OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

NAOA?IAA Iaoae?y Ieaen??aia

OAeE 669.71:539

INIAEEAINO? IEANOE*II? AeAOI?IAOe?? OA ?OEIOAAIIss

AeAIAEI??IEO IIE?E?ENOAE?A AETHI?I?TH OA I?Ae?

01.04.07 – O?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aaae?yi
?aaai?e THoeiiae/ (aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea).

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ioaa/ia Aiaoie?e Oa?aniae/ (caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?ceee iaoae?a oa
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo).

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieoaeeianueeee ?ai? Ieoaeeiae/ (i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
?inoeoooo o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea IIOe «Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo»).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i.
A.?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie (a?aeae?e o?ceee ?aaeueieo e?enoae?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «01» aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.03 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (310077, i. Oa?e?a, i. Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. ?i.
E.Ae. N?iaeuei?eiaa).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «30» na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee A.I.
Iieaea

14

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/ani? eiino?oeoe?ei? iaoa??aee a iniiaiiio ?
iie?e?enoaeaie, oiaoi yaeythoue niaith aa?aaaoe, ui neeaaeathoueny c
aaeeei? e?eueeino? ie?aieo ca?ai, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ca oi?iith,
?ici??aie, i???ioaoe??th. Ia nueiaiaei? aaea aeineoue aeia?a aea/ai?
iniaeeaino? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? iiiie?enoae?a ?c ??ciei oeiii
e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee. Iaeiae oeeo oyaeaiue ?, cie?aia, a?aeiiinoae i?i
iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ie?aieo ca?ai iie?e?enoaeo iaaeinoaoiuei aeey
iieno aeanoeainoae ? c’ynoaaiiy iniaeeainoae ieanoe/ii? oa/??
iie?e?enoae?/ieo c?ace?a, ine?eueee iaoai?cie naiiocaiaeaeaii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ca?ai o iie?e?enoae? ia iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoeny aac aea/aiiy
aieeao ia ieanoe/io aeaoi?iaoe?th oaeeo aaaeeeaeo aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e
iie?e?enoaeo, ye iaae? ca?ai oa iio??ei? noeee iaae ca?ai (IN).

Aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a ieanoe/ii? oa/?? iie?e?enoae?a, ye?
i?iaaaeai? inoaii?i /anii, iieacothoue, ui nooo?ao ?ieue o ?o ieanoe/i?e
aeaoi?iaoe??, na?aae ?ioeo aeaoaeo?a, a?ae?a?athoue iio??ei? noeee iaae
ca?ai. Cia/ia cnoaia oa ?ioaoe?eia ianoi?ni?noue o?ueio noi?aeieo ca?ai,
ui aeieea? a i?ioean? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, i?eaiaeeoue aei
aeieeiaiiy o iio??eieo noeeao iaea?eueo iiooaeieo eiioeaio?aoi??a
iai?oae. ?aeaenaoe?y oeeo iai?oa iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny ??cieie niiniaaie,
ui aecia/a?oueny cie?aia oi?iith noeeo, eiai i???ioaoe??th ii
a?aeiioaiith aei iai?yieo ae?th/i? aeaoi?ioth/i? iaoai?/ii? iai?oae,
no?oeoo?ith iaae ca?ai, ye? eiai ooai?ththoue oa ciai?oi?ie (oiiae
aeaoi?ioaaiiy) /eiieeaie. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeaia ??ciiiai?ooy
i?ioean?a ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiiai noaio a IN i?e ieanoe/i?e
aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ua iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aia aoiiia no?oeoo?a IN
iio?aaothoue i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo aeaoaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?enay/aieo c’ynoaaiith ?ie? iio??eieo noee?a o ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe??
oa ?oeioaaii? iie?e?enoae?/ieo iaoa??ae?a.

O inoaii? ?iee iniaeeaee ?ioa?an o aeine?aeiee?a iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oaa?aeiai o?ea aeeeeeathoue aeaiaei??i? iie?e?enoaee. Iiaa
cie?aia eaea i?i oae? ia’?eoe, ye iie?e?enoae?/i? ie?aee, oieueae,
aaeni?aiaai? oace. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ieanoe/ii? oa/?? oa c?oeioaaiiy oaeeo
ia’?eo?a ? aeineoue aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi. Oaea iaae?eii anoaiiaeaii,
ui i?eioeeiia? ci?ie a caeiiii??iinoyo ?icaeoeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
iie?e?enoae?/ieo aa?aaao?a iathoue i?noea o?eueee i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae
aeaiaei??ieo aei iaeiiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a, oiaoi a?ae c?ace?a, ui
i?noyoue IN aei c?ace?a, ui ?o ia i?noyoue. Oey ianoaaeia aeicaiey? i?e
aea/aii? aeayeeo iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iie?e?enoae?a ia?aoe
iiaeaeueieie ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ia o?eaei??i?, a aeaiaei??i?
iie?e?enoaee. C iaeiiai aieo, aiie, oae naii ye ? o?eaei??i?
iie?e?enoaee, i?noyoue iio??ei? noeee, iaeiae aaiiao?e/ia oa
oiiia?ao?/ia no?oeoo?a aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a ? cia/ii i?ino?oeie,
ui aeicaiey? o ?yae? aeiaaee?a i?inoaaeeoe ca ?o aaiethoe??th. C ?ioiai
aieo, ?nio? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aeaiaei??i?
iie?e?enoaee ?c eiio?ieueiaaiith aonoeiith IN. Nooo?aei ? ? oie oaeo, ui
aeaiaei??i? iie?e?enoaee ia iathoue i?inoi?iai? iaiaaeaiino? o iai?yieo,
ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio aei iiaa?oi? c?ace?a. Oiio aieea IN ia ieanoe/io
aeaoi?iaoe?th oa ?oeioaaiiy oaeeo ia’?eo?a iiaea aooe aecia/aeueiei.

Ana aeua iaaaaeaia coiiaeei aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe, yea i?enay/aia aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith iniaeeainoae
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?oeioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
ia eaoaae?? o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo a ?aieao IAe? eaoaae?e «Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao iio??eieo
noee?a iaae ca?ai ia aeaoi?iaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? iaoae?a»
?Ae?UA01008723?, «Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao iio??eieo noee?a iaae ca?ai ia
aeaoi?iaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? iaoae?a» ? Ae?0395U001408; «Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieeao no?oeoo?iiai noaio ia aeaoi?iaoe?ei? (o oiio /ene? iaaeieanoe/i?)
aeanoeaino? oaa?aeeo o?e» ? Ae?0197U008106; caoaa?aeaeaieo
a?aeiia?aeieie iinoaiiaaie I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?oeioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a ?c AOeE – ?ao?oeith i?e ?o oa/?? ia iia?o?? i?e e?iiaoi?e
oaiia?aoo?? a oiiaao aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith ae?eniith
oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th?????? Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe
iaiao?aeii aoei:

· aeaioiaeoe aeaiaei??i? iie?e?enoaee aethi?i?th ? i?ae? c ??ciith
aonoeiith IN, iaea?aeaoe ? ii?aoethaaoe aeaoi?iaoe?ei? e?ea? oa
aecia/eoe iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeo c?ace?a (cie?aia, a?aieoeth
ieeiiino?, a?aieoeth i?oeiino?, a?aeiinia aeaeiaaeaiiy aei c?oeioaaiiy);

· aea/eoe iiaeeea? iaoai?cie ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiiai noaio a iio??eieo
noeeao o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio iaae ca?ai, ui ?o ooai?ththoue, oa
aonoeie IN o c?aceao;

· aeine?aeeoe oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o ae?eyieao, ye?
i?eeyaathoue aei ??cieo aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e iie?e?enoaeo (cii? iiaeeco
iaae ca?ai, iio??eieo noee?a, a oaeiae o o?e? ca?ai);

· aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeeoe caeiiii??iino? aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
?ioaoe?eii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao oa aecia/eoe
iiaeeeaee aianie ?ioaoe?eieo aoaeo?a o ?o ieanoe/io aeaoi?iaoe?th;

· aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? aeieeiaiiy oa caeiiii??iino?
?icaeoeo o??uei o i?ioean? aeaoi?ioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a ?c
??ciei oeiii i?aeca?aiieo iaae ? c ??ciith aonoeiith IN i?e e?iiaoi?e
oaiia?aoo?? oa oaiia?aoo?? O=400E;

· aeine?aeeoe oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?oeioaaiiy ia
c?aceao aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a ?c ooo/ii aianaieie o ciio iio??eieo
noee?a «ii?aie – ioai?aie».

