OAEAI?IAeNUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OII’ssE AIAAeAI ss?INEAAIAE*

?iaeaen OAeE 533.95

621.373.826

INIAEEAINO? I?IOeAN?A OOAI?AIIss ?II?CIAAIEO EIIIIIAIO EACA?II?
IEACIE I?Ae Ae??TH IA IIAA?OITH AEI?II?ITHAAIIss AENEIA?IIAI
EACA?A OA EACA?A IA IA?AO I?Ae?

01.04.04 — o?ce/ia aeaeo?ii?ea

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oaeai?iae — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaeai?iaenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi?
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, no.i.n.

Iia/ei ?aai ?aaiiae/

Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e aeaeo?iiieo nenoai

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi?
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oao?aiueio ?aai ?aaiiae/

Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e eaaioiai? aeaeo?ii?ee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, no.i.n.

Eaeueiai Aieiaeeie? Aiae??eiae/

?inoeooo aeaeo?iiii? o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo eaaioiai? aeaeo?ii?ee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI
Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e aaciai?

aeaeo?ii?ee, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 6 » o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 61.051.01 i?e Oaeai?iaenueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

ca aae?anith: 294000, i.Oaeai?iae, aoe.I?aea??ia, 46.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oaeai?iaenueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo

(i.Oaeai?iae, aoe.Eai?ooeueia, 9)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 31 » aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

ae.o.-i.i., i?io.
Aeaoeeai Ae.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iiyaa eaca??a caeaoieo caaacia/eoe io?eiaiiy
aonoei iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy 107 1011 Ao/ni2 i?eaaea aei oe?ieiai
?o aeei?enoaiiy a oaoiieia?yo ia?iaee iiaa?oi?, aeey iaieeaiiy ie?aie,
aeey eaca?ii? ian-niaeo?iiao???, a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo a o./. aeey
?ic?a??ao ?a/iaeie aei oa?iiyaea?ieo oaiia?aoo?. ?noi?e/ii neeaeiny, ui
a?eueo aeaoaeueii aoea aeine?aeaeaia aca?iiae?y c iiaa?oiath eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ?* ae?aiaciio ? iaioa oaaae aoei i?eae?eaii ae?? ia
iiaa?oith aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaca??a aeaeeiiai ? OO ae?aiacii?a.
??ciiiai?oi?noue ? aaaaoia?aii?noue i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue o
ieaci?, ooai?ai?e ia iiaa?oi? aei?ii?ithaaiiyi oeeo eaca??a aeeeeeathoue
i?aeaeuaiee ?ioa?an aei ?o aea/aiiy. Iiyaa eaca??a ia naiiiaiaaeaieo
ia?aoiaeao ? aoaeoeaieo aeneia?ieo eaca??a iieeaee ii/aoie ?o oe?ieiio
canoinoaaiith a iaoeiaeo ? oaoiieia?/ieo aenia?eiaioao.

Oi?eaeuei? iniaeeaino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaca??a ia naiiiaiaaeaieo
ia?aoiaeao ?, cie?aia, eaca?a ia ia?ao i?ae? (EII), oae? ye: aenieee
eiao?oe??io iaeiii?io?aeiiai i?aeneeaiiy (~104 ), aeniea ?iioeuenia
aonoeia iiooaeiino? (1011 Ao/ni2 ) ? aeniea /anoioa ne?aeoaaiiy
?iioeuen?a (~10 eAoe) ni?eythoue aeei?enoaiith ?o ye aeey iaoeiaeo
(aea/aiiy ia?aiao??a eaca?ii? ieacie) oae ? aeey i?aeoe/ieo iio?aa,
cie?aia a eaca?i?e ian-niaeo?iiao??? iiaa?oi?, ? a?aee?eaathoue
iiaeeeaino? aeey noai?aiiy aiae?oe/iiai i?eeaaeo iiaiai iieie?iiy:
eaca?iiai ian-niaeo?iiao?a — i?iaeoe?eiiai i?e?ineiia. Oaeee i?eeaae
aea? ciiao i?iaiaeeoe ian-niaeo?iiao?e/iee aiae?c ? iaeii/anii
a?coae?coaaoe ia ae?ai? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ~104 iaeanoue i?iaia?aeai?o. I?e
oeueiio iiaeeeaa aeei?enoaiiy cai?noue EII aoaeue-yeiai ?ioiai eaca?a ia
naiiiaiaaeaieo ia?aoiaeao.

Aca?iiae?y c iiaa?oiath OO aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeneia?ieo eaca??a, ia? nai?
iniaeeaino?, ine?eueee c ia?aoiaeii a ae?aiacii ei?ioeeo oaeeue
i?iii?oe?eii 3 ciaioo?oueny iioe/ia oiaueia eaca?iiai oaeaea ? cia/ii
c?inoa? eiao?oe??io iiaeeiaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiiy iiaa?oiath. Oea
i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeia?iaoaaiiy ii?ii?ithaaiiai
iaoa??aeo, cia/ii? aeoea?caoe?? i?ioean?a caoaeaeaiiy, ?ii?caoe?? ?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aia?a?? eaca?ii-ai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a oaea?i? oaee?.
Aeuacaaaeai? aoaeoe aiinyoue nai? iniaeeaino? o o?ceeo aca?iiae??
eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c iiaa?oiath, a oaeiae oaoiieia?/ia ?
aiae?oe/ia canoinoaaiiy eiiiiiaio eaca?ii? ieacie.

Iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy aeneia?iieo eaca??a oa eaca??a ia
naiiiaiaaeaieo ia?aoiaeao aeaeaei ia ae/a?iothoueny aeuaneacaiei.

A?aoiaoth/e aeuaneacaia aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe aeeeeeaia iaiao?aei?noth
io?eiaiiy iiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i o?ceeo i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue o
ieaci?, noai?ai?e ia iiaa?oi? ?iioeueniei oa ?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/iei
eaca?iei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi aeaeeiiai oa OO ae?aiacii?a ? noai?aiiy oiia
aeey a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oeeo eaca??a a iaoeiaeo
aenia?eiaioao ? oaoiieia??.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy ?ii?ciaaieo
eiiiiiaio ieacie, ui aeieeathoue i?ae ae??th ia iiaa?oith aeaiaioa?ieo
oa neeaaeieo i?oaiae ?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/iiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aeaeeiiai oa OO ae?aiacii?a niaeo?o aonoeiith iiooaeiino? 5107 51011
Ao/ni2.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

— aeey oaeaee?nii? ?a?no?aoe?? a?aeaeaieo aeanoeainoae ii?ii?ithaaii?
i?oai? canoiniaaiee aeoeaiee aeaiaio EII;

— aeyaeaia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae aeeiai?eith ?iiii? ai?n?? oa ci?iith a /an?
a?aeaeaieo aeanoeainoae iaeano? ?aciiainii? aca?iiae?? eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy (308 ii) c iiaa?oiath aethi?i?th;

— aeyaeai? neeaaei? eeanoa?i? ?iie aoaeaoeth, coiiaeai? oaea?ieie
i?ioeanaie ia iiaa?oi?;

— aeyaeai? iae?i?ei? aoaeoe naiioieonoaaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII a
eaca?i?e ieaci?, iia’ycai? c aeieeiaiiyi no?eeeo i?inoi?iaeo no?oeoo? o
oieaeuei?e ieyi?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe.

1. Cae?eniaia canoinoaaiiy eaca??a OO ae?aiaciio aeey iioa?iaiai
ian-niaeo?iiao?e/-iiai aiae?co c ?icae?eueiith caeaoi?noth ii aeeaei?
~0,01 iei.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ca?eueoaiiy /ooeeaino? eaca?ii?
ian-niaeo?iiao??? a 5 10 ?ac?a ca aeiiiiiaith ?aciiainii-iiaeeiath/i?
i?enaaeee aei iiaa?oi?.

