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IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?C?IEIA?? ?IAI? I.I. AIAIIIEUeOess

_____________________________________________________________________

 Aieaeia?ia Ieaia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE: 616.018.74-001:546.41:612.017

INIAEEAINO? IIOEIAeAEAIIss AIAeIOAE?TH 

I?E ?ICAEOEO

AENIA?EIAIOAEUeIIAI  A?OA??INEEA?ICO

IAIEAAA?A?ANUeEIAI OEIO

14.03.04. – iaoieia?/ia o?c?ieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

EE?A   1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaoieia?/ii? o?c?ieia??

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo  ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey (i.
Ee?a)

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeoeue TH??e A?eoi?iae/,

IIO ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaoio?c?ieia??

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Noa/aiei Ethaeieea Ieaenaiae??aia,

IIO ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, IAeEOe,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???
aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?aoonue Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/,

IAe? ?i.aeaae. I.Ae. No?aaeanei IIC
Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???
iaoio?c?ieia??

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaaeioia Aaaono Ieeeiiae/,

EIAII, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aa?iioieia?? AII Oe?a?ie,

eaai?aoi??y iaoio?c?ieia?? ?
?ioiieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 ” ethoiai 1999 ?. i “ 14 ” aiae.
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.198.01 i?e
?inoeooo? o?c?ieia?? ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252024, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aiaiiieueoey, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
o?c?ieia??

?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252024, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aiaiiieueoey, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 22 ” n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
Ni?ie?ia-Ia??ia C.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. A?oa??ineea?ic iaieaaa?a?anueeiai oeio,
oa?aeoa?iei i?iyaii yeiai ? iaae?aeaeueoeeiic, cono??/a?oueny oae naii
/anoi, ye aoa?ineea?ic, aea e aein? eeoa?oueny iaeiaea/aiith oi?iith
(Schoen F.J., 1994; Nieieiaa ?.E., 1996). Caaaeueiia?aeiii, ui
aoa?ineea?ic ?icaeaa?oueny a ae?eyieao ia?aeiiiai iioeiaeaeaiiy
aiaeioae?th (Ross R., Glomset J.A., 1976; Shimokava H., 1998). A oie aea
/an ?icaeoie iaae?aeaeueoeeiico a a?oa??aeuei?e no?ioe? aecia/a?oueny
ia?aaeon?i iae?icii ?? aeaaeaiueeiiyciaeo ee?oei (AIE). Noai ? iiaeeeaa
?ieue aiaeioae?th i?e oeueiio ? i?aeoe/ii ia aea/aieie.

Caycie i?ae eae?a?ii a?oa???, nooiaiai ?? iaaaiiaiiy oa e?euee?noth
i?iaiaeioa-e?aeueieo eiioaeo?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny caeaaei?noth: /ei iaioa
e?euee?noue AIE a a?oa???, oei a?eueo ae?aaeaia ?aaoeyoe?y ?o
oiiono aiaeioae??i ? oei a?eueoa nooi?iue iaaaiiaiiy a?oa??? i?e
iaae?aeaeueoeeiic? (Naiioei I.A., ?iiaiaiei A.A., Naeieia I.N., 1990).
Oaeiae a?aeiii, ui ao?aoa iaaii? e?eueeino? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?iceaaeaie aiaeioae?ecaeaaeii? ?aaoeyoe?? oiiono
noaeeiieo iyc?a, ia?o ca ana ?c-ca a?aenooiino? aiaeioae?aeueiiai
eiiiiiaioo ?aaeoe?? ?o ?icneaaeaiiy (Iieaaiei I.I., Naaa/ A.O., Oaiiaae
E.I. ? ni?a., 1997; Griffith T.M. et al., 1984; Inagami T., Naruse M.,
Hoover R., 1995). ?c neacaiiai aeieeaa?, ui ?a/iaeie, ye? iaeii/anii
ni?e/eiththoue niaci AIE ? iioeiaeaeaiiy aiaeioae?th, iiaeooue
?iaeoeoaaoe ia?anei?i/aiiy AIE oa iaae?aiae?ic. Aeaiei aeiiaai
?aeaaeueii a?aeiia?aeathoue eaoaoieai?ie, ye? aia?oa aoee aeei?enoai?
aeey iiaeaethaaiiy a?oa??ineea?ico Iaieaaa?aa (Oe?ieiai?ia E.E., 1907).
Ana oea aea? i?aenoaae aeey i?eiouaiiy, ui iioeiaeaeaiiy aiaeioae?th
iiaea a?ae?a?aaaoe iaaio ?ieue a iaoiaaiac? a?oa??aeueiiai
iaae?aeaeueoe?iico.

