ine?eueee iieeaaee
iaeaicith ? aecia/aeueieie a eiioeaio?aoe?? iieeaae?a oaia?icith, oi
caeiiii??ii, ui i?iaiiciee eieaeueiee ?ioa?aae i?iaeoeoeaiino?,
iaaaaeaiee aeey ii??ae oaia?icith, a?aeiineoueny ? aei ia?niaeoeaieo
a?aeeeaae?a iaeaicith. A iacicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao a?iniiao?e/iee
caaaeueiee iiaa?o iieeaae?a i?eo?i/aiee aei ?ioa?aaeo aeeaei c
aaniethoieie a?aei?oeaie 250-1700 i (aenioa 1450 i). A eiai iaaeao a
?yae? ?ioa?aae?a iieeaaee a?aenooi?, ui ia aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe
a?iniiao?e/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o.

Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a AA ca
aaniethoieie aeeaeiaie caeyaaiiy a ?ice?eoeo a?aeeeaaeao AeAeC
onoaiiaeaii, ui aenioo a?iniiao?e/iiai iiaa?oo /enea neoi/aiue AA
oaia?icith aecia/athoue, a iniiaiiio, iieeaaee iaeaicith. Iieeaaee
iacicith aieeaathoue ia oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a eeoa aa?oi?o
/anoei caaaeueiiai ? ?aa?iiaeueiiai a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a iieeaae?a
oaia?icith. Aenioa aeae?eaieo ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?o?a /enea iieeaae?a
ciaioo?oueny a?ae oaia?icith (4150 i) aei iaeaicith (3950 i), a a
iacici? a?iniiao?e/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o ia i?inoaaeo?oueny. Aeyaeaia
oaeiae oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy /enea eieaeueieo a?iniiao?e/ieo ?ioa?aae?a
i?iaeoeoeaiino? (10, 9 ? 3 a?aeiia?aeii a oaia?ici?, iaeaici? ?
iacici?), ?o aenioe ? a?aenoai? i?ae ieie. *anoioiee a?iniiao?e/iee
?iciiae?e iieeaae?a iia`ycaiee, a iniiaiiio, c e?euee?niei ?iciiae?eii
iieeaae?a aeyaeaieo a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a /enea iieeaae?a oa
eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? a eiiieaenao oaia?icith.
Iniaeea?noth ? ? oa, ui iieeaaee AA eai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaae?a ?
aecia/aeueieie a a?iniiao?e/iiio ?iciiae?e? iieeaae?a a ?ic??c?
iaeaicienueeeo ? oaia?icienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
aenioith ? iieiaeaiiyi a?iniiao?e/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?o?a /enea
iieeaae?a, e?euee?noth ? aenioith eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a i?iaeoeoeaiino?
? a?aenoaiyie i?ae ieie. Aeey a?aeeeaae?a eai`yiiaoa?eueii? nenoaie c
a?iniiao?e/iei caaaeueiei iiaa?oii iieeaae?a AA ia aeeaei? 200-5400 i ?
?aa?iiaeueiei –750-4750 i iniiaieie ? iieeaaee ieaeiueiai ea?aiio. A
inoaii?o a?iniiao?e/iee caaaeueiee iiaa?o iieeaae?a ciaoiaeeoueny a
?ioa?aae? aeeaei 550-5400 i, a ?aa?iiaeueiee – 1100-4700 i. ?acii c oeei
onoaiiaeaii ciaioaiiy aenioe a?iniiao?e/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?o?a /enea
iieeaae?a c 3600 i a ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo aei 2550 i a
aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao, i?e aenio? aeey ea?aiio a oe?eiio
– 4000 i. Ia? i?noea oaiaeaioe?y ci?ie aeeaeie caeyaaiiy a?iniiao?e/ieo
iiaa?o?a. Oae, yeui ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o /enea iieeaae?a a
eai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao ciaoiaeeoueny a ?ioa?aae? aaniethoieo
aeeaei 750-4750 i, oi a aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?i iaiaaeo?oueny
iicia/eaie i?ion 1500-4050 i. I?e oeueiio caaaeueiei ? ? ciaioaiiy
aenioe eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a i?iaeoeoeaiino?. A ieaeiueiia?inueeeo
a?aeeeaaeao ?aa?iiaeueiee a?iniiao?e/iee iiaa?o iieeaae?a AA ia
aeae?ey?oueny, a caaaeueiee — iaiaaeaiee ?ioa?aaeii aeeaei i?ion
200-3750 i (aenioa 3550 i). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue e?euee?niiai ?
/anoioiiai ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a AA aeicaieeee aeae?eeoe a?iniiao?e/i?
eieaeuei? i?iaiici? ?ioa?aaee i?iaeoeoeaiino? ia aaniethoieo aeeaeiao a:
eai`yiiaoa?eueieo ? ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao 5100-5850 i,
na?aaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo 3950-4100 i ? aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo
4400-4500 i.

A?iniiao?e/ia eieae?caoe?y iieeaae?a ??cieo ca oaciaei noaiii
aoaeaaiaei?a. A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co aeyaeaieo iieeaae?a iaooe a ?ic??c?
AeAeC onoaiiaeaii, ui a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? iiaa?oe iaooiaeo neoi/aiue
a oaia?icienueeeo ? iaeaicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao i?eo?i/ai? aei
aaniethoieo aeeaei 650-4750 i (aenioa 4100 i), a a iacicienueeeo
–1300-1700 i (aenioa 400 i).A?iniiao?e/i? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe iieeaae?a
iaooe aeae?eythoueny o?eueee a oaia?icienueeeo oa iaeaicienueeeo
a?aeeeaaeao a ?ioa?aae? aeeaei 850-4500 i (aenioa 3650 i). A ?ic??c?
oaia?icith, iaeaicith ? iacicith ?nio? caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y
a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a iaooe ? /anoioe ?o cono??/? – aei
iaaii? aeeaeie e?euee?noue iieeaae?a ca?eueoo?oueny. A ?aa?iiaeueiiio
ieai? aecia/aeueieie ? iieeaaee iaooe, aeyaeai? o a?aeeeaaeao iaeaicith.
A?aoiaoth/e anoaiiaeaio ia??iaee/i?noue iiaoi?aiiy ? aenioo
i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a oa /anoioo ?o cono??/? i?iaiico?oueny aeyaeaiiy
iiaeo eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a iaooiiiniino? ia aaniethoieo aeeaeiao
4700-5000 i a iaeaici?.

A iaeaicienueeeo, iacicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao ? a oaia?ici? AeAeC a
oe?eiio aeyaeaia ia??aiii??i?noue a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? aaciaeo
neoi/aiue. A?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? iiaa?oe iieeaae?a aaco i?eo?i/ai? aei
aaniethoieo aeeaei a a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith 250-4950 i, (aenioa 4700 i),
iaeaicith 400-4950 i (aenioa 4550 i), iacicith 250-1700 i (aenioa 1450
i). A?iniiao?e/i? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe aaciaeo iieeaae?a aeae?eythoueny
o?eueee a oaia?icienueeeo ? iaeaicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao a ?ioa?aaeao
aaniethoieo aeeaei 800-3850 i (aenioa 3050 i) ? 1100-3850 i (aenioa 2750
i). Iieeaaee aaco iaeaicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a ? iniiaieie ? aeey
oaia?icienueeeo. I?iaiici? eieaeuei? ?ioa?aaee neoi/aiue aaco iaiaaeai?
aeeaeiaie c aaniethoieie a?aei?oeaie 1525-1580 i, 4150-4500i ? 4900-5050
i.

Aiae?c iieeaae?a aacieiiaeainaoo a ?ic??cao oaia?icith ? iaeaicith
iieacaa, ui a?iniiao?e/iee iiaa?o ciaoiaeeoueny a ?ioa?aae? 850-5400 i
(aenioa 4550 i), a ?aa?iiaeueiee – 1200-4750 i (aenioa 3550 i). Iieeaaee
?iciiae?eythoueny ii ?ic??co ia??aiii??ii. Ia aeeaei? 4500 i
a?aei?/a?oueny ??cea ciaioaiiy /enea iieeaae?a ? /anoioe cono??/?.
Iiaeia i/?eoaaoe ?nioaaiiy iiaeo iieeaae?a aacieiiaeainaoo a a?aeeeaaeao
iaeaicith, a a?aeiia?aeii ? oaia?icith, a ?ioa?aae? aaniethoieo
iicia/ie 5200-5400 i.

A?iniiao?e/ia eieae?caoe?y iieeaae?a AA aea/aeanue ? a ianyc? iaioeo
no?aoii?a oaia?icith. Onoaiiaeaii, ui a eai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao
a?iniiao?e/iee caaaeueiee iiaa?o iieeaae?a iaooe i?eo?i/aiee aei
?ioa?aaeo aaniethoieo aeeaei 650-4700 i (aenioa 4050 i), a ?aa?iiaeueiee
– iaiaaeaiee ?ioa?aaeaie aeeaei i?ion 1250-4400 i (aenioa 3150 i).
A?iniiao?e/iee caaaeueiee iiaa?o iieeaae?a aacieiiaeainaoo ciaoiaeeoueny
a ?ioa?aae? aaniethoieo aeeaei 850-5400 i (aenioa 4550 i), a
?aa?iiaeueiee – 1200-4600 i (aenioa 3400 i). Iieeaaee aaco neeaaeathoue
a?iniiao?e/iee caaaeueiee iiaa?o a ?ioa?aae? i?ion 450-4950 i (aenioa
4500 i). ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o i?eo?i/aiee aei ?ioa?aaeo c aaniethoieie
aeeaeiaie 1100-3900 i (aenioa 2800 i). A oe?eiio a eai`yiiaoa?eueieo
a?aeeeaaeao iieeaaee AA ciaoiaeyoueny ia aaniethoieo aeeaeiao 450-5400
i. Onoaiiaeai? a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? ? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe iieeaae?a
AA iathoue ??cio aenioo ? e?euee?noue eieaeueieo i?iaeoeoeaieo
?ioa?aae?a. I?iaiico?oueny ?nioaaiiy iiaeo ?ioa?aae?a ia aaniethoieo
aeeaeiao: iaooe 4700-4900 i, aacieiiaeainaoo ? aaco a?aeiia?aeii
5200-5400 i, 4200-4400 i oa 4900-5400 i.

A ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? iiaa?oe
ciaoiaeyoueny a ?ioa?aae? aaniethoieo aeeaei: iaooe 650-4750 i (aenioa
4100 i), aacieiiaeainaoo 1150-5400 (aenioa 4250 i) ? aaco 550-4950 i
(aenioa 4400 i). A?iniiao?e/i? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe onoaiiaeai? ia ??ai?
iicia/ie: iaooe 1300-4500 i (aenioa 3200 i), aacieiiaeainaoo 1200-4700 i
(aenioa 3500 i) ? aaco 1100-3800 i (aenioa 2700 i). A
ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao iieeaaee aoaeaaiaei?a aeyaeai? a
?ioa?aae? aaniethoieo aeeaei a?ae 550 i aei 5400 i. Iieeaaee
ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaae?a oa ?o a?iniiao?e/ia eieae?caoe?y,
ye? aeii?iothoue a ?ic??c? ea?aiio, aecia/athoue caaaeueiee ?iciiae?e
iieeaae?a iaooe, aacieiiaeainaoo ? aaco eai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaae?a a
oe?eiio. A ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao i?iaiico?oueny
?nioaaiiy iiaeo eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a iieeaae?a ia aaniethoieo aeeaeiao:
iaooe 4700-4900 i, aacieiiaeainaoo 5200-5400 i ? aaco 4150-4350 i oa
4900-5050 i.

A na?aaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei?
iiaa?oe aeyaeaieo iieeaae?a ciaoiaeyoueny a ?ioa?aaeao aaniethoieo
aeeaei: iaooe 900-3550 i (aenioa 2650 i), aacieiiaeainaoo 850-4750 i
(aenioa 3900 i), aaco 450-3700 i (aenioa 3250 i). A?iniiao?e/i?
?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe onoaiiaeai? a iaaeao iicia/ie i?ion: iaooe
1250-2600 i (aenioa 1350 i), aacieiiaeainaoo 1300-3400 i (aenioa 2100
i), aaco 1100-2550 i (aenioa 1450 i). A oe?eiio a
na?aaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao iieeaaee AA aeyaeai? a ?ioa?aae?
aaniethoieo aeeaei 450-4750 i. A?iniiao?e/i? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe iaooe,
aacieiiaeainaoo ? aaco iathoue ??cio aenioo ? e?euee?noue eieaeueieo
i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a. I?iaiicothoueny iia? eieaeuei? ?ioa?aaee
iieeaae?a ia aaniethoieo aeeaeiao: iaooe 3100-3550i, eiiaeainaoo
3650-3900i oa aaco 2750-2900i ? 3100-3700

O aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao a?iniiao?e/iee caaaeueiee iiaa?o
aeyaeaieo iieeaae?a iaooe ciaoiaeeoueny a ?ioa?aae? aaniethoieo aeeaei
1500-2050 i (aenioa 550 i), aacieiiaeainaoo 2250-4500 i (aenioa 2250 i)
? aaco 200-4000 i (aenioa 3800 i). A?iniiao?e/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o
iieeaae?a iaooe aeyaeaii ia aeeaeiao c a?aei?oeaie i?ion 1550-2050 i
(aenioa 500 i). ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe iieeaae?a aacieiiaeainaoo ? aaco ia
aeae?eythoueny. Iaooiaaciiini?noue aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaae?a
a oe?eiio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iieeaaeaie AA, aeyaeaieie a ?ioa?aae?
aaniethoieo aeeaei a?ae 200 aei 4500 i. A?eueo?noue iieeaae?a
eieae?ciaaia ie?aii ? ia ??cieo aeeaeiao. A?aoiaoth/e aenieo aea/ai?noue
aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaae?a aeyaeaiiy a ?o ?ic??c? iiaeo
i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a ia ia?aaeaa/a?oueny.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a ??cieo ca oaciaei
noaiii AA aaoi?ii aeae?eai? a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei?, ?aa?iiaeuei?
iiaa?oe ? eieaeuei? ?ioa?aaee iieeaae?a iaooe, aaco ? aacieiiaeainaoo.
Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? a iaaeao aeae?eaieo a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a
coiiaeai? ??ciei a?iniiao?e/iei ?iciiae?eii /enea iieeaae?a ? ?o
/anoioith cono??/?. Onoaiiaeaii eiiieaene, iieeaaee iaooe, aaco ?
eiiaeainaoo yeeo ? aecia/aeueieie a eiioeaio?aoe?? neoi/aiue AA ii
aaniethoieo aeeaeiao caeyaaiiy a oaia?icienueeeo, iaeaicienueeeo ?
iacicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao. I?iaiico?oueny ?nioaaiiy iiaeo a?iniiao?e/ieo
eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a iieeaae?a iaooe, aaco ? eiiaeainaoo a ?ice?eoiio
?ic??c? AeAeC.

Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue c a?iniiao?e/ii?
eieae?caoe?? ieanoiaeo iieeaae?a AA a oaia?icienueeeo, iaeaicienueeeo ?
iacicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao aia?oa onoaiiaeai? a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? ?
?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe /enea iieeaae?a AA a oe?eiio ? ca oaciaei noaiii
cie?aia. ?icaeyae a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo ianeaii-ieanoiaeo iieeaae?a
iieacaa, ui aiie ia aieeaathoue ia iniaeeaino? eieae?caoe?? ieanoiaeo
iieeaae?a. Caeiiii??i?noth a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? ieanoiaeo
neoi/aiue AA ? aeyaeaia i?eo?i/ai?noue ?o aei e?oiieo a?iniiao?e/ieo
?ioa?aae?a, ye? aaoi? iaceaa? a?iniiao?e/ieie ?aa?iiaeueieie iiaa?oaie.
Aiie iathoue ??cio aenioo, a?ae??ciythoueny aeeaeiith caeyaaiiy ?
e?euee?noth eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? a no?aoea?ao?/ieo
eiiieaenao oaia?icith.