3. ?aae?ciaaia canoinoaaiiy ?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
eaca??a ia naiiiaiaaeaieo ia?aoiaeao aeey ian-niaeo?iiao???.

4. O aeaeyae? eaai?aoi?iiai iaeaoa ?aae?ciaaii aiae?oe/iee i?eeaae
iiaiai iieie?iiy — eaca?iee ian-niaeo?iiao? — i?iaeoe?eiee i?e?ineii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia: ?a?iiaenuee?e eiioa?aioe??
aca?iiae?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c iaoa???th: 21ECLIM-91a Aa?oaaa,
1991 ?., V ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiio neiiiceoi? ii o?ceoe? ?ii?ciaaiiai aaco,
Aeoa?iaiee, THaineaa?y 1990 ?., XXVII I?aeia?iaeiiio eieiea?oi? c
niaeo?ineii??, Aa?aai, Ii?aaa?y, 1991 ?., III i?ae?anioae?eainueeiio
nai?ia?? c o?ceee oaeaeeiieeiieo i?ioean?a, A?iaeii, Aaea?onue, 1992 ?.,
Noiooi?e aei 16-? I?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? c iioeee, Ia/, Oai?ueia,
1993 ?., Iaoe?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? c o?ceee, N?a?o, ?oioi?y, 1994 ?.,
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? i?enay/ai?e 150-??//th a?ae aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy aeaeaoiiai oe?a?inueeiai o?ceea ? aeaeo?ioaoi?ea ?aaia
Ioethy, Euea?a, Oe?a?ia, 1995 ?., XX-?e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
eaaioiai? aeaeo?ii?ee IQEC`96, N?aeiae, 1996 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??,
iioae?eiaai? a 19 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo, nienie yeeo i?eaaaeaii a e?ioe?
aaoi?aoa?aoo.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
c 89 iaeiaioaaiue. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 128 noi??ieao (aeeth/ath/e
?enoiee, oaaeeoe? oa nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae), i?noeoue 22 ?enoiee
oa 2 oaaeeoe?.

Iniaenoee aianie iieyaa? a oiio, ui

— aaoi? i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o noai?aii? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
eiiieaena;

— aaoi? ?acii ?c ni?aaaoi?aie a?aa o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe? ? aeeiiaii?
an?o aenia?eiaio?a, ?o ia?iaoe? oa iaaiai?aii?;

— aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?eaaaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno, aecia/aia iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iiaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a,
ai?iaaoe?th oa aeaia ei?ioea aiioaoe?y aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaiith iaeaaaeeea?oeo
i?ioean?a, ui i?ioiaeyoue i?e ae?? ia iiaa?oith eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aonoeiith iiooaeiino? 5107 1011 Ao/ni2. ?icaeyioo?
caaaeuei? iniaeeaino? iaa??aaiiy iiaa?oi? ?a/iaeie eaca?iei
aei?ii?ithaaiiyi. Iienai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? iaoai?cie iiaeeiaiiy
eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiath ? ?iceueioo eiiiiiaio eaca?ii?
ieacie. I?iaiae?ciaai? i?ioeane, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei aaia?aoe?? oaea?ieo
oaeeue a eiiaeainiaaieo na?aaeiaeuao ? ai?n?? ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie i?ae
ae??th ia iiaa?oith eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aonoeiith iiooaeiino? q =
108 1011 Ao/ni2. ?icaeyiooi aieea i?ioean?a aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe??
oa ?ii?caoe?? i?e ?aciiainiiio iiaeeiaii? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
ia?ith ia ai?n?th ca?yaeaeaieo ? iaeo?aeueieo /anoeiie. ?acoeueoaoe,
i?eaaaeai? a ?icae?e?, aoee aeei?enoai? aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeaiee iien aenia?eiaioaeueiiai eiiieaeno, ui
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith ?iaioe aoa noai?aiee aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aca?iiae?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c
iiaa?oiath. Eiiieaen aeeth/aa:

1) aeneia?iee aeaeo?i?ic?yaeiee XeCl — eaca? (308 ii, E = 0,05 0,25
Aeae, e = 20 50 in, fiiao = 5 25 Aoe);

2) EII c i?aeneethaa/ai (510,6; 578,2 ii, E = 1 3 iAeae, e = 20 in,
fiiao = 5 8 eAoe);

3) aaeooiio eaia?o aca?iiae?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c iiaa?oiath;

4)/aniai-i?ie?oi? ian-niaeo?iiao?e, c ciiaeaie aeey ?a?no?aoe?? ?iiieo
oa iaeo?aeueieo eiiiiiaio;

5) ?iioeuenio nenoaio ?a?no?aoe?? neaiae?a c aeoiaeii ia i?eno??e
noaoenoe/iiai iaeiieaiiy neaiaeo c aeoiaeii ia AII.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiee ? ?aae?ciaaiee eaaioiaee i?aeneethaa/ yne?aaino?
(EIss), noai?aiee ia aac? aeoeaiiai aeaiaioa EII, ui aea? ciiao
aeine?aeaeoaaoe iaeanoue ? aeeiai?eo ae?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia
iiaa?oith ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ii yne?aaino? a ~104 ?ac?a ? /aniaith
?icae?eueiith caeaoi?noth ~25 in.

I?e noai?aii? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai eiiieaeno aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?eyeany
i?aeaeuaiith ?icae?eueii? caeaoiino? nenoaie: ian-niaeo?iiao? —
aeaeo?inoaoe/iee aiae?caoi?. A ?acoeueoao? ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeeo?eaoe??
iiey aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai naeaeoi?a aoei ?aae?ciaaii niin?a iie?auaiiy
?icae?eueii? neee /aniai-i?ie?oiiai ian-niaeo?iiao?a. I?e oeueiio
iie?auo?oueny ?icae?eueia caeaoi?noue naeaeoi?a ii aia?a?yo, ui nooo?ai
i?e aeine?aeaeaii? oiiei? no?oeoo?e aia?aaoe/ieo niaeo??a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a
?aciiainii? oa ia?aciiainii? ae?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeneia?iiai
XeCl-eaca?a ia iiaa?oith. Ia?aaeon?i aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a iaie
aoa i?iaaaeaiee ?yae aeine?aeaeaiue ii aaeineiiaeaiith ia?aiao??a
?ic?iaeaiiai aaci?ic?yaeiiai ?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/iiai aeneia?iiai XeCl —
eaca?a, a naia ii i?aeaeuaiith eiai aia?aaoe/ieo ? ?ano?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee. Aecia/aii, ui i?e canoinoaaii? ye aaeiaaiiiin?y oei?eaeo
ai?o (BCl3) aia?a?y ?iioeueno ca?eueoo?oueny ia 20% a ?ano?n — ia 50% a
ii??aiyii? c oeeie ae oa?aeoa?enoeeaie o aeiaaeeo o?aaeeoe?eii
canoiniaoaaiiai oei?enoiai aiaeith HCl. Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aieeao oeio
aaeiaaiiiin?y ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe eaca?a ia?aaeoaaea eaca?ia
ian-niaeo?iiao?e/ia ae?aaiinoeea ?iai/eo noi?oae ? noaio aioo??oiuei?
iiaa?oi? aeoeaiiai aeaiaioo. Cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ?iai/i? noi?o? c 16
20 N aei 0 2 N i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy aeo?aeii? aia?a?? eaca?a a 2
?ace, a ?ano?n ?iaioe i?e oeueiio aeinyaa? ~106 ?iioeuen?a.