?acii c oei, aeey ?a/iaei, ye? ia ? aacieiino?eeoi?aie, aea oaeiae
caeaoi? ?i?oe?thaaoe iaae?aneea?iciaaiac (iaoaaie?/i? yaee, a?oai?i Ae3
oa ?i.), ne?ae ia?aaeaa/aoe ?io? iaoai?cie iaoiaaiii? ae?? ia noaeeiio
no?ieo. Cie?aia, ni?eyoe ?? iioeiaeaeaiith iiaea a?ia?eaeueoe??i?y ca
oiia iaaeinoaoiino? iaoai?ci?a ?aaoeyoe?? eiioeaio?aoe??
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai eaeueoe?th ([Na2+]i) a AIE. Ia ei?enoue oeueiai
i?eiouaiiy na?ae/eoue ? oa, ui eaoaoieai?ie noeioeththoue
ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue ia?aoe?ioeeo?a (Hargis G. et al., 1980;
Fischer J.A. et al., 1982). Iaaeinoaoiy e?euee?noue ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
ci?ie, ye? aeieeathoue a nenoai? ?aaoeyoe?? eaeueoe??i?? i?e ?icaeoeo
a?oa??aeueiiai eaeueoeeiico, aeicaiey? eeoa a caaaeueieo ?enao
iaaiai?thaaoe o/anoue iaoanoaoe/ii? eaeueoeeo?eaoe?? a eiai iaoiaaiac?.
Aeiaeaoeia? a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue aeaiiai iaoai?cio eaeueoeeo?eaoe??
iiaeia io?eiaoe i?e ia?aeaeueiiio aecia/aii? ai?noo caaaeueiiai
eaeueoe?th, aeoeaiino? eoaeii? oinoaoace (EO) ? -aeooai?eo?ainoa?ace
(-AO) a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei o ?aiiueiio ia??iae?
?icaeoeo iaae?aeaeueoeeiico ai?oe. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ne?iaaoeiaa EO ?
noi?ooth i?eaeecii ??aii? e?eueeino? e?noeiaeo ? ia/?ieiaeo ?cioa?iaio?a
(Wolf P.L., 1979). Ine?eueee i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? -AO a ne?iaaooe?
a?aeia?aaea? ca?eueoaiiy aeoeaiino? ia/?ieiaeo ?cioa?iaio?a EO, c??no
aaee/eie a?aeiioaiiy “ne?iaaoeiaa EO/ -AT” na?ae/eoue ia ei?enoue ?inoo
aeie? e?noeiaeo ?cioa?iaio?a EO ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ooieoe??
inoaiaeano?a i?ae ae??th ia?aoai?iiio (Eoean I., Aoaeoaae Aeae., 1985;
Oaiia?iai Aeae., Oaiia?iai O., 1989; Oeoa? I.I., 1992; Posen S., Doherty
E., 1981).

