?INOEOOO AeAOAEOIEIA?? AII OE?A?IE

IAETHOIAA Iaoae?y ?aai?aia

OAeE 371.9

INIAEEAINO? EIIE?AOECAOe?? OssAEAIUe NEAAICI?EO ?ICOIIAI A?AeNOAEEO
O*I?A

I?I IOI*OTH*EE NA?O

( ia iniia? ?o i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? )

13.00.03. – Ei?aeoe?eia iaaeaaia?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: -eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee AAA?IA Ethaeieea Na?a??aia, ?inoeooo aeaoaeoieia?? AII
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? oeoeiiaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: -aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee EICEAIEI Ieeiea Iaianiae/, ?inoeooo aeaoaeoieia?? AII
Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi???
ie?aio?aiiiaaeaaia?ee;

-eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ?AIAAEAANUeEA A??a Ieeiea?aia,
Euea?anueeee iaeaniee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ?inoeooo ina?oe, caa?aeoaa/
eaai?aoi??? niaoe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa : -Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a oeoeiiaaeaaia?ee, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.450.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie ( 04060 , Ee?a, aoe. I.Aa?e?inueeiai, 9 ).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith : 04060, Ee?a, aoe.
I.Aa?e?inueeiai, 9.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “29” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
AEOE O.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue anaa?/iiai
?icaeoeo aeeoeie c aeeaieeie aaaeaie ci?o ? oi?ioaaiiy o ia? i?aaeeueieo
oyaeaiue i?i ioi/oth/ee na?o. Aeooaeuei?noue oeueiai caaaeaiiy
iaoiiaeth?oueny oei, ui a?aenooi?noue iiaiioe?iiiai ci?o iaiaaeo?
iiaeeeaino? aaciina?aaeiueiai /ooo?aiai ni?eeiaiiy i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu
i?e?iaee ? oei naiei oneeaaeith? oi?ioaaiiy o aeeoeie oyaeaiue ye
iaeiiai c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ineo?/ieo i?ioean?a. Aaaee? ii?ooaiiy ci?o
iaoiiaeththoue naini?iee aeao?oeeo, ui, a naith /a?ao, i?ecaiaeeoue aei
cieaeaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo /ooo?aiai ni?eeiaiiy ? i?ciaiiy. *a?ac oea
oyaeaiiy ae?oae c aeeaieeie ii?ooaiiyie ci?o i?e niiioaiiiio ?o
oi?ioaaii? aeyaeythoueny caoaeaieie aiane?aeie iiaiiai aai /anoeiaiai
aeiaae?iiy oa ?aaeoeoaaiiy ci?iaeo ia?ac?a. Aiie o?aaiaioa?i?,
noaiaoe/i?, iathoue iecueeee ??aaiue ocaaaeueiaiino?.

Aeey ae?oae c ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iaaeinoaoi?noth, ye a?aeiii, oaae
aeanoeaee oiia?eueiaiee oaii ni?eeiaiiy, ui oneeaaeith? anaa?/ia
i?ciaiiy niinoa?aaeoaaieo i?aaeiao?a, aocuee?noue ni?eeiaiiy, aiane?aeie
/iai cieaeo?oueny /?oe?noue oa iaeii/ani?noue ni?eeiaiiy, iniaeeai a?oie
i?aaeiao?a, ii?ooo?oueny i???ioaoe?y a iia?e neooaoe??. Oiia?eueiaiee
oaii ? aocuee?noue ni?eeiaiiy ii?ooothoue eiai oe?e?ni?noue.

O ae?oae c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii iaeaeaa ii?ooaiiy (iai?eeeaae,
neaaici??noue ? ?icoiiaa a?aenoae?noue /e cao?eiea ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo)
oneeaaeiththoue iaeei iaeiiai, noai?ththoue niaoeeo?/i? oo?oaeiaiiy a
ni?eeiaii? iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo. Uia caiia?aoe oe? iaaeie?ee, oyaeaiiy
oaeeo ae?oae iaiao?aeii oe?eani?yiiaaii oi?ioaaoe. O ca’yceo c oeei a
iaa/aii? ? aeoiaaii? ae?oae c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii (aeeaieei ii?ooaiiyi
ci?o e ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iaaeinoaoi?noth) aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
iiooe oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue i?i i?aaeiaoe oa yaeua aeiae?eey.