Aeine?aeaeaii, ui i?e/eiaie iie?auaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee eaca?a ? aaeee?
eiinoaioe oaeaeeinoae ooai?aiiy a?ae’?iiiai ?iio Cl- a noi?oao BCl3,
oaeaeea iai?aoethaaiiy iaeaoeeo i?iaeoeo?a a ?aaeoe?yo BCl3 c
aeii?oeaie, a oaeiae inaaeaeaiiy (aeii?iaeoaaiiy) aa?icieae ia
oaieiiai?iieeo ?, ye iane?aeie, aeaeaeaiiy ?o c aaciaiai eiioo?a.
Ian-niaeo?iiao?e/iee aiae?c inaaeaeaieo eiiiiiaio iieacaa, ui aiie a
iniiaiiio neeaaeathoueny c iaoae?a oa i?iaeoeo?a aca?iiae?? HCl c
iaoa??aeaie, ui canoiniaothoueny a eaia?? aeoeaiiai aeaiaioo.

A ?acoeueoao? aoa noai?aiee iaeiaaaa?eoiee aeneia?iee eaca? c
aeo?aeieie ia?aiao?aie aei?ii?ithaaiiy: 308 ii, E = 0,25 Aeae, e = 20
50 in, yeee aeaaaa iiaeeea?noue io?eioaaoe cia/aiiy aonoeie iiooaeiino?
noieoniaaiiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy q 3107 51010 Ao/ni2.

Oiiae ?aciiainiiai iiaeeiaiiy eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy eiiiiiaioaie
eaca?ii? ieacie ?aae?ciaothoueny i?e ae?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeneia?iiai
XeCl-eaca?a c aeiaaeeiith oaee? 308 ii, aeecueei? aei aeiaaeeie oaee?
ia?aoiaeo a aoii? aethi?i?th 3P1/2 -3D3/2 (308,2 ii). *enaeuei?
?ic?aooiee e?iaoeee aoiiii? ia?e i?ae ae??th eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a
oaeiio aeiaaeeo aeathoue aeaioai?aee oa?aeoa? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ii?a
? aoii?a eaca?ii? ieacie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaiiai aoaeoo iiaea aianoe
yni?noue o o?ceeo i?ioean?a i?e ae?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iii??ii?
aonoeie ia i?oai?, aeyaeoe i?eioeeiia? iaiaaeaiiy ?icae?eueii?
caeaoiino? /aniai-i?ie?oii? eaca?ii? ian-niaeo?iiao???, a oaeiae ni?eyoe
io?eiaiith aeiaeaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i neeaae iiaa?oi? oaa?aeiai o?ea.
E??i oiai, ciaioaiiy aeiaaeee oaee? iaa??aath/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy ~1/3 eiai eiao?oe??ioa o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
aia?a?th oaea?ieo oaeeue.

Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue ia onoaiiaoe?, iien yei? i?eaaaeaii o
ae?oaiio ?icae?e?. sse i?oai? aoee aea?ai? niaeo?aeueii /enoee a?ao?o oa
aethi?i?e (99,999%). Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie aeai?o naia oaeeo i?oaiae ?
oa, ui aeey oeeo iaoa??ae?a aeecuee? e?eoe/i? aonoeie iiooaeiino?, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue ii/aoeia? ?ioaineaiiai aeia?iaoaaiiy (q (1 2)107
Ao/ni2) ?, e??i oiai, aeey AlI ia ia?aoiae? 3P1/2 -3D3/2 iiaeeeaa
?aciiainia iiaeeiaiiy eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

A ian-niaeo?ao ?iiii? ai?n?? c iiaa?oi? a?ao?oo i?enooi? iieaeoey?i?
?iie Nn+ (n = 2 60), /ania? cao?eiee ai?n?? yeeo ii a?aeiioaiith aei
eaca?iiai ?iioeueno aeinyaathoue cia/aiue 300 400 in ? na?ae/aoue i?i
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oaea?ieo i?ioean?a a i?oai? ca ?o ai?n?th.

Caaaeyee eiio?ieueiei aenia?eiaioai ? canoinoaaiith ian-
niaeo?iiao?e/iiai eiiieaeno c ?icae?eueiith caeaoi?noth R 500 aeyaeaiee
aeaioai?aee oa?aeoa? ?iiii? ai?n?? Al+, N5+, N6+.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?ao?oiai? i?oai? «aeaioai?a?noue» ai?n?? Al+
aeeeeeaia neeueiei ?aae?aoe?eiei iaa??aii iiaa?oi? ieaciiaei caonoeii,
a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ca ae?oaee i?e (iaioee ca ia?oee), aoaeo iineeth?oueny
aiane?aeie ?aciiainiiai iiaeeiaiiy Al eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c 308
ii. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?aciiainiiai iiaeeiaiiy ? ca?eueoaiiy aeoiaeo
iao?e/ieo ?ii?a i?e aeiaaaoe? a iaaethi?i??ao i?oaiue aethi?i??ai?
i?enaaeee, a oaeiae ??ci? /ania? caeaaeiino? a?aeaeaii? caeaoiino?
oieaeueii? ieyie aeey aethi?i??ai? oa a?ao?oiai? i?oaiae.

Aeey a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aeyniaiiy aeeaaeo oaea?ieo i?ioean?a o
oi?ioaaiiy ian- oa aia?aaoe/ieo niaeo??a ai?oiaaieo eiiiiiaio e??i
ianeaieo i?oaiae aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oaeiae oiieiie?aeia? i?oai?, ye?
ii?ii?ithaaeenue ye c o?iioaeueiiai oae ? c oeeueiiai aieo.
A?aenooi?noue /aniai? no?oeoo?e a ai?n?? Al+ i?e ii?ii?iaii? c oeeueii?
noi?iie iiynith?oueny oei, ui aiane?aeie iecueei?
oaiia?aoo?ii?ia?aeiino? i?aeeeaaeee aeia?iao?oueny nii/aoeo ie?aea ii
an?e oiauei?, a aeae? iiaeeeaee ?aae?aoe?eiee i?ae?a??a c aieo Al
ieacie ae?? o?eueee ia i?aeeeaaeeo, aeeeeeath/e ai?n?th Si+, O+, H+. Oea
? aeiaeaoeiaei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?ie? oaea?ieo oaeeue a ai?n??
eiiiiiaio.

I/aaeaeii «aaaaoiai?aa» no?oeoo?a ai?n?? Nn+ coiiaeaia oaea?ieie
i?ioeanaie, aeeeeeaieie oaeeath ?icaaioaaeaiiy a i?oai? i?ae ae??th
ieacie, ui ?icoe?th?oueny. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? ne?aeoth/? oaeoe:

a) aeaioai?a?noue ai?n?? N5+, N6+ c ?ioa?aaeii 300 400 in, yeee
ca?aeii ia iiaeia iiynieoe i?/eiaei oa?aeoa?ii ?iiii? ai?n??;

a) a?aenooi?noue aeaioai?aiai oa?aeoa?o a ai?n?? N+, N2+;

a) ii?iaiaee oa?aeoa? aeieeiaiiy aeaioai?aino? (ii??a aeieeiaiiy
oaea?ii? oaee?) q > 5108 Ao/ni2;.

a) ??cea ciaioaiiy ai?n?? N5+, N6+, N60+ i?e ii?ii?iaii? oiiei? ie?aee
ye c oeeueii? oae c o?iioaeueii? noi?iie (oaea?ia oaeey i?ney
aeia?iaoaaiiy ie?aee ii an?e oiauei? aeoiaeeoue a i/euaio i?aeeeaaeeo.

I?e ii?ii?iaii? ianeaieo i?oaiae ? oianoeo ie?aie c o?iioo i?e q > 108
Ao/ni2 aia?a?? iaeo?aeueieo eiiiiiaio ~10 aA a 5 10 ?ac?a ieae/?
?iiieo, ui iiynith?oueny i?enei?aiiyi ?ii?a o iiaea?eiiio aeaeo?e/iiio
oa?? ia a?aieoe? caonoea ieacie.