Naiino?eiith i?iaeaiith ? ??cia /ooeea?noue a?oa??e ? aai aei ?icaeoeo
neea?i-oe/ieo ci?i. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeiei c iaoai?ci?a aeniei?
?acenoaioiino? AIE aai, ii??aiyeueii c AIE a?oa??e, aei ae?? iaoiaaieo
oaeoi??a ? a?eueo aeniea caeaoi?noue ia?oeo aei a?aeiiaeaiiy ii?iaeueii?
[Ca2+]i ca ?aooiie a?eueoi? iiooaeiino? iaoai?ci?a ?aaoeyoe?? (Aeoaeei
I.I., Aeoeue TH.A., 1994). Ia aeeeth/aii, ui naaiaioa?ia
iaiaeii??aei?noue aiaeioae?th (Aonaa N.A. e niaao., 1988; ?na?/e?ia
?.I., Oa?aiaiei A.I., 1990; Naaa/ A.O., Oea/aiei I.I., Aaceethe I.A.,
1992; Iton H. et. al., 1994) oaeiae a?ae?a?a? a oeueiio iaaio ?ieue.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aea/aiiy a ?aiiueiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaae?aeaeueoeeiico ai?oe oeueo?ano?oeoo?e
aiaeioae?th noaeei ??cieo oei?a c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo aeey
ai?oe iniaeeainoae iioeiaeaeaiy aiaeioae?th, a oaeiae ai?noo caaaeueiiai
eaeueoe?th, aeoeaiino? EO ? -AO a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? uo??a aiana iaaio
yni?noue a cacia/aio i?iaeaio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioo aeeiiaii
a ?aieao iaoeiai? ?iaioe eaoaae?e iaoieia?/ii? o?c?ieia?? IIO ?i. I.I.
Aiaiiieueoey: “Aea/aiiy ?ie? eaeueoe?th a iaoai?ciao iioeiaeaeaiiy
iyc?a ??cieo oei?a”.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae oeueo?ano?oeoo?ii?
i?aai?caoe?? aiaei-oae?th, ai?noo caaaeueiiai eaeueoe?th a ne?iaaooe? ?
iiaeeeaeo ci?i a nenoai? eiai ?aaoey-oe?? o uo??a a ?aiiueiio ia??iae?
?icaeoeo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaae?aeaeueoeeiico ai?oe.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy: 1.  Aeine?aeeoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th
aiaeioae?th noaeei ??cieo oei?a, iaiaeiaeiai /ooeeaeo aei ?icaeoeo
neea?ioe/ieo ci?i (ai?oa, naeac?ieiaa a?oa??y, caaeiy ii?iaeienoa aaia)
ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo a?oa??ineea?ico iaieaaa?a?anueeiai oeio i?e
??cieo niiniaao eiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

2. I?iaanoe ii?oiiao?e/iee ? ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo
ci?i aiaeioae?th noaeei ??cieo oei?a o i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei.

3. Aecia/eoe ci?ie ai?noo caaaeueiiai eaeueoe?th,aeoeaiino? eoaeii?
oinoaoace ? -aeooa-i?eo?ainoa?ace a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? uo??a a oiiaao
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaae?aeaeueoeeiico ai?oe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.  A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
aia?oa i?e aeine?aeaeaii? a?oa??ineea?ico iaieaaa?a?anueeiai oeio
nooo?aa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aiaeioae?th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iioeiaeaeaiiy
aiaeioae?th ??ciiai nooiaiy oyaeeino? ia? i?noea a ai?o?, naeac?ieia?e
a?oa??? ? caaei?e ii?iaeieno?e aai? aaea a ?aiiueiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaae?aeaeueoeeiico ai?oe (a?oa??ineea?ico
iaieaaa?a?a-nueeiai oeio). Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ci?i oeueo?ano?oeoo?e
aiaeioae?th noaeei, /ooeeaeo ? no?eeeo aei ?icaeoeo iaae?aeaeueoeeiico,
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a ia?oo aeiao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aieeao (aino?a
a?ia?aae?aiae?iai?y) ianeaia iioeiaeaeaiiy aiaeioae?th (noaoioaeueia
aeaioaeaoe?y, aeano?oeoe?y aacaeueii? iaia?aie) ia? i?noea o?eueee a
ai?o?.