O caaaeuei?e ineoieia?/i?e ? iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue o ae?oae aeine?aeaeoaaeeny a aaaaoueio oai?aoeei-
aenia?eiaioaeueieo i?aoeyo (A.A.Aiaiue?a, A.?.Aaeeei?iaeiiaa,
E.A.Caieia, A.?.?aiaoue?a, I.I.Ioaeaeueiai, A.I.Oaieia, O.I.Oaiye?i oa
?io.).

Caniae oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue i?i ia’?eoe aeiae?eey o ne?ieo ae?oae
aeine?aeaeoaaee A.N.Aaiaeae?e, A.N.?cioiaa , ?.N.Ii?aoe?n,
A.E.Ooiiiiaia, I.N.Oea?ee oa ?i.

Iniaeeaino? ni?eeiaiue ? a?ae/ooo?a ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae
aeaoaeueii aea/aeenue ineoieiaaie ? iaaeaaiaaie (E.A.Aa?anionueea,
I.I.Eiceaiei, E.I.Eoae?yaoeaaa, I.I.Ioaeaeueiai, ?.I.Nieiaeia,
I.I.Noaaeiaiei oa ?i.).

Aea/aiiy ae i?iaeai iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy ae?oae c? neeaaeieie
ii?ooaiiyie ?icaeoeo ?icai?oathoueny iia?eueii, ia caaeiaieueiythoue
aino?i? iio?aae oe?eueii? i?aeoeee o iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? oeyo?a ?
cania?a ?o ei?aeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e oeth i?iaeaio, ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui c iaoith
iiaeieaiiy ? caiia?aaiiy o?oaeiiu?a o ?icaeoeo oyaeaiue i?i iaaeeao
i?e?iaeo o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae c aeeaieeie ii?ooaiiyie ci?o,
iaiao?aeia aeoeaia iaaeaaia?/ia ao?o/aiiy a i?ioean ?o i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?. Iaaeaaia?/iee aieea ia? aooe ni?yiiaaiee ia oi?ioaaiiy
niinia?a ni?eeiaiiy ae?eniino?, ia ?icaeoie o ae?oae a?aeoai?thth/i?
oyae, ui aeicaieeoue ?i a i?ioean? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nie?aoeny ia
?ai?oa noi?iiaai? ia?ace oa ia iiaeaii?aee aeina?ae eiie?aoecaoe??
oyaeaiue i?i i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua ae?eniino?. Oea ni?eyoeia aeoea?caoe?? ?o
?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?, yea aieeaa? ia aanue o?ae ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo
aeeoeie.

Aeiiiiiaoe oeueiio iiaea nenoaia ?iaioe ii eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue
ae?oae c ii?ooaiiyie ci?o, yea ni?eyoeia ona?aeiieaiiio, a?eueo
oaeaeeiio ? i?oeiiio canai?iith ciaiue, oi?ioaaiith a o/i?a
i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino? e oi?iiy canoiniaoaaoe ciaiiy ia i?aeoeoe?. A
i?ioean? eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue ei?aaothoueny ? aeieathoueny aoi?eii?
ii?ooaiiy ineo?/ii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui i?e neeaaeiiio aeaoaeo? (?icoiiaa a?aenoae?noue ?
aeeaie? ii?ooaiiy ci?o) niinoa??aa?oueny neaaeee ?icaeoie
ocaaaeueithth/i? ooieoe?? ieneaiiy ? iiaeaiiy, ca?aeiaiee /ooo?aee
aeina?ae ? ia?aaaaea? /ooo?ai-i?aeoe/ia oi?ia i?ciaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy o
oaeeo ae?oae eiie?aoieo ia?ac?a i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo
noa? iaeiei ?c i?iaeoeoeaieo ei?aeoe?eieo cania?a ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo.
Aea caoaeaiiy ci?iaiai ni?eeiaiiy coiiaeth? iaai? o?oaeiiu? a i?ioean?
?o niaoe?aeueiiai iaa/aiiy. Iniaeeai aiie aeieeathoue i?ae /an
oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue i?i i?e?iaeo, c ia’?eoaie yei? neaaici?a aeeoeia
cono??/a?oueny ??aeoa, i?ae c?y/a. E??i oiai, aeeoeia c aaaeaie ci?o,
ciaeiiey/enue c oei /e ?ioei ia’?eoii, ia caaaeaee ia? iiaeeea?noue
io?eiaoe i?aaeeueia oyaeaiiy i?i eiai ?ici??e, oi?io, oa?aeoa?i? iciaee.
O neaaici?i? ?icoiiai a?aenoaei? aeeoeie, ye ? o c?y/i?, oyaeaiiy i?i
ioi/oth/o i?e?iaeo ii/eiathoue oi?ioaaoeny aeoaea ?aii, ua a
aeioe?eueiiio a?oe?. Aea o neaaici?i? aeeoeie oeae i?ioean cao?eio?oueny
o ca’yceo c? cia/iith iaaeinoaoi?noth ci?iaiai ni?eeiaiiy aeiae?eey. A?i
oneeaaeith?oueny ua e oei, ui aei iaa/aiiy a oeie?, a n?i’? /anoi ia
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeinoaoiueith i??ith an? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?icaeoeo ?
caaaa/aiiy oyaeaiue ae?oae i?i i?e?iaeo.