Aeei?enoaiiy aeey ian-niaeo?iiao?e/iiai aiae?co neeaaeo iiaa?oi?
eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy OO ae?aiaciio ia? nai? ia?aaaae, ine?eueee a
oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeeeai ?aae?coaaoe ?aaeei, a yeiio a?aenooi?e
iaaaaeaiee aoaeo «aeaooiaiai» aeia?iaoaaiiy, ui iniaeeai aaaeeeai i?e
aiae?c? oiieeo ie?aie iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o a ae?aiacii? oiauei l 0,1 iei.
I?e oeueiio aeey aei?ii?ithaaiiy XeCl-eaca?a (308 ii) aonoeiith
iiooaeiino? q = (1 5)107 Ao/ni2 oiaueia oa?o i?oai?, yeee
aeno?aao?oueny ca ?iioeuen, noaiiaeoue 0,01 0,02 iei, a iecuee? aia?a??
ai?oiaaieo ?ii?a (iaeeieoe? aeaeo?iiaieueo) aeathoue ciiao a?aeiiaeoenue
a?ae aia?aiaiae?caoi?a ? oei naiei i?aeaeueoe /ooeea?noue
ian-niaeo?iiao??? a 102 ?ac?a. Na?aaeiy noai?iue ?ii?caoe?? eiiaeainaoo,
ui aeia?iao?oueny, a oaeiio aeiaaeeo ia 1,5 2 ii?yaeee ia?aaeuo?
noai?iue ?ii?caoe?? i?e ii?ii?iaii? i?oai? aei?ii?ithaaiiyi ?*
ae?aiaciio, ui a ii?aeiaii? c iecueeeie aia?a?yie ai?oiaaieo ?ii?a aea?
ciiao iiieceoe eiioeaio?aoe?eio iaaeo ?a?no?aoe?? aeii?oie a 103 104
?ac?a, aeia?aoe ?? aei 10-8%.

I?aeaeuaiiy aonoeie iiooaeiino? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aei q (1
3)108 Ao/ni2 i?eaiaeeoue aei ii/aoeo aeaooiaiai aeia?iaoaaiiy,
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ??ceei ca?eueoaiiyi (a 10 20 ?ac?a) oiaueie
aeia?iaoaaiiai ca ?iioeuen oa?o, a oaeiae aia?a?e ai?oiaaieo ca ?iioeuen
?ii?a, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy ?icae?eueii? caeaoiino? eaca?iiai
ian-niaeo?iiao?a i?e a?aenooiino? aia?aiaiae?caoi?a. Aiae?c aia?aaoe/ieo
niaeo??a ai?oiaaieo ?c «caa?oaeiaieo» i?oaiae ?ii?a, io?eiaieo i?e q =
5108 Ao/ni2 iieacaa, ui yeui i?e aonoeiao iiooaeiino? q = 3107 Ao/ni2
iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy aia?a?e, iai?eeeaae aeey Al, neeaaeathoue ~2 aA,
oi i?e q = 5108 Ao/ni2 aia?a?? ?ii?a aeinyaathoue aeanyoe?a
aeaeo?iiaieueo.

I?e oaeeo oiiaao ii?ii?iaiiy ?acii c ai?n??th aeiaeaoi?o ?ii?a a
ian-niaeo?ao i?enooi? a?ae’?ii? ?iie oai?ai? aiane?aeie ?aeiia?iaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a o ieaci?. Aiae?c o?eaaeino? ai?n?? oeeo eiiiiiaio c
aeiiiiiaith aiae?caoi?a oeio ian-?aoeaeo?iia aea? cia/aiiy o?eaaeino?
~100 in, oa?aeoa?i? aeey ?o ooai?aiiy a ?aeiia?ioth/?e ?iceueioi?e
eaca?i?e ieaci?. Aeey aethi?i??ai? i?oai? aia?a?? ?ii?a Al+ a 2 ?ace
ia?aaeuothoue aia?a?? Al-, ui aeaco? ia aaaiiee aianie (50%) i?enei?aiiy
?ii?a Al+ aeaeo?e/iei iieai ia iaae? ieaciiaiai caonoeo. ?io? ( 50%)
aia?a?? aeiaeaoi?o ? 100% aia?a?? a?ae’?iieo ?ii?a iiaeooue aooe iaaoo?
aiane?aeie aaciaeeiai?/iiai oa ni?aoaea?iiai iaoai?ci?a a ieaci?, ui
?icoe?th?oueny.

Oaeei /eiii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aciiainii? ? ia?aciiainii? ae?? ia i?oaiue
?iioeueniiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy OO ae?aiaciio aeaei iiaeeea?noue:

1. Canoinoaaoe eaaioiaee i?aeneethaa/ yne?aaino? (EIss) ia aac?
aeoeaiiai aeaiaioa eaca?a ia ia?ao i?ae? aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iaeanoth
ae?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia iiaa?oith c ?icae?eaiiyi a /an? ~25
in.

2. Aeyaeoe neeaaeiee iaoai?ci ?iiii? ai?n??, aeeeeeaiee ?aae?aoe?eiei
iaa??aii i?oai? c aieo ieaciiaiai caonoeo, a oaeiae oaea?ieie i?ioeanaie
a i?oai?.

3. Cai?iiiioaaoe canoinoaaoe ?iiio ai?n?th i?ae ae??th oaea?ieo oaeeue
ye aeiaeaoeiaa aeaea?aei ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?aeaoiii? ca’ycee a no?oeoo??
iiaa?oi?.

4. Ioe?ieoe i?eioeeiia? iaiaaeaiiy ?icae?eueii? caeaoiino? eaca?iiai
/aniaii?ie?oiiai ian-niaeo?iiao?a.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeai? aeai? ia?oeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ai?n?? ?ii?a, ooai?aieo i?e aca?iiae?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy
EII c iiaa?oiath oaa?aeiai o?ea. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue c iaoith
aeyniaiiy o?ceee iniiaieo iaoai?ci?a ?ii?caoe?? oa aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
?iiii? ai?n??, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae oiia oieonoaaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII
ia iiaa?oith. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a?aee?eaathoue iiaeeeaino?
a?eueo oe?ieiai ? aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy eaca??a ia naiiiaiaaeaieo
ia?aoiaeao a ia?ao iaoae?a, a o./. a eaca?i?e ian-niaeo?iiao???.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a aeei?enoiaoaaany EII c ia?aiao?aie:
510,6; 578,2 ii; na?aaeiy iiooaei?noue P = 16 Ao; /anoioa ne?aeoaaiiy
?iioeuen?a fiiao = 8 10 eAoe, o?eaae?noue ia iai?aaenio? e = 20 in,
yeee aeaaaa iiaeeea?noue io?eioaaoe ia i?oai? aonoeio iiooaeiino?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy q 51011 Ao/ni2.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ae?? ia i?oaiue a?eueo aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo eaca??a
(iaiaeeiiaiai oa aeneia?iiai) ?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/ia aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII
aeeeeea? ai?n?th iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieo eiiiiiaio, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
nooo?ai ni?inoeoe eiino?oeoe?th ian-niaeo?iiao?a, a?aeiiaeaoenue a?ae
aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai naeaeoi?a. I?e ae?? aei?ii?ith-aaiiy EII ia iiaa?oith
oa?aeoa?i? aonoeie ieaciiaiai caonoeo ia 3 4 ii?yaeee ieae/?, i?ae i?e
canoinoaaii? iaiaeeiiaiai eaca?a. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aoaeo
aeaaa?anueeiai ae?aioaaiiy ? iacia/iei, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaii
ae?yoe aeaeo?e/ieie iieyie ia ieaciiaee caonoie aaea ia ii/aoeia?e
noaae?? ?iceueioo.