Aia?oa c?iaeaia ni?iaa ioe?ieoe ?ieue iioeiaeaeaiiy aiaeioae?th a
iaoiaaiac? a?oa??aeueiiai iaae?aeaeueoeeiico.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiey iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.  ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? ? iniaeeaino? ci?i
oeueo?ano?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? aiaeioae?th, ye? aeanoea? ?aiiueiio
ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaae?aeaeue-oeeiico ai?oe.
Io?eiaii iia? aeai? i?i ?nioaaiiy a iaoiaaiac? “aae?aiae?iiaiai”
iaae?aeaeueoeeiico ai?oe oaei? aaaeeeai? eaiee, ye aino?a ianeaia
iioeiaeaeaiiy ?? aiaeioae?th. Oea aeicaiey? c?iaeoe i?eioeeiiaa
aeiiiaiaiiy a ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy uiaei iaoiaaiaco a?oa??ineea?ico
iaieaaa?a?anueeiai oeio. Iioeiaeaeaiiy aiaeioae?th iiaea aooe i?e/eiith
ii?ooaiiy ?aeaenaoe??, ia?anei?i/aiiy ? iae?ioe/ieo ci?i AIE c
iiaeaeueoei ?icaeoeii iaae?aeaeueoeeiico a?oa??e. I?e IEA-?ioieneeaoe??
ye iaoai?ci iaae?aiae?ico a?eueo a??ia?aeia i?yia ae?y IEA
aaciina?aaeiuei ia AIE na?aaeiuei? iaieiiee ai?oe. Iioeiaeaeaiiy
aiaeioae?th i?e oeueiio iiaea aenooiaoe eeoa a ?ie? oiiae, yea ni?ey?
?icaeoeo iaae?aeaeueoeeiico.

Aeiaeaoeiao iaoiaaiaoe/io ?ieue a ?aiiueiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo
a?oa??ineea?ico Iaieaaa?aa iiaeooue iaoe aeyaeai? ci?ie a nenoai?
?aaoeyoe?? eaeueoe??i??.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaee iaoiaaiaoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a i?io?eaeoeee eaeueoeeiico a?oa??e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Caeiaoaa/ai i?iaaaeaii aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae, aeeiiaii iaiao?aei? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noaoenoe/ii ia?iaeaii, i?iaiae?-ciaaii oa ocaaaeueiaii io?eiai? aeai?.
I?eaiooaaiiy oeueo?aoiieeo c??c?a noaeei, ye? aeei?enoaii o ?iaio?, ?o
ia?aaeyae a aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? i?iaaaeaii ca o/anoth ni?a?ia?oiee?a
eaai?aoi??? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? IAeEOe IIO ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia
Ieaioi? iaoeiai-iaaee/iiai oiaa?enoaa iaoio?c?ieia?a Oe?a?ie (i. Euea?a,
23-25 aa?aniy 1993), II eiia?an? iaoio?c?ieia?a Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a, 1996),
can?aeaii? Ee?anueeiai oiaa?enoaa iaoio?c?ieia?a (i. Ee?a, 9 /a?aiy
1998), can?aeaii? ai?iaaoe?eii? ?aaee c i?iaeai “Oai?aoe/ia iaaeeoeeia”
IIO ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey  (i. Ee?a, 11 /a?aiy 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 8 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, c
ieo 5 – aeo?iaeuei? noaoo?.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iieno iaoa??ae?a oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeeeaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy, aeniiae?a oa nieneo 217
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 120 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 10
oaaeeoeue oa ?ethno?iaaia 20 iaethieaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

Aeine?aee aeeiiai? ia 83 aacii?iaeieo a?eeo uo?ao-naioeyo, ye?
oo?eioaaaaeenue ia noaiaea?oiiio ?aoe?ii? a?aa??th. Iaoa??aeii aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee oiaoi/ee noaeei oa ne?iaaoea e?ia? ?ioaeoieo ?
i?aeaeine?aeieo uo??a.