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

· aia?oa iieacaii, ui aeaiaei??i? iie?e?enoaee aethi?i?th oa i?ae?, ia
a?aei?io a?ae o?eaei??ieo, ye? iiaeooue i?noeoe iiiaeeii? noeee iaae
ca?ai (noeee, ooai?ai? a?eueo i?ae o?ueiia iaaeaie), i?noyoue o?eueee
iio??ei? noeee iaae ca?ai;

· ia i?aenoaa? aeanieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeyaeaii, ui iacaeaaeii
a?ae oeio iaae ca?ai iayai?noue iio??eieo noee?a o c?aceao aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th oa i?ae? i?e ?o aeaoi?ioaaii? a ?aaeei?
aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith ae?eniith oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe??
(wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????· ia i?aenoaa? aeanieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo ciaeoee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oyaeaiiy i?i ??ci? niiniae
?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiiai noaio a IN o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio iaae ca?ai,
ye? ?o ooai?ththoue. O aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao aethi?i?th, aea
i?aeoe/ii an? iaae? ca?ai – caaaeueiiai oeio, iaeiei ?c iiaeeeaeo
niinia?a ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiiai noaio ? ooai?aiiy nioa
ia?ai???ioaoe??, yea ia? i?noea ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? oa na?ae/eoue i?i aenieee ??aaiue iai?oa o cii? IN. Aeey
iie?e?enoae?a i?ae?, ye? i?noyoue iaae? ca?ai ia?aaaaeii niaoe?aeueiiai
oeio, oaeee niin?a ?aeaenaoe?? i?aeoe/ii ia ia? i?noey, a iaea?eueo
eiia??iei ? aeieeiaiiy o cii? IN ?ioaoe?eieo aoaeo?a, ye? iieyaathoue o
?icai?ioao ie?aieo ae?eyiie c?acea ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei eiai iiaa?oi?.
Cia/i? ?ioaoe?ei? aoaeoe o aeaiaei??ieo aethi?i??aeo iie?e?enoaeao
aeyaeythoueny eeoa o ciiao ie?aieo IN ia iiiaio c?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a;

· aia?oa iieacaii, ui ?ioaoe?ei? aoaeoe, ye? iathoue i?noea i?e
ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th oa i?ae? a
?aaeei? aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? a
?ioa?aae? 10-5–10-2 c-1 i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??, iiaeooue a?ae?a?aaaoe
ia o?eueee aeiiiaeaoe?eio, aea e naiino?eio ?ieue o aeaoi?iaoe??. Aianie
?ioaoe?eieo aoaeo?a o ieanoe/io aeaoi?iaoe?th c?ace?a iiaea aooe
nooo?aei, ui iiaea aooe i?aeoaa?aeaeaia cie?aia oei, ui aeey i?aeieo
iie?e?enoae?a c ?icaeiaiith ?ioaoe?eiith no?oeoo?ith, a?aeiinia
aeaoi?iaoe?y, yeo iaeiie/othoue aeaye? ?c c?ace?a aei c?oeioaaiiy
neeaaea? 50-60%;

· aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui aeey aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a
aethi?i?th oa i?ae? oa?aeoa? c?oeioaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio iaae ca?ai
o c?aceao. Aeey aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th c iaaeaie ca?ai
caaaeueiiai oeio iiaeeea? ? ca?iiiaaeaaee, ? o?aine?enoae?oiee oeie
c?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a, iaeiae iaeaeaa oe? oeie i?eiee ia ?aae?cothoueny
iaeii/anii. O aeiaaeeo i?aeieo iie?e?enoae?a, ui i?noyoue iaae? ca?ai
niaoe?aeueiiai oeio, iiaeeeaa c?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a o?eueee ii o?eo ca?ai;

· aia?oa iieacaii, ui ci?ia iai?oaeaiiai noaio a IN-eiioeaio?aoi??
oeyoii aianaiiy o ciio IN o aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao aethi?i?th
iane??cieo «ii? – ioai??a», ia o?eueee ci?ith? oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo
eieaeueii? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii? noeeo i?e oa/?? c?ace?a a
oiiaao aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e
e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??, aea e i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ieanoe/iino?
c?acea o oe?eiio oa ci?i? oeio eiai c?oeioaaiiy.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe ? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Iio??ei? noeee iaae ca?ai o aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao aethi?i?th oa
i?ae? a oiiaao ?o oa/?? a ?aaeei? aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith
ae?eniith oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th???????icaeoie eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii?
iio??eiiai noeeo ia? noiaeeieiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa?, ui iiaea aooe
ni?e/eiaia ae??th iio??eiiai noeeo ye ioeuenoth/iai aeaea?aea ?ao?oeiaeo
aeeneieaoe?e, iacaeaaeii a?ae oeio iaae, ye? eiai ooai?ththoue.

2. Oa?aeoa? ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiiai noaio a IN caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio
iaae ca?ai, ye? ooai?ththoue noee, oa aonoeie iio??eieo noee?a o c?aceo.
O aeine?aeaeaieo aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao c AOeE – ?ao?oeith
?aeaenaoe?y iai?oa a?aeaoaa?oueny aeioneaiiyi ?ao?oeiaeo aeeneieaoe?e,
ooai?aiiyi nioa ia?ai???ioaoe?? ? aeieeiaiiyi ?ioaoe?eieo aoaeo?a.

3. ?ioaoe?eia aeaoi?iaoe?y aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a a oiiaao ?o oa/??
o ?aaeei? aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith ae?eniith oaeaee?noth
aeaoi?iaoe?? a ?ioa?aae? a?ae 10-5 aei 10-2 c-1 i?e e?iiaoi?e
oaiia?aoo?? iiaea a?ae?a?aaaoe ia o?eueee aeiiiaeaoe?eio, aea e
naiino?eio ?ieue, oiaoi aeaaaoe ?noioiee aianie o ieanoe/io
aeaoi?iaoe?th, a oaeiae aecia/aoe oa?aeoa? ?oeioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a.

4. I?e ?oeioaaii? aeaiaei??ieo AOeE – iie?e?enoae?a o oiae? ?o
ieanoe/ii? oa/?? i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? o ?aaeei? aeoeaiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith ae?eniith oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe??
(wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????5. ?icaeoie eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii?
noeeo oa oa?aeoa? aeieeiaiiy o??uei o aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao
aethi?i?th i?e ?o aeaoi?ioaaii? a oiiaao aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e
e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? ci?iththoueny i?e aianaii? o ciio iio??eiiai noeeo
iane??cii? «ii?e – ioai?o». Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a
aac «ii?» o ciiao IN, o c?aceao ?c «ii?aie» oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo eieaeueii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii? noeeo noa? iiiioiiiei, a IN ?c aianaieie o ieo
«ii?aie — ioai?aie» ? aeaea?aeaie o??uei.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
anoaiiaeaiiy ?ie? iio??eieo noee?a iaae ca?ai o ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe??
oa ?oeioaaii? aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a ?c AOeE – ?ao?oeith i?e ?o
ieanoe/i?e oa/?? a ?aaeei? aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith
oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? a ?ioa?aae? 10-5 –10-2 c-1 i?e e?iiaoi?e
oaiia?aoo?? o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio iaae ca?ai, ye? ooai?ththoue noee,
aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe IN, ye aeaiaioe no?oeoo?e, ui iathoue ?noioiee aieea
ia ieanoe/i?noue oa c?oeioaaiiy iie?e?enoae?/ieo o?e. Eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiiai noaio a IN aea?
iiaeeea?noue cae?enieoe ocaaaeueiaiee iien oa?aeoa?o ?icaeoeo
?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao ?c ??ciei oeiii
iaae ca?ai oa iio??eieo noee?a. C’ynoaaiiy a ?iaio? nooiino? o?ce/ieo
yaeu, ui noinothoueny iniaeeainoae ieanoe/ii? oa/?? ? ?oeioaaiiy
aeine?aeaeaieo iaoa??ae?a, aeicaiey? iioe?eoe aeaye? c io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a ia oe?ieee eean iai?aai?/ieo iie?e?enoae?/ieo iaoa??ae?a,
ye? i?noyoue iane??ci? iio??ei? noeee oa iathoue ??ciee oei i?aeca?aiieo
iaae. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe – i?i aenieo i?oei?noue oa ieanoe/i?noue
aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a ?c iaaeaie ca?ai niaoe?aeueiiai oeio, o
ae?eyieao yeeo aeia?a ?icaeiai? ?ioaoe?ei? aoaeoe, i?i aieea aonoeie IN
ia oa?aeoa? c?oeioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a – iathoue i?eeeaaeia
cia/aiiy ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iie?ioaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae oaeeo i?iieneiaeo iaoa??ae?a, ye iie?e?enoae?/i? oieueae oa
oiie? ie?aee, a oaeiae i?e eiino?othaaii? c ieo ae?ia?a, ui
aenieoaoothoueny a oiiaao ae?? iaoai?/ieo iai?oa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/ee iieyaa? o aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? a
iinoaiiaoe? caaea/, ?ica’ycaieo o aeena?oaoe??, i?iaaaeaii? an?o
aenia?eiaio?a, ?ic?iaoe? i?aoeec?eii? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?aeiinii? eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a i?ioean? aei?iaoaaiiy c?ace?a ?
iaoiaeeee i?eaiooaaiiy o?eaei??ieo, aeaiaei??ieo ? iaeiiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a. Caeiaoaa/ea cai?iiiioaaea ? ?ic?iaeea i?ea?iaeueio
iaoiaeeeo neaioaaiiy iiaa?oi? aeine?aeaeaieo c?ace?a ca aeiiiiiaith
ieaioaoiiai neaia?a Hewlett Packard ScanJet 4C oa ianooiiiai
ii?aoethaaiiy cia?aaeaiue. Oi?ioethaaiiy iniiaieo iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue oa
aeniiae?a ?iaioe, aiae?c io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a,
i?aeaiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a aei ioae?eaoe?? i?ioiaeeee ca ??
aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny e iaaiai?thaaeeny ia eiioa?aioe?yo «O?ce/i? yaeua o
oaa?aeeo o?eao», Oa?e?a, OAO, 1995, 1997; aoee iiaeai? ia II
i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? «Yaiethoeey aeaoaeoiuo no?oeoo? a iaoaeeao e
nieaaao», Aa?iaoe, 1994; XIV i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oeceea
i?i/iinoe e ieanoe/iinoe iaoaeeia e nieaaia», Naia?a, 1995; III ? IV
i?aeia?iaei?e oeie? – nai?ia?? «Yaiethoeey aeaoaeoiuo no?oeoo? a
eiiaeaine?iaaiiuo n?aaeao», Aa?iaoe, 1996, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 14 i?aoeue, o oiio
/ene? 5 noaoae o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? 9 oac aeiiia?aeae ia
eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, caeeth/iiai ?icae?eo «Aeniiaee» ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?c 135 iaeiaioaaiue. ?iaioa i?noeoue 158 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo oa 48 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aiae?cothoueny iniiai? oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
i?i aieea iaae ca?ai ? iio??eieo noee?a iaae ca?ai ia ieanoe/io
aeaoi?iaoe?th iie?e?enoae?a, a?aoiaioo?oueny aea?? ia’?eo?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy – aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?/ieo c?ace?a. Iaa?oioiaaii
aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??. Noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa iniiai? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaaaaeai?
iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe oa iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Aieea iaae ca?ai ? iio??eieo noee?a iaae ca?ai ia
ieanoe/io aeaoi?iaoe?th iie?e?enoae?/ieo iaoa??ae?a» (e?oa?aoo?iee
iaeyae) ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy i?i no?oeoo?o ? aeanoeaino? iaae iiae?eo
o iie?e?enoaeao. Iaaaaeai? ? i?iaiae?ciaai? aeai? i?i oei iio??eieo
noee?a iaae ca?ai oa eeaneo?eaoe?th inoaii?o o ca’yceo c ?oi?ie
aeanoeainoyie. Iieacaii, ui iaa?oue iayai?noue iaei??? niaoe?aeueii?
iaae? o IN ?noioii ci?ith? aeanoeaino? noee?a. Iaaaaeai? /eneaii? aeai?
i?i oa?aeoa?io i?ioyaei?noue cii cao?aiue, ye? ni?e/eiythoueny
iayai?noth iio??eieo noee?a – a?ae aeae?eueeio i?aeaoiiieo a?aenoaiae
aei aeanyoe?a i?e?ii. IN iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye e?i?eiee aeaoaeo o?eueee,
eiee ciia cao?aiiy noeeo i?i?iaeueia (aeiaaeie niaoe?aeueiiai IN), o
an?o ?ioeo aeiaaeeao iio??eiee noee ? ia’?iiei aeaoaeoii, ciia
niioai?aiue yeiai iioe?th?oueny ia a?aenoaiue ii?yaeea 10 iei ii iaaeao
ca?ai ? caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio iaae.