?aa?iiaeuei? a?iniiao?e/i? iiaa?oe iieeaae?a AA neeaaeathoueny ?c
eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a c iaeneiaeueiei ? i?i?iaeueiei /eneii iieeaae?a.
ssea ae i?e?iaea oeeo ??ciie?euee?nieo ?ioa?aae?a ?, eiie?aoii,
iaeneioi?a? *iio aiie a?aeiinii iaeiicia/ii aeae?eythoueny ia
a?noia?aiao, a?aeiia?aeath/e iaaiei ?ioa?aaeai aaniethoieo aeeaei?
Iaaooue, oea iia`ycaii c oei, ui neeaaeiee aaaaoioaeoi?iee i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a AA a a?iniiao?e/ieo oiiaao AeAeC o?eno?oueny eiai
?ioaa?aeueiith ioe?ieith. Oiio iaeneioie ia i?eaaaeaieo a?noia?aiao ?
/anoioieo a?ao?eao ne?ae aaaaeaoe ?aaeueiith noeoiiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith
i?e?iaeii? nenoaie aoaeaaiaeiaaeo iieeaae?a, yeo ia`?aeiothoue ?aeei?
eieaeuei? o?ceei-a?iniiao?e/i? oiiae iaooiaaciiiniino? (eieaeoi?e,
aeeieno? ? nieyi? oiau?, iaoaii?o?ci ? ?icou?eueiaiiy ii??ae,
a?ae?iaaieia?/i?, oa?iiaa?e/i? ? aaiaeeiai?/i? oaeoi?e oa ?ioa). Ana oea
ia aeicaiey? iia`ycoaaoe anoaiiaeaio aii??e/ii caeiiii??i?noue c
yeeiinue ?aeeiei no/anii ae?th/ei oaeoi?ii

sse i?eeeaae oaeeo oiia ?icaeyiaii iaeneioi /enea iieeaae?a o
oaia?icienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao, ui o?eno?oueny a ?ioa?aae? aaniethoieo
aeeaei 3000-3500 i. Aei iueiai i?eo?i/ai? iieeaaee ia
Aaeeeiaoai?anueeiio, Iei?anueeiio, Oaeaea?anueeiio, Aacethae?anueeiio,
Nooiaeie?anueeiio, THe??anueeiio, Nei?ioiae?anueeiio,
Aeeinueei-?icaeo?anueeiio, Nei?iaaaaouee?anueeiio, ?eaaeuenueeiio,
Naoae?inueeiio, Iaoa??anueeiio oa ?ioeo ?iaeiaeuao. On? iieeaaee, ye?
aeyaeai? a oeueiio a?iniiao?e/iiio eieaeueiiio ?ioa?aae?, ??ciyoueny
i?ae niaith ca oaciaei noaiii AA ? /anii oi?ioaaiiy ?o neoi/aiue,
no?aoea?ao?/iith i?eo?i/ai?noth, oeiii ianoie, i?e?iaeith eieaeoi??a ?
iie?eoie, a?ae?iaeeiai?/iei ?aaeeiii ? o.ae. Ooo iaooia?,
aacieiiaeainaoi? oa aacia? oeth?aee AA aeyaeai? a no?aoea?ao?/iiio
?ioa?aae? a?ae aa?oiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo (?o?ai?anueea ?iaeiaeua) aei
oo?iaenueeeo (Nei?ioiae?anueea, Ea/ai?anueea oa ?io? ?iaeiaeua)
a?aeeeaae?a ieaeiueiai ea?aiio. ? /e ?niothoue ye?nue ia`?aeioth/? ?o
aaieia?/i? iieacieee? Aiie a onueiio ??ciiiai?oiiio niaeo?? iieeaae?a
i?inoi a?aenooi?. ? eeoa iaeia – i?eo?i/ai?noue aei ?aeeiiai
o?ceei-a?iniiao?e/iiai ?ioa?aaeo. Oea oa?aeoa?ii ? aeey ?ioeo eieaeueieo
iaeneioi?a /enea iieeaae?a o oaia?ici? oa eiai no?aoii?a.

Iniaeea?noth a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a ? aeyaeaia oaiaeaioe?y
ciaioaiiy /enea iieeaae?a oa ?ioa?aae?a ?o eieae?caoe?? ca iaaeaie
a?iniiao?e/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?o?a iaooe, aaco ? eiiaeainaoo.
Aaaeeeaith caeiiii??i?noth a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a ?
aeyaeaiee ia?a?ea/anoee ?iciiae?e neoi/aiue AA oa ?o ?ioa?aae?a ii
aeeaei? – a ?ice?eoiio ?ic??c? ii??ae oaia?icith AeAeC ia? i?noea
aeene?aoi?noue a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a AA, yea onoaiiaeaia
aaoi?ii ?ai?oa ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ca?ac iiaeie a?aee?eooyie neoi/aiue
AA. Aeyaeaia ia??iaee/i?noue iiaoi?aiiy ?ioa?aae?a /enea iieeaae?a a
a?iniiao?e/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?oao aeicaieeea aaoi?o aeae?eeoe iia?
i?iaiici? ?ioa?aaee neoi/aiue AA a ?ic??cao oaia?icith. A oe?eiio aeai?
aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? ? iniaeeaino?
a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a iai?aaeai? ia
ni?eyiiy aea/aiiy i?iaeaie iaooiaaciiiniino? ?aa?iio ia ??ai?
a?iniiao??? onoaiiaeaieo eiioaeo?a a?aee?eoeo iieeaae?a AA.
Aeae?eai? i?iaiici? ?ioa?aaee neoi/aiue AA iathoue i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeey i?iaiico ? aeai?o iai?yie?a iiooeiaeo ? ?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a
iaooiaaciia?niaeoeaieo eiiieaenao oaia?icith AeAeC.

?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui aeyaeai?
caeiiii??iino? a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a a
?ic??c? AeAeC iathoue i?noea ? a ?ioeo iaooiaaciiinieo ?aa?iiao.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c a?iniiao?e/iiai
?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a ?aa?iio, ui aea/a?oueny c
eieae?caoe??th iieeaae?a a ?ic??cao Aieai-O?aeuenueei? ?
Cao?aeii-Nea??nueei? iaooiaaciiinieo i?ia?ioe?e (A?oycue, Aiaaoeueeee,
1975).

A ?icaeyaeoaaieo ?aa?iiao iieeaaee aoaeaaiaei?a ciaoiaeyoueny a
?ioa?aae? a?aei?oie a?ae –25i aei –5400i. O Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeuee?e
caiaaeei? caaaeueiee a?iniiao?e/iee iiaa?o iaooiaaciiiniino? ia? aenioo
5200i, o Aieai-O?aeuenuee?e oa Cao?aeii-Nea??nuee?e i?ia?ioe?yo –
a?aeiia?aeii 3200i ? 2670i. A?iniiao?e/i? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe a oeeo
?aa?iiao noaiiaeyoue 4150i, 1950i ? 1750i. A aeene?aoiiio
a?iniiao?e/iiio ?iciiae?e? iieeaae?a ?icaeyiooeo ?aa?ii?a caaaeueiei ?
ciaioaiiy /enea iieeaae?a ? /anoioe ?o cono??/? ca iaaeaie ?aa?iiaeueieo
a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a, ??cia e?euee?noue ? aenioa eieaeueieo
?ioa?aae?a /enea iieeaae?a oa /anoioe cono??/?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?aa?iiaeuei? a?iniiao?e/i? iiaa?oe aeae?eythoueny
ia ??cieo aaniethoieo aeeaeiao ? a?ae??ciythoueny aenioith, a?eueo?noue
?o eieaeueieo iaeneioi?a /enea iieeaae?a i?eo?i/aii aei iaeiaeiaeo aai
aeecueeeo a?iniiao?e/ieo ??ai?a. Oae o aa?oi?e /anoei? a?iniiao?e/ieo
iiaa?o?a Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie ? Aieai-O?aeuenueei?
i?ia?ioe?? iaeneioie /enea iieeaae?a ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??ai? a?aei?oie
-825i ? -860i. A?iniiao?e/ii ieae/a a ?ic??cao o?ueio ?icaeyaeoaaieo
?aa?ii?a iaeneioie iieeaae?a i?eoiaeyoueny ia aeeaeie c aaniethoieie
a?aei?oeaie 1550i o Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeuee?e caiaaeei?, 1560i — o
Aieai-O?aeuenuee? ? 1620i — o Cao?aeii-Nea??nuee?e i?ia?ioe?yo.
A?aenoaiue i?ae a?iniiao?e/ieie ??aiyie eieaeueieo iaeneioi?a /enea
iieeaae?a ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao 250-700i o Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeuee?e
caiaaeei?, 240-480i — o Aieai-O?aeuenuee?e ? 320-460i — o
Cao?aeii-Nea??nuee?e i?ia?ioe?yo. A na?aaeiueiio a?iniiao?e/i? ??ai?
eieaeueieo iaeneioi?a iiaoi?ththoueny o Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeuee?e
caiaaeei? /a?ac 390i, o Aieai-O?aeuenuee?e i?ia?ioe?? — 350i ? o
Cao?aeii-Nea??nuee?e i?ia?ioe?? — 400i. ?c oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui a
?icaeyaeoaaieo ?aa?iiao, ye? iathoue nai? iniaeeaino? aaieia?/iiai
?icaeoeo ? no/anii? aoaeiae, a?iniiao?e/i? ??ai? eieaeueieo iaeneioi?a
/enea iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a iiaoi?ththoueny /a?ac aaee/eio iaeiiai
ii?yaeeo, yea aecia/a?oueny na?aaei?i ?ioa?aaeii 350-400i.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia aiai?eoe, ui aeyaeaia eiinoaioa, yea oa?aeoa?eco?
ia??iaee/i?noue iiaoi?aiiy a?iniiao?e/ieo ??ai?a, aei yeeo i?eo?i/ai?
eieaeuei? iaeneioie /enea iieeaae?a a iaaeao a?iniiao?e/ieo
?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?o?a. *ei oea iiaeia iiynieoe? Iaaooue, eeoa
aeiaaeueieie oiiaaie iaooiaaciiaeiie/aiiy a e?oinoa?? Caie?. ?icoeo?iaea
?o ia ??ai? nueiaiaei?oiuei? aea/aiino? oe??? i?iaeaie ua ia iiaea aooe
c?iaeaia iaeiicia/ii. ??oaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeaooi?o
a?aee?eooyo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

INIAEEAINO? A?INIIAO?E*IEO IIAA?O?A IAOOIAACIIINIINO? ? I?IAIICO
IIAEO ?IOA?AAE?A IIEEAAe?A AOAEAAIAeI?A,

?O CAIAN?A ? I?IAeOEOEAIEO IEIU

A?iniiao?e/iee ?iciiae?e iieeaae?a c i?iieneiaeie caianaie AA ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu aiae?co?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaciaiai noaio
ieanoiaeo iieeaae?a, ye? ?ica?aeai? a ianoeao i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a
oaia?icith.

A?iniiao?e/ia eieae?caoe?y caian?a iieeaae?a iaooe ? iaooiiane/aieo
ieiu. I?iieneia? caiane iaooe a ?ic??c? oaia?icith AeAeC
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue a no?aoea?ao?/iiio ?ioa?aae? a?ae ii??ae aaeinueeiai
y?ono na?aaeiuei? th?e aei a?aeeeaae?a oo?iaenueeiai y?ono ieaeiueiai
ea?aiio. A?iniiao?e/iee caaaeueiee iiaa?o caian?a iieeaae?a iaooe
aeae?ey?oueny a iaaeao aaniethoieo aeeaei 395-4722 i (aenioa 4327 i).
A?iniiao?e/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o i?iieneiai? iaooiiiniino?
i?eo?i/aiee aei ?ioa?aaeo aeeaei i?ion 1050-4722 i (aenioa 3672 i). A
eiai neeaae? 10 eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a aenioith 150-300 i ia a?aenoai?
50-300 i c iaeneiaeueieie caianaie iaooe aei 1000 oen.o ? iaea?eueoith
ieiuath iaooiiane/aiino? aei 925 oen.i2. Ca aaee/eiith caian?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu a a?iniiao?e/iiio ?aa?iiaeueiiio iiaa?n?
aeae?eythoueny o?e /anoeie.

Aea/aiiy iaooiaeo iieeaae?a c i?iieneiaeie caianaie a oaia?icienueeeo
a?aeeeaaeao iieacaei, ui a ?iciiae?e? aaee/ei caian?a ?nio? iaaia
a?iniiao?e/ia caeiiii??i?noue. I?e ?iciianthaeaeaii? iaeaea ii anueiio
aea/aiiio ?ic??co oaia?icith iieeaaee iaooe c ??cieie aaee/eiaie caian?a
iathoue iniaeea?noue eiioeaio?oaaoenue aei eieaeueieo a?iniiao?e/ieo
?ioa?aae?a. A ?o iaaeao iieeaaee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??cieie aaee/eiaie
caian?a, a ?ioa?aaee – ??cieie iieacieeaie aenioe ? a?aenoai? i?ae ieie.
Aeoiaey/e c iaea?eueoeo aaee/ei caian?a iieeaae?a eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a,
onoaiiaeaii, ui ?nio? iaaia a?iniiao?e/ia oaiaeaioe?y ci?ie aaee/eie
caian?a. Aeyaeaii, ui ii/eiath/e c caian?a naiiai aa?oiueiai iieeaaeo,
yeei ? iieeaae th?nueeiai ai?eciioo ?aoaoiye?anueeiai ?iaeiaeua, aea IAE
ciaoiaeeoueny ia a?aei?ooe? i?ion 395 i, c aeeaeiith aaee/eia caian?a
ca?eueoo?oueny. Aea oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy caian?a i?inoaaeo?oueny eeoa
aei ciie aeeaei c aaniethoieie a?aei?oeaie 3650-3750 i. A?iniiao?e/ii
ieae/a aeacaiiai ?ioa?aaeo aeeaei oaiaeaioe?y ci?ie aaee/eie caian?a ia?
cai?ioiee oa?aeoa? – caiane iaooiaeo iieeaae?a c aeeaeiith
ciaioothoueny. Oaeei /eiii, ?ioa?aae aaniethoieo aeeaei 3650-3750 i ?
a?iniiao?e/iith iaaeath ca?eueoaiiy ? ciaioaiiy caian?a iaooiaeo
iieeaae?a o a?aeeeaaeao AeAeC. Iaooiaaieia?/ia i?e?iaea aeyaeaii?
a?iniiao?e/ii? iaae? iia`ycaia c ?noi???th aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa
iinooiieie iaooiaaieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie ? ?? ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe i?e
iaa?oiooaaii? iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iaooiaeo iieeaae?a a eiiieaenao
oaia?icith.

Aea/ath/e iioe?aiiy caian?a iaooe aaoi? aiae?coaaa aaee/eio ? iioe?aiiy
iaooiiane/aieo ieiu iieeaae?a a i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciioao oaia?icith.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?iniiao?e/ii ? ca ?ici??aie i?iaeoeoeai? ieiu? iathoue
caaaeueio noiae?noue c aeuaiaaaaeaieie iniaeeainoyie iioe?aiiy caian?a
iaooe. Aei oiai ae, ye na?ae/aoue aeeiiai? iiaoaeiae, e?ea?
iaeneiaeueieo ? i?i?iaeueieo aaee/ei caian?a iaooe ? iaooiiane/aieo ieiu
iathoue aeecueeo a?iniiao?e/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo ? iaeaea aiaeia?/ia
a?ao?/ia a?aeoai?aiiy. ?acii c oeei ii??aiyiiy aeae?eaieo a?iniiao?e/ieo
iiaa?o?a /enea iieeaae?a iaooe oa iiaa?o?a caian?a iaooe ?
iaooiiane/aieo ieiu iieacaei, ui ca aenioith aiie oaeiae iaeaea
iaeiaeia? (3650 ? 3672 i a?aeiia?aeii) ? aeecuee? ii a?iniiao???.
Eieaeuei? ae ?ioa?aaee, aeae?eai? a ?o iaaeao, ca nai?th e?euee?noth ?
a?iniiao?e/iei iieiaeaiiyi ??ciyoueny. I?e na?aaei?e aenio? eieaeueiiai
?ioa?aaeo /enea iieeaae?a 233 i a a?iniiao?e/iiio ?aa?iiaeueiiio iiaa?n?
?o aeae?eaii 7. A?aeiia?aeii a a?iniiao?e/iiio ?aa?iiaeueiiio iiaa?n?
caian?a ? iaooiiane/aieo ieiu aeae?ey?oueny 10 eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a
iaooiiane/aieo ieiu c na?aaeiueith aenioith 225i. Oaea no?oeoo?a
aeae?eaieo a?iniiao?e/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?o?a na?ae/eoue i?i ??cio
a?iniiao??th ? ia?aiao?e iieeaae?a iaooe oa ?o caian?a. Ia ci?io
aaee/eie inoaii?o, ii?yae c ?ioeie oaeoi?aie, aieeaa? ? aeuaiaaaaeaia
anoaiiaeaia a?iniiao?e/ia oaiaeaioe?y. ?nioaaiiy iiaiai eieaeueiiai
?ioa?aaeo iaooiiiniino? aenioith 150-200 i ?c caianaie aei 200-250 oen.o
iaooe i?iaiico?oueny ia aeeaei? c aaniethoieie a?aei?oeaie 4800-5000 i.

Iioe?aiiy caian?a iieeaae?a aacieiiaeainaoo ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aaniethoii? aeeaeie ?o caeyaaiiy. Ia aea/aieo
?iaeiaeuao caiane iieeaae?a aacieiiaeainaoo ciaoiaeyoueny a ianoeao
ai?eciio?a na?aaeiueith?nueeeo, o??aniaeo, aa?oiuei-, na?aaeiuei- ?
ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaae?a. Inoaii? ? aeii?ioth/eie ca /eneii
aeyaeaieo iieeaae?a, a iniiaieie na?aae ieo – i?iaeoeoeai? ai?eciioe
a?caenueeiai y?ono. A?iniiao?e/iee caaaeueiee iiaa?o caian?a
aacieiiaeainaoo iaiaaeo?oueny aeeaeiaie a?ae i?ion 1234 i aei 5614 i
(aenioa 4380 i). A?iniiao?e/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o c i?iieneiaeie
caianaie aacieiiaeainaoo ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu i?eo?i/aiee aei
aaniethoieo aeeaei 1700-5625 i (aenioa 3925 i). A eiai neeaae? 10
eieaeueieo i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a, ye? ??ciyoueny a?iniiao?e/iei
?iciiae?eii iieeaae?a, aaee/eiith caian?a ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu. C
o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai a ?aa?iiaeueiiio iiaa?n? aeae?eythoueny o?e /anoeie.