Iiaeaethaaiiy iaae?aeaeueoeeiico ai?oe i?iaaaeaii a oiiaao “aino?iai” ?
“i?aeaino?iai” aieea?a aae?aiae?io ? iiiieiaeaoeaoaoo (IEA). ?ic/ei
aae?aiae?io a?ae?ioei??aeo c ?ic?aooieo 50 iea/ea aaiaeeee iaeii?aciai
i?e “aino?iio” aieea? ? uiaeaiii i?ioyaii 6 aei?a – i?e “i?aeaino?iio”.
A oiiaao “aino?iai” aieeao ?ic/ei IEA aaiaeeee a aeic? 25 ia/ea.
“I?aeaino?o” IEA-?ioieneeaoe?th a?aeoai?thaaee ca noaiith: 1-e aeaiue –
25ia/ea, ianooii? 5 aei?a – ii 10 ia/ea uiaeiaiai. E?ioeaaiai cia/aiiy
?I ?ic/eio IEA (7,4+0,02) aeinyaaee ca aeiiiiiaith iane/aiiai ?ic/eio
NaHCO3 a o?c?ic/ei?. An? ?ic/eie aeaioiaeyee ? aaiaeeee a /a?aaio
ii?iaeieio c aeio?eiaiiyi i?aaee anaioeee.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui iaeia?o? ii?oieia?/i? i?iyae a?oa??ineea?ico
Iaieaaa?-aa niinoa??aathoueny /a?ac aeiao i?ney aaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai
i?aia?aoo, iaoa??ae a?aee /a?ac aiaeeio ? aeiao i?ney aino?iai oa ia 7-o
aeiao i?aeaino?iai aieeao. I?ney aeaeai?oaoe?? oaa?ei cae?aee e?ia aeey
io?eiaiiy ne?iaaoee (Niieyieoeeee A.ss., 1987). Oaeaeei aeae?eyee
oiaoi/ee noaeei, ye? ia?iaeyee caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie aeey
iiaeaeueoiai aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiai aiae?co (Ea?oio A.ss.,
1984).Ia?eoe caeeaaee a aeaeaoeiia? eainoee ? iie?ia?ecoaaee i?e +60i N.
C aeie?a aeaioiaeyee iai?aoiie? c??ce, ye? oa?aoaaee oieo?aeeiiaei nei?i
c iaoith ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? noaeei ia na?oeiiioe/iiio ??ai?. Ia
oeueo?ai?e?ioii? LKB-3 aeaioiaeyee oeueo?aoiie? c??ce, ye? eiio?anooaaee
o?ai?eaoeaoaoii ? oeeo?aoii naeioeth (Watson, 1958; Reynolds, 1963),
ia?aaeyaeaee a aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? AIA-100A?, oioia?aooaaee. C
iaoith e?euee?nii? ioe?iee oeueo?ano?oeoo? aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei (AE)
aoa canoiniaaiee iaoiae ii?oiiao?e/iiai aiae?co (Aaoaiaeeeia A.A.,
Iaaci?ia A.I., Iaaci?iaa I.O., 1984). Aeei?enoiaoaaee aecia/aiiy
ianooiieo noa?aiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a i?oioiiae??e oa ca?ienoi?
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee (CAN): /anoea ia?io i?aaiaee a oeeoiieaci? ( %);
e?euee?noue i?aaiae a iaeeieoe? ia?io oeeoiieacie (/enaeueia
u?euei?noue, 1/iei3); ieiua (iei2) oa oaeoi? oi?ie (oiia.iae.).
Iaiao?aei? aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie “I?aaiaea”.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue a IAeEOe IIO ?i.I.I. Aiaiiieueoey.