Iaeii/anii, aenieee eiao?oe??io iaeiii?io?aeiiai i?aeneeaiiy EII
ni?e/eith? canoinoaaiiy eiai ia o?eueee ye ?ino?oiaio aeey iaa??aaiiy oa
?ii?caoe?? iiaa?oi?, aea ? a yeino? i?aeneethaa/a yne?aaino?, ui aea?
ciiao niinoa??aaoe ca iaeanoth aca?iiae?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII c
iiaa?oiath. I?e /iio c ii/aoeii canoinoaaiiy EII aeey ?ii?caoe??
iiaa?oi? c’yaeeanue oi?eaeueia iiaeeea?noue noi?noeoe a iaeiiio i?eeaae?
eaca?iee ian-niaeo?iiao? oa eaca?iee i?iaeoe?eiee i?e?ineii. Oaea
nenoaia aoea noai?aia ? c ?? aeiiiiiaith aeine?aeaeoaaeynue ?iiia ai?n?y
c iaeii/aniith a?coae?caoe??th iaeano? oa naiiai i?ioeano i?iaia?aeai?o.
Canoiniaoaaeenue aeaa aeoeaieo aeaiaioa EII, iaeei c yeeo aeia?iaoaaa oa
?ii?coaaa iiaa?oith, a ae?oaee i?aoethaaa a ?aaeei? eaaioiaiai
i?aeneethaa/a yne?aaino? — oaeaee?niiai caoai?a c /aniaei ?icae?eaiiyi
25 in. I?e neio?iiiiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe aeoeaieo aeaiaio?a EII ?
iiaeeea?noue a?coae?coaaoe aeaye? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny iiaeeco
oieaeueii? ieiueie oieonoth/i? e?ice. Ca aeiiiiiaith noai?aii?
i?iaeoe?eii? nenoaie aoee i?iaaaeai? niinoa?aaeaiiy iiaa?oi? i?e t 10
ien i?ney ae?? iaa??aath/iai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ine?eueee
ooai?aia eaca?ia ieacia noa? i?aeoe/ii i?ici?ith c oeueiai iiiaioo /ano.
Neaioth/e cao?eieo i?ae ?iioeuenaie caioneo iaa??aath/iai ?
i?aeneethth/iai aeoeaieo aeaiaio?a i?iaiaeeeeny niinoa?aaeaiiy iiaa?oi?
i?oai? a i?ae?iioeueniee ia??iae, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeine?aeeoe
aeeiai?eo ?aeaenaoe?? oaiia?aoo?e a oeae ia??iae /ano.

I?e ca?eueoaii? /anoioe ne?aeoaaiiy ?iioeuen?a aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII c
iino?eiith aia?a??th ii/eiath/e c iaaii? /anoioe a?aeiiniee aeo?ae ?ii?a
ca?eueoo?oueny o 1,5 2,0 ?ace. I?e oeueiio neio?iiia niinoa?aaeaiiy
i?ioeano ieaciiooai?aiiy a eaca?iee i?iaeoe?eiee i?e?ineii aeyaey? iiyao
ieoie naiioieonoaaiiy c i?aeaeuaiith aeaeo?iiiith oaiia?aoo?ith Te 10
12 aA oa eiioeaio?aoe??th ne 51019 ni-3 . Oaeee aoaeo ca’ycaiee c
anoaiiaeaiiyi eieaeueieo iaiaeii??aeiinoae oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oi?, ui
naiii?aeo?eiothoueny a i?ae?iioeueniee ia??iae, ii/eiath/e c aeayei?
na?aaeiuei? oaiia?aoo?e, yea aecia/a?oueny /anoioith ne?aeoaaiiy
?iioeuen?a.

Oe?eaaee aoaeo niinoa??aa?oueny i?e o?eaae?e (~106 ?iioeuen?a) ae??
aino?i noieoniaaiiai ia iiaa?oith aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII c aonoeiith
iiooaeiino? 1010 1011 Ao/ni2. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth aenia?eiaio?a ?
oa, ui noieoniaaia aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiiaaea? a iaeio ? oo ae oi/eo
i?oai?. Iane?aeeii oeueiai ?: a) ooai?aiiy ia i?oai? c ieeiii /ano (105
106 ?iioeuen?a) ai?iiee; a) i?aeo?eioaaiiy aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e
ii?ii?ithaaii? ae?eyiee i?oai? a i?ae?iioeueniee ia??iae.
?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/ia ae?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei, ui a ooai?ai?e
ai?iioe? a i?ae?iioeueniee ia??iae i?aeo?eio?oueny aeniea na?aaeiy
oaiia?aoo?a (2000 3500 N), yea caeaaeeoue a?ae na?aaeiuei? iiooaeiino?
(/anoioe ne?aeoaaiiy) ?iioeuen?a. A oeae ia??iae c ai?iiee iino?eii
ai?oo?oueny iio?e /anoeiie, eiioeaio?aoe?y yeeo aecia/a?oueny
oaiia?aoo?ith no?iie. sse iieacothoue ioe?iee i?e oaeeo oaiia?aoo?ao
ia?aae i?eoiaeii ne?aeoth/iai eaca?iiai ?iioeuena eiioeaio?aoe?y
aeia?aieo /anoeiie o ai?iioe? aeey aoaeaoeth oa e?aii?th aeinyaa? (1
5)1016 ni-3. Oeae aea aoaeo ia? i?noea, eiee ia?aoyaeea eaonoeee e?ice
ciaoiaeeoueny ia?aae iiaa?oiath ieinei? i?oai? ? iio?e aeia?aieo a
i?ae?iioeueniee ia??iae eiiiiiaio ia?aoeia? iaeanoue c iaeneiaeueiith
?ioaineai?noth aei?ii?ithaaiiy. I?e oaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo iiaeeeaa iiyaa
nooo?aiai aeeaaeo i?ioean?a aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? o caaaeueio
e?euee?noue ?ii?a. Ioe?iee iieacothoue, ui i?e no = 1016 1017 ni-3,
ii/eiath/e c aonoei iioieo q = 1010 Ao/ni2 aeiaeaoeiaee aeeaae ?ii?a,
aeeeeeaiee aaaaoioioiiiith ?ii?caoe??th, neeaaea? Ni = 108 109,
ii?yaeie aaee/eie yeeo ii??aiyiee c e?euee?noth ?ii?a, ooai?aieo
ieaciiaeie i?ioeanaie.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? noaiaiaaa caeaaei?noue e?eueeino? ?ii?a,
ooai?aieo ca ?iioeuen, a?ae aonoeie iioieo c iieacieeii noaiaiy k, ui
a?aeiia?aea? /eneo iaiao?aeieo aeey aeoo aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe??
oioii?a. Aeiaeaoeiaei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai aoaeoo ? ii?iaiaa
caeaaei?noue aaaaoioioiiii? aeiaaaee a ?iiiee no?oi a?ae /anoioe
ne?aeoaaiiy ?iioeuen?a (? ca’ycaiith c iath oaiia?aoo?ith oa
eiioeaio?aoe??th /anoeiie) i?e iino?ei?e ?iioeueni?e iiooaeiino?.

A iiaeaeueoeo aenia?eiaioao aeey aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee ?iiii? ai?n?? c
oieaeueii? ieyie oieonoth/i? e?ice (ia’?eoeaa) canoiniaoaaany EIss,
noai?aiee ia aac? iacaeaaeiiai a?ae iaa??aath/iai eaca?a aeoeaiiai
aeaiaioa EII. Na?oeineea EIss aeaaaea ciiao i?aoethaaoe iaa?oue a
?aaeei? iaeiie?aoieo ?iioeuen?a i?e i?iaeooaaii? aeo?aeiiai io/ea, yeee
iana cia?aaeaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei ia ie?aeo oioieaia?e. Caaaeyee oeueiio
EIss i?a neio?iiii i?aoethaaoe c aoaeue-yeei (iai?eeeaae aeneia?iei)
iaa??aath/ei eaca?ii a ?aaeei? iaeiie?aoieo ?iioeuen?a. I?iaaaeai?
aenia?eiaioe aeaee ciiao aeyaeoe /ioe?e ??ci? ?aaeeie ii?ii?iaiiy
i?oai?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ye?nii ??cieie ian-niaeo?aie oa oi?iith
?iioeuen?a ?iiii? ai?n??, ui ?i a?aeiia?aea?.