A oe?eiio caiane iieeaae?a aacieiiaeainaoo ? ?ici??e i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu
a ii?iaeao oaia?icith a?iniiao?e/ii iioe?ai? ia??aiii??ii. Anoaiiaeaiee
a?iniiao?e/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o neeaaeathoue ??ci? ca aenioith,
caianaie ? i?iaeoeoeaieie ieiuaie eieaeuei? ?ioa?aaee i?iaeoeoeaiino?,
na?aaeiy a?aenoaiue i?ae yeeie ia ia?aaeuo? 200 i. ?acii c oeei
aeyaeaii, ui aaee/eia caian?a caeiiii??ii ci?ith?oueny a caeaaeiino?
a?ae aeeaeie caeyaaiiy ii??ae oaia?icith. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aei aeeaeie c
aaniethoieie a?aei?oeaie a iaaeao 4900-5000 i iaeneiaeuei? caiane o
aeae?eaieo eieaeueieo ?ioa?aaeao i?iaeoeoeaiino? iathoue caaaeueio
oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy, a ieae/a oeacaieo aeeaei – aei ciaioaiiy.
Oiaoi ?ioa?aae aeeaei i?ion 4900-5000 i ? a?iniiao?e/iith iaaeath,
?icae?eyth/ith a?iniiao?e/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o caian?a ia aea?
/anoeie. Aa?oith, aea iiaeia i/?eoaaoe a?aee?eooy iiaeo iieeaae?a ?
caiane yeeo c aeeaeiith iiaeooue ca?eueooaaoenue, oa ieaeith – aea
iacia/i? iieeaaee iiaeooue aooe aeyaeaieie, aea c aeeaeiith aaee/eia ?o
caian?a aoaea ciaiooaaoenue. O ca`yceo c oeei ?nioaaiiy iiaiai ?ioa?aaeo
c? cia/ieie caianaie ieae/a aeeaeie i?ion 5625i ia ia?aaeaa/a?oueny.

Caiane iieeaae?a eiiaeainaoo aaoi?ii ?icaeyaeaeenue ?acii c aiae?cii
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu. I?e ca?eueoaii? ?ici???a ieiu aaee/eia caian?a
ca?eueoo?oueny, i?ioa i?yia caeaaei?noue a?aenooiy. A?eueoa oiai, ieae/a
a?aei?oee i?ion 5000 i, iacaaaeath/e ia ??ci? aaee/eie i?iaeoeoeaieo
ieiu, caiane iieeaae?a ??cei ciaioothoueny. Iiaoaeiaai? e?ea?
i?i?iaeueieo ? iaeneiaeueieo aaee/ei caian?a ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu
iieacothoue eieae?caoe?th caian?a, i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu ? iaiaaeothoue
ciie ?icaeoeo ?o i?i?iaeueieo ? iaeneiaeueieo aaee/ei. Aiae?c
a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo a oaia?icienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao /enea iieeaae?a
aacieiiaeainaoo, ?o caian?a ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu iieacaa, ui eieaeuei?
?ioa?aaee (na?aaeiy aaee/eia yeeo 180-210 i) /enea iieeaae?a, caian?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu ia a?eueoino? ?ioa?aae?a a?iniiao?e/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo
iiaa?o?a ni?aiaaeathoue, aai a?iniiao?e/ii aeecuee? i?ae niaith. Aea
aaee/eia caian?a ia aecia/a?oueny /eneii iieeaae?a, ia ui aieeaathoue
aeyaeai? aeuaiaaaaeai? iniaeeaino? a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? iieeaae?a
? oaiaeaioe?? ci?ie caian?a oa i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu.

A?iniiao?e/iee ?iciiae?e caian?a iieeaae?a aaco ? aaciiane/aieo ieiu.
Neoi/aiiy aaco, ui aea/athoueny, ciaoiaeyoueny a ianoeao ai?eciio?a
na?aaeiueith?nueeeo, o??aniaeo, ieaeiueiia?inueeeo, aa?oiuei-,
na?aaeiuei- ? ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaae?a. A?iniiao?e/iee
caaaeueiee iiaa?o caian?a iieeaae?a aaco (aenioa 5014 i) iaiaaeothoue
AAE c a?aei?oeaie i?ion 600-5614 i. A?iniiao?e/iee ?aa?iiaeueiee iiaa?o
caian?a iieeaae?a aaco oa ?o i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu ciaoiaeeoueny a
?ioa?aae? aeeaei 1200-5500 i (aenioa 4300 i). A eiai neeaae? 11
eieaeueieo i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a c na?aaeiueith aenioith 1300 i, ye?
ca?oiiaai? a o?ueio /anoeiao iiaa?oo – aa?oi?e, na?aaei?e, ieaei?e.

?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui caiane iieeaae?a aaco
oa ?o i?iaeoeoeai? ieiu? a ?ic??c? oaia?icith, ye ? a onoaiiaeaiiio
a?iniiao?e/iiio ?aa?iiaeueiiio iiaa?n? aaciiiniino? aenioith 4300 i,
?iciianthaeaeai? ia??aiii??ii. Iieeaaee iathoue ??ci? aaee/eie caian?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu. A ?o i?eo?i/aiino? iai?/a?oueny oaiaeaioe?y
eieae?caoe?? aei ie?aieo a?iniiao?e/ieo ?ioa?aae?a (i?e na?aaei?e aenio?
275 i ? a?aenoai? i?ae ieie 130 i), ye? neeaaeathoue aa?oith, na?aaeith
oa ieaeith /anoeie a?iniiao?e/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo a?aeeeaae?a
oaia?icith. ?acii c oeei onoaiiaeaii c?inoaiiy iaeneiaeueieo aaee/ei
caian?a oa ?o ieiu c? ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie ?o caeyaaiiy. Oae, yeui a
aa?oi?e /anoei? ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo (?ioa?aae aaniethoieo aeeaei
1250-2400 i) iaeneiaeuei? caiane iieeaae?a aaco ia ia?aaeuothoue 2019
iei.i3, a iaea?eueoa i?iaeoeoeaia ieiua iieeaaeo noaiiaeoue 2406 oen.i2,
oi a na?aaei?e oa ieaei?e eiai /anoeiao (?ioa?aae c aaniethoieie
a?aei?oeaie 2600-5500 i) aaee/eie caian?a aaco aeinyaathoue 5500-5540
iei.i3, a ?ici??e i?iaeoeoeaii? ieiu? – 12500-14800 oen.i2. Iaaaaeaia
ca?eueoaiiy caian?a i?inoaaeo?oueny aei aeeaeie i?ion 5500 i. Ieae/a
aeacaii? a?aei?oee iai?/a?oueny ciaioaiiy iaeneiaeueieo aaee/ei caian?a
iieeaae?a aei 2000-1000 iei i3. Iiaee ?ioa?aae c iiae?aieie aaee/eiaie
caian?a i?iaiico?oueny ia aeeaeiao i?ion 5630-5860 i.

Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iniiao?e/iiai iioe?aiiy aaee/eie caian?a
iieeaae?a aaco ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu aeyaeaii, ui i?ae ieie ?nio?
ca`ycie. Aeey a?eueoino? eieaeueieo i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a ca?eueoaiiy
aaee/eie aaciiane/aii? ieiu? coiiaeth? ca?eueoaiiy caian?a. Aea i?e
oeueiio i?iii?oe?eia caeaaei?noue ia i?inoaaeo?oueny, ui iia`ycaii c
aieeaii ?ioeo ia?aiao??a iieeaae?a, aoaeiaith ianoie ? eiao?oe??ioaie ?o
caiiaiaiiy oa iniaeeainoyie aaieia?/ieo oiia. Iiaoaeiaai? e?ea?
i?i?iaeueieo ? iaeneiaeueieo aaee/ei caian?a aaco ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu
iieacothoue ?o a?iniiao?e/io i?eo?i/ai?noue a ?ic??c? oaia?icienueeeo
ii??ae ? a iaaeao aeae?eaiiai a?iniiao?e/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo
aaciiiniino?.

E??i aeuaiaaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?ii aoea aeeiiaia ? noaoenoe/ia
ia?iaea aea??ee ia AII, aeey yei? iciaee aaniethoia aeeaeia IAE oa AAE
iieeaae?a ? ?o ieiua i?eeiyo? ye iacaeaaei?, a aaee/eia caian?a – ye
caeaaeia. Aeey ??cieo oei?a oeth?ae?a ii eiaei?e aeai?oe? aecia/aeenue
noaoenoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?i?iaeueieo ? iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue,
na?aaei? cia/aiiy oa na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/i? a?aeoeeaiiy. I?ae on?ia
iciaeaie aoee ?ic?aoiaai? ia?i? eiao?oe??ioe ei?aeyoe?? (R) ? ioe?iaia
cia/ei?noue ?o ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??y Nouethaeaioa, a oaeiae
eiao?oe??io iiiaeeiii? ei?aeyoe??, ioe?iea yeiai ?ic?aoiaoaaeanue ii
niiniao O?oa?a.

sse iieacaee ?ic?aooiee, aeey aaciaeo iieeaae?a ia?iee eiao?oe??io
ei?aeyoe?? i?ae aeeaeiith eiioaeoo iieeaaeo ? eiai ieiuath (i?e ??ai?
aeia??e 99%) ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ioey. Aeaa ?ioeo (i?ae aeeaeiith oa
caianaie, aea R =0,355 ? ieiuath oa caianaie R =0,655) cia/eii
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ioey, ye ? eiao?oe??io iiiaeeiii? ei?aeyoe??
caian?a c ieiuath ? aeeaeiith IAE (AAE), aea R =0,662.

?acoeueoaoe aiaeia?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a aeey iieeaae?a iaooe ?
aacieiiaeainaoo iieacothoue a?aenooi?noue noaoenoe/ii cia/eiiai ca`yceo
i?ae iciaeaie. Oea iia`ycaii a cia/i?e i??? c oei, ui eiao?oe??io
aeeo/aiiy caian?a o aaciaeo iieeaaeao aeecueeee aei iaeeieoe?, oiae? ye
a iaooiaeo oa aacieiiaeainaoieo a?i ia o?eueee iaaaaaoi ieae/ee, aea ?
ia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noaa?eueieie aaee/eiaie, ia ui aieeaathoue
aaieia?/i? ? oaoiieia?/i? oaeoi?e.

?c iaaaaeaiiai aeieeaa?, ui ye a?ao?/i? iiaoaeiae, oae ? noaoenoe/iee
aiae?c aeeaeie caeyaaiiy eiioaeo?a iieeaae?a AA, ?o caian?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu iaeiicia/ii o?enothoue oa?aeoa? aca?iica`yceo oeeo
aaee/ei. Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ia yeiio aaoi?ii c?iaeai? aeniiaee uiaei
a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo caian?a iieeaae?a oa ?o ieiu, ?
eiiaeeoe?eiei, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaiao?aeio aeinoia??i?noue i?iaiico iiaeo
i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a, a aeyaeai? oaiaeaioe?? caeaaeiinoae ?
cia/eieie ? a?aoiaioiaaieie.

Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo
caian?a eaoaai??? N1 ??aeeeo ? aaciiiae?aieo AA o a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith
AeAeC aeae?eai? a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? ? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe caian?a
iieeaae?a iaooe ? iaooiiane/aieo ieiu, aaco ? aaciiane/aieo ieiu,
aacieiiaeainaoo ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu. Aeyaeai? ? ioa?aeoa?eciaai?
a?iniiao?e/i? iiaa?oe iaooiaaciiiniino? ?icoe?ythoue noai aea/aiiy
i?iaeai iaooiaaciai? aaieia?? ?aa?iio ? aoaeooue ni?eyoe iaoeiaiio
iaa?oiooaaiith ?aoe?iiaeueieo iai?yie?a aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueiiai
i?ioeano ia iaooo ? aac. Iieacaii, ui a?iniiao?e/i? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe
neeaaeathoueny c eieaeueieo i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a, ye? aecia/athoue
iniaeeaino? ? oaiaeaioe?? a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo caian?a iieeaae?a
AA a ianoeao ai?eciio?a aea/aieo a?aeeeaae?a oaia?icith AeAeC. Aeyaeai?
iaeneioie /enea iieeaae?a oa ?o caian?a AA ii a?iniiao?e/iiio ??aith
aeecuee? i?ae niaith, aea a o?e /e ?io?e i??? ??ciyoueny. I?e/eiith
oeueiai ? oa, ui iniiaiith neeaaeiaith ?ioaa?aeueii? ioe?iee caian?a AA
aenooiathoue ia o?eueee iieacieee eiie?aoieo o?ceei-a?iniiao?e/ieo oiia,
aea ? i?iaeoeoeaia ieiua ianoee, yea o?nii ei?aeth?oueny c aaee/eiith
caian?a AA. Onoaiiaeaia ia?a?ea/anoa i?eo?i/ai?noue caian?a iieeaae?a
aoaeaaiaei?a oa ?o ieiu oeaco? ia aeene?aoi?noue ?iciiae?eo caian?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu a iaaeao aeae?eaieo a?iniiao?e/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo
iiaa?o?a caian?a iieeaae?a iaooe, aaco ? eiiaeainaoo. Aeyaeai?
oaiaeaioe?? a?iniiao?e/ii? ci?ie aaee/eie caian?a ? ieiu iieeaae?a
iaooe, aacieiiaeainaoo ? aaco ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe ye i?e i?iaiic?
iaooiaaciiiniino?, oae ? i?e i?iaaaeaii? iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo
?ia?o. Aeiaaaeaii oaeiae, ui a iioe?aii? caian?a iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a
? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu a a?iniiao?e/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?oao ia?aaaaea?
oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy aaee/eie caian?a a?ae c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo
ieiu. Ie?ai? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae aeyaeaii? oaiaeaioe?? aeoaea ??aee?.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai aaee/eia i?iaeoeoeaii? ieiu? ia? aooe iaeiei ?c
iniiaieo e?eoa???a i?e iaa?oiooaaii? ? ?ici?uaii? naa?aeeiaei ia iaooo ?
aac. A no?aoea?ao?/iiio iioe?aii? caian?a ? naiy iniaeea?noue. Aei
aaniethoii? aeeaeie 3700 i iieeaaee aoaeaaiaei?a aeyaeai? a
i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciioao th?e, o??ano, ia?i?, aa?oiueiai ? na?aaeiueiai
ea?aiio, a oaeiae a aeayeeo ai?eciioao a?aeeeaae?a ieaeiueiai ea?aiio.
Ieae/a iaaaaeaii? aeeaeie iioe?ai? iieeaaee ia?aaaaeii a ai?eciioao
a?caenueeiai ? oo?iaenueeiai y?on?a. Ca aaee/eiith caian?a oa
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu aeii?iothoue iieeaaee ai?eciio?a a?caenueeeo
a?aeeeaae?a. I?iaiicothoueny iia? a?iniiao?e/i? ?ioa?aaee caian?a
aoaeaaiaei?a ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu a ?ic??c? oaia?icith AeAeC.

IAOEIAA IAA?OIOOAAIIss AAIEIA?*IEO IIAeAEAE AOAeIAE INIIAIEO OEI?A
?IAeIAEU A A?INIIAO?E*IEO IIAA?OAO IAOOIAACIIINIINO? OA AIAE?C
?ACOEUeOAO?A ?O AIEEAO IA IIOOEE ? ?ICA?AeEO IIEEAAe?A IAOOE ? AACO

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iniiao??? iieeaae?a AA ? iioei?caoe?? ?o
iiooe?a oa ?ica?aeee ?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? aoaeiae aaaaoueio ?iaeiaeu ?
no?oeoo?, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a ??cieo oiiaao a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a
oaia?icith. Na?aae ieo Aaeai?anueea, Aiae??yo?anueea, Aacethae?anueea,
Aanee?anueea, Aeoi?anueea, Aieiaeeie?nueea, Aieioiaueinueea,
Aeiaaae?anueea, Cieioeo?inueea, Ceiieoeueea, ?ne??anueea,
Ea?aeeic?anueea, Ei?ae?anueea, E?aniicay?nueea,
Eioae?anueei-Aa?ac?anueea, Eeiiaiaeieeinueea, Eooeaie?anueea,
Ia?eaeiyinueea, Iei?anueea, Ia?aeii?anueea, I?aaeaiii-A?ae?anueea,
I?aaeaiii-Iaian?anueea, ?oae?anueea, Naoae?inueea, Nei?iaaaaouee?anueea,
Nio??anueea, O?inoyiaoeueea, Oieinueea, Ooo?einueea, *a?aiiieooeueea,
Uo??anueea, THe??anueea, ss?iieeioe?anueea, ss?io?anueea oa ?io?.
Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeaeae aeeiioaaeinue ia iniia?: neeaaeaieo ea?o,
a?aeaeaath/eo aoaeiao iaeaicienueeeo, iacicienueeeo ? eaeiicienueeeo
a?aeeeaae?a ia ??cieo a?iniiao?e/ieo ??aiyo; aeeiiaii? iiieanoiai?
ei?aeyoe?? i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a; ea?o caaaeueieo ? aoaeoeaieo
oiauei, ii?enoino? ? iaooiaaciiane/aieo ia`?i?a. Ia coieiyth/enue ia
aiae?c? ?ic?iaeaieo iiaeaeae on?o aeua oeacaieo ?iaeiaeu ? no?oeoo?, a
?iaio? iaaaaeai? i?eeeaaee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue aoaeiao iniiaieo oei?a
?iaeiaeu. ?acoeueoaoe aieeao iaa?oioiaaieo iiaeaeae ia i?ioean iiooe?a ?
?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA ia ia`?eoao aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ci?.