Ai?no caaaeueiiai eaeueoe?th a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? aecia/aee ca
eieuei?iaith ?aaeoe??th c iaoeeoeiieiaei aeaeeoiei (Gindler, King,
1972). Aecia/aiiy aeoeaiino? eoaeii? oinoaoace i?iaiaeeee ca
?ioaineai?noth a?ae?ie?co n-i?o?ioai?eoinoaoo (Bessey, Lowry, Brock,
1940). Aeoeai?noue -aeooai?eo?ainoa?ace aecia/aee ca oi?o?eiaaiith
iaoiaeeeith c noano?aoii  L–aeooai?e-4-i?o?iai?e?aeii  ?
ae?oe?eae?oeeiiaei aooa?ii (Nielsen, 1978). B ?iaio? aeei?enoai? iaai?e
?aaeoea?a “Roche” (I?ia//eia) oa a?aeiia?aei? ?ino?oeoe?? ii ?o
aeei?enoaiith. Oeeo?ia? aeai?, io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue,
ia?iaeyee iaoiaeii aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee c aeei?enoaiiyi e?eoa??th
“t” Nouethaeaioa ? oaaeeoeue a??ia?aeiino? “?” O?oa?a. An? ?ic?aooiee
ii noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? aeaieo cae?eniaii ia i?e?ieaeueeoeyoi?? “IE-61”
ca a?aeiia?aeieie i?ia?aiaie (Eaaiia TH.E., Iiai?aethe I.I., 1990).

?acoeueoaoe Aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
iioeiaeaeaiiy ??ciiai nooiaiy oyaeeino?, caaeaaeue ? ianooiia
aeaneaaiaoe?y aiaeioae?th a ai?o?, naeac?i-eia?e a?oa??? ? caaei?e
ii?iaeieno?e aai?, a oaeiae ci?ie ai?noo caaaeueiiai eaeueoe?th a
ne?iaaooe? e?ia? i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei aeyaeythoueny aaea a ?aiiueiio
ia??iae? ?icaeoeo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaae?aeaeueoeeiico ai?oe
(a?oa??ineea?ico iaieaaa?a?anueeiai oeio). Oea ?noioii aeiiiaith?
?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aae?aiae?i a oiene/ieo aeicao aea??eiai
a?aaea? ee?oeie na?aaeiuei? iaieiiee e?oiieo a?oa??e c ianooiiei
?icaeoeii oiene/iiai a?oa??ineea?ico (No?oeia A.E., Na?ia A.A., 1979).

Io?eiai? iaie aeai? aeicaieythoue oaeiae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui /ooeea?noue
aiaeioae?th ai?oe, naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? ? ii?iaeienoi? aaie uo??a aei
ae?? iiiieiaeaoeaoaoo ? aae?aiae?io ??cia. Aeaia caeeth/aiiy aeo?ea? ?c
?acoeueoao?a aiae?co ci?i ?yaeo ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo e?eoa???a,
noeoii?noue yeeo aeicaieth? ioe?ieoe oa?aeoa? oa oyaee?noue no?oeoo?ieo
ci?i aiaeioae?th, a oaeiae eiai ?aia?aoeaieo iiaeeeainoae. Iaaecae/aeii
ae?aaeaia i?aaenoaaieoeoai i?aaiae neioaoe/iiai oeio a AE naeac?ieiai?
a?oa??? ? ii?iaeienoi? aaie a ie?ai? ia??iaee niinoa?aaeaiiy aea?
i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i ?aia?aoeaio ?aaaia?aoe?th aiaeioae?th ye
aeineoue iiooaeiee iaoai?ci eiai a?aeiiaeaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy aiane?aeie
oeueiai aeniei? no?eeino? ie?aieo noaeeiieo ?aa?ii?a aei ae?? iaoiaaieo
oaeoi??a.

Oeueo?ano?oeoo?a aiaeioae?th noaeei a oiiaao “ aae?aiae?iiai?
iiaeae?” iaae?aeaeueoeeiico ai?oe (a?oa??ineea?ico
iaieaaa?a?anueeiai oeio)