E??i oiai, ?nio? ?yae i?aoeue, o yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny iiaeeea?noue
ooai?aiiy ia o?eueee iio??eieo, aea ? iiiaeeiieo niaoe?aeueieo noee?a ?
aecia/athoueny oiiae no?eeino? inoaii?o i?ioe ?icuaiethaaiiy ia
iio??ei?.

?icaeyiooi aieea iio??eieo noee?a ia iiaaae?ieo iie?e?enoae?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a i?e ?o aeaoi?ioaaii? oa a?aeiaethaaii?. I?iaiae?ciaaii
oai?aoe/i? ?iaioe, o yeeo aeine?aeaeothoueny iaoai?cie aeieeiaiiy
eiioeaio?aoi?a iai?oa o iio??eiiio noeeo a ?acoeueoao? noia?ii? ae??
ianoi?niinoae iiai?ioiiai ? cnoaiiai oeio. ?icaeyiooi ??ciiiai?oi?
iaoai?cie ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oa o iio??eieo noeeao. Iieacaii, ui aeyaeaia
??ciiiai?ooy niinia?a ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiiai noaio o IN ia aeicaiey?
ioe?ieoe iaa?oue aianie inoaiiueiai a ieanoe/io aeaoi?iaoe?th
iie?e?enoae?a.

O iaeyae? i?iaiae?ciaai? i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? no/aniei oyaeaiiyi noiniaii
iaoai?ci?a ieanoe/ii? oa/?? iie?e?enoae?a oa ei?ioei aeeeaaeaia no/ania
eiioeaioe?y i?i no?oeoo?i? ??ai? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?eaia aea/aiith aeaieo i?i ?ioaoe?eio iiaeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
oa aeeneeeiaoe??, ye aeaiaioa?i? iin?? ?ioaoe?eii? ieanoe/iino?.

O aeniiaeao ?icae?eo i?iaiae?ciaaiee no/aniee noai i?iaeaie ? aecia/ai?
ieoaiiy, ye? aeiaaathoue ?ica’ycaiiy, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue
noi?ioethaaoe iaoo ? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a» iienai?
ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaeeee, canoiniaai? i?e
aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

I?e aea/aii? aieeao iio??eieo noee?a iaae ca?ai ia ieanoe/io oa/?th oa
c?oeioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee
ia?ai? aeaa yne?aa? i?aaenoaaieee iaoae?a ?c AOeE –?ao?oeith – i?aeue oa
aethi?i?e – ?c ??ciei oeiii iaae ca?ai, ni?e/eiaiei ?noioiith
a?aei?ii?noth aaee/eie aia?a?? aeaoaeoo iaeoaaiiy. Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeeny ia niaoe?aeueii aeaioiaeaieo c?aceao c
aethi?i??ai? oa i?aeii? oieueae, /enoioith 99.96% ? 99.90% a?aeiia?aeii.
?ici??e ?iai/i? /anoeie i?eciaoe/ieo c?ace?a neeaaeaee 100200.15 ii.
Na?aaei?e ?ici?? ca?ia a ieo ci?ithaaany a?eueoa i?ae ia ii?yaeie
aaee/eie (wmetafile8? ??§????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?????? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-?????P?@????P?????u?th?????? On? c?acee
aei?iaoaaee ia iia?o?? a ?aaeei? aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, yeee
caaacia/oaaa aeaoi?iaoe?th c?ace?a c ae?eniith iino?eiith oaeaee?noth,
yea eaaeaea a ?ioa?aae? 10-5 – 10-2 n-1. O aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaiee iien
ci?ie eiino?oeoe?? ?ic?eaii? iaoeie I?–0.5, yea aeicaieeea ciaioeoe
oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe?? c?ace?a. I?iaiae?ciaaii ??ci? o?aaeeoe?ei?
iaoiaee aea/aiiy eieae?caoe?? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? cai?iiiiiaaia
iiaa i?aoeec?eia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy nooiaiy eieaeueii?
iaiaeii??aeiino? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ca ci?iith oi?ie oa ?ici???a
a?aeaeoe?a ?iaeaioi?a i?e?ioaa?aeii??a IIO-3 aaciina?aaeiuei o i?ioean?
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? c?ace?a.

Iienaii i?eno??e aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oeyoii
oioia?aooaaiiy iiaa?oi? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea aaciina?aaeiuei o
i?ioean? eiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy, a oaeiae i?eno??e aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao. Aeey
aeaoaeuei?oiai c’ynoaaiiy ?ie? IN o ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? oa
c?oeioaaii? aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th aeaye? c
aeine?aeaeaiue aoee i?iaaaeai? i?e oaiia?aoo?? O=400 E.

I?ney c?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a ?o no?oeoo?o aeine?aeaeoaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoaeia?ao?/ieo i?e?ineii?a I?I –7 ? I?I – 8I. Cai?iiiiiaaii oa
ai?iaiaaii iaoiaeeeo neaioaaiiy iiaa?oi? c?ace?a ca aeiiiiiaith
ieaioaoiiai neaia?o Hewlett Packard ScanJet 4C. Iaaaaeaii iiaeeea?
?ic??cithaaeuei? caeaoiino? neaia?a, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo iaaea? ia?aaaao a
i?iaaaeaii? no?oeoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie
iaoaeia?ao?/ieie iaoiaeaie.