Aeaooiaee ?aaeei ?aae?co?oueny i?e iaia?a?aiiio ia?ai?uaii? (iaa?oaii?)
i?oai? ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iacia/iith cao?eieith 50 in ai?n?? ii
a?aeiioaiith aei eaca?iiai ?iioeuena, coiiaeaiith naiith aeeiai?eith
ooai?aiiy ieaciiaiai caonoeo oa a?aenooi?noth ai?n?? a i?ae?iioeueniee
ia??iae.

Aaaaoioioiiiee ?aaeei ?aae?co?oueny i?e aeinyaiaii? oaiia?aoo?e
iiaa?oi? a i?ae?iioeueniee ia??iae 3600K (eiio?ieueiaaii? c aeiiiiiaith
EIss), coiiaeaii? aaeeeith /anoioith ne?aeoaaiiy ?iioeuen?a. Iane?aeeii
oeueiai ? oa?iiai?n?y iaeo?aeueieo eiiiiiaio a i?ae?iioeueniee ia??iae c
?o aaaaoioioiiiith ?ii?caoe??th ianooiiei eaca?iei ?iioeuenii.

«Eoioeyoeaiee» ?aaeei ?aae?co?oueny eiee aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII iiiaaea? o
ai?iieo, ooai?aio ae??th 105 106 ?iioeuen?a. Niinoa??aa?oueny ai?n?y
eeanoa?ieo ?ii?a N2+; N3+; N4+; N5+; N6+; N60+ c cai?ciaiiyi ii
a?aeiioaiith aei eaca?iiai ?iioeuena ia 100 150 in, yea iiynith?oueny
?ia?oe?ei?noth eoioeyoeaieo i?ioean?a. Oeae ?aaeei iiaeia cae?enieoe
oaeiae i?e oieonoaaii? iaeiie?aoiiai eaca?iiai ?iioeuena o ai?iieo.

Ia?ao?aeiee — ?aaeei, a yeiio cae?eniththoueny aeaa iaoai?cie
?ii?caoe??: aeaooiaee, i?aeoe/ii neio?iiiee c eaca?iei ?iioeuenii oa
oa?iiai?n?y i?ioyaii 500 700 in i?ney cae?i/aiiy eaca?iiai ?iioeuena.
O?eaae?noue oa?ii?iioeuena ei?aeth? c ?aeaenaoe??th oaiia?aoo?e a
i?ae?iioeueniee ia??iae.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaio?a iieacaee, ui canoinoaaiiy EII
aeey oe?eae ian-niaeo?iiao??? aea? ciiao io?eioaaoe ian-niaeo?e, ye?
a?aeia?aaeathoue neeaae ye i?inoeo oae ? neeaaeieo i?oaiae. I?e oeueiio
cai?iiiiiaaia oa ?aae?ciaaia noaia aiae?oe/iiai i?eeaaeo eaca?iee
ian-niaeo?iiao? — i?iaeoe?eiee i?e?ineii.

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??.

1. Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy nenoaiaoe/ieo aenia?eiaio?a noai?aiee eaca?iee
ian-niaeo?iiao?e/iee eiiieaen, yeee aeaaaa iiaeeea?noue aeine?aeaeoaaoe
aeeiai?eo ai?n?? eiiiiiaio eaca?ii? ieacie, noai?aii? ae??th ia i?oaiue
eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aonoeiith iiooaeiino? q = 5107 51011 Ao/ni2.

2. O aeaeyae? eaai?aoi?iiai iaeaoa iaie ?aae?ciaaia noaia aiae?oe/iiai
i?eeaaeo: eaca?iee ian-niaeo?iiao? — i?iaeoe?eiee i?e?ineii.

3. C aeiiiiiaith /aniaii?ie?oiiai ian-niaeo?iiao?a c /aniaei
oieonoaaiiyi oa eaaioiaiai i?aeneethaa/a yne?aaino? (EIss), ui
i?aoethaaa a ?aaeei? oaeaee?niiai caoai?o, aeyaeaii, ui i?e ae??
aei?ii?ithaaiiy XeCl (308 ii) eaca?a ia aethi?i??ao i?oaiue aiane?aeie
eiai ?aciiainiiai iiaeeiaiiy u?eueiei yae?ii ieacie ?iioeuen ?iiii?
ai?n?? ei?aeth? a /an? c eiao?oe??ioii a?aeaeaaiiy iaeano? aca?iiae?? ?
ia? aeaa iaeneioie. Aeei?enoaiiy ?aciiainii iiaeeiath/i? i?enaaeee aei
i?oai? aea? iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeueoe /ooeea?noue eaca?ii?
ian-niaeo?iiao???.

4. Aeine?aeaeaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? ae?? ia iiaa?oith eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aonoeiith iiooaeiino? q 109 Ao/ni2 iaoai?/ia ?aaeoe?y
ieaciiaiai caonoeo caoaeaeo? a i?oai? oaea?i? oaee?, ye? a naith /a?ao
aeeeeeathoue ci?uaio a /an? ia 300 400 in ii a?aeiioaiith aei eaca?iiai
?iioeuena ai?n?th iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieo eeanoa??a. ?iiio ai?n?th i?ae
ae??th oaea?ieo oaeeue iiaeia aeei?enoaoe ye aeiaeaoeiaa aeaea?aei
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?aeaoiii? ca’ycee a no?oeoo?? iiaa?oi?.

5. Aeyaeai? iae?i?ei? aoaeoe ?ii?caoe?? oa naiioieonoaaiiy i?e ae??
?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII ia iiaa?oith, iia’ycai? c
aeieeiaiiyi no?eeeo i?inoi?iaeo no?oeoo? oa aeine?aeaeaia ?o ei?aeyoe?y
c iniaeeainoyie ?iiii? ai?n??.

6. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue ?iiii? ai?n?? i?ae ae??th ia iiaa?oith
aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII eeaneo?eiaai? oae? ye?nii ??ci? ?aaeeie ?ii?caoe??:
a) aeaooiaee; a) aaaaoioioiiiee; a) «eoioeyoeaiee»; a) oa?iiai?n?eiee,
coiiaeai? eiai /aniaeie ? aia?aaoe/ieie ia?aiao?aie oa oiiaaie
oieonoaaiiy.

7. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea
ca?eueoaiiy /ooeeaino? eaca?ii? ian-niaeo?iiao??? a 5 10 ?ac?a ca
aeiiiiiaith ?aciiainii-iiaeeiath/i? i?enaaeee.

8. Canoinoaaiiy aeey aeia?iaoaaiiy oa ?ii?caoe?? iiaa?oi? XeCl-eaca?a
aeaei iiaeeea?noue iie?aueoe ?icae?eueio caeaoi?noue ii aeeaei? eaca?ii?
ian-niaeo?iiao??? aei li 0,01 iei, ia a?aei?io a?ae li = 0,1 iei,
io?eiaio i?e canoinoaaii? ?* aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaiaeeiiaiai eaca?a.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E AAOI?A C OAIE AeENA?OAOe??

1. A.I. Iaeeiei, E.E. Oeiii, E.E. Iia/ei, A.I. Aeiaio, A.ss. Oiiye
Iiauoaiea yia?aee eceo/aiey e ?ano?na ?aaiou iaeiaaaa?eoiiai
aaci?ac?yaeiiai eiioeuenii-ia?eiaee/aneiai yeneia?iiai XeCl-eaca?a //
Eaaioiaay yeaeo?iieea. — 1994. — o.21. — ?12. — n.1174-1176.