sse iieacaee iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?icaeoeo
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai a?oa??ineea?ico iaieaaa?a?anueeiai oeio a aiaeioae??
ai?oe, naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? ? caaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie uo??a
a?aeaoaathoueny aeano?oeoeai? ci?ie oeueo?ano?oeoo? oeeoieaie,
oeeoiieacie, yae?a ? i?aaiae AE, ?o o?aaiaioaoe?y, iae?ic, aeaneaaiaoe?y
oa aeiaeaoeia? eiioaeoe c AIE ? ee?oeiaie e?ia?. Oea iiaiaeaeo?oueny c
aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e uiaei iaeiioeiiino? oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo ci?i
aiaeioae?th i?e ae?? ia inoaii?e ??cieo iioeiaeaeoth/eo oaeoi??a
(Aieii-ssnaiaoeeay O.A. e niaao., 1988; Noaieia I.E. e niaao., 1989). A
oie aea /an io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ae?aaeai?noue
iioeiaeaeaiiy aiaeioae?th iaiaeiaeiaa a noaeeiao, /ooeeaeo ? no?eeeo
aei ?icaeoeo iaae?aeaeueoeeiico.

Ca iaoeie aeaieie, aaea /a?ac aiaeeio i?ney aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io a
ie?aieo ae?eyieao ai?oe a?aeaoaa?oueny aiaieuaaa aeaneaaiaoe?y
aiaeioae?th. Aeaye? AE ciaoiaeyoueny a noai? nei?i/aiiy, ?io? iathoue
i?ina?oeaio oeeoiieacio ? iioeiaeaeai? i?oioiiae???. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
ii?oiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ca?eueoaiiy /eneiai? u?eueiino?
i?oioiiae??e i?iii?oe?eii ciaioaiith ?o ieiu? (oaae. 1). Oea aeicaiey?
i?eionoeoe iiae??aiaiiy i?aaiae. CAN iaaoaa? a?eueoi? iie?ii?oiino?. I?i
oea na?ae/eoue c?inoaiiy iieaciee?a /eneiai? oa ia?iii? u?eueiino?
eaiaeueoe?a ia oii? caa?aaeaiiy ?o ii/aoeiaeo ?ici???a (oaae. 1).
A?aeaoaa?oueny ?icioooaaiiy ? /anoeiaa o?aaiaioaoe?y aacaeueii? iaia?aie
aiaeioae?th, iaa?ye noaaiaeioae?aeueiiai i?inoi?o.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ci?i oeueo?ano?oeoo?e aiaeioae?th a ai?o?,
naeac?ieia?e a?oa??? ? caaei?e ii?iaeieno?e aai? uo??a /a?ac aeiao i?ney
aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io aea? aaaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei a?aei?iiinoae
ci?i aiaeioae?th a noaeeiao ??cieo oei?a.

A i?ina?o? ai?oe aeoaea /anoi niinoa??aathoueny caeeoee AE, a ae?eyieao
aeaioaeaoe?? – aa?aaaoe?y ? aaeaac?y o?iiaioeeo?a. Ia aaaaoueio c??cao
AE i?aeianai? iaae iiaa?oiath noaaiaeioae?th iaa?yeiaith ??aeeiith. A
AE, ui caa?aaee caycie c noaaiaeioae??i, aeyaeythoueny /eneaii? aai
aaeee? aaeoie?, c?inoa? (aei naaiaioaoe??) caeaeno?noue eiioo??a yaea?.
?o o?aaiaioe /anoi cnoioo? ia ia?eoa??th a?aaionueeeie aaeoieyie. A AE
ia?aaaaeathoue i?oioiiae??? c ooeiaeaeaieie ciai?oi?ie iaia?aiaie,
i?ina?oeaiei iao?eenii, ?aaeoeiaaieie e??noaie. E?euee?noue i?oioiiae??e
ii??aiyii c iiia?aaei?i oa?i?iii niinoa?aaeaiiy ciaioaia. A oie aea /an
ca ?aooiie ae?aaeaiiai iaa?yeo i?oioiiae??e ca?eueoaiee ia?i
oeeoiieacie, yeee aiie caeiathoue a AE (oaae. 1). Ciaioaiiy caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? i?oioiiae??e i?e oeueiio iiaeia iiynieoe ?o iniie?cii. Aiae?c
ci?i ii?oiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a ? ye?nieo iniaeeainoae CAN aeicaiey?
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ?aaeoe?y inoaiiuei? a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?aaeoe??
i?oioiiae??e (aeano?oeoeai? ci?ie a inoaii?o ae?aaeai? a a?eueo?e i???).
Ii?ooaia no?oeoo?a aacaeueii? iaia?aie aiaeioae?th. Ianeaia
iioeiaeaeaiiy aiaeioae?th ni?e/eith? noaoioaeueio aeaioaeaoe?th no?iee
ai?oe ? iaa?ye, yeee ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia aioo??oi? oa?e na?aaeiuei?
iaieiiee.