Aoanoaoe?y iaae ca?ai o ?iaio? ia i?iaiaeeeany. I?ioa c e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaieo (Eiiaoeueeee *.A., I?eia I.I., O?iiiaa E.E., 1987) a?aeiii, ui
niaoe?aeuei? iaae? ca?ai ii?oieia?/ii eaaei aeae?eeoe o no?oeoo??
iie?e?enoaea. Oaea iai?yia aoanoaoe?y iaae ca?ai ? aeinoaoiuei
iaae?eiith.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «?ieue iaae iiae?eo o ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? oa
?oeioaaii? aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th ? i?ae?»
?icaeyaeathoueny ??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe aieeao iaae ca?ai ? iio??eieo
noee?a iaae ca?ai ia ieanoe/io aeaoi?iaoe?th ? ?oeioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a ?c ??ciei oeiii iaae ca?ai oa ?c ??ciith aonoeiith
iio??eieo noee?a. O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 iaaaaeai? aeai? i?i aieea iaae
ca?ai ? iio??eieo noee?a iaae ca?ai ia ieanoe/i?noue iie?e?enoae?a ?c
AOeE – ?ao?oeith. I?iaaaeai? iaoai?/i? ?nieoe a oiiaao aeoeaiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? a ?ioa?aae? 10-5 –
10-2 c-1 i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? o?eaei??ieo, aeaiaei??ieo ?
iaeiiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th oa i?ae? (?en.1). Eeaneo?eaoe?y
oeio c?ace?a caniiaaia ia iayaiino? /e a?aenooiino? o ieo iane??cieo IN,
oiaoi oaeeo ye? aeoiaeyoue ia iaeaea? iiaa?oi? c?acea. Oae,
iaeiiaei??iee iie?e?enoae ia i?noeoue iio??eieo noee?a (?en.1, a),
aeaiaei??iee i?noeoue o?eueee iane??ci? iio??ei? noeee (?en. 1, a), a
o?eaei??iee, ye i?aaeei, i?noeoue o?eueee iaiane??ci? iio??ei? noeee
(?en. 1, a). Ii??aiyeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?eieo e?eaeo
aeuaaeacaieo ia’?eo?a aeyaeee, ui iniiaio ?ieue o i?aeaeuaii?
ieanoe/iino? a?ae?a?athoue iane??ci? iio??ei? noeee, ine?eueee iaea?eueo
?noioi? a?aei?iiino? o iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao iathoue i?noea aeey
aeaiaei??ieo ? iaeiiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a – c?ace?a, ui i?noyoue oa ia
i?noyoue IN. Oae, aaee/eie 1 ? 2 (aea 1 – a?aeiinia aeaoi?iaoe?y
aeaiaei??iiai iie?e?enoaea, 2 – a?aeiinia aeaoi?iaoe?y iaeiii??iiai
iie?e?enoaea, iaea?aeaiiai ?c aeaiaei??iiai o?i?/iei o?aaeaiiyi)
iiaeooue a?ae??ciyoeny a?eueo i?ae o o?e ?ace i?e aonoei? iio??eieo
noee?a NTC300. A?aeiioaiiy 1/2 ciaioo?oueny c? ciaioaiiyi aonoeie IN ?
noa? ??aiei iaeeieoe? aeey c?ace?a aac iio??eieo noee?a. C iaeiiai aieo,
aoaeo ia iiaea aooe iiyniaiee iayai?noth o aeine?aeaeaieo c?ace?a ??cii?
noano?oeoo?e, ine?eueee niin?a ?o aeaioiaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aa iayai?noue o
aeaiaei??ieo ? iaeiii??ieo iie?e?enoaeao iaei??? e o??? ae noano?oeoo?e
(on? iaeiiaei??i? iie?e?enoaee ae??coaaee ?c aeaiaei??ieo). C ?ioiai
aieo, ia aeyaeaia caeaaei?noue aoaeoo ? a?ae oeio iaae ca?ai, ye?
ooai?ththoue noeee. ? aeey aeine?aeaeaieo iie?e?enoae?a i?ae?, o yeeo
i?aeoe/ii an? iaae? ca?ai niaoe?aeueiiai oeio, ? aeey iie?e?enoae?a
aethi?i?th c iaaeaie ca?ai caaaeueiiai oeio, ieanoe/i?noue i?e oa/??
c?ace?a a oiiaao aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth
aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? caaaeaee ? aeuith o aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a.

Ne?ae aeacaoe ia a?aenooi?noue ?ici??iiai aoaeoo (iacaeaaei?noue
nooiaith ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? c?acea a?ae eiai oe?eie i?e iaci?ii?e
aonoei? IN o c?aceao), ui aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii cie?aia oei,
ui ? aeey i?aeieo, ? aeey aethi?i??aeo aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a i?e
ci?i? oe?eie c?ace?a ?o ieanoe/i?noue ci?ith?oueny i?e aeinyaiaii?
??aiino? i?ae na?aaei?i ?ici??ii ca?ia ? oe?eiith c?acea.

?en.1 Ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy – iaeiiaei??i? (a), aeaiaei??i? (a) ?
o?eaei??i? (a) iie?e?enoaee.

Ca?eueoaiiy ieanoe/iino? aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a ?c c?inoaiiyi
aonoeie iio??eieo noee?a o c?aceao a?ae 3 aei 400 aeyaeaii ? aeey i?ae?
(a?aeiinia aeaeiaaeaiiy aei c?oeioaaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny a?ae 10 – 15%
aei 40 – 50%), ? aeey aethi?i?th ( ci?ith?oueny a?ae 3 – 4% aei 10 –
15%). I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae iaeiiaei??iiai aei aeaiaei??iiai iie?e?enoaeo
ci?ith?oueny ? oa?aeoa? aeaoi?iaoe??. O aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao
a?aeaoaa?oueny neiaeaoia eiacaiiy, a a iaeiii??ieo ?icaeaa?oueny
iiiaeeiia eiacaiiy c iiaeaeueoith eieae?caoe??th aeaoi?iaoe??, yea
i?eaiaeeoue aei iae?ic?oeioaaiiy c?acea o aeaeyae? oeeee.

Iiaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iane??ci? iio??ei? noeee iaae
ca?ai i?aeaeuothoue ieanoe/i?noue iie?e?enoae?a i?e ?o aeaoi?ioaaii? a
?aaeei? aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith ae?eniith oaeaee?noth
aeaoi?iaoe?? (wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th?????? Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui ia a?aei?io
a?ae o?eaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a, ye? iiaeooue i?noeoe iaaaeeeo
e?euee?noue (7%) iiiaeeiieo noee?a iaae ca?ai (Nooiie?i A.Ae.,
Eiiaoeueeee *.A., 1986) aeaiaei??i? iie?e?enoaee i?ae? oa aethi?i?th
i?noyoue o?eueee iio??ei? noeee iaae ca?ai. Iaiaaii, o noeeo o?ueio
ca?ai eiio?ao?aoe?y iaae ? iaea?eueo ??aiiaaaeiith ? iaaooue naia oiio
iio??ei? noeee ? iaeiei c iaeiioe?ai?oeo ieaia?ieo aeaoaeo?a
iie?e?enoae?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 ?icaeyioo? ??ci? iaoai?cie ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiiai
noaio a i?ioean? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a
aethi?i?th oa i?ae?.

Iieacaii, ui ?noioiee aianie o iaiaeii??aei?noue ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? aiinyoue iio??ei? noeee iaae ca?ai. ?icaeoie eieaeueii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii? IN aeey aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a iineoue
noiaeeieiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa?. Aaee/eia a?aeiinii? eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe??
o cii? IN oa oa?aeoa? ?? ?icaeoeo caeaaeeoue ianaiia?aae a?ae oeio iaae
ca?ai, ye? ooai?ththoue IN, a oaeiae a?ae oi?ie noeeo ? eiai i???ioaoe??
ii a?aeiioaiith aei iai?yieo i?eeeaaeaiiy ciai?oiuei? aeaoi?ioth/i?
iai?oae. O oe?eiio aeey ae?eyiie c?acea, ui i?noyoue IN,
niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? a?aeoeeaiiy aaee/eie nooiai?a a?aeiinii?
eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? eie a?ae aaee/eie nooiaith a?aeiinii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? anueiai c?acea (eie, ye i?aaeei, ia 10 – 20% ia?aaeuo? ).

Oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii? IN aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe
eiai ae?th ye ioeuenoth/iai aeaea?aea aeeneieaoe?e. Oaeee niin?a
?aeaenaoe?? IN-eiioeaio?aoi?a ? iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iei aeey aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th ? i?ae?. Aeey iie?e?enoae?a i?ae? e?eaa eie=()
? a?eueo ieaaiith, i?ae aeey iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
a?eueo iecueeee ??aaiue aioo??oi?o iai?oa o cii? IN. Iaea?eueo
eiia??iith i?e/eiith oeueiai aa?oi aaaaeaoe oie oaeo, ui /a?ac iecueea
cia/aiiy aia?a?? aeaoaeoo iaeoaaiiy, o i?ae? i?aeoe/ii an? iaae? ca?ai ?
niaoe?aeueieie. Aeey ooai?aiiy eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oa a?ey iaae ca?ai o
i?ioean? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, inoaii? iiaeii? a?ae?a?aaaoe ?ieue
aa?’??a aeey aeeneieaoe?e, ui ?ooathoueny. Niaoe?aeuei? iaae? ca?ai
a?eueo «i?iieei?» aeey aeeneieaoe?e, /ei aeia?euei? iaae?, oiio aiie
aeyaeythoueny iaio aoaeoeaieie eiioeaio?aoi?aie iai?oa. Oaeei /eiii,
aianie IN o ieanoe/i?noue iie?e?enoae?a i?ae? ? aethi?i?th ?
iaiaeiaeiaei. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi aeaiiai i?eiouaiiy iiaea neoaeeoe oie
oaeo, ui o aeaii??ieo iie?e?enoaeao aethi?i?th ?aeaenaoe?y iai?oa a?ae
IN-eiioeaio?aoi?a iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny oeyoii ooai?aiiy o iio??eieo noee?a
nioa ia?ai???ioaoe??, a aeey aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a i?ae? oaeee
niin?a ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oa i?aeoe/ii aeeeth/a?oueny.

I?iaiae?ciaaii ?iciiae?e a?aeiinii? eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ocaeiaae
in? ?icoyaoaaiiy i?ney c?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a. Aeyaeaii cia/ia a?aeoeeaiiy
aaee/eie nooiai?a eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o ae?eyieao, i?eeyaath/eo aei
?yaeo iaae ca?ai a?ae aaee/eie nooiaiy caaaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? c?acea.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?aeiinia eieaeueia aeaoi?iaoe?y ? iaeneiaeueiith
iiaeeco IN. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?ae 300 E aei 500 E aaee/eia
a?aeoeeaiiy nooiaiy eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a?ae nooiaith caaaeueii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? c?acea ciaioo?oueny. Iaiaaii, i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e
aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?ieue iaae ca?ai oa iio??eieo noee?a ye aeaea?ae oa
noiii??a ?ao?oeiaeo aeaoaeo?a cieaeo?oueny ca ?aooiie aeoea?caoe??
aeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a.