2. I.I.Iae?i?i, E.E.Oeiii, ?.?.Iia/ei, A.I.Aeiaio, A.ss.Oiiye
O?ceei-o?i?/i? iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo oa ?ano?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee iaeiaaaa?eoiiai aaci?ic?yaeiiai ?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/-iiai
aeneia?iiai XeCl-eaca?a // OOAE. — 1995. — o.40. — ?3. — n.194-197.

3. I.N.Aaeie?eieoeeee, E.E.Oeiii, A.I.Iaeeiei, E.E.Iia/ei, A.A.Oeiaa,
A.A.A?aneaaaoe, N.A.Aaaeieeiia, A.I.Aeiaio, A.ss.Oiiye Aeeaaiinoeea
aaci?ac?yaeiiai eiioeuenii-ia?eiaee/aneiai iaeiaaaa?eoiiai XeCl-eaca?a n
HCl e BCl3 aaeiaaiiuie aeiii?aie // Eaaioiaay yeaeo?iieea. (Nai?i.
iao/iuo o?oaeia AI Oe?aeiu). — E: — 1993. — a.45. — n. 30-37.

4. A.I.Iaeeiei, E.E.Oeiii, E.E.Iia/ei, I.N.Aaeie?eieoeeee, A.ss.Oiiye
Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia ?aaioo XeCl-eaca?a //
Eaaioiaay yeaeo?iieea. (Nai?i. iao/iuo o?oaeia AI Oe?aeiu). — E: — 1994.
— a.46. — n.104-106.

5. ?.?.Iia/ei, E.E.Oeiii, A.ss.Oii’ye Aeeiai?ea ?iiii? ai?n?? i?e
?aciiainiiio ? ia?aciiainiiio iiaeeiaii? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
ieaciith ia iiaa?oi? oaa?aeiai o?ea // AEo?iae o?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.
— 1996. — o.1. — ?1. — n.46-51.

6. Iaeeiei A.I., Iia/ei E.E., Oeiaa A.A., Oai/ae A.A., Oiiye A.ss.
Oa?aeoa? eiiiie yienne i?e aicaeaenoaee eiioeuenii-ia?eiaee/aneiai
eceo/aiey eaca?a ia ia?ao iaaee ia i?inoua e neiaeiua ieoaie //
Iao/ii-oaoi.na.: «Iao?ieia. iaani. i?iecaiaenoaa e eiio?.-ecia?eo.
oaoieea. — Oaeai?iae. — 1989. — aui.7. — n.40-44.

7. I.I.Opachko, L.L.Shimon, A.N.Malinin, B.V.Shkoba, B.J.Homjak
Mass-spectrometer and projecting microscope setup // V Summer School and
International Symposium on the Physics of the Ionised gases. —
Dubrovnic. — 1990. — p.2.26.

8. A.N.Malinin, I.I.Opachko, L.L.Shimon, B.V.Shkoba, B.Ja.Homjak, Laser
mass-spectrometry of the surfaces of XeCl laser active elements Laser
and particle beams // Proc. 21ECLIM. — Warsawa. — 1991. pp.181-183.

9. A.N.Malinin, I.I.Opachko, L.L.Shimon, B.V.Shkoba, B.Ja.Homjak Ions
emission peculiarities at interaction of copper laser periodic pulse
with a solid surface // Proc. XXVII Colloquium Spectroscopicum
Internationale. — Norway. — Bergen. — Griey Hall. — 1991. — June 9-14.

10. I.N.Aaeie?eieoeeee, A.I.Aeiaio, A.I.Iaeeiei, E.E.Iia/ei, A.ss.Oiiye,
E.E.Oeiii, A.A.Oeiaa Eaca?iay iann-niaeo?iiao?ey iiaa?oiinoe
eiino?oeoeaiuo yeaiaioia XeCl-eaca?a // Oacenu aeieeaaeia III
Iaae?anioaeeeaineiai naieia?a. — A?iaeii. — 1992. — n.23.

11. A.I.Iaeeiei, I.N.Aaeie?eieoeeee, A.A.A?aneaaaoe, A.I.Aeiaio,
N.A.Aaaeieeiia, E.E.Iia/ei, A.ss.Oiiye, E.E.Oeiii, A.A.Oeiaa Aeeyiea
ninoaaa, i?eianae e oaiia?aoo?u ia aaia?aoeeth e ?ano?n ?aaiou
XeCl-eaca?a // Oacenu aeieeaaeia III Iaae?anioaeeeaineiai naieia?a. —
A?iaeii. — 1992. — n.24.

12. A.I.Iaeeiei, I.N.Aaeie?eieoeeee, E.E.Oeiii, E.E.Iia/ei, A.A.Oeiaa,
A.I.Aeiaio, A.ss.Oiiye ?aaioa XeCl-eaca?a a oe?ieii oaiia?aoo?iii
eioa?aaea // Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiioa?aioeey «Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu
eaca?iie oeceee e niaeo?ineiiee». — A?iaeii. — 1993. — n.211-213.

13. A.N. Malinin, N.S. Belokrinitsky, L.L. Shimon, I.I. Opachko, B.V.
Shkoba, B.Ya. Khomyak Diagnostics of XeCl-laser in wide temperature
range // Proceedings of Satelite Conf. to Sixteenth Congress of
Commission for Optics. — Hungary. — Pech. — 1993. — v.2. — p.88-91.

14. I.I. Opachko, L.L. Shimon, A.N. Malinin, B.V. Shkoba, B.Ya. Khomyak
Mass-spectrometric study of ablation and stimulated desorption processes
under UV-radiation of excimer XeCl-laser // Proceedings of Satelite
Conf. to Sixteenth Congress of Commission for Optics. — Hungary. — Pech.
— 1993. — v.2. — p.92.

15. B.V.Shkoba, L.L.Shimon, I.I.Opachko, A.N.Malinin, B.Ya.Khomyak
Multivave pulsed UV excimer laser // National physics conference. —
Romania. — Sibiu. — 1994. — (September 21-24). — p.87.

16. I.I.Opachko, L.L.Shimon, A.N.Malinin, B.V.Shkoba, V.M.Dobosh,
B.Ya.Khomyak Mass-spectrometric of ablation and stimulated desorption
processes under UV-radiation of XeCl-laser // National physics
conference. — Romania. — Sibiu. — 1994. — (September 21-24). — p.88.

17. A.N.Malinin, L.L.Shimon, I.I.Opachko, B.V.Shkoba, V.M.Dobosh,
B.Ya.Khomyak Physico-chemical possibilities of increasing energy and
life-time characterystics of a compact gas-discharge pulse periodic
excimer XeCl-laser // National physics conference. — Romania. — Sibiu. —
1994. — (September 21-24). — p.94.

18. I.I.Iae?i?i, E.E.Oeiii, ?.?.Iia/ei, A.ss.Oii’ye O?ceei-o?i?/i?
iiaeeeaino? iie?auaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo oa ?ano?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iaeiaaaa?eoiiai aaci?ic?yaeiiai ?iioeuenii- ia??iaee/iiai aeneia?iiai
XeCl-eaca?a // I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y i?enay/aia 150-??//th
a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy aeaeaoiiai oe?a?inueeiai o?ceea ? aeaeo?ioaoi?ea
?aaia Ioethy. — Euea?a. — 1995. — n.165-166.

19. A.N.Malinin, L.L.Shimon, I.I.Opachko, V.M.Dobosh, B.Ya.Khomyak
Physico- chemical ways of enhancing the output radiation energy and
service life of a compact gas-discharge pulse-periodic excimer XeCl
laser // Proc. XX IQEC`96. — Sydney. — 1996. — WL84.