A naeac?ieia?e a?oa??? ? caaei?e ii?iaeieno?e aai? aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie AE
? ?o i?aaiae ia iaaoaathoue oaeiai nooiaiy ae?aaeaiino?, ye a ai?o?.
Ci?ie aiaeioae?th a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iaiaaeai? iaa?yeii ee?oei oa ?o
i?aaiae, ?, ye i?aaeei, ia noi?iaiaeaeothoueny aeaioaeaoe??th noaeeiii?
no?iee. Oae, a AE aaie ca?eueoaia na?aaeiy ieiua i?oioiiae??e –
i?iii?oe?eii ca?eueoaiith ia?io, yeee aiie caeiathoue a oeeoi-ieaci? AE.
Iaci?ii?noue iieacieea /eneiai? u?eueiino? i?e oeueiio (oaae. 2) iiaea
aooe iciaeith ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a i?oioiiae??e ye aiane?aeie ?o
iaa?yeo, oae ? a?ia?o?io??. Oio?einue ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui aeeno?io?/i?
ci?ie i?oioiiae??e a AE aaie ae?aaeai? cia/ii iaioa, i?ae a ai?o?, a
cayceo c /ei ia niinoa??aathoueny iniie?c ? ciaioaiiy e?eueeino?
i?oioiiae??e. Aiae?c noaio CAN (ca?eueoaiiy /enaeueii? ? ia?iii?
u?eueiinoae eaiaeueoe?a, oaae. 2) aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui a AE ia?
i?noea ?? a?ia?o?io?y. Aacaeueia iaia?aia aiaeioae?th naeac?ieiai?
a?oa??? ? caaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie a aeaiee ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiiy
caa??aa? naith cae/aeio oeueo?ano?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th.

Oaaeeoey 1. Ii?oiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e i?oioiiae??e ? ca?ienoi?
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee aiaeioae?th /a?aaii? ai?oe uo??a i?e
a?ia?aae?aiae?iai?? (I + m)

Ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiiyIa?iia u?euei?noue (%)*enaeueia u?eue-i?noue
(10-2/iei3)Ieiua i?io?-e?a (10-2iei2)Oaeoi? oi?ie

i?aaiaeeI?OIOIIAe???, Eiio?ieue2,310,482,380,3693,138,710,900,011
aiaeeia i?ney aino?i? a?ia?aae?aiae?iai??2,570,76 27,14+5,63

*12,931,94

* 0,880,051 aeiaa i?ney aino?i? a?ia?aae?aiae?iai??7,341,47

* ** 11,28+2,48

* ** 46,094,20

* ** 0,910,01

**7-e aeaiue i?aeaino?i? a?ia?aae?aiae?iai??3,081,27

**12,982,53

* 24,053,73

* **0,830,04

* **CAN,

Eiio?ieue1,12 0,1633,54 8,067,76 0,600,51 0,021 aiaeeia i?ney
aino?i? a?ia?aae?aiae?iai??6,78 1,12

*123,5339,98

*9,42 1,800,83 0,021 aeiaa i?ney aino?i? a?ia?aae?aiae?iai??1,95
0,27

* **51,2410,167,34 0,630,71 0,027-e aeaiue i?aeaino?i?
a?ia?aae?aiae?iai??0,83 0,16

* **162,0256,38

* **1,88 0,19

* **0,47 0,02Ooo ? a oaae. 2 – 6 * –
a??ia?aeii o ni?anoaaeaii? c eiio?ieai

** – a??ia?aeii a?aeiinii iiia?aaeiueiai oa?i?io niinoa?aaeaiiy (p
 

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