Aeine?aeaeaii oa?aeoa? aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ?ioaoe?eieo aoaeo?a, ye?
cie?aia i?iyaeythoueny o ?icai?ioao ie?aieo ae?eyiie c?acea,
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei eiai iiaa?oi?, o aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao
aethi?i?th ? i?ae?. Aeey oeueiai i?e aeinyaiaii? aecia/aiiai ??aiy
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? c?acea a oe?eiio aeey ie?aieo aeaiaio?a
no?oeoo?e iie?e?enoaeo (IN, iaae? ca?ia, o?ea ca?ia) aecia/aeany
aaee/eia n/n0, aea n — /enei aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e, o ae?eyieao yeeo
aeieeathoue ?ioaoe??, n0 – iiaia /enei aeaieo aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e a
?iai/?e /anoei? c?acea. Aoee anoaiiaeai? ianooii? caeiiii??iino?
aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ?ioaoe?eieo aoaeo?a o aeine?aeaeaieo c?aceao i?e
ieanoe/i?e oa/?? a ?aaeei? aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith
oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??. O iie?e?enoaeao
aethi?i?th (NTC=120) ?ioaoe?? c’yaeythoueny i?e aeinyaiaii? cia/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? c?acea (15%) ? aeyaeythoueny, ianaiia?aae, o cii? iaae
ca?ai. *anoea iaae ca?ai, o ae?eyieao yeeo ?icaeaa?oueny ?ioaoe?eia
aeaoi?iaoe?th, ia iiiaio c?oeioaaiiy c?acea neeaaea? 30 — 40 %.
?ioaoe?ei? aoaeoe o cii? IN ? a o?e? ca?ai iacia/i?. ?c ciaioaiiyi
aonoeie IN (NTC=70) ?ioaoe?ei? aoaeoe iathoue i?noea ia a?eueo ?aii?o
noaae?yo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? (10 %), iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo oae naii ye
? aeey c?ace?a ?c iaioei na?aaei?i ?ici??ii ca?ia aeinyaa?oueny o
ae?eyieao iaae ca?ai. Oeae oaeo, iaaia, iiynith?oueny oei, ui iiaeeco
iaae ca?ai, ye a?aeiii c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (Aeaae?i??ia A.?.,
?iiaiia I.?., 1986), aeieeathoue iaiaeii??aeiino? i?oaeieo iie?a, ye?
ni?eythoue ca?iaeaeaiith aeenee?iaoe?e ?, ioaea, aeieeiaiith ?ioaoe?eii?
aeaoi?iaoe??. I?e aeaoi?ioaaii? aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a i?ae?
?ioaoe?eia aeaoi?iaoe?y iii?oia ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ieanoe/ii? oa/??
(=2-3%) i?aeoe/ii a aoaeue-ye?e ae?eyioe? ?iai/i? /anoeie c?acea. Ia
iiiaio c?oeioaaiiy c?acea /anoea iaae ca?ai ? iio??eieo noee?a, ae?eyiee
a?ey yeeo caae?yi? o ?ioaoe?yo, neeaaea? 90 – 100 %, a /anoea ca?ai ?c
?ioaoe?yie – 30 %. Iaiaaii, aeaoi?iaoe?y aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a
i?ae? iia’ycaia c aeoeaiith ?ioaoe?eiith ieanoe/i?noth oa eieaeoeaieie
aeenee?iaoe?eieie aoaeoaie. O iie?e?enoaeao i?ae? oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo
?ioaoe?eii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aonoeie IN o c?aceo. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae i?aeieo, aeey aethi?i??aeo iie?e?enoae?a niinoa??aa?oueny
cia/ia caeaaei?noue i?ae oa?aeoa?ii aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeii ?ioaoe?e ?
aonoeiith iio??eieo noee?a. I?e aaeee?e aonoei? IN (NTC300) ?ioaoe?? ia
aeieeathoue iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, aae aei
c?oeioaaiiy c?acea. I?e na?aaei?e aonoei? IN (NTC100) ?ioaoe?ei? aoaeoe
aeyaeythoueny o?eueee iiaeeco iaae ca?ai i?e cia/i?e ieanoe/i?e
aeaoi?iaoe?? c?acea. O iie?e?enoaeao aethi?i?th ?c iaeith aonoeiith IN
(NTC 30) ?ioaoe?? aeyaeythoueny ? a ?ioeo ae?eyieao c?acea i?e a?eueo
iecueeiio ??ai? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Aaee/eia e?eoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe??, i?e ye?e c’yaeythoueny ?ioaoe?ei? aoaeoe o aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoaeao aethi?i?th, ca?eueoo?oueny c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e (e?20% i?e
O=500E) ? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? aeaoi?ioaaiiy. I?e i?aeaeuaii?
oaiia?aoo?e ?ieue ?ioaoe?eii? iiaee ye aeiiiaeaoe?eiiai i?ioeano
neaa?oa?, ui iiaea aooe iia’ycaiei ?c c?inoaiiyi ?ie? iiiaeeiiiai
eiacaiiy, ye aoi?eiiiai aeiiiaeaoe?eiiai i?ioeano /a?ac oaiia?aoo?io
caeaaei?noue ii?iaiaeo iai?oa.

Ii??aiyiiy oa?aeoa?o ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a i?e ieanoe/i?e
aeaoi?iaoe?? c?ace?a a oiiaao aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith
ae?eniith oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? (wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th?????? O i?ae?icae?e? 3.3 ?icaeyiooi oa?aeoa?
aeieeiaiiy oa caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo o??uei o aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoaeao ?c ??ciith aonoeiith iio??eieo noee?a i?e ?o ieanoe/i?e
oa/?? a oiiaao aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth
aeaoi?iaoe?? wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aenia?eiaioaeueii
iieacaii, ui ?ioaoe?eia aeaoi?iaoe?y a aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao ?c
AOeE – ?ao?oeith, ye i?aaeei, ia? i?noea aeey niaoe?aeueieo aai
aeecueeeo aei niaoe?aeueieo iaae ca?ai. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae
o?eaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a (Eaeaeoaa I.A., Aae??a ?.C., 1987), aea a
iaeiiio c?aceo iiaeeeaa c?oeioaaiiy ? ii o?eo ca?ia, ? ii iaaeao ca?ai,
aeey aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a oe? oeie ?oeioaaiiy ia ?aae?cothoueny o
iaeiiio ? oiio ae c?aceo iaeii/anii. O aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao i?ae?,
iacaeaaeii a?ae aonoeie iio??eieo noee?a, ? a aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao
aethi?i?th c iaeith aonoeiith IN (NTC30) c?oeioaaiiy caaaeaee iineoue
o?aine?enoae?oiee oa?aeoa? (?en.2). Aaee/eia WTK aecia/aeany ye
a?aeiioaiiy NOE/N0, aea NOE – e?euee?noue c?ace?a, oei c?oeioaaiiy yeeo
? o?aine?enoae?oiei, a N0 – caaaeueia /enei c?oeiiaaieo c?ace?a. Aeey
aecia/aiiy NOE/N0 aoei i?iaeaoi?iiaaii ii 20 c?ace?a c iaia?aae
caaeaiith aaee/eiith NTC. Aeey aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a ??aaiue
?oeioth/i? iai?oae i?e o?aine?enoae?oiiio c?oeioaaii? caaaeaee aeuee,
i?ae o aeiaaeeo ca?iiiaaeaaiai c?oeioaaiiy. Nooi?iue ?icaeoeo ?ioaoe?e o
ae?eyieao, ye? i?eeyaathoue aei iaae ca?ai, o aeiaaeeo
o?aine?enoae?oiiai ?oeioaaiiy ? iaeneiaeueiith. Aeaiaei??i? iie?e?enoaee
aethi?i?th c aaeeeith aonoeiith iio??eieo noee?a (NTC400) ?oeiothoueny
o?eueee ii iaaeao ca?ai, i?e/iio eiia??i?noue ca?iiiaaeaaiai c?oeioaaiiy
c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi aonoeie IN (?en.2). Ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei ia
iaaeao, ye i?aaeei, iineoue iiiaeeiiee oa?aeoa? – ca?iiiaaeaa? o??ueie,
aeieeioaoe ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao iaae, aeineoue /anoi aeae? ia
iioe?ththoueny ia anth iaaeo, a coieiythoueny o nai?io ?icaeoeo. I?e
iiaeaeueo?e ieanoe/i?e oa/?? iiaeeeaa iiyaa iaei??? aai aeae?eueeio
o??uei ia ?ioeo iaaeao. C?oeioaaiiy c?acea iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny i?e
?icaeoeo aoaeue-yei? ?c oeeo o??uei, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?? ii/aoeiaeo
?ici???a ? i???ioaoe??. Oaeee oa?aeoa? c?oeioaaiiy, iaiaaii, iiaea aooe
iiyniaiee, c aeei?enoaiiyi oaeeueiaiai iaoai?cio ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
(Iai?i A.?., 1990). ?aeaenaoe?y iai?oa a?ae iaeiiai c eiioeaio?aoi??a o
IN i?eaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy a?eueo iiooaeiiai eiioeaio?aoi?a o ?ioiio
ia’?i? ?iai/i? /anoeie c?acea oa iiaeaeueoi? ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oae
caaaeyee ?icaeoeo o??ueie (iai?eeeaae, ia iaae? ca?ia). Anoaoaoiee
i?ioean ia?ai?uaiiy eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oae i?e ieanoe/i?e oa/?? c?acea
iiaea i?eaanoe aei ?? ?aeaenaoe?? ?c aeieeiaiiyi o??uei a ?ioeo ia’?iao
c?acea.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae o?eaei??ieo, o
aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao ?c ??ciith aonoeiith IN oa iacaeaaeii a?ae
oeio iaae ca?ai, iio??ei? noeee i?e ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? a oiiaao
aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth wmetafile8?
??«???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th?????? O ?iaio? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy
iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeine?aeaeaieo c?ace?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae
aonoeie noee?a ? ae?enieo oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? c?ace?a. Iieacaii, ui
i?oei?noue oa a?aeiinia aeaeiaaeaiiy aei c?oeioaaiiy aeey c?ace?a, oei
c?oeioaaiiy yeeo ? o?aine?enoae?oiei, aeyaeythoueny iaeneiaeueieie. Oae,
a?aeiinia aeaeiaaeaiiy aei c?oeioaaiiy aethi?i??aeo c?ace?a o aeiaaeeo
?o c?oeioaaiiy ii o?eo ca?ia nyaa? 30 — 40%, a iaeneiaeueia
ieanoe/i?noue c?ace?a, c?oeiiaaieo ii iaaeao ca?ai, ia ia?aaeuo? 10 %.
A?aieoey i?oeiino? (b) aethi?i??aeo c?ace?a i?e o?aine?enoae?oiiio
c?oeioaaii? iaaea? c? ciaioaiiyi oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??, i?e/iio oeae
aoaeo c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi aonoeie iio??eieo noee?a (b ciaioo?oueny
a?ae 100 IIa aei 60 IIa i?e ciaioaii? oaeaeeino? ia aeaa ii?yaeee). O
aeiaaeeo ca?iiiaaeiaiai c?oeioaaiiy iaaea i?oeiino? iacia/ii c?inoa? c?
ciaioaiiyi oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? (b ci?ith?oueny a?ae 40 IIa aei 50
IIa). Aaee/eia b aeey i?aeieo iie?e?enoae?a neaaei caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia
aeaoi?ioaaiiy ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aonoeie IN o c?aceo.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui aethi?i??a? iie?e?enoaee c iaeiaeiaith aonoeiith
iio??eieo noee?a i?e iaei?e ? o?e aea oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? iiaeooue
?oeioaaoeny ye ii iaaeao ca?ai, oae ? ii o?eo ca?ai, aoea aecia/aia
eiia??i?noue o?aine?enoae?oiiai c?oeioaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae aonoeie
IN ? oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui eiia??i?noue
o?aine?enoae?oiiai c?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a aethi?i?th ciaioo?oueny c?
ca?eueoaiiyi NTC ? ciaioaiiyi wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th?????? C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aeaoi?ioaaiiy
aei 400 E aaee/eia NTC, i?e ye?e c?acee aethi?i?th iiaeooue ?oeioaaoeny
ii iaaeao ca?ai, ci?uo?oueny oa?e iaioeo cia/aiue (NTC15 i?e O= 400 E).