?iaeiaeua aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae. ?oae?anueea ?iaeiaeua. I?eo?i/aia
aei ii?ooaii? a?ao?aioeee?iae?. Aenioa a?iniiao?e/iiai iiaa?oo ia
?iaeiaeu? 1500i. Eiai iaiaaeothoue iieeaaee i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a
A-16i ? O-4. Neoi/aiiy AA oeueiai ?iaeiaeua ciaoiaeyoueny o ieaei?e
/anoei? a?iniiao?e/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo iaooiaaciiiniino?
oaia?icith. Ia iniia? iaa?oioiaaieo iiaeaeae a?caenueeeo i?iaeoeoeaieo
ai?eciio?a [17] ooi/iaii iai?yi ? ianyae ?ia?o ia ?ica?aeoaaeueiiio
aoai?. Cai?noue aeaio ieaiiaeo naa?aeeiaei o i?ai?/ieo oiiaao
?oae?anueeiai ? *a?aiiicaaiaenueeiai ?iaeiaeu i?iao?aia iaeia
?aeiiaiaeiaaia naa?aeeiaeia A ca iiia?ii 8-*a?aiiicaaiaenueea. Inoaiiy,
e??i aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue aeaio ieaiiaeo naa?aeeiaei, ?icoe?eea
i?iaeoeoeaio ieiuo aaceniiai ai?eciioo ? ni?eyea i?e?inoo caian?a aaco a
e?eueeino? 185 iei i3. A cao?aei?e /anoei? ?iaeiaeua iaa?oioiaaii
aeioe?euei?noue ao??iiy naa?aeeiaeie A, ui aeicaieeoue aecia/eoenue c
ia?aiao?aie iieeaaeo, aeyaeaiiai naa?aeeiaeiith 1. Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo
iiaeaeae aoaeiae i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a iaa?oioiaaii iaaeioe?euei?noue
ao??iiy caoaa?aeaeaii? naa?aeeiaeie 16. ?aae?caoe?y oe??? i?iiiceoe??
aeicaieeea caeiiiieoe iaeio ?ica?aeoaaeueio naa?aeeiaeio aeeaeiith
5250i.

Ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? aea/aiiy Aacethae?anueeiai ?iaeiaeua iaa?oioiaaia
iiaeaeue na?iooianueeeo ? a?caenueeeo i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a. Aenioo
a?iniiao?e/iiai iiaa?oo aecia/athoue iieeaaee ai?eciio?a I-4a oa
A-21-22. Neoi/aiiy AA i?eo?i/ai? aei na?aaeiuei? /anoeie a?iniiao?e/iiai
?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo, aeae?eaiiai o a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith.
?aeiiaiaeiaaii aea/aiiy ?iaeiaeua i?iaeiaaeeoe ao??iiyi naa?aeeiaeie a
oiiaao no?aeii? ia?eee?iae? no?oeoo?e (Aeai`yiaiei, Noa?iaeoaoeaaa,
1990). ?aeiiaiaeiaaia naa?aeeiaeia i?iao?aia ca iiia?ii 6, a ye?e
io?eiai? i?iieneia? i?eieeae aaco ? eiiaeainaoo ?c ai?eciio?a A-18-19.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy aaieia?/ii? iiaeae? aoaeiae I?aaeaiii-Iaian?anueeiai
?iaeiaeua, i?eo?i/aiiai aei iioiaaii? aioeee?iae?, aeicaieeei nai?/anii
aieeaaoe ia o?ae ?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o. I?iao?ai? ?aeiiaiaeiaai?
naa?aeeiaeie 8, 9 ? 12 ni?eyee iioeiaeuei?e ?ica?aeoe? iieeaae?a a
na?iooianueeeo ai?eciioao N-6 ? N-7, aeyaeaiith iiaiai iieeaaeo o
a?caenueeeo a?aeeeaaeao ? i?e?inoo caian?a aaco a e?eueeino? 1,1
ie?ae.i3 ? 100 oen.o eiiaeainaoo. Iacaaaeath/e ia caaa?oaiiy ?ica?aeeith
a?aee?eoeo iieeaae?a AA iaa?oioiaaii iiiiaeaiiy iiooeiaeo ?ia?o [25]. O
neeai?iiaaeo oiiaao iiouaiiai aeieo ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ao??iiy iiai?
naa?aeeiaeie aeey io?eiaiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai i?e?inoo caian?a o
i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciioao a?ae A-16a aei A-19a. Aenioa a?iniiao?e/iiai
iiaa?oo ia ?iaeiaeu? noaiiaeoue 220i. Iieeaaee iaooe ? aaco aoiaeyoue
aei na?aaeiuei? /anoeie a?iniiao?e/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo
oaia?icith.

Aea/aiiy Nei?iaaaaouee?anueeiai ?iaeiaeua, iaooiaaciiini?noue yeiai
iia`ycaia c i?iaeoeoeaieie ai?eciioaie a?caenueeiai, aaoee?nueeiai ?
iineianueeiai y?on?a, iieacaei, ui ia eiai aoaeiao, oeie ianoie ?
caiiaiaiiy ?o aoaeaaiaeiyie aieeaaee ??ci? oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy
a?ao?aioeee?iaeueii? ii?ooaii? nieyiieoiieueii? no?oeoo?e.
A?iniiao?e/iee iiaa?o iaooiaaciiiniino? noaiiaeoue 1790i. Iieeaaee iaooe
? aaco ?iaeiaeua eieae?ciaai? a ?ioa?aae? ae?oai? iieiaeie
a?iniiao?e/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo iaooiaaciiiniino? oaia?icith.
A?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeae?, ?ic?iaeaii? ca aeaieie /ioe?iaaeoeyoe
naa?aeeiaei, iaa?oioiaai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?ica?aeee aeyaeaieo
iieeaae?a, a oaeiae ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ?icii/aoe iiooeia? ?iaioe ia
I?ni/ainuee?e i?eooieia?e no?oeoo??, aa?oiueia?caenuee? ai?eciioe yei?
ioe?iththoueny (Aeai`yiaiei, Noa?iaeoaoeaaa, 1995) a ianyc? 1,9
iaeeieoe? oiiaiiai iaeeaa.

A?iniiao?e/iee iiaa?o ia Eeiiaiaeieeinueeiio ?iaeiaeu? iaiaaeo?oueny
neoi/aiiyie AA ai?eciio?a A-20 ? A-26i. Aenioa iiaa?oo 260i. Iieeaaee
?iaeiaeua i?eo?i/ai? aei ieaeiuei? /anoeie a?iniiao?e/iiai
?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo oaia?icith. Iaa?oioiaai? iiaeae? aoaeiae
i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a A-20i, A-21, A-22 ? A-26i [13] ni?eyee
?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeai?o iai?yieo ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a. I?iao?ai?
?aeiiaiaeiaai? naa?aeeiaeie 7 ? 9 ca?eueoeee i?iaeoeoeaio ieiuo
a?caenueeeo ai?eciio?a, ui aeaei ciiao i?e?inoeoe 1,86 ie?ae.i3 aaco ?
0,3 iei.o eiiaeainaoo. Aeey aei?ica?aeee i?aaeaiii? /anoeie ?iaeiaeua
?aeiiaiaeiaaii ao??iiy iiai? naa?aeeiaeie. ?ic?iaeai? ca o/anoth aaoi?a
iiaeae? aoaeiae ? i?iiiceoe?? c ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a
Aanee?anueeiai ?iaeiaeua i?aeoaa?aeeeenue iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieie
?iaioaie, ui ni?eyei io?eiaiith 1,36 ie?ae.i3 aaco.

?iaeiaeua aai?a?ao?aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae. Iaa?oioiaaia aaieia?/ia
iiaeaeue Aeoi?anueeiai ?iaeiaeua [27], i?eo?i/aiiai aei ii?ooaii?
aai?aioeee?iae?. Aeae?eaii iiaee i?iaeoeoeaiee ai?eciio I-1. Caiane
?iaeiaeua ioe?iai? a 4,17 iaeeieoe? oiiaiiai iaeeaa. Aeey ?ica?aeee
iieeaaeo ai?eciioo I-1 iaiao?aei? iia? naa?aeeiaeie. Aacia? iieeaaee
eieae?ciaai? aei na?aaeiuei? /anoeie a?iniiao?e/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai
iiaa?oo iaooiaaciiiniino? oaia?icith.

Ia Aeiaaae?anuee?e i?iaeoeoeai?e ieiu?, aea i?iaeoeoeai?noue ai?eciioo
A-26 onoaiiaeaia iiooeiaith naa?aeeiaeiith, ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ao??iiy
?ica?aeoaaeueii? naa?aeeiaeie. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaa?oioiaaii? iiaeae?
aoaeiae caiane ai?eciioo A-26 ioe?iththoueny a 2,5 iaeeieoe? oiiaiiai
iaeeaa.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy ? ooi/iaiiy iiaeaeae aoaeiae Eooeaie?anueeiai ?iaeiaeua
i?iaiaeeeinue c ii/aoeo ?ica?aeee aeyaeaieo iieeaae?a. Ia ia?o?e noaae??
aea/aiiy aoei iaa?oioiaaii iayai?noue ?aeeiiai oo?iaenueeiai eiioo?o
i?iaeoeoeaiino? Eooeaie?anueei? ? Nae?eae?anueei? no?oeoo? ?
?aeiiaiaeiaaii aoae?aieoeoai ?ica?aeoaaeueii? naa?aeeiaeie ia iieeaae
ai?eciioo A-22 ? ?ica?aeoaaeueii-iiooeiai? ia A-22 ? O (Aeai`yiaiei,
1988). Ia?oa ia ao?eeanue. Ae?oaa caaa?oaia aoae?aieoeoaii i?ae iiia?ii
13-Nae?eae?anueea, aea coieiaia i?e aeeaei? aeaith 5306 i (N1v1), ia
?ice?eaoe oo?iaenuee? a?aeeeaaee, a, a?aeiia?aeii, caaaeaiiy ii ioe?ioe?
?o iaooiaaciiiniino? caeeoeeinue ia aeeiiaiei. Noiniaii a?caenueeeo
i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a, oi naa?aeeiaeia 13 onoaiiaeea iiaee iieeaae o
ai?eciio? A-21, ?ice?eea i?iieneiaiiane/ai? ai?eciioe A-22 ? A-23, ui
aeaei ciiao i?e?inoeoe 2,15 ie?ae.i3 aaco ? 0,28 iei.o eiiaeainaoo. Ia
ae?oa?e noaae?? ?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeua iaa?oioiaai? iiaeae? aoaeiae
ai?eciio?a A-26a, A-22n?, A-22i, A-23 ? iai?yiee ?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o
(Aeai`yiaiei, Noa?iaeoaoeaaa, 1992). A ?aeii? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii?
naa?aeeiaeie A caoaa?aeaeaii ao??iiy naa?aeeiaeie 9 ? ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
aoae?aieoeoai naa?aeeiaeie 10 a ?aeii? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii? naa?aeeiaeie A.
Aenioa a?iniiao?e/iiai iiaa?oo i?iaeoeoeaiino? noaiiaeoue 440i. Iieeaaee
?iaeiaeua a?aeiinyoueny aei ieaeiuei? /anoeie a?iniiao?e/iiai
?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo iaooiaaciiiniino? oaia?icith.

Aeine?aeaeoaaia Ia?eaeiyinueea ieiua oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeieiaith
aoaeiaith. Ia?niaeoeai?noue iaeiiai ?c oaeeo aeie?a aoea iaa?oioiaaia ia
iniia? iiaeae? iie??ae? ai?eciioo A-18-19 ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia iiooeiaa
naa?aeeiaeia (Aeai`yiaiei, Ieeueiee, 1989). I?iao?aia naa?aeeiaeia
onoaiiaeea aaciiane/ai?noue ai?eciioo A-18-19 a iiaiio aeioe?, ui
ni?eyei i?e?inoo caian?a aaco. Aaaeeeai ? oa, ui iiae?ai? aeiee ? ia
o?eueee ia Ia?eaeiyinuee?e, a oaeiae ? ia ?ioeo ieiuao i?ai?/iiai ai?oo,
ui ?icoe?y? o?iio iiooeiaeo ?ia?o c iaoith aeyaeaiiy iiaeo iieeaae?a AA
a ianoeao ??cii? aoaeiae ia iaaaeeeeo aeeaeiao.

Ia Naenooiuee?anueeiio ?iaeiaeu?, iia`ycaiiio c
aai?aioeee?iaeeth-oa?anith, aaciiane/aieie ? a?caenuee? ai?eciioe A-17i,
A-20, A-21a ? A-21i. Aenioa a?iniiao?e/iiai iiaa?oo i?iaeoeoeaiino?
noaiiaeoue 480i. Aeyaeai? iieeaaee eieae?cothoueny ca iaaeaie ieaeiuei?
/anoeie a?iniiao?e/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo iaooiaaciiiniino?
oaia?icith. Ca?aeii c iaa?oioiaaiith iiaeaeeth [29] caiane ?iaeiaeua
ioe?iai? a 6,4 iaeeieoe? oiiaiiai iaeeaa. Cai?iiiiiaai? iioeiaeuei?
iai?yie ?ica?aeoaaeueieo ? iiooeiaeo ?ia?o.

Iaa?oioiaaii iiaeaeue aoaeiae *a?aiiieooeueeiai ?iaeiaeua.
A?iniiao?e/iee iiaa?o eiai i?iaeoeoeaiino? noaiiaeoue 870i. A
?aa?iiaeueiiio a?iniiao?e/iiio iiaa?n? oaia?icith iieeaaee ?iaeiaeua
ciaoiaeyoueny a ieaei?e /anoei?. Aea/aiiy iieeaae?a a?caenueeeo
i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a A-16i, A-21a, A-21i i?iiiio?oueny i?iaeiaaeeoe
[28] ?aeiiaiaeiaaiith ia?oith ?ica?aeoaaeueiith naa?aeeiaeiith. Caiane
?iaeiaeua ioe?iai? a 2,565 iaeeieoe? oiiaiiai iaeeaa.

?icaeyioaoe iaa?oiooaaiiy aaieia?/ieo iiaeaeae aoaeiae iniiaieo oei?a
?iaeiaeu, yeeie ? i?iaeoeoeai? aioeee?iaeuei? ? aai?a?ao?aioeee?iaeuei?
no?oeoo?e c ??cieie oeiaie ianoie, ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui ca a?aei?oeaie
onoaiiaeaieo IAE ? AAE ?o iieeaaee ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??cieo
a?iniiao?e/ieo ??aiyo. Aenioa a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? ia
?icaeyiooeo ?iaeiaeuao aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao
220-1790i ? 250-870i — aai?a?ao?aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae. Iieeaaee AA
aeine?aeaeaieo ?iaeiaeu eieae?ciaai? a ??cieo /anoeiao aeae?eaieo
a?iniiao?e/ieo caaaeueieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?o?a iaooiaaciiiniino?
oaia?icith ? eiai eiiieaen?a (aeaoaeueii iaaaaeaii o o?aoueiio ?icae?e?
aeaii? ?iaioe). ?acii c oeei ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iieacothoue iiaeeeaino? oa aoaeoeai?noue aieeao aaaaoioaeoi?ieo iiaeaeae
c aeaieie a?iniiao??? iieeaae?a ia iiooe ? ?ica?aeeo neoi/aiue iaooe ?
aaco a ianoeao a?aeeeaae?a oaia?icith a ??cieo no?oeoo?ieo oiiaao ?
iaooiaaciiinieo ?aeiiao AeAeC. Aacoiiaii, ui aeey ei?eaoaaiiy iai?yie?a
?ia?o cai?iiiiiaai? iiaeae? ne?ae nai?/anii ooi/ithaaoe ? anaa?/ii
iaa?oioiaoaaoe iioeiaeuei? i?noeaiieiaeaiiy iiaeo naa?aeeiaei. ?iaioe
oaeiai ieaio aaoi?ii aeeiiothoueny nenoaiaoe/ii. Oae, iai?eeeaae,
?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? c ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a o 1996 ?ioe? ia ?iaeiaeuao
cao?aeii? /anoeie AeAeC aeei?enoai? i?e ieaioaaii?
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a noa?aa?ii? oa i?e ?ica?aeoe? iieeaae?a
ia Nae?eae?anueeiio, ?oae?anueeiio ? *a?aiiicaaiaenueeiio ?iaeiaeuao.
I?e?iuaii 200 iei.i3 aaco ? 60 oen.o eiiaeainaoo. ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yie?a aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o, i?iaiico
?ica?aeee iieeaae?a ? i?e?inoo caian?a ia 1997 ??e a ianoeao ?iaeiaeu ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo no?oeoo? aeei?enoai? i?aei?e?inoaii
«*a?i?a?aiaooiaacaaieia?y» i?e aecia/aii? iai?yie?a ? ianya?a ?ia?o ia
1997 ??e. ?aae?caoe?y ?o ia ?oae?anueeiio ? *a?aiiicaaiaenueeiio
?iaeiaeuao aeicaieeea io?eiaoe i?e??no caian?a aaco a e?eueeino? 110
iei.i3 .

Oaeei /eiii, iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aaaaoioaeoi?ieo aa??aio?a aaieia?/ieo
iiaeaeae aoaeiae ia`?eo?a ?ica?aeee c aeaieie a?iniiao??? IAE ? AAE oa
ioe?ieith caian?a ? nai?/ania ooi/iaiiy iiaeaeae aeicaieythoue aeae?aoe
iioeiaeueiee aa??aio aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae ia`?eoa, ?aoe?iiaeueii
?ici?uoaaoe ianyae ?ia?o, ui ni?ey? aoaeoeaiiio iiooeo ? ?ica?aeoe?
iieeaae?a AA a oaia?ici? AeAeC.

I?EIOeEIIAA AAAAOIOAEOI?IA NOAIA IIOOE?A ? ?ICA?AeEE IIEEAAe?A IAOOE ?
AACO IA ??CIEO OEIAO IA?NIAEOEAIEO ? I?IAeOEOEAIEO NO?OEOO?

Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ? aeooaeueiith
i?iaeaiith ia aoaeue-ye?e noaae?? aea/aiino? iaooiaaciiinieo ?aa?ii?a.
Oiio caeiiii??iee ?ioa?an aei aeine?aeaeaiue, ui ni?eythoue
oaeineiiaeaiith iaoiaeeee iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iaooe ? aaco (Aoaianueaa,
1983; A?eiaeceineee e ae?., 1989; Aaa?eyeyioe e ae?., 1985; Aeiaaeie e
ae?., 1987; Cueei e ae?., 1990; Eiaaeue/oe, 1986; Eociaoeiaa, 1988;
Iicaiaa, 1987; Oeoiie?ia e ae?., 1987; Oo?nia, 1985; Oaeeiia e ae?.,
1987; oa ?io?), ie?aieo iaooiaaciiinieo ?aa?ii?a, aaino?oeoo? a?eueo
iecueeeo ii?yaee?a ? eiie?aoieo ?iaeiaeu (Aaa?ueaa e ae?., 1972;
Aiae?aaa e ae?., 1990; Aaeei e ae?., 1988; Aa?aiianeay, 1970-1997;
Aeeue, 1990; A?thoaiia e ae?., 1987; Auni/aineee, 1988, 1998;
Aieiaaoeeee, 1968-1990; Aeaiueyiaiei, 1980-1997; Aeici?oeaa, 1989;
Aaaeiuoe, 1997; Enoiiei e ae?., 1986-1996; Eei/ei, 1997; Eeoaia, 1978;
Eiiae?ooeei, 1986; Ia?iaaoe e ae?., 1992; Iaeee e ae?., 1992; Iinoieeia,
1987; Noanaieia e ae?., 1988; Oieaoei, 1988; Oaoiianeee e ae?., 1986; oa
?io?). An? aiie iathoue iaoeiao ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue. Aea iia?
iiooeia? ? ?ica?aeoaaeuei? ia`?eoe ia??aeei iathoue nai?
iaooiaaciaaieia?/i? iniaeeaino?, ye? ia caaaeaee aeicaieythoue
aeei?enoiaoaaoe o? /e ?io? iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee, ui
iiceoeaii ca?aeiiaiaeoaaee naaa a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao.

A oiiaao AeAeC ia iiooee ? ?ica?aeeo iaooe ? aaco a eiiieaenao
oaia?icith aieeaathoue aeeaeia caeyaaiiy ? ??ciiiai?oi?noue
neeaaeiicaoaeiaaieo ?aca?aoa??a, oo?oaeiaiiy ?o ea?ooaaiiy ?
aaiiao??caoe?? iieeaae?a AA oa ?io? oaeoi?e. Aei iaaaaeaiiai, inoaii?i
/anii, a AeAeC, ye ? a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, iai?oeeanue oaiaeaioe?y
ui??/iiai ciaioaiiy o?iainoaaiiy ? ianya?a iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo
?ia?o ia iaooo ? aac. A oaeeo oiiaao iaaaeueiith i?iaeaiith ?
noaa?e?caoe?y ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o
i?e ?nioth/eo aeiiii?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo iiaeeeainoyo. Ae??oaiiy oe???
i?iaeaie nueiaiaeaiiy iaiiaeeeaa aac aeeaieiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o c aeyniaiiyi i?e/ei iai?iaeoeoeaiino?
naa?aeeiaei, aecia/aiiy noaio iniiaieo e?eoa???a oa ?ic?iaee i?iiiceoe?e
? iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? noaie iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a
aoaeaaiaei?a ia ??cieo oeiao ia?niaeoeaieo ? i?iaeoeoeaieo no?oeoo?
oaia?icith.

Aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a ia i?e/eie iai?iaeoeoeaiino? naa?aeeiaei i?e
iiooeao ? ?ica?aeoe? iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco. Aiae?c
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a AeAeC ca ia??iae c 1971 ii 1990 ?.?.
iieacaa, ui ca oeae /an a ?aa?ii? 21% naa?aeeiaei, caaa?oaieo
aoae?aieoeoaii ia ?iaeiaeuao i?e iiooeao ? ?ica?aeoe? iieeaae?a iaooe ?
aaco a eiiieaenao oaia?icith, aeyaeeenue iai?iaeoeoeaieie. I?e/eie
iai?iaeoeoeaiino? naa?aeeiaei ??ci? [11, 30]. Ca /anoioith cono??/?
iaea?eueo iioe?aieie ? o?e iniiai? i?e/eie.

Ia?oith ?c ieo ? a?aenooi?noue ii??ae-eieaeoi??a c iaiao?aeieie
o?eueo?aoe?eieie oa ?ii?nieie aeanoeainoyie, ye? i?iaiicoaaeenue a
ia?niaeoeai?e /anoei? ?ic??co. A ?acoeueoao? oeueiai e?ea?aeiaaii 41%
iai?iaeoeoeaieo naa?aeeiaei. Oaeoi?aie, iaoiiaeaoeie oeth i?e/eio, ?
e?oieia?/ia cai?uaiiy i?iieeieo ii??ae aeeienoeie ??ciiaeaeaie,
aeeeeithaaiiy aai ou?eueiaiiy ii??ae-eieaeoi??a (Ceiieoeueea,
Iaoaae?anueea, Na?oee/ia, *oo?anueea oa ?io? ?iaeiaeua). Ae?oaith
i?e/eiith ? o?ainoi?iaoe?y ? iai?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ao??iiyi no?oeoo?ieo
iiaoaeia, ia yeeo ieiu? aaiaeeeenue a ao??iiy ? caeeaaeaeenue iiooeia?
oa ?ica?aeoaaeuei? naa?aeeiaeie. A ?acoeueoao? inoaii? iieieeeny a
iaiioeiaeueieo oiiaao a?aeiinii ianoie AA, ?ice?eaoe a?aeeeaaee a ciiao
aiaeiiane/aiino? aai ou?eueiaiino? i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a. C oe???
i?e/eie e?ea?aeiaaii 35% naa?aeeiaei (Eoee/eo?inueea,
Nei?iaaaaouee?anueea, ss?iieeioe?anueea ?iaeiaeua oa ?io?). O?aoueith
i?e/eiith ? iai?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?iaiico ia?niaeoeaiino? ianoie. Ca
oaeoi?aie, ui iaoiiaeththoue oeth i?e/eio, e?ea?aeiaaii 24%
iai?iaeoeoeaieo naa?aeeiaei (Aaac?anueea, Ea?iee?anueea oa ?io?
?iaeiaeua). sse aeaeii ?c iaaaaeaiiai oaeoi?e, iaoiiaethth/?
iai?iaeoeoeai?noue naa?aeeiaei, ??ci?. Aeyaeaia iie?oaeoi?i?noue
iniiaieo i?e/ei iai?iaeoeoeaiino? naa?aeeiaei a cia/i?e i??? noino?oueny
iiooe?a ?iaeiaeu ? a iaio?e – ?o ?ica?aeee. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ?
oa, ui 71% e?ea?aeiaaieo iai?iaeoeoeaieo naa?aeeiaei – iiooeia?, ye? ia
aeyaeee iieeaae?a AA, ? 29% — ?ica?aeoaaeuei? , ye? iio?aieee ca iaae?
iaooiaaciiinii? ieiu? ?ica?aeoaaieo iieeaae?a.

Aeey ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? iai?iaeoeoeaieo naa?aeeiaei iniaeeao oaaao
ne?ae i?eae?eeoe oaeineiiaeaiith niinia?a ? aeei?enoaiith ??cieo
iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy eieaeoi??a ? iaae ?o oeth?aeiiane/aiiy. Aaaeeeaei
aeey iiaeaeueoeo ?ia?o ? i?aeaeuaiiy aeinoia??iino? no?oeoo?ieo iiaoaeia
ia?niaeoeaieo iiooeiaeo ia`?eo?a, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiaeee, ye?
aeicaieythoue ?icoe?eoe ?nioth/? ni?iiiaeiino? no/anieo
naenii?ica?aeoaaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue (Aeai?yiei, 1991) i?e ea?ooaaii?
iaaioeee?iaeueieo no?oeoo? neeaaeii? aoaeiae, ie?eaoeaieo ?
aeec`thieoeaieo aeeneieaoe?e a ?aeiiao oneeaaeiaieo nieyiith oaeoii?eith
oa a oiiaao i?eooieiaeo cii. Iaeii/anii c ?aae?caoe??th caoiae?a ii
i?aeaeuaiith ?icae?eueii? caeaoiino? iaoiae?a naenii?ica?aeee aeey
ea?ooaaiiy ianoie, iaiao?aeii /ano?oa canoiniaoaaoe eiiieaenoaaiiy
aaieia?/ieo ? aaio?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae aanoe iiooe ?ioeo
iao?aaeeoe?eieo niinia?a, ui i?aeaeuothoue ye?noue no?oeoo?ieo iiaoaeia
? ia ?o iniia? ei?eaoaaoe iai?yiee iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA.
Ciaioaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?? no?oeoo?ieo iiaoaeia ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
yeino?, nai?/ania ? iino?eia ei?eaoaaiiy ?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu ia iniia?
ooi/iaieo iioi/ieo iiaeaeae aoaeiae ?iaeiaeua, ye? a?aoiaothoue aeai?
iiaeo naa?aeeiaei ? ?acoeueoaoe aeaoae?caoe?eieo naeni?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aoaeooue ni?eyoe ciaioaiith /enea iai?iaeoeoeaieo
naa?aeeiaei ?, a?aeiia?aeii, i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a oaia?icienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao AeAeC.

Iniaeeaino? iniiaieo e?eoa???a iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu oa
aoaeoeaiino? aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o. Aiae?c iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee
iiaeo ?iaeiaeu aeicaieea aeyaeoe noai e?eoa???a oa aieea ?o ia iiooe ?
?ica?aeeo iieeaae?a AA, aecia/eoenue c e?eoa???i aoaeoeaiino?
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o.

Iniiaiei caaaeueiia?aeiiei e?eoa???i aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iiooeiaeo ?ia?o ?
iayai?noue ia?niaeoeaii? ianoee, oei yei? caeaaeeoue a?ae ii?oieia?? ?
aoaeiae no?oeoo?e. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai a AeAeC aaoi?ii
aeae?eythoueny ianoee, iia`ycai? c no?oeoo?aie aioeee?iaeueii? oa
aai?a?ao?aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae, ye? iathoue nai? iniaeeaino?
ii?oieia??, iaooiaaciiiniino? ? i?iaaaeaiiy iiooeiaeo ?ia?o [2, 5, 7, 8,
15, 23, 40]. Iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe ia a?ao?aoeee?iaeueieo no?oeoo?ao
aeathoue iiooeia? naa?aeeiaeie, ui neeaaeathoue iicaeiaaei?e i?io?eue.
Ia aaeeeeo iioiaaieo ianoeao iioeiaeueiei ? ?ici?uaiiy naa?aeeiaei ia
ae?aaiiaeueiiio i?io?e?, a ia iaeeo — /a?aia?noue aoae?aieoeoaa
naa?aeeiaei ne?ae aecia/aoe, aeoiaey/e c oiia eiie?aoieo ianoie.

A?aee?eoa ?iaeiaeua, ye a?aeiii, ? iniiaiei e?eoa???i aeey ii/aoeo aoaio
?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o. I?e oeueiio ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ?iaeiaeua,
a?aee?eo? iiooeiaeie naa?aeeiaeiaie ? o?, ui aeyaeai? ia?aiao?e/ieie
naa?aeeiaeiaie, ia caaaeaee iaeiicia/ii i?aeaioiaeai? aei ?ica?aeee.
Aaieia?/ia aoaeiaa ?iaeiaeua ? iiaeaeue iieeaaeo (iieeaae?a), ui
?ica?aeo?oueny ca nai?i cia/aiiyi caeiathoue ae?oaa i?noea a iecoe?
e?eoa???a ?ica?aeee [22]. ?icaeyaeath/e oe? e?eoa??? ne?ae a?aei?oeoe,
ui /a?ac neeaaeio aoaeiao ia`?eo?a ?ica?aeee aeinoia??i?noue ?o
ea?ooaaiiy ia caaaeaee i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ao??iiyi. Oiio aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?ica?aeee iiaeaeue iieeaaeo, ui ?ica?aeo?oueny
? ?iaeiaeua a oe?eiio iiaeii? iino?eii ooi/ithaaoenue ? ei?eaoaaoenue,
ui aoaea ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith aeinoia??iino? oeueiai e?eoa??th [13, 17,
25, 36]. Aaaeaii, uia i?e oeueiio oe?oa i?aeoeeoaaeinue i?iaaaeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo naeni?/ieo i?io?e?a, ye? aeicaieythoue aiaaiaii ei?aeooaaoe
iiaeaeue ia`?eoa ?ica?aeee, ia aeei?enoiaoth/e ?ica?aeoaaeuei?
naa?aeeiaeie ia ae??oaiiy no?oeoo?ieo caaaeaiue.

I?iaeoeoeaia ieiua, aaceniee iieeaae ?ica?aeee ? aaee/eia ?ica?aeoaaieo
caian?a – e?eoa???, a?ae yeeo caeaaeeoue aecia/aiiy ianya?a ?ia?o aeey
?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeua. A a?aoiaoth/e oa, ui a AeAeC a?eueo?noue iiaeo
?iaeiaeu ? aaaaoiiieeaaeiaeie, aaaaoieiioo?ieie, aea c iaaaeeeeie
caianaie AA, a?aeiioaiiy aei aeacaieo e?eoa???a iniaeeaa, oei a?eueoa,
ui aiie ia??aeei ci?iththoueny. I?e iayaiino? ca?eueoaiiy ? ciaioaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaii? ieiu? ? eiioo?o aaceniiai ai?eciioo ?ica?aeee [22]
ia?aaaaeathoue aeiaaeee ciaioaiiy ?o aaee/eie /a?ac iai?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
eiioo?o i?iaeoeoeaiino?, aeeeeithaaiiy ? e?oieia?/ia cai?uaiiy
ieano?a-eieaeoi??a. An? oe? oaeoe i?eaiaeyoueny aei ciaioaiiy i/?eoaaieo
i?e?ino?a caian?a.

Neeaaeia aoaeiaa ia`?eo?a ? aaeee? aeeaeie ?o caeyaaiiy, a?aee?eooy
iieeaae?a ia?aaaaeii iaaaeeeeo ?ici???a ? c iaeeie caianaie AA,
ianoaa?euei?noue o?iainoaaiiy ? oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy – oea aeaeaei ia
iiaiee ia?ae?e ieoaiue, a?ae yeeo caeaaeeoue aoaeoeai?noue no/aniiai
i?ioeano aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a ?aa?ii?. Uiaei noaio
aoaeoeaiino? iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco a AeAeC, oi a?i
aaaea? aooe iaaaaaoi e?auei. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? ?acoeueoaoe
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ca 1990-1996 ?.?. Ianyae ao??iiy ca n?i
?ie?a ciaioeeenue ia 95,5%, a i?e??no caian?a ia 89,7%. I?e oaeeo
neeaaeieo oiiaao ?ia?o caneoaiao? ia oaaao ieoaiiy aeai?o e?eoa???a
aaieiai-aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?ia?o oa ?o aoaeoeaiino?. I?eeiaoe oe?iei
a?aeiiee e?eoa??e – aa?o?noue 1 i ao??iiy, a?aoiaoth/e iioi/iee
?ioeyoe?eiee noai ea?aiaaioey, a ca?ac a?eai?, aeoaea oneeaaeiaii.
Oaeiae ? c?noaaeaiiy oe?i ia caaaeaee a?aeiia?aeaoeia ??aiicia/i?e
aa?oino? neeaaeiaeo /anoei aeeiiaieo ?ia?o. Aacoiiaii, ui a oeueiio
ieoaii? a?eueo ?aaeueiei ? ia`?eoeaiei iiaea aooe aaee/eia io?eiaiiai
i?e?inoo caian?a aoaeaaiaei?a, aeoioethth/a a nia? ?acoeueoaoe
?icoiiaeo, o?oaeiaeo, o?iainiaeo ? oaoi?/ieo aeo?ao. Aea ? ooo ?
aeae?eueea aa??aio?a. Na?aae ieo iaea?eueo iioe?aieie a i?aeoeoe?
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueio ?ia?o ? i?e??no caian?a ia iao? i?ioiaeee ? ia
iaeio naa?aeeiaeio. A iaoeo oiiaao aeey ioe?iee aaieia?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
?ia?o i?iiiioth ca iniiaiee e?eoa??e i?eeiaoe i?e??no caian?a ia iaeio
naa?aeeiaeio, caaa?oaio aoae?aieoeoaii [21]. Oea aea? ?aaeueia oyaeaiiy
i?i aaieia?/io aoaeoeai?noue ?ia?o, ine?eueee aeaiee e?eoa??e ? i?noeei
ca nai?i neeaaeii, iia`ycaiee c ?iaioaie noaae?e iiooeiaiai ?
?ica?aeoaaeueiiai aoai?a, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo a aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueiiio
i?ioean? ia iaooo ? aac ? aecia/aeueieie. I?e eieeaaii? aaee/eie
i?e?inoo caian?a a 1990-1996 ?.?. ia iaeio naa?aeeiaeio a?ae 316,85
oen.o aei 841,15 oen.o na?aaei?e i?e??no ia iaeio caaa?oaio
aoae?aieoeoaii naa?aeeiaeio noaiiaeoue 583,02 oen.o oiiaiiai iaeeaa.
Aacoiiaii, ui oeae na?aaei?e i?e??no (aai aeua aeacai? iaae? eiai
eieeaaiiy) ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe i?e iaa?oiooaaii? e?eueeino? i?iaeoieo
naa?aeeiaei, ye? caaacia/othoue ?aioaaaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ?ia?o.

I?iiiceoe?? aei i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o oa i?eioeeiiaa noaia iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee
?iaeiaeu iaooe ? aaco. Aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueiee i?ioean iiooe?a ?
?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu a AeAeC ?icaeyaea?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae iiooeiaeo ? ?ica?aeoaaeueieo ia`?eo?a, yeeie ?
aioeee?iaeuei? ? aai?aioeee?iaeuei? no?oeoo?e.