Oii’ye A.ss. Iniaeeaino? i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy ?ii?ciaaieo eiiiiiaio
eaca?ii? ieacie i?ae ae??th ia iiaa?oith aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeneia?iiai
eaca?a oa eaca?a ia ia?ao i?ae?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ?c niaoe?aeueiino? 01.04.04. — o?ce/ia
aeaeo?ii?ea. — Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, i.Oaeai?iae,
1998?.

Caoeuathoueny 19 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

Aeine?aeaeaia aeeiai?ea ?iiii? ai?n?? i?e ?aciiainiiio ?
ia?aciiain-iiio iiaeeiaii? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiath ? ??
ei?aeyoe?y c a?aeaeaieie aeanoeainoyie iaeano? iiaeeiaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaia
canoinoaaiiy aeoeaiiai aeaiaioa EII aeey oaeaee?nii? ?a?no?aoe??
a?aeaeaieo aeanoeainoae ii?ii?ithaaii? i?oai?. Anoaiiaeai? iniaee-aino?
ae?? ia iiaa?oith ?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy EII.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeneia?iee eaca?, eaca? ia ia?ao i?ae?, ?aciiainia ?
ia?aciiainia iiaeeiaiiy, eaca?ia ian-niaeo?iiao??y, ?iiia ai?n?y,
eaca?ia ieacia.

Oiiye A.ss. Iniaaiiinoe i?ioeannia ia?aciaaiey eiieciaaiiuo eiiiiiaio
eaca?iie ieaciu iiae aeaenoaeai ia iiaa?oiinoue eceo/aiey yeneia?iiai
eaca?a e eaca?a ia ia?ao iaaee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.04. — oece/aneay
yeaeo?iieea. — Oaeai?iaeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, a.Oaeai?iae,
1998a.

Caueuathony 19 iao/iuo ?aaio.

A ?aaioa aia?aua n iiiiuueth eaaioiaiai oneeeoaey y?einoe (EIss) ia
aaca aeoeaiiai yeaiaioa eaca?a ia ia?ao iaaee enneaaeiaaia aeeiaieea
eiiiie yiennee i?e ?aciiainiii e ia?aciiainiii iiaeiuaiee eaca?iiai
eceo/aiey ia?ii e aa ei??aeyoeey n io?aaeaoaeueiuie niiniaiinoyie
iaeanoe iiaeiuaiey. I?e yoii aeey aethieiey aiciiaeii ?aciiainiia
iiaeiuaiea ia?ii eceo/aiey XeCl-eaca?a (308 ii) n iineaaeothuei
ia?aeceo/aieai. ?an/aou aeey yoiai neo/ay aeatho caaeneiinoue io a?aiaie
oa?aeoa?a eiiiie yiennee, a oaeaea oaiia?aoo?u e eiioeaio?aoeee yae?a
ieaciaiiiai naonoea n aeaoiy iaeneioiaie. Yoe ia?aiao?u aeeytho ia
aeeiaieeo io?aaeaoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae ieaciu. A neo/aa ia?aciiainii
iiaeiuathuae a?aoeoiaie ieoaie eiaai, niioaaonoaaiii, caaeneiinoe
yiennee e aeeiaieee eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia ieaciu n iaeiei iaeneioiii.

Eniieueciaaiea aeey iann-niaeo?iiao?e/aneiai aiaeeca ninoaaa
iiaa?oiinoe eaca?iiai eceo/aiey OO aeeaiaciia eiaao naie i?aeiouanoaa,
iineieueeo a yoii neo/aa aiciiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue ?aaeei, a eioi?ii
ionoonoaoao iaaeaeaoaeueiue yooaeo «ac?uaiiai» enia?aiey, /oi iniaaiii
aaaeii i?e aiaeeca oiieeo ieaiie iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy a aeeaiaciia oieuei
l 0,1 iei. I?e yoii aeey eceo/aiey XeCl-eaca?a (308 ii) ieioiinoueth
iiuiinoe q = (1 5)107 Ao/ni2 oieueia neiy ieoaie, yeno?aae?oaiiai ca
eiioeuen, ninoaaeyao 0,01 0,02 iei, a ieceea yia?aee aieooe?iaaiiuo
eiiia (aaeeieoeu yeaeo?iiaieueo) aeatho aiciiaeiinoue ioeacaoueny io
yia?aiaiaeecaoi?a, iiaunea, oai naiui, /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
iann-niaeo?iiao?ee a 102 ?ac. N?aaeiyy noaiaiue eiiecaoeee enia?yaiiai
eiiaeainaoa a yoii neo/aa ia 1,5 2 ii?yaeea i?aauoaao noaiaiue
eiiecaoeee i?e iaeo/aiee ieoaie eceo/aieai EE aeeaiaciia, /oi a
ni/aoaiee n ieceeie yia?aeyie aieooe?iaaiiuo eiiia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
iiieceoue eiioeaio?aoeeiiioth a?aieoeo ?aaeno?aoeee i?eianae a 103 104
?ac, e aeiaanoe aa aei 10-8%.

A ?aaioa, oaeaea, i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey yiennee eiiia
iiae aeaenoaeai ia iiaa?oiinoue eceo/aiey eaca?a ia ia?ao iaaee (EII). A
ioee/ea io eiioeueniuo eaca?ia eiioeuenii-ia?eiaee/aneee oa?aeoa? (n
aunieie /anoioie neaaeiaaiey eiioeuenia ~10 eAoe) eceo/aiey EII aiineo
naie iniaaiiinoe a yienneth, iaoneiaeaiiua:

— aunieie n?aaeiae iaaeaeoeiioeueniie oaiia?aoo?ie iiaa?oiinoe e
naycaiiie n iae iai?a?uaiie ninoaaeythuae iioiea /anoeoe;

— ia?aciaaieai e?aoa?a e naycaiiuie n yoei eoioeyoeaiuie i?ioeannaie
i?e ?anoe?aiee ia?aciaaiiie ieaciu.

N o/aoii yoeo iniaaiiinoae e a caaeneiinoe io oneiaee oieone?iaaiey
auaeaeaiu e eeanneoeoee?iaaiu /aou?a ea/anoaaiii ?aciuo ?aaeeia
eiiecaoeee: ac?uaiie, iiiaioioiiiue, «eoioeyoeaiue» e oa?iiyienneiiiue.
Auyaeaiu iaeeiaeiua yooaeou eiiecaoeee e naiioieone?iaee iiae aeaenoaeai
eiioeuenii-ia?eiaee/aneiai eceo/aiey EII ia iiaa?oiinoue naycaiiua n
aicieeiiaaieai onoie/eauo i?ino?ainoaaiiuo no?oeoo? e enneaaeiaaia eo
ei??aeyoeey n iniaaiiinoyie eiiiie yiennee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeneia?iue eaca?, eaca? ia ia?ao iaaee, ?aciiainiia e
ia?aciiainiia iiaeiuaiea, eaca?iay iann-niaeo?iiao?ey, eiiiay yienney,
eaca?iay ieacia.

Khomyak B.Ya. The Peculiarities of the Processes for the Formation of
Laser Plasma Ionized Components Under the Action of the Radiation of
Excimer and Copper Vapour Lasers onto the Surface. — Manuscript.

Present this for a candidate’s of physical and mathematical sciences
on scientific discipline 01.04.04. — physical electronics — Uzhgorod
State University, Uzhgorod, 1998.

19 scientific works are being defended.

The ionic emission dynamics at resonant and nonresonant absorption of
laser radiation by the surface and its correlation with reflective
properties of the absorption region has been investigated. The usage of
CVL active element has been proposed for a speedy recording of
reflective properties of the target under irradiation. The peculiarities
of the action of CVL pulsed — periodic radiation have been established.

Key words: excimer laser, copper vapour laser, resonant and
nonre-sonant absorption, laser mass-spectrometry, ion emission, laser
plasma.

Похожие записи