I?ae?icae?e 3.4 i?enay/aiee aea/aiith aieeao iane??cii? «ii?e — ioai?o»
o cii? iio??eiiai noeeo ia eieae?caoe?th ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa
?oeioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th i?e ieanoe/i?e
aeaoi?iaoe?? c?ace?a a oiiaao aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith
oaeaee?noth i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ?ie? IN, ye iiaeeeaeo eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oa, ui
ni?e/eiththoue noiaeeieiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa? eieaeueii? ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe??, aoee aeine?aeaeai? niaoe?aeuei? c?acee, o yeeo o ciiao
ie?aieo iio??eieo noee?a aoee aenaa?aeeai? iane??ci? «ii?e — ioai?e» (d
= 500 iei) aeey ci?ie oa?aeoa?o aioo??oi?o iai?oa, ui aeieeathoue i?e
ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe??. I?ney ooai?aiiy «ii? – ioai??a» c?acee o?i?/ii
iie??oaaee ? a?aeiaethaaee i?e O = 600N, i?ioyaii 2-o aiaeei. O
?acoeueoao? oaei? ia?iaee ne?ae?a ?ae?enoae?caoe?? iiaeeco ioai??a ia
niinoa??aaeiny. Aianaiiy «ii?e – ioai?o» o ciio IN i?eioeeiiai ci?ith?
oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o i?e. Caeaaei?noue eie=(),
aea – nooi?iue caaaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? c?acea, ia? ia
noiaeeieiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa?, ye oea aoei aeyaeaii ?ai?oa aeey c?ace?a
aac «ii?» o cii? IN, a ieaaiee (?en.3).

I?iaiae?ciaaii oa?aeoa? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? oei c?oeioaaiiy
c?ace?a ?c «ii?aie – ioai?aie» o ciiao iio??eieo noee?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
a c?aceao ?c «ii?aie», iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe??, nioae
ia?ai???ioaoe?? iiaeeco iio??eieo noee?a ia niinoa??aaeeny. ?ioaoe?eia
aeaoi?iaoe?y o cii? IN, iaae ca?ai, ui ia? i?noea i?e ieanoe/i?e
aeaoi?iaoe?? c?ace?a aac ioai??a, o c?aceao c ioai?aie i?aeoe/ii
a?aenooiy. I?e oa/?? oaeeo c?ace?a o??ueie ia?aaaaeii aeieeathoue o
ciiao iio??eieo noee?a, ye? i?noyoue «ii?e – ioai?e». Iioe?thth/enue o
o?e? ca?ai i?e nai?io ?icaeoeo aiie aca?iiae?thoue c ?ioeie iio??eieie
noeeaie, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei c?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a oei yeiai ? ci?oaiei.
Aeyaeaii, ui ie?ai? ioai?e o i?ioean? aeaoi?ioaaiiy caa??aathoue naith
ii/aoeiao oi?io. Oea, iaiaaii, na?ae/eoue i?i ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
aioo??oi?o iai?oa o cii? IN.

Oaeei /eiii, aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ia oa?aeoa?o IN, ye
eiioeaio?aoi?a iaoai?/ii? iai?oae oeyoii aianaiiy o ciio iio??eieo
noee?a iane??cieo «ii? – ioai??a» ia o?eueee ci?ith? nooi?iue ?icaeoeo
eieaeueii? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii? noeeo oa ieanoe/i?noue c?acea,
aea ? oa?aeoa? c?oeioaaiiy c?acea.

O caeeth/iiio ?icae?e? «Aeniiaee» i?aenoiiaai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ye? ? oaeeie:

1. Aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??i?noue ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ?oeioaaiiy
iaeiiaei??ieo, aeaiaei??ieo ? o?eaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a i?ae? ?
aethi?i?th c ??ciith aonoeiith iio??eieo noee?a i?e ?o aeaoi?ioaaii? a
oiiaao aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith ae?eniith oaeaee?noth
aeaoi?iaoe?? wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????2. Aea/aii caeiiii??i?noue ?icaeoeo
eieaeueii? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o ciiao ie?aieo iio??eieo noee?a o
aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao ?c AOeE – ?ao?oeith. Iieacaii, ui iacaeaaeii
a?ae oi?ie oa i???ioaoe?? IN aei cciai? i?eeeaaeaii? iai?oae ? oeio iaae
ca?ai, ye? eiai ooai?ththoue, ?icaeoie eieaeueii? ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? iineoue noiaeeieiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa?. Oaeee oa?aeoa?
?icaeoeo eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii? iio??eiiai noeeo aeicaiey?
i?eionoeoe ae?th ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? IN ye ioeuenoth/eo aeaea?ae
?ao?oeiaeo aeeneieaoe?e.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui iiaeeeaei niiniaii ?aeaenaoe??
iai?oaeaiiai noaio o IN i?e ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? c?ace?a a oiiaao
aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? a
?ioa?aae? a?ae 10-5 aei 10-2 n-1 i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? ii?yae c
ooai?aiiyi nioa ia?ai???ioaoe?? o noee?a, ooai?aieo iaaeaie caaaeueiiai
oeio, ? aeieeiaiiy ?ioaoe?eieo aoaeo?a (?icai?io?a ie?aieo ae?eyiie
c?acea ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei eiai iiaa?oi?), ye? iathoue i?noea ? o cii?
iio??eieo noee?a niaoe?aeueiiai oeio. Oae, aeey aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th, IN o yeeo o?eueee caaaeueiiai oeio, ia ?aii?o
noaae?yo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa?aeoa?ii ooai?aiiy nioa
ia?ai???ioaoe??, a aeieeiaiiy ?ioaoe?eieo aoaeo?a oaea ia ii/aoeiaeo
noaae?yo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeanoeaa aeaiaei??iei iie?e?enoaeai
i?ae?, ye? i?noyoue ia?aaaaeii iaae? ca?ai niaoe?aeueiiai oeio.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ioaoe?eia aeaoi?iaoe?y a?ae?a?a? ia o?eueee
aeiiiaeaoe?eio, aea ? naiino?eio ?ieue o ieanoe/i?e oa/?? aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a i?ae? oa aethi?i?th ? ?? aianie o ieanoe/io aeaoi?iaoe?th
c?ace?a iiaea aooe ?noioiei. Oeae oaeo iiaea aooe i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee,
cie?aia oei, ui o aeayeeo c?ace?a ?c ?ioaineaii ?icaeiaiith ?ioaoe?eiith
no?oeoo?ith a?aeiinia aeaeiaaeaiiy aei c?oeioaaiiy noaiiaeoue 50 – 60%.