?iaeiaeua aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae i?eo?i/ai? aei iane??cieo ? iioiaaieo
i?aeiyoue. Aiae?c aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia ?iaeiaeuao, iieeaaee
AA yeeo i?eo?i/ai? aei ianoie iane??cieo aioeee?iaeueieo i?aeiyoue [15],
iieacaa, ui i?e iiooeao ia?niaeoeaieo iaeaicienueeeo no?oeoo? ne?ae
iiai?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoa??aee ii aa?oi?e /anoei? a?aeeeaae?a
oaia?icith AeAeC. Iane??ci? iaeaicienuee? i?iaeoeoeai? no?oeoo?e /anoi
i?iyaeythoueny caieiooeie a iacici? (Aiae??yo?anueea, ss?io?anueea oa
?io?), a aeaye? ? a eaeiici? (Iiianoe?euainueea oa ?io?). I?e
iaa?oiooaaii? iaoiaeeee iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ne?ae, ia?o ca
ana, aeoiaeeoe c oeio ia?niaeoeaii? iane??cii? no?oeoo?e, ?? ?ici???a ?
aoaeiae. Iiiiaa?oia?noue iiooeiaeo ?ia?o ia iane??cieo a?ao?aioeee?iaeyo
ia caaaeaee aei?aaaeaia. ?o i?iaaaeaiiy iiaea aooe coiiaeaia eeoa
oaoi?/ieie iiaeeeainoyie ao??iiy, ye? ia aeicaieythoue ?ice?eaaoe
aeeaieicaeyaath/? ia?niaeoeai? ai?eciioe. Ia?o? iiooeia? naa?aeeiaeie ia
iane??cieo a?ao?aioeee?iaeyo aeioe?eueii i?iaeooaaoe ? ao?eoe a
neeai?iiaaeo oiiaao i?aeiyooue. I?e ?ica?aeoe? aeaioneeai?iiaai?
iane??cii? a?ao?aioeee?iae? c io?eiaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a o neeai?iiaaeo
naa?aeeiaeiao o?aoueith ia? aoaeoaaoenue naa?aeeiaeia aeey ioe?iee
iaooiaaciiiniino? ia?niaeoeaieo eiiieaen?a o i?aeneeai?iiaaeo oiiaao.
?ica?aeea ?iaeiaeu iiaeiia aeia?aaeaeaoenue i?iaiicii aoaeiae ianoee.

A?eueo neeaaei?oei ? i?ioean iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA a ianoeao
iioiaaieo no?oeoo? aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae. O?ainoi?iaoe?y ii?oieia??
oeeo no?oeoo? ? iaeiei ?c iniiaieo oaeoi??a, ye? iaoiiaeththoue oa, ui
aeaye? naa?aeeiaeie iio?aieythoue a caeiioo?i? oiiae. Iioiaai?
a?ao?aioeee?iae? c aeae?eueeiia eieaeueieie i?aeiyooyie ia??aeei i?ney
ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei ia aeae?eythoueny, aea iiyaeythoueny iia? i?iiouai?
iaeiaiie?ooaei? no?oeoo?e. A?eueo?noue eieaeueieo iioiaaieo
i?iaeoeoeaieo i?aeiyoue iathoue ie?aiee eiioo? iaooiaaciiiniino?. Oae?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? oo?oaeiaiiy ea?ooaaiiy eieaeueieo no?oeoo? iaoiiaeai?
iacia/ieie ?o ?ici??aie ? neaaeith ae?aaeai?noth a no?oeoo?ieo ieaiao
oaia?icith. Aeey aoaeoeaiiai iiiooeoaaiiy iioiaaieo aioeee?iaeueieo
no?oeoo? ia?oo naa?aeeiaeio ne?ae caeeaaeaoe a neeai?iiaaeo oiiaao.
Iiaeaeueoa ao??iiy i?iiiio?oueny i???iooaaoe ia iioe?aiiy ?ia?o a?ae
i?iaeoeoeaii? naa?aeeiaeie. A?aenoaiue i?ae naa?aeeiaeiaie ia iiaeiia
ia?aaeuoaaoe ?ici??e i?aeiyooy. Iai?yi ?ia?o iaiao?aeii ei?eaoaaoe
ooi/iaieie iiaeaeyie aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae. I?e ieiioo?thaaii? iieeaae?a c
iaaecia/aiith aai iaaiaaiaiith aoaeiaith ianoee iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe
??ci? iiaeae? aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae. Oiaoi, aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai
i?noeaiieiaeaiiy naa?aeeiaei i?iiiio?oueny iiaa??aioiee niin?a
(Aeai`yiaiei, 1980), ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yeiai ni?eyei iaa?oiooaaiith
iioeiaeueieo i?noeue naa?aeeiaei, ye? caaacia/eee iaeneiaeueio
?ioi?iaoeai?noue c aaieia?? ? iaooiaaciiiniino? ia`?eo?a ia
Eeiiaiaeieeinueeiio, I?aaeaiii-Iaian?anueeiio, ?oae?anueeiio oa ?ioeo
?iaeiaeuao.

?iaeiaeua aai?a?ao?aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae a ?ice?eoiio ?ic??c?
i?eo?i/ai? aei iane??cieo ? iioiaaieo aai?a?ao?aioeee?iaeae. Aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?ia?o ia iane??cieo ? iioiaaieo
iai?aaioeee?iaeyo c ie?aieie neeai?iiyie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny i?ney ia?oi?
naa?aeeiaeie, caeeaaeaii? a neeai?iiaa?e /anoei? ianoee, ae?oao
naa?aeeiaeio aoaeoaaoe ia caieeaii? no?oeoo?e a noi?iio i?aeeiio in?
iai?aaioeee?iae?. I?ney anoaiiaeaiiy ?iciianthaeaeaiiy neeai?iiaaiai
iieeaaeo ne?ae ae??ooaaoe ieoaiiy i?i aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aoaeiae
?ioeo /anoei ?aca?aoa?o. Ioe?ieo e?oieia?/ii iaiaaeaieo ? oaeoii?/ii
ae?aiiaaieo ianoie iai?aaioeee?iae? ca iaaeaie neeai?iiy iaiao?aeii
i?iaiaeeoe naa?aeeiaeiaie, ye? iiaeii? iioe?thaaoe aea/aiiy ieiu? ca
i?iaeoeoeaieie naa?aeeiaeiaie. C io?eiaiiyi iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aaiaeeoe ?ica?aeoaaeuei? naa?aeeiaeie a ia?eee?iaeueieo
oiiaao no?oeoo?e. I?e aeieia?e aoaeia? iai?aaioeee?iae? ? a?aoiaoth/e
??cea a?iniiao?e/ia iieiaeaiiy aeie?a, a, a?aeiia?aeii, iaiaeiaeia?
oiiae oi?ioaaiiy eieaeoi??a, iiooee ?aeiiaiaeoth ?icii/eiaoe c
naa?aeeiaeie ia oiio aeioe?, yeee ?icoaoiaaiee a na?aaei?e /anoei?
iai?aaioeee?iae?. Uiaei aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia iane??cieo ?
iioiaaieo aai?aioeee?iaeueieo no?oeoo?ao, i?aaenoaaeaieo noeeaie,
aeieaie ? oa?anaie, oi ia?oi/a?aia? iiooeia? naa?aeeiaeie ne?ae
caeeaaeaoe a iioeiaeueieo oiiaao, aecia/aieo a caeaaeiino? a?ae oei?a
ianoie. I?ney a?aee?eooy ?iaeiaeua iioeiaeueia ?ica?aeea eiai ia?
i?iaiaeeoenue c iinooiiaei ?icoe?aiiyi ?ia?o a?ae i?iaeoeoeaii?
(i?iaeoeoeaieo) naa?aeeiaei [17, 28, 29, 39].

I?eioeeiiaa noaia iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii c
a?aooaaiiyi aeyaeaieo i?e/ei iai?iaeoeoeaiino? naa?aeeiaei, aecia/aieo
iniaeeainoae e?eoa???a iiooe?a, ?ica?aeee ? aoaeoeaiino? ?ia?o,
?ic?iaeaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? i?iiiceoe?e ii oaeineiiaeaiith iaoiaeeee
iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu aioeee?iaeueii? ? aai?aioeee?iaeueii?
aoaeiae. Iiaeeea? aaaaoioaeoi?i? noaie ?ici?uaiiy ? aoae?aieoeoaa
naa?aeeiaei ?aeiiaiaeothoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae aa??aio?a aoaeiae ?
iaooiaaciiiniino? ??cieo oei?a no?oeoo?, ianoie ? iieeaae?a. Aea?oueny
iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeo ? caeaaeieo naa?aeeiaei ??cieo eaoaai??e.
Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iine?aeiai?noue ?o aoae?aieoeoaa. Ia ia`?eoao
aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae ?ica?aeoaaeuei? naa?aeeiaeie a a?eueoino?
aeiiiaiththoue iicaeiaaei?e i?io?eue ? ??aeoa – iiia?a/iee. Ia
?iaeiaeuao aai?aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae ?ica?aeoaaeuei? naa?aeeiaeie
ooai?ththoue iicaeiaaei?, iiia?a/i?, eaiai? i?io?e?, a oaeiae o?eeooieee
? /ioe?eeooieee. ?ici?uaiiy ?ica?aeoaaeueieo naa?aeeiaei caeaaeeoue ia
o?eueee a?ae iieiaeaiiy i?iao?aieo iiooeiaeo naa?aeeiaei, a, a
iniiaiiio, aecia/a?oueny, aeoiaey/e ?c oeio aoaeiae, ?ici???a
i?iaeoeoeaii? ianoee ? ?ica?aeaiino? iieeaaeo (iieeaae?a) a ?? iaaeao.
Ca iniiao aeioe?eueiino? ao??iiy aeeaieeo naa?aeeiaei aaoi? i?eeiya
e?eoa??e aaieia?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? – i?e??no caian?a a iaaeao 317oen.o
-841oen.o oiiaiiai iaeeaa ia iaeio cae?i/aio aoae?aieoeoaii
naa?aeeiaeio. ?aioaaaeuei?noue iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o c oaeeie
iieacieeaie i?aeoaa?aeaeaia i?aei?e?inoaaie Aea?aeeiiaaieia?? i?e
iiooeao ? ?ica?aeoe? ?iaeiaeu a AeAeC ca 1990-1996 ?iee. I?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy i?iiiiiaaii? noaie iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA iieyaa? a
oiio, ui aiia ia?aaeaa/a? ?ici?uaiiy ? aoae?aieoeoai iiooeiaeo ?
?ica?aeoaaeueieo naa?aeeiaei a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio ia`?eoa
(?iaeiaeua), oeio ianoee ? iieeaaeo, aaee/eie i?iaeoeoeaii? ieiu?, a?ae
?ici???a yei? ?aeiiaiaeothoueny ianyae ? e?iee iiooeiaiai ?
?ica?aeoaaeueiiai ao??iiy oa aaee/eia i?iaeoeoeaii? ieiu? ia iaeio
naa?aeeiaeio. I?eioeeiia?noue i?iiiiiaaii? noaie aecia/a?oueny oei, ui
aiia ia?aaeaa/a? ?aeeio n?oeo aeeaieeo naa?aeeiaei, ao??iiy ia?oi?
?ica?aeoaaeueii? naa?aeeiaeie aeey i?e?inoo i?iaeoeoeaii? ieiu?, a iio?i
iinooiiaa ?icoe?aiiy aea/aiiy iieeaaeo (?iaeiaeua), iiaa??aioiee aea??
i?noeaiieiaeaiiy naa?aeeiaei ia iniia? aaaaoioaeoi?ieo iiaeaeae aoaeiae
ia`?eo?a.

Oaeei /eiii, a?aooaaiiy a iiaeaeueoeo ?iaioao aeyaeaieo iniiaieo i?e/ei
iai?iaeoeoeaiino? naa?aeeiaei, aeei?enoaiiy aeyaeaieo iniaeeainoae
e?eoa???a iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o oa ioe?iee ?o aoaeoeaiino? ?
?aeiiaiaeiaaieo i?iiiceoe?e c iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia
eieaeueieo ia`?eoao, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai? noaie iiooe?a ?
?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA ia ??cieo oeiao ia`?eo?a aoaea ni?eyoe
oaeineiiaeaiith iaoiaeeee iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA a
a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?oao iaooiaaciiiniino? AeAeC ? i?aeaeuaiith
aoaeoeaiino? aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a ?aa?ii?.

AENIIAEE

Ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co iaooiaaciiiniino? a?aeeeaae?a oaia?icith
AeAeC, iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ? iaoeiaeo ocaaaeueiaiue oa ?acoeueoao?a
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino?
a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a iaooe, aaco, aacieiiaeainaoo, ?o
caian?a ? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu, ye? ? aaaeeeaith iaoeiaith ? i?aeoe/iith
i?iaeaiith iaooiaaciai? aaieia??. A ?aieao ae??oaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie
aiae?coaaeenue aeae?eaiiy iiaa?o?a a aaieia??, aea/aeenue i?iaeoeoeai?
a?aeeeaaee ? no?oeoo?e oaia?icith AeAeC, i?eioeeie oei?caoe?? ianoie o
iaooiaacia?e aaieia?? ? oei?caoe?y ianoie oa ?o caiiaiaiiy aoaeaaiaeiyie
a oaia?ici? AeAeC, aeyniyeenue caeiiii??iino? a?iniiao?e/ii?
eieae?caoe?? ieanoiaeo iieeaae?a AA oa i?iaiico iiaeo ?ioa?aae?a o
ia?niaeoeaieo eiiieaenao oaia?icith, iniaeeaino? a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a
? i?iaiico a?iniiao?e/ieo ?ioa?aae?a caian?a AA oa i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu a
?ic??c? oaia?icith AeAeC, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaoaaeenue iiaeae? aoaeiae
?iaeiaeu a a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?oao iaooiaaciiiniino? oa e?eoa??? ?
i?iiiceoe?? aei ?o iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee, ?ic?iaeyeanue i?eioeeiiaa noaia
iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco a ianoeao no?oeoo? oaia?icith
AeAeC. A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiai? oae? iniiai?
iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe.

Iaooiaaciiinieie ia`?eoaie oaia?icith AeAeC ? no?oeoo?e aioeee?iaeueii?
? aai?a?ao?aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae, ye? i?aaenoaaeai? iane??cieie,
iioiaaieie ? aeenaa?iii?eieie ??ciiaeaeaie. Na?aae onoaiiaeaieo
i?iaeoeoeaieo a?aeeeaae?a iniiaieie aaaaeathoueny ii?iaee ieaeiueiai
ea?aiio, a aeii?ioth/eie — ai?eciioe a?caenueeiai y?ono. Nieaiini?
ooai?aiiy ieaeiuei? ia?i? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye ia?niaeoeaiee eiiieaen
aeey iiooe?a iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco.

Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue oo?eioaaoenue a?ae aeae?eaiiy ianoie, ui
iaceaathoueny a iaooiaacia?e aaieia?? no?oeoo?ieie. Aeaia e?euee?nia
ioe?iea aoaeaaiaeiaaiai caiiaiaiiy ianoie a AeAeC. Iaooiaaciiini?
ia`?eoe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaiaeaioe??th ciiaeueiiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ianoie c ??ciei caiiaiaiiyi ?o AA, a?aenooi?noth ocaiaeaeaiiy
a?iniiao??? no?oeoo?ieo ieai?a ? aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa caiiaiaiiy ianoie
oa ciaioaiiyi eiai a?ae ca?eueoaiiy a?iniiao?e/ii? aeeaeie caeyaaiiy
iie??ae? iieeaaeo.

Aia?oa anaa?/ii aeine?aeaeaii a?iniiao??th iaooiaaciiiniino? ?aa?iio ia
iniia? aaniethoieo a?aei?oie IAE ? AAE iieeaae?a AA. Onoaiiaeaia
ia??aiii??i?noue ? ia?a?ea/ano?noue a?iniiao?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? oa
/anoioe cono??/? iieeaae?a iaooe, aaco ? aacieiiaeainaoo. A ?ice?eoiio
?ic??c? ii??ae oaia?icith AeAeC ia? i?noea aeene?aoi?noue
a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a AA, yea anoaiiaeaia aaoi?ii ?ai?oa
? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ca?ac a?aee?eooyi iiaeo iieeaae?a.

Aeene?aoia i?e?iaea eieaeueieo ?ioa?aae?a c ??ciei /eneii iieeaae?a ?,
eiie?aoii, iaeneioi?a iia`ycaia c aaaaoioaeoi?iith ?ioaa?aeueiith
ioe?ieith oi?ioaaiiy neoi/aiue AA a a?iniiao?e/ieo oiiaao AeAeC.
Aeae?eai? iaeneioie /enea iieeaae?a ? ?o cono??/? coiiaeai? oaeoe/iith
noeoiiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith i?e?iaeii? nenoaie iieeaae?a AA, yeo
ia`?aeiothoue ?aeei? eieaeuei? o?ceei-a?iniiao?e/i? oiiae
iaooiaaciiiniino? ( eieaeoi?e, aeeieno? ? nieyi? oiau?, iaoaii?o?ci
ii??ae, a?ae?iaaieia?/i?, oa?iiaa?e/i?, aaiaeeiai?/i? oa ?io? oaeoi?e).