5. Iieacaii, ui ?ioaoe?ei? aoaeoe aecia/athoue oa?aeoa? ?oeioaaiiy
c?ace?a. O aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao, aea ?ioaoe?? ?ioaineaii ?icaeioo?
o ciiao iaae ca?ai, i?aeoe/ii ia niinoa??aa?oueny ca?iiiaaeaaa
c?oeioaaiiy.

6. Aeyaeaii, ui c?oeioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a ?c AOeE –
?ao?oeith i?e ieanoe/i?e oa/?? a ?aaeei? aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c
iino?eiith oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????7. Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui aianaiiy o
ciio iio??eiiai noeeo a aeaiaei??iiio iie?e?enoae? aethi?i?th iane??cii?
«ii?e – ioai?o» ?c iaoith ci?ie iai?oaeaiiai noaio o IN, ia o?eueee
ci?ith? oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii? noeeo, aea e
i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie oeio c?oeioaaiiy c?acea.

?icaeoie eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o cii? iio??eiiai noeeo c ioai?ii i?e
aeaoi?ioaaii? oeeo c?ace?a a oiiaao aeoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c iino?eiith
oaeaee?noth aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? iineoue iiiioiiiee
oa?aeoa?. I?e c?oeioaaii? c?ace?a aethi?i?th c «ii?aie – ioai?aie»
o??ueie aeieeathoue o cii? iio??eieo noee?a ? iioe?thth/enue o o?e?
ca?ai i?e nai?io ?icaeoeo aca?iiae?thoue c ?ioeie iio??eieie noeeaie.

NIENIE E?OA?AOO?E CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Badiyan E.E., Tonkopryad A.G., Sakharova N.A. Special features of
plastic deformation and failure of aluminium two – dimensional
polycrystals // Functional Materials.– 1996.– V.3, ?1.– P. 81 – 83.

2. Badiyan E.E., Tonkopryad A.G., Sakharova N.A. Role of triple grain
boundary junctions in plastic deformation of two – dimensional aluminium
polycrystals // Functional Materials.– 1997.– V.4, ?2.– P. 318 – 319.

3. Badiyan E.E., Tonkopryad A.G., Sakharova N.A. Rotational effects at
plastic deformation of two – dimensional copper and aluminium
polycrystals // Functional Materials.– 1997.– V.4, ?4.– P. 560 – 563.

4. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. Iniaaiiinoe ?ioaoeeiiiie
aeaoi?iaoeee e ?ac?ooaiey aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia iaaee e aethieiey //
Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, na?ey «Oeceea».– 1998.– ?417,
aui.1.– N. 100 – 105.

5. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. Aeeyiea o?ieiuo noueia
a?aieoe ca?ai ia ieanoe/aneoth aeaoi?iaoeeth iieee?enoaeeia n AOeE –
?ao?oeie // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, na?ey «Oeceea».– 1998.–
?418, aui.2.– N. 33 – 37.

6. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. Aeeyiea a?aieoe ca?ai ia
oa?aeoa? ?ac?ooaiey aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey // 2-y
Iaaeaeoia?. oeiea-naieia? «Yaiethoeey aeaoaeoiuo no?oeoo? a iaoaeeao e
nieaaao». Oac. aeiee., 5 – 11 naioya?y 1994a.– Aa?iaoe: AeoAO.– 1994.–
N. 222.

7. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. ?ieue a?aieoe ?acaeaea a
ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee e ?ac?ooaiee aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia
aethieiey // 14-y Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. «Oeceea i?i/iinoe e ieanoe/iinoe
iaoaeeia e nieaaia». Oac. aeiee., 1995a.– Naia?a: NaiIe.– 1995.– N. 372
– 373.

8. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. Aeeyiea ninoiyiey
iiaa?oiinoe ia oa?aeoa? ?ac?ooaiey aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey
// Oece/aneea yaeaiey a oaa?aeuo oaeao (e 190-eaoeth Oa?ueeianeiai
oieaa?neoaoa). Iaoa?eaeu 2-ie eiio., 1 – 3 oaa?aey 1995a.– Oa?ueeia,
OAO.– 1995.– N. 92.

9. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. Ieanoe/aneay
aeaoi?iaoeey e ?ac?ooaiea aeaoia?iuo ia?acoeia aethieiey a eioa?aaea
oaiia?aoo? 300 – 400 E // Oece/aneea yaeaiey a oaa?aeuo oaeao (e
190-eaoeth Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa). Iaoa?eaeu 2-ie eiio., 1 – 3
oaa?aey 1995a.– Oa?ueeia, OAO.– 1995.– N. 93.

10. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. Aeaoaeoiay no?oeoo?a e
?aeaenaoeey iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeao
aethieiey a i?ioeanna ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee // 3-y Iaaeaeoia?.
oeiea-naieia? «Yaiethoeey aeaoaeoiuo no?oeoo? a eiiaeaine?iaaiiuo
n?aaeao». Oac. aeiee., 27 aaaonoa – 4 naioya?y 1996a.– Aa?iaoe: AeoAO.–
1996.– N. 48.

11. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. Caeiiiia?iinoe
?ac?ooaiey aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey e iaaee // Oece/aneea
yaeaiey a oaa?aeuo oaeao (e 80-eaoeth aeaaeaieea E.I. Eeooeoea).
Iaoa?eaeu 3-ae Iaaeaeoia?. eiio., 21 – 23 yiaa?y 1997a.– Oa?ueeia, OAO.–
1997.– N. 85.

12. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. Iniaaiiinoe ?aeaenaoeee
iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a i?ioeanna ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee aeaoia?iuo
iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey e iaaee // Oece/aneea yaeaiey a oaa?aeuo oaeao
(e 80-eaoeth aeaaeaieea E.I. Eeooeoea). Iaoa?eaeu 3-ae Iaaeaeoia?.
eiio., 21 – 23 yiaa?y 1997a.– Oa?ueeia, OAO.– 1997.– N. 86.

13. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. ?ioaoeeiiiua yooaeou
i?e ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey e
iaaee // 4-y Iaaeaeoia?. oeiea-naieia? «Yaiethoeey aeaoaeoiuo no?oeoo? a
eiiaeaine?iaaiiuo n?aaeao». Oac. aeiee., 2 – 7 naioya?y 1998a.– Aa?iaoe:
AeoAO.– 1998.– N. 25 – 26.

14. Aaaeeyi A.A., Oiieii?yae A.A., Naoa?iaa I.A. ?aeaenaoeeiiiua
i?ioeannu a o?ieiuo noueao a?aieoe ca?ai i?e ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee
aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey // 4-y Iaaeaeoia?. oeiea-naieia?
«Yaiethoeey aeaoaeoiuo no?oeoo? a eiiaeaine?iaaiiuo n?aaeao». Oac.
aeiee., 2 – 7 naioya?y 1998a.– Aa?iaoe: AeoAO.– 1998.– N. 26.

Naoa?iaa I.I. Iniaeeaino? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?oeioaaiiy
aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th oa i?ae?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei —
iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.07 – o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea.
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aieeao iaae ca?ai ? iio??eieo noee?a iaae ca?ai (IN) ia iaoai?cie
?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiiai noaio a i?ioean? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoae?a aethi?i?th ? i?ae?.

Aeine?aeaeaii oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo a?aeiinii? eieaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o
ciiao iio??eieo noee?a iaae ca?ai o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio iaae ca?ai,
oi?ie IN ? eiai i???ioaoe?? aei cciai? i?eeeaaeaiiai iai?oae.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui iacaeaaeii a?ae oeio iaae ca?ai, o
aeaiaei??ieo iie?e?enoaeao ?c AOeE – ?ao?oeith, ?aeaenaoe?y iai?oaeaiiai
noaio iineoue noiaeeieiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa?, ui aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe ae?th
IN ye ioeuenoth/iai aeaea?aea ?ao?oeiaeo aeeneieaoe?e.

Aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino? aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?ioaoe?eii? iiaee
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a aethi?i??aeo ? i?aeieo iie?e?enoaeao.
Iieacaii, ui ?ioaoe?eia aeaoi?iaoe?y iiaea a?ae?a?aaaoe ia o?eueee
aeiiiaeaoe?eio, aea e naiino?eio ?ieue o ieanoe/i?e oa/??. Aiia aea?
?noioiee aianie o ieanoe/i?noue ? aecia/a? oei c?oeioaaiiy aeaiaei??ieo
iie?e?enoae?a. Anoaiiaeaii oa?aeoa? aeieeiaiiy ? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo
o??uei o c?aceao o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio iaae ca?ai, aonoeie iio??eieo
noee?a o c?aceo ? oiia aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaiaei??iee iie?e?enoae, ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y, iaae?
ca?ai, iio??eiee noee iaae ca?ai, eieae?caoe?y aeaoi?iaoe??, ?ioaoe?ei?
aoaeoe, ?oeioaaiiy.