Aia?oa aeae?eai? a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? ? ?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe
iaooiaaciiiniino? acaaae? ? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaciaiai noaio AA.
Aeyaeaia oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy aenioe ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?o?a, /enea
eieaeueieo iaooiaaciiane/aieo ?ioa?aae?a oa ?o aenioe ? a?aenoai? i?ae
ieie a no?aoea?ao?/ieo eiiieaenao oaia?icith. Neoi/aiiy AA iaeaicith ?
aecia/aeueieie aeey a?iniiao?e/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiaa?oo iieeaae?a
oaia?icith. Iieeaaee iacicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a aieeaathoue ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue eeoa aa?oiuei? /anoeie a?iniiao?e/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai
oaia?icienueeiai iiaa?oo. A?iniiao?e/i? ??ai? c iaeneiaeueiith
eiioeaio?aoe??th iieeaae?a ia??iaee/ii iiaoi?ththoueny. I?iaiico?oueny
?nioaaiiy iiaeo i?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioa?aae?a o a?aeeeaaeao oaia?icith ?
iaeaicith.

O oaia?icienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao anoaiiaeai? a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? ?
?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe i?iieneiai? iaooiaaciiiniino?. Onoaiiaeaia
aeene?aoi?noue ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a c i?iieneiaeie caianaie oa ?o
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu a iaaeao aeae?eaieo ?aa?iiaeueieo a?iniiao?e/ieo
iiaa?o?a c i?iieneiaith iaooiaaciiini?noth. Aeyaeai? a?iniiao?e/i?
iniaeeaino? iioe?aiiy caian?a o no?aoea?ao?/ieo eiiieaenao oaia?icith ?
i?iaiicothoueny iia? a?iniiao?e/i? ?ioa?aaee iaooiaaciiiniino?.

Iieacaii, ui iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aaieia?/ieo iiaeaeae iiooeiaeo ?
?ica?aeoaaeueieo ia`?eo?a a a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?oao, ia iniia?
neeaaeaieo ea?o, a?aeaeaath/eo aoaeiao oaia?icienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a ia
??cieo a?iniiao?e/ieo ??aiyo, aeeiiaii? iiieanoiai? ei?aeyoe??
i?iaeoeoeaiiai (ia?niaeoeaiiai) ?ic??co, iiaoaeiaaieo no?oeoo?ieo ea?o
iaooiaaciiinieo ai?eciio?a c aeaieie a?iniiao??? IAE ? AAE, ea?o
caaaeueieo ? aoaeoeaieo oiauei, ii?enoino?, iaooiaaciiane/aieo ia`?i?a
oa ioe?iee ?ano?n?a ? caian?a AA, aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?
iai?yiee oa ei?eaoaaoe o?ae ?ia?o, a iiaa??aioiee i?aeo?ae — aeae?aoe
iioeiaeuei? i?noey aeey iiaeo iiooeiaeo ? ?ica?aeoaaeueieo naa?aeeiaei
ia ia`?eoao ??cii? aoaeiae.

Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie iai?iaeoeoeaiino? naa?aeeiaei i?e iiooeao ?
?ica?aeoe? iieeaae?a o a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?oao oaia?icith ?:
a?aenooi?noue ii??ae-eieaeoi??a c iaiao?aeieie o?eueo?aoe?eieie oa
?ie?nieie aeanoeainoyie, ye? i?iaiicoaaeeny a ?ic??c?; ia
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ao??iiyi no?oeoo?ieo iiaoaeia; ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiico ia?niaeoeaiino? ianoie. Aaeineiiaeaiiy niinia?a ? aeei?enoaiiy
iiaeo iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy eieaeoi??a ? iaae ?o oeth?aeiiane/aiino?,
i?aeaeuaiiy aeinoia??iino? no?oeoo?ieo aoaeia, nai?/ania ei?eaoaaiiy
?ia?o ooi/iaieie iiaeaeyie aoaeiae ia`?eo?a aoaeooue ni?eyoe ciaioaiith
iai?iaeoeoeaieo naa?aeeiaei ? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o.

?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny a a?iniiao?e/ieo oiiaao ??cieo oei?a
ia`?eo?a i?eioeeiiaa aaaaoioaeoi?ia noaia iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee
aoaeaaiaeiaaeo iieeaae?a, yea ia?aaeaa/a? iioeiaeuei?noue
iiooei-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o. A?ae ?nioth/eo cai?iiiiiaaia noaia
a?ae??ciy?oueny oei, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aoae?aieoeoai iiooeiaeo ?
?ica?aeoaaeueieo naa?aeeiaei a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio ia`?eoa, ianoee ?
iieeaaeo, aaee/eie i?iaeoeoeaii? ieiu?, a?ae ?ici???a yei?
?aeiiaiaeothoueny ianyae ? e?iee ao??iiy. I?eioeeiia?noue noaie a oiio,
ui aiia ia?aaeaa/a? iaeio n?oeo aeeaieeo naa?aeeiaei, ao??iiy ia?oi?
?ica?aeoaaeueii? naa?aeeiaeie aeey i?e?inoo i?iaeoeoeaii? ieiu?, a iio?i
iinooiiaa ?icoe?aiiy aea/aiiy ?iaeiaeua c iiaa??aioiei aeai?ii i?noey
aeey /a?aiaeo naa?aeeiaei ia iniia? aaaaoioaeoi?ieo iiaeaeae aoaeiae
ia`?eo?a. Aieiaiei e?eoa???i aaieiai-aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?ia?o ne?ae
aaaaeaoe i?e??no caian?a AA ia iaeio naa?aeeiaeio, caaa?oaio
aoae?aieoeoaii.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yie?a iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco a
AeAeC. Aeae?eai? ?ai?oa a?iniiao?e/i? i?iaiici? eieaeuei? iaeneioie
iieeaae?a i?aeoaa?aeeeenue ao??iiyi o ieaeiuei- ?
na?aaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaaeao. ?aae?caoe?y ?ic?iaie ia
eiie?aoieo ia`?eoao — Uo??anueeiio, I?aaeaiii-Iaian?anueeiio,
Eooeaie?anueeiio, Ia?eaeiyinueeiio oa ?ioeo ?iaeiaeuao ni?eyea
a?aee?eooth iiaeo iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco. O?eueee ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye?
caaa?oaii? ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ia Aanee?anueeiio, Eeiiaiaeieeinueeiio,
Eooeaie?anueeiio, Ia?eaeiyinueeiio, I?aaeaiii-Iaian?anueeiio,
?oae?anueeiio, Nae?eae?anueeiio ? *a?aiiicaaiaenueeiio ?iaeiaeuao,
?icoaoiaaieo a ??cieo oiiaao a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?o?a oaia?icith, ni?eyee
io?eiaiith i?e?inoo i?iieneiaeo caian?a a e?eueeino? 7,065 ie?ae.i3 aaco
? 0,740 iei.o iaooe ? eiiaeaenaoo, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a?aeiia?aeieie
aeieoiaioaie. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a i?aeoeeo
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ni?ey?, e??i a?aee?eooy iiaeo iieeaae?a
oa i?e?inoo caian?a i?iieneiaiai cia/aiiy, ? oaeineiiaeaiith iaoiaeeee
iiooe?a oa ?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu iaooe ? aaco, a oeei naiei, ni?eythoue
?aoe?iiaeueiiio inai?iith iaooiaaciaiai iioaioe?aeo iniiaiiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?ie, yeei ? AeAeC.

Aea/aiiy a?iniiao??? iaooiaaciiiniino? ? aaaeeeaith iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith
iaooiaaciai? aaieia?? ? ca ?? iaaeaie. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ?
?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a
a AeAeC c eieae?caoe??th ?o a ?ic??cao Aieai-O?aeuenueei? ?
Cao?aeii-Nea??nueei? i?ia?ioe?e. Aeyaeaii, ui a oeeo o?ueio ?aa?iiao,
ye? ? ??cieie ca aaieia?/iith i?e?iaeith ? aoaeiaith, a a?iniiao?e/iiio
?iciiae?e? AA ? aaaaoi ni?eueiiai. Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei ? oa, ui
a?iniiao?e/i? ??ai? eieaeueieo iaeneioi?a iieeaae?a a o?ueio ?aa?iiao
iiaoi?ththoueny /a?ac aaee/eio iaeiiai ii?yaeeo, yea aecia/a?oueny
na?aaei?i ?ioa?aaeii 350-400i. Aaee/eio oeueiai ?ioa?aaeo iiaeia
aaaaeaoe eiinoaioith ia??iaee/iiai iiaoi?aiiy a?iniiao?e/ieo ??ai?a, aei
yeeo i?eo?i/ai? iaeneioie iieeaae?a a iaaeao ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaa?o?a.
I?e/eii?noue oeueiai ne?ae iia`ycoaaoe c aeiaaeueieie oiiaaie
iaooiaaciiaeiie/aiiy a e?oinoa?? Caie?. C`ynoaaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie
nueiaiaei? ia iiaea aooe iaeiicia/iei ? aeiaaa? niaoe?aeueieo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aea aaea nueiaiaei? aeyaeaia eiinoaioa
ia??iaee/iino? iiaoi?aiiy a?iniiao?e/ieo ??ai?a c iaeneiaeueiei /eneii
iieeaae?a AA ia? aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ai aea?
aaieiai?ica?aeieeai eiie?aoio no?aoaa?th i?iaiico ? iiooeo iiaeo
iieeaae?a iaooe oa aaco ? a ?ioeo iaooiaaciiinieo ?aa?iiao.

INIIAI? IIOAE?EIAAI? ?IAIOE II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?. A?iniiao?e/ia iieiaeaiiy iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco a
Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeuee?e caiaaeei? // Aeii. AI O?N?. Na?.A. — 1977. —
?2. — N.104-107.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Iniiaiua oeiu iaooaaaciiiniuo no?oeoo? a
i?iaeoeoeaiuo eiiieaenao oaia?iciy Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu //
Oaeoiieea e no?aoea?aoey. – E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1989. — Aui.30. —
N.16-18.

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?. A?iniiao?e/i? iiaa?oe caian?a aoaeaaiaei?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu // Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie — 96: Iaoa?. iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiio. — Oa?e?a: OIAA, 1996. — O.1. — N.68-70.

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?. Aeaye? iniaeeaino? aoaeiae nieaiinieo
ieaeiueiia?inueeeo a?aeeeaae?a Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie //
Aeii. AI O?N?. Na?.A. — 1977. — ?12. — N.1066-1070.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Ii?oieiaey e aaieiae/aneia ?acaeoea eieaeueiuo
no?oeoo? Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu ia o/anoea Ooie/aa — ?iiiu //
Ia?niaeoeau iaania/aiey aaciaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ONN? ?ano?naie
i?e?iaeiiai aaca. — I.: Iaae?a, 1972. — N.51-52.

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?. I?i ?ioaineai?noue eieeaaeueieo aa?oeeaeueieo ?oo?a o
Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeuee?e caiaaeei? // Aeii. AI O?N?. Na?.A. — 1981,
?1. — N.21-24.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Iienee e ?acaaaeea caeaaeae iaooe e aaca a eiaooeao
aaieaioeeeeiaeae // Iaoiaeeea aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio ia iaooue e aac
e iooe iiauoaiey eo yooaeoeaiinoe. – Eueaia: Oe?IEA?E, 1985. — N.54-58.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. I iaoiaeeea iieneiai-?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio ia
iiiainaiaeiauo no?oeoo?ao // ?acaaaeea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo e aaciauo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee. – Eueaia: Aeua oeiea, 1986. — Aui. 23. — N.16-19.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Eeanneoeeaoeey eiaooae oaeaaiaei?iaeia
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu // ?acaaaeea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo e
aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. – Eueaia: Na?o, 1990. — Aui.27. -N.3-7.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Aa?oeeaeueiua aeaeaeaiey e oneiaey iaeiieaiey
inaaeeia a iaeiaie ia?eiae ia naaa?i-caiaaea Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie
aiaaeeiu // No?aoea?aoey, oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey, ninoaa e naienoaa
inaaei/iuo ii?iae ONN?. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1973. — N.80-82.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Iai?iaeoeoeaiua ?acaaaei/iua neaaaeeiu ia
ianoi?iaeaeaieyo Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu // ?acaaaeea e
?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo e aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. – Eueaia: Aeua oeiea,
1988. — Aui.25. — N.16-19.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe inaaeeiiaeiieaiey e
oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo? a n?aaeia- e iicaeiaeaiaiiioaieueioth yiioe ia
caiaaea Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu // Aaieiaey e iieaciua
eneiiaaiua Oe?aeiu. – E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1978. — N.31-32.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. I iai?aaeaiee aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio ia
Eeiiaiaeieeineii ianoi?iaeaeaiee // Iaooaaaciaay aaieiaey e aaioeceea. —
I., 1991, aui.4. — N.32-37.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. E aii?ino i aaieiae/aneie enoi?ee
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu a th?neee ia?eiae // Eeoieiaey e
no?aoea?aoey ?acee/iuo oeiia inaaei/ii-aoeeaiiaaiiuo ii?iae. – E. —
1979. — N. 12-15.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Aaieia?acaaaei/iua ?aaiou ia eiaooeao neaiciuo
a?aoeaioeeeeiaeueiuo no?oeoo? // ?acaaaeea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo e
aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. – Eueaia: Na?o, 1991. — Aui.28.- N.17-21.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Oaeaaiaei?iaeiia caiieiaiea eiaooae
ieaeiaeaiaiiioaieueiuo no?oeoo? e i?iaeoeoeaiuo ai?eciioia N?aaiaineie
aeai?annee // Iaooaaaciaay aaieiaey e aaioeceea. — I. – 1991. — Aui.11.
— N.1-6.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue aecaenei-oo?iaeneeo ai?eciioia e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?acaaaeea ?oaeianeiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey // Aaieiaey,
aaioeceea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. — I. – 1993. — ? 1. —
N.6-10.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. I ?acaaaeea ianoi?iaeaeaiee N?aaiaineie aeai?annee //
Aaieiaey, aaioeceea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. – I. – 1994.
— ? 1. — N.26-28.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Oaeoiie/aneea e iaeaiaaiii?oieiae/aneea oneiaey
oi?ie?iaaiey caiaaeiie /anoe AeAeA a oaia?icia // Aeooaeueiua aii?inu
iaooyiie iaeaiaaiii?oieiaee: Iaoa?. Iaaeainoae. iao/i. eiio. – *a?ieaia.
— 1994. — N.22-23.

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?. Iniaeeaino? iniiaieo oaeoi??a i?iaeoeoeaiino? ianoie a
ca`yceo c iiaeaeueoeie iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieie ?iaioaie // Iaooa ?
aac Oe?a?ie: Iaoa?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. — Euea?a: OIAA, 1995. — O.1. —
N.134-136.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Iniiaiua e?eoa?ee ?acaaaeee e yooaeoeaiinoe
aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio // Aaieiaey, aaioeceea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee . — I. – 1996. — ? 10. — N.10-12.

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?. Iniaeeaino? aeeiai?ee iniiaieo iieaciee?a
iaooiaaciiiniino? ?iaeiaeu a i?ioean? aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o //
Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie — 96: Iaoa?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. — Oa?e?a: OIAA,
1996. — O.1. — N.92-95.

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?., ?aaeiuoe I.?. Iiooee ? ?ica?aeea iaeeo ?iaeiaeu
aioeee?iaeueii? aoaeiae // Aaieiai-aaio?ce/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaooiaaciiinieo iaae? Oe?a?ie: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oe?AeA??. –
Euea?a. — 1997-1998. — O.1. — N.31-34.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Eei/ei A.I. No?oeoo?ii-aaieiae/aneea oneiaey e
iniiaiua e?eoa?ee ?acaaaeee ianoi?iaeaeaiee naaa?iie i?eai?oiaie ciiu
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu // I?iaeaiu iaooaaaciiiniinoe
e?enoaeee/aneeo ii?iae ooiaeaiaioa Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu. –
E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1991. — N.36-39.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E, E?eaioaaa A.O., Eaaiiaa A.C. Iiouaiiua no?oeoo?u ii
ia?aoiiio na?ino — aiciiaeiua iauaeou aeey i?e?inoa caiania iaooe e aaca
i?e aei?acaaaeea ianoi?iaeaeaiee // Aaieiaey, aaioeceea e ?ac?aaioea
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Naia?aoe A.A. Iaeioi?ua aii?inu iaoiaeeee iieneia e
?acaaaeee caeaaeae oaeaaiaei?iaeia a ieaeiaeaiaiiioaieueiuo ioeiaeaieyo
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu // ?acaaaeea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo e
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Noa?iaeoaoeaaa A.A. Iiaeaeue no?iaiey e i?aaeeiaeaiey
ii ?acaaaeea Aeoiaaneiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey // Iaooaaaciaay aaieiaey e
aaioeceea. — I. – 1991. – Aui.3. — N.16-19.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Noa?iaeoaoeaaa A.A. Aaciianuuaiiua ai?eciiou e
iai?aaeaiea ?aaio ii ?acaaaeea caeaaeae a eiiaeie?iaaiiuo eiaooeao
aa?oiaaecaeneeo ioeiaeaiee *a?aiiieoeneiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey // Aaieiaey,
aaioeceea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. — I. –1995. — ? 7. —
N.19-22.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Noa?iaeoaoeaaa A.A. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue aa?oiaaecaeneeo
ioeiaeaiee e iai?aaeaiea iieneiai-?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio ia Naenooiueeianeii
ianoi?iaeaeaiee // Aaieiaey, aaioeceea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee. — I. – 1997. — ?6. – N.20-23.

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?., Noa?iaeoaoeaaa I.A. Iie?oaeoi?i?noue i?e/ei
iai?iaeoeoeaiino? naa?aeeiaei i?e iiooeao oa ?ica?aeoe? ?iaeiaeu iaooe ?
aaco // Aaieiai-aaio?ce/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaooiaaciiinieo iaae? Oe?a?ie:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oe?AeA??. – Euea?a. — 1997-1998. — O.1. —
N.70-74.