Sakharova N.A. Special features of plastic deformation and failure of
two-dimensional aluminium polycrystals. – Manuscript.

Thesis applied for Ph. D. In Physics and Mathematics on speciality
01.04.07 – solid state physics. Kharkov State University, Kharkov, 1999.

The thesis contents the results of experimental research about the
influence of grain boundaries and triple grain boundary junctions (TGJ)
on mechanism of stress state relaxation under plastic deformation of
two-dimensional aluminium and copper polycrystals.

The character of the relative local deformation development in the
triple grain boundary junction areas in depence on grain boundaries
types, TGJ form and TGJ orientation to the applied stress has been
studied. It is shown experimentally that stress relaxation has staggered
character in two-dimensional polycrystals with FCC-lattice independently
of grain boundary types. Such character allows to suppose work of the
TGJ as a pulsed dislocation source.

Regularities of the rotational mode appearance and development in
aluminium and copper polycrystals have been studied. It is shown that
the rotational deformation may not only play accommodation role, but
also play an independent one in plastic deformation. The rotational mode
is contributing substantially to the plasticity and predeterming the
failure type of two-dimensional polycrystals. The character of fractures
appearance and development in the samples in depence on grain boundaries
types, density of triple junctions in sample and strain conditions is
determiend.

Key words: two-dimensional polycrystal, plastic deformation, grain
boundaries, triple grain boundary junction, deformation localization,
rotational effects, failure.

Naoa?iaa I.A. Iniaaiiinoe ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee e ?ac?ooaiey
aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey e iaaee. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei —
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 – oeceea oaa?aeiai oaea.
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeaoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua a iineaaeiaa a?aiy,
iieacuaatho, /oi iniaoth ?ieue a ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee
iieee?enoaeee/aneeo aa?aaaoia ea?atho o?ieiua nouee a?aieoe ca?ai (ON).
Ianiaianoiinoue ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee o?ao niaaeiuo ca?ai i?eaiaeeo
e aicieeiiaaieth a ON iaeaieaa iiuiuo eiioeaio?aoi?ia iai?yaeaiee,
?aeaenaoeey eioi?uo iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ?acee/iuie niiniaaie.
Yenia?eiaioaeueii iaia?oaeaiiia iiiaiia?acea i?ioeannia ?aeaenaoeee
iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a ON i?e ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee aucuaaao
iiauoaiiue eioa?an e enneaaeiaaieyi, iinayuaiiui auyniaieth ?iee o?ieiuo
noueia a ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee e ?ac?ooaiee iieee?enoaeee/aneeo
iaoa?eaeia.

Aeey eco/aiey aeeyiey o?ieiuo noueia a?aieoe ca?ai ia ieanoe/aneoth
aeaoi?iaoeeth e ?ac?ooaiea iieee?enoaeeia a ea/anoaa iauaeoia
enneaaeiaaiey auee aua?aiu aeaoia?iua iieee?enoaeeu. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
iie oaeaea eae e o?aoia?iua niaea?aeao o?ieiua nouee, iaeiaei
aaiiao?e/aneay e oiiia?aoe/aneay no?oeoo?a aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia
cia/eoaeueii i?iua, /oi iicaieyao a ?yaea neo/aaa i?ineaaeeoue ca eo
yaiethoeeae. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aiciiaeii iieo/aiea aeaoia?iuo
iieee?enoaeeia n eiio?iee?oaiui /eneii o?ieiuo noueia. Ec-ca ionoonoaey
noaniaiiinoe a iai?aaeaiee, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iii e iiaa?oiinoe ia?acoea,
iniaaiiinoe aeeyiey a?aieoe ca?ai e o?ieiuo noueia ia ieanoe/aneoth
aeaoi?iaoeeth e ?ac?ooaiea iieee?enoaeeia aeieaeiu auoue au?aaeaiu
iaeaieaa y?ei.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia iiaay i?aoeeceiiiay iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiey
ioiineoaeueiie eieaeueiie aeaoi?iaoeee ii eciaiaieth oi?iu e ?acia?ia
ioia/aoeia eiaeaioi?a iee?ioaa?aeiia?a IIO — 3 iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
i?ioeanna ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee ia?acoeia. Oae aea a ?aaioa
i?aaeeiaeaia e ai?iae?iaaia i?eaeiaeueiay iaoiaeeea neaie?iaaiey
iiaa?oiinoe ia?acoeia i?e iiiiue ieaioaoiiai neaia?a Hewlett Packard
ScanJet 4C e iineaaeothuae ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee, eioi?ay aeaea
i?aeiouanoaa a i?iaaaeaiee no?oeoo?iuo enneaaeiaaiee ii n?aaiaieth n
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie iaoaeeia?aoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie.

Enneaaeiaaiey caeiiiia?iinoae ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee iaeiiia?iuo,
aeaoia?iuo e o?aoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey e iaaee iieacaee, /oi
o?ieiua nouee iiauoatho ieanoe/iinoue aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia n
AOeE–?aoaoeie, iacaaeneii io oeia a?aieoe ca?ai eo ninoaaeythueo.

Eco/aeny oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey ioiineoaeueiie eieaeueiie aeaoi?iaoeee a
iaeanoe ON a caaeneiinoe io oeia a?aieoe ca?ai, ia?acothueo noue, oi?iu
o?ieiiai nouea e aai i?eaioaoeee ei aiaoia i?eeiaeaiiiio iai?yaeaieth.
Iacaaeneii io oeia a?aieoe ca?ai, ?aeaenaoeey iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a
o?ieiuo noueao iineo nooiai/aoiia?aciue oa?aeoa?, iicaieythuee
i?aaeiieiaeeoue aeaenoaea ON eae ioeuene?othuaai enoi/ieea aeeneieaoeee.

Aiciiaeiuie niiniaaie ?aeaenaoeee iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a ON, ia?yaeo
n ia?aciaaieai iiein ia?ai?eaioaoeee aaeece noueia, yaeyaony
aicieeiiaaiea ?ioaoeeiiiuo yooaeoia (?acai?ioia ioaeaeueiuo iaeanoae
ia?acoea ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e aai iiaa?oiinoe). Yenia?eiaioaeueii
iieacaii, /oi aeey aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey n a?aieoeaie
ca?ai iauaai oeia, ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo aeaoi?iaoeee oa?aeoa?ii
ia?aciaaiea iiein ia?ai?eaioaoeee, a aicieeiiaaiea ?ioaoeeiiiuo yooaeoia
eiaao ianoi aeey iaaeiuo iieee?enoaeeia, niaea?aeaueo i?aeiouanoaaiii
a?aieoeu ca?ai niaoeeaeueiiai oeia. Ieacaeinue, /oi ?ioaoeeiiiay
aeaoi?iaoeey iiaeao ea?aoue ia oieueei aeeiiiaeaoeeiiioth ?ieue, ii e
aiineoue nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a ieanoe/iinoue aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia.
?ioaoeeiiiua yooaeou i?aaeii?aaeaeytho oei ?ac?ooaiey ia?acoeia. A
aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeao, aaea ?ioaoeee oi?ioi ?acaeou a iaeanoyo
a?aieoe ca?ai, i?aeoe/anee ia iaaethaeaaony ?ac?ooaiey ii a?aieoeai
ca?ai.

Onoaiiaeai oa?aeoa? aicieeiiaaiey e caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey o?auei a
ia?acoeao a caaeneiinoe io oeia a?aieoe ca?ai, ieioiinoe o?ieiuo noueia
e oneiaee aeaoi?ie?iaaiey. ?ac?ooaiea aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeia iiaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue ii iaeiiio ec aeaoo aiciiaeiuo oeiia – eee ii oaeo ca?ai,
eee ii a?aieoeai ca?ai. Aeey iieee?enoaeeia aethieiey aa?iyoiinoue
o?aine?enoaeeeoiiai ?ac?ooaiey aic?anoaao n oaaee/aieai ieioiinoe ON a
ia?acoeao e nei?inoe eo aeaoi?iaoeee. Aeaoia?iua iieee?enoaeeu iaaee
iacaaeneii io ieioiinoe ON e nei?inoe aeaoi?iaoeee anaaaea ?ac?ooathony
o?aine?enoaeeeoii.

Aianaiea a iaeanoue ON neaiciie «ii?u – ioaa?noey» n oeaeueth eciaiaiey
iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a ON-eiioeaio?aoi?a a aeaoia?iuo iieee?enoaeeao
aethieiey i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey eieaeueiie
aeaoi?iaoeee a iaeanoe nouea e oeia ?ac?ooaiey ia?acoea. Iieacaii, /oi
?acaeoea eieaeueiie aeaoi?iaoeee a iaeanoe ON n ioaa?noeai iineo
iiiioiiiue oa?aeoa?. I?e ?ac?ooaiee ia?acoeia aethieiey n «ii?aie –
ioaa?noeyie» o?aueiu aicieeatho a iaeanoe o?ieiuo noueia n «ii?aie» e
i?e naiai ?acaeoee ?ani?ino?aiythony a oaea ca?ai e acaeiiaeaenoaotho n
ae?oaeie o?ieiuie noueaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaoia?iue iieee?enoaee, ieanoe/aneay aeaoi?iaoeey,
a?aieoeu ca?ai, o?ieiie noue a?aieoe ca?ai, eieaeecaoeey aeaoi?iaoeee,
?ioaoeeiiiua yooaeou, ?ac?ooaiea.

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