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?., Noa?iaeoaoeaaa I.A. Iaooiaaciiini?noue Naetho?anueeiai
?iaeiaeua ? ia?niaeoeae aeyaeaiiy iiaeo iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a // Iaooa
? aac Oe?a?ie: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue (iaoa?. 5-oi? I?aeia?. eiio.). –
Iieoaaa: OIAA, 1998. — O.1. — N.154.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Noa?iaeoaoeaaa A.A. E aii?ino iieneia e ?acaaaeee
caeaaeae oaeaaiaei?iaeia a iaaioeeeeiaeueiuo eiaooeao aa?oiaaecaeneeo
ioeiaeaiee Ceiieoeeiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey // Aaieiaey, aaioeceea e
?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. — I. – 1998. — ? 8. — N.17-19.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Oaa/aiei A.O. I no?iaiee aa?oiaia?ineie iie?uoee
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu // Eeoieiaey e no?aoea?aoey ?acee/iuo
oeiia inaaei/ii-aoeeaiiaaiiuo ii?iae. – E. — 1979. — N.15-18.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Oaa/aiei A.O., Eooiae I.I. ?aiiaeaiaiiioaieueiua
aa?oeeaeueiua aeaeaeaiey e oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey ii?iae ieaeiaai ea?aiia
naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu // No?aoea?aoey,
oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey, ninoaa e naienoaa inaaei/iuo ii?iae ONN?. – E.:
Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1973. — N.82-84.

A?caenuee? a?aeeeaaee Aanee?anueei-ss?io?anueei? ciie a ca`yceo c ?o
iaooiaaciiini?noth /?.?.Aeai`yiaiei, A.N.Aa?eiiaa, A.A.Naia?aoeue,
A.I.Eei/ei // Aeii. AI O?N?. Na?.A.- 1981. — ?7.- N.14-18.

I ninoiyiee e aeaeueiaeoeo iaooaaaciiieneiauo e ?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio ia
Uo?ianeie ieiuaaee /E.E.Aeaiueyiaiei, A.Ae.Eoeo?oca, A.A.Naia?aoe,
I.A.*oi?ei // ?acaaaeea e ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo e aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee.
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E iaoiaeeea onei?aiiuo iieneiai-?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio a
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Iauea oaiaeaioeee iaooaaaciiiniinoe N?aaiaineie aeai?annee n o/aoii
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Iioeiecaoeey iaooaaaciiieneiauo e ?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio ia no?oeoo?ao
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I?iaeoeoeai? no?oeoo?e ? ianoee i?ai?/ii? i?eai?oiai? ciie
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Oeyoe ca?eueoaiiy aeaeiaoaiiai iioaioe?aeo aoaeaaiaeiaai? ne?iaeie a
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A.I.Eaaeoaa, A.I.Eaa?aeue, I.I.Cthcueeaae/., E.A.Eo?eethe,
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Aeeyiea o?ainoi?iaoeee no?oeoo?iuo iino?iaiee ia
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auyaeaiey iiauo oeiia eiaooae e ?ano?nia iaooe e aaca a
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. E aii?ino i aeaaiineie enoi?ee ?acaeoey caiaaeiie
/anoe Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu // Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Iaoiaee/aneea iniaaiiinoe auaeaeaiey iaeioi?uo oeiia
eiaooae iaooe e aaca // I?iaeaiu onei?aiiiai auyaeaiey iiauo oeiia
eiaooae e ?ano?nia iaooe e aaca a Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeia: Oac.
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Aeai`yiaiei ?.?. Iaooiaaciiini?noue oaia?icith
Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie // I?iaeaie ?noi?e/iiai ?
aaia?ao?/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa *a?i?a?aueie: Iaoa?. aeii. iaoe. nai?i. –
*a?i?a?a. — 1991. — N.47-49.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Ia?niaeoeau ioe?uoey iaooaaaciiiniuo no?oeoo? a
ieaeiaaecaenei-oo?iaeneii i?iaeoeoeaiii eiiieaena Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie
aiaaeeiu // Iaooaaaciia?aciaaiea ia aieueoeo aeoaeiao: Oac. aeiee.
ananithciiai naieia?a — I. — 1986. — N.288-289.

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?. Iniaeeaino? oaeoii?ee ? oaiaeaioe?? iaooiaaciiiniino?
ieaeiueieai`yiiaoa?eueieo a?aeeeaae?a // Oaeoii?/i? ?
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. ?aca?aoa?u ianoi?iaeaeaiee iaooe e aaca
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Oaeoiie/aneay aeoeaiinoue Ieeneianei-Euniai?neiai
aunooia a oaia?icia // Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee eaiaeoaooia e
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Eei/ei A.I. Aeiniiao?e/aneea iniaaiiinoe
eieaeecaoeee caeaaeae aaca a n?aaeiaeaiaiiioaieueiuo ioeiaeaieyo
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu // Ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaay aaca ?anioaeeee
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., E?eaioaaa A.O., Eaaiiaa A.C. I auyaeaiee e inaiaiee
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Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Eaaaaeue A.I. E iaoiaeeea i?iaiica ieiuaaee
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ia?niaeoeau ?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiey iaoiaeee iieneia e ?acaaaeee
iaaioeeeeiaeueiuo eiaooae: Oac. aeiee. iao/i.-oaoi. niaau. – Oa?ueeia. —
1988. — N.39-41.

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E., Noa?iaeoaoeaaa I.A. Aaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo
?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu iaooe ? aaco a iiaeo ianoeao ia?niaeoeaieo eiiieaen?a
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie AeAeC // ?aoa?aoe iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo,
oaiaoe/ieo ? eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o c i?iaeai iaooiaaciaiai eiiieaeno
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Ea?ei N.A., Na?ia A.A., Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Iieneiaue yoai iaeioi?uo
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?acaaaeee iaooyiuo e aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee Oe?aeiu: Oac. aeiee.
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Na?ia A.A., Ea?ei N.A., Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. E aii?ino i aaieiae/aneii
no?iaiee e iaooaaaciiiniinoe Aaneeueaaneiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey // I?iaeaia
iieneia e ?acaaaeee iaooyiuo e aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee Oe?aeiu:
Oac.aeiee.iao/i.-oaoi.eiio. — *a?ieaia. — 1982.- N.51-52.

Iniaaiiinoe i?iaiice?iaaiey e iieneia iaaioeeeeiaeueiuo caeaaeae iaooe e
aaca a Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeia / Y.A.Aa?aaeaae/,
I.ss.Aa?aiianeay, E.E.Aeaiueyiaiei, E.I.Aieiaaoeeee, I.A.Aethaai/oe,
A.E.Iynieeia // Iaoiaeeea iieneia no?aoea?aoe/aneeo e eeoieiae/aneeo
caeaaeae iaooe e aaca: Oac. aeiee. iao/i. eiio. — Aaeo. — 1983. —
N.128-129.

O ioae?eaoe?yo 25-36, 38, 39, 50, 51, 53, 54 aeena?oaio ? i?ia?aeiei
aaoi?ii, yeee aecia/ea ? iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaa iia? i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy
aaieia?? ? a?iniiao??? iaooiaaciiiniino? eiiieaen?a oaia?icith,
i?eioeei?a oa iaoiaeeee iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o. O ioae?eaoe?yo
37, 41, 52, 55, 56 caeiaoaa/ ? ??aiii?aaiei aaoi?ii, yeee aeeiiaa
aaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e AeAeC, a?ao?/i? iiaoaeiae ea?o ?
i?io?e?a, cae?eniea aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ? aoaeoeaiino?
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o a ?aa?ii?. Ioae?eaoe?? 1-22, 42-49
aeena?oaioii aeeiiai? o iiaiiio ianyc?.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeai`yiaiei ?.?. Iniaeeaino? ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a
a a?iniiao?e/ieo iiaa?oao iaooiaaciiiniino? oaia?icith
Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie oa iniiai? i?eioeeie ?o iiooe?a
? ?ica?aeee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aaieia?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 04.00.17 — aaieia?y iaooe ? aaco. — ?inoeooo
aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Caoeuathoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo
iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a (AA) oa iniiai? i?eioeeie ?o iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee
a ?ic??c? oaia?icienueeiai eiiieaeno ii??ae Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei?
caiaaeeie (AeAeC). A ?iaio? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe caii/aoeiaaiiai iiaiai
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaooiaaciiiniino? AeAeC.
Eiai iniiaith ? aiae?c a?iniiao?e/iiai ?iciiae?eo, aaee/eie caian?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieiu iieeaae?a AA c onoaiiaeaieie a?aei?oeaie aaniethoieo
aeeaei IAE ? AAE. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ? oeie iaooiaaciiinieo ia`?eo?a,
ianoie oa ?o caiiaiaiiy AA. Onoaiiaeai? a?iniiao?e/i? caaaeuei? ?
?aa?iiaeuei? iiaa?oe iaooiaaciiiniino?, iniaeeaino? ?iciiae?eo iieeaae?a
a ?o iaaeao, ia??iaee/i?noue iiaoi?aiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo a?iniiao?e/ieo
??ai?a, i?iaiicothoueny iia? ?ioa?aaee iaooiaaciiiniino?, iaa?oioiaai?
iiaeae? aoaeiae iniiaieo oei?a ?iaeiaeu, ?ic?iaeaia i?eioeeiiaa
aaaaoioaeoi?ia noaia iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee iieeaae?a AA. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeothoueny i?e
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?iaioao ? ni?eythoue aeyaeaiith iiaeo
iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco, io?eiaiith i?e?inoo caian?a AA i?iieneiaeo
eaoaai??e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?iniiao??y, iaooiaaciiini?noue, iiaa?o, oaia?icie,
no?oeoo?a, ianoea, iieeaae, iiooe, ?ica?aeea.

ABSTRACT

Ivan I. Demyanenko. Main features of hydrocarbons pools distribution in
hypsometric petroliferous floors of Phanerozoic of Dnieper-Donets
depression and cardinal principles of their searching and exploring. —
Manuscript.

Thesis on competition for doctor’s degree by the speciality 04.00.17 —
petroleum geology. — Institute of geological sciences NAS Ukraines,
Kiev, 1998.

The results of hypsometric distribution of hydrocarbons (HC) pools and
main principles of their prospecting and exploration for Phanerozoic
section of Dnieper-Donets depression (DDD) are considered and
maintained. The dissertation work deals with the results of new
scientific-practical trend of DDD petroleum potential exploration. It is
based on the analysis of hypsometric distribution of HC pools (with
established marks of oil-water and gas-water contact) and reserves.

Main types of prospecting targets, traps and pools are marked out.

Global and regional hypsometric petroliferous floors, main features of
HC pools distribution, reiteration periodicity of oil-gas bearing
hypsometric levels are established. New commercially-petroliferous
intervals of Phanerozoic sections of DDD are forecasted. New models of
main morphologic types of HC fields and pools are substantiated.
Essentially new multifactor scheme of HC pools prospecting and
exploration are developed.

The main results obtained by the author are adopted in practice of
geological exploration. They promote discovering new HC pools and
conversion of HC resources into oil-gas reserves of commercial
categories.

Keywords: hypsometry, petroleum potential, petroliferous floor,
Phanerozoic, structure, trap, pool, prospecting, exploration.

Aiiioaoeey

Aeaiueyiaiei E.E. Iniaaiiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey caeaaeae oaeaaiaei?iaeia a
aeiniiao?e/aneeo yoaaeao iaooaaaciiiniinoe oaia?iciy
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu e iniiaiua i?eioeeiu eo iieneia e
?acaaaeee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aaieiae/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.17 — Aaieiaey iaooe e aaca. — Einoeooo
aaieiae/aneeo iaoe IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Caueuathony ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee aeiniiao?e/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey
caeaaeae oaeaaiaei?iaeia (OA) e iniiaiua i?eioeeiu eo iieneia e
?acaaaeee a ?ac?aca oaia?icieneiai eiiieaena ii?iae
Aeiai?ianei-Aeiiaoeeie aiaaeeiu (AeAeA). A ?aaioa i?eaaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou
iiaiai iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee iaooaaaciiiniinoe
AeAeA. Aai iniiaie yaeyaony aiaeec aeiniiao?e/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey,
aaee/eiu caiania e i?iaeoeoeaiuo ieiuaaeae caeaaeae OA n onoaiiaeaiiuie
ioiaoeaie aaniethoiuo aeoaei IAE e AAE.

Iniiaiuie oeiaie iaooaaaciiiniuo no?oeoo? oaia?iciy AeAeA yaeythony
iauaeou aioeeeeiaeueiiai e aaiea?aoeaioeeeeiaeueiiai no?iaiey n iaee/eai
neaiciuo, iia?aaaiiuo e aeenaa?iiie/iuo ?aciiaeaeiinoae. Iainiiaaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aicaea?aeeaaoueny io auaeaeaiey eiaooae, eioi?ua a
iaooaaaciaie aaieiaee iacuaathony no?oeoo?iuie. Aeaia eiee/anoaaiiay
ioeaiea caiieiaiey eiaooae OA a eiiieaenao oaia?iciy AeAeA. Onoaiiaeaiu
iniaaiiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiaooae n ?acee/iui caiieiaieai eo OA,
ionoonoaea niaiaaeaiey aeiniiao?ee oaia?icieneeo no?oeoo?iuo ieaiia e
aaee/eiu eiyooeoeeaioa caiieiaiey eiaooae e oiaiueoaiea aai io
oaaee/aiey aeiniiao?e/aneie aeoaeiu e?iaee caeaaeae OA.

Aia?aua auiieiaiiuie enneaaeiaaieyie aeiniiao?ee iaooaaaciiiniinoe
AeAeA, ia iniiaaiee aaniethoiuo ioiaoie IAE e AAE, onoaiiaeaiu
aeene?aoiinoue e iniaaiiinoe aeiniiao?e/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey caeaaeae
OA a ?ac?aca ioeiaeaiee ?aaeiia. Auaeaeaiu e eco/aiu iauea e
?aaeiiaeueiua aeiniiao?e/aneea yoaaee iaooaaaciiiniinoe oaia?iciy AeAeA
a oeaeii, aai no?aoiiia, a oaeaea a caaeneiinoe io oaciaiai ninoiyiey
caeaaeae OA. Auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe e oaiaeaioeee eciaiaiey auniou
aeiniiao?e/aneeo ?aaeiiaeueiuo yoaaeae, /enea eieaeueiuo
iaooaaaciianuuaiiuo eioa?aaeia, eo auniou e ?annoiyiee iaaeaeo ieie a
no?aoea?aoe/aneeo eiiieaenao oaia?iciy. Aeiniiao?e/aneea o?iaie n
iaeneiaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeeae /enea caeaaeae OA ia?eiaee/anee
iiaoi?ythony. Aeai i?iaiic auyaeaiey iiauo i?iaeoeoeaiuo eioa?aaeia a
ioeiaeaieyo oaia?iciy e iaeaiciy.

A oaia?icieneeo eiiieaenao auaeaeaiu aeiniiao?e/aneea iauea e
?aaeiiaeueiua yoaaee i?iiuoeaiiie iaooaaaciiiniinoe. ?ani?aaeaeaiea
caeaaeae n i?iiuoeaiiuie caianaie e eo i?iaeoeoeaiuo ieiuaaeae a
i?aaeaeao auaeaeaiiuo aeiniiao?e/aneeo ?aaeiiaeueiuo yoaaeae yaeyaony
oaeaea aeene?aoiui. Auyaeaiu aeiniiao?e/aneea iniaaiiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey
caiania caeaaeae OA a eiiieaenao oaia?iciy e i?iaiice?othony iiaua
eioa?aaeu i?iiuoeaiiie iaooaaaciiiniinoe.

Onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua i?e/eiu iai?iaeoeoeaiinoe neaaaeei i?e iieneao e
?acaaaeea caeaaeae OA a aeiniiao?e/aneeo yoaaeao iaooaaaciiiniinoe
oaia?iciy AeAeA. Eniieueciaaiea aeaiiuo aeiniiao?ee IAE e AAE,
no?oeoo?iuo e iaooaaacii?iiuneiauo iaoa?eaeia, i?e iao/iii iainiiaaiee
aaieiae/aneeo iiaeaeae iieneiauo e ?acaaaei/iuo iauaeoia a
aeiniiao?e/aneeo yoaaeao oaia?iciy, iicaieyao ii?aaeaeyoue
?aoeeiiaeueiua iai?aaeaiey e ei??aeoe?iaaoue oiae ?aaio, a iiaa?eaioiue
iiaeoiae — auae?aoue iioeiaeueiua ianoa aeey iiauo neaaaeei. Iainiiaaiu
iiaeaee iniiaiuo oeiia no?oeoo? n ?acee/iuie aeiniiao?e/aneeie oneiaeyie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiu iai?aaeaiey e eiioeaio?aoeey aeaeueiaeoeo
iauaiia ?aaio. ?ac?aaioaia e aiaae?yaony a aeiniiao?e/aneeo oneiaeyo
iauaeoia ?aciiai no?iaiey i?eioeeieaeueiay iiiaioaeoi?iay noaia iieneia
e ?acaaaeee caeaaeae iaooe e aaca, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay iioeiaeueiia
aaaeaiea iieneiai-?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee
aiaae?ythony i?e iieneiai-?acaaaei/iuo ?aaioao e niinianoaotho
auyaeaieth iiauo caeaaeae iaooe e aaca, iieo/aieth i?e?inoa caiania OA
i?iiuoeaiiuo eaoaai?ee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeiniiao?ey, iaooaaaciiiniinoue, yoaae, oaia?icie,
no?oeoo?a, eiaooea, caeaaeue, iiene, ?acaaaeea.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 18.03.1999. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16

Oiia.ae?oe.a?e.2. Iaa?? eiii`thoa?iee.

Ae?oe ionao. Oe?. 100 i?ei. Caeacia

____________________________________________

Iie?a?ao?/iee oeaio? OIA «O??ia «NOA?»

250000, i.*a?i?a?a, aoe.Ui?na, 8.

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