Aaaaoueia aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a
aeiaaaeaia i?eioeeiiaa iiaeeea?noue i?ciaiiy ae?oueie c aeeaieeie
ii?ooaiiyie ci?o i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu ioi/oth/i? ae?eniino? ? aeieeiaiiy o
ieo oi/ieo iiaiioe?iieo oyaeaiue i?i ia?. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie ?in?enueeeo ?
oe?a?inueeeo oeoeiiaaeaaia?a (A.?.Aiae???iei,
A.O.Eiaae/oe, ?.N.Ii?aoe?n, N.I.Iieooi?aa, A.I.?aiaaeaanueea,
O.I.Nae?eaethe, ?.I.Neiueiaa, E.?.Nieioeaaa, A.E.Ooiiiiaia, I.A.Ooa?ia
oa ?io.) anoaiiaeaii, ui naini?i? i?ioeane ci?iththoueny, ?icaeaathoueny
caeaaeii a?ae ci?noo

??cieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino? o/i?a, ui aeey oni?oii? iia?e?caoe?? iayaieo
o ieo iiaeeeainoae naini?ii? noa?e ae??oaeueiith oiiaith ?
oe?eani?yiiaaia i?ciaaaeueia, iaa/aeueia ? o?oaeiaa ae?yeuei?noue.

I?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c caaaeueii? oa niaoe?aeueii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aeaa ciiao anoaiiaeoe, ui aaaaoi
aeine?aeiee?a aea/aee iniaeeaino? oyaeaiue ae?oae c aeeaieeie
ii?ooaiiyie ci?o i?i ioi/oth/o ae?eni?noue. Aeine?aeaeoaaeenue e aeaye?
oeyoe ?o oi?ioaaiiy. Cia/ii iaioa aea/aeenue iniaeeaino? oyaeaiue
neaaici?eo ae?oae ? ua iaioa — ae?oae c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii.
Iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aeenue oeyoe ? caniae oi?ioaaiiy oaeeo oyaeaiue o
oe??? eaoaai??? oeiey??a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiiaii a aniaeo? iniiaieo caaaeaiue eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
eaai?aoi??? oeoeiiaaeaaia?ee ?inoeoooo aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie ia
oaio: ”Eiiiainaoi?ii-?aaa?e?oaoe?eia i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano a oeie? aeey ae?oae c aaaeeeie ii?ooaiiyie ci?o”.

Ia’?eoii naiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ia?aee i?ioean iciaeiieaiiy neaaici?eo
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a c iaaeieeoi?i na?oii.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – eiie?aoecaoe?y o oaeeo oeiey??a oyaeaiue i?i
iaaeeao i?e?iaeo caniaaie i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? a i?ioean?
ei?aeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy .

Iaoa ?iaioe — aea/eoe iniaeeaino? oyaeaiue neaaici?eo ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo ae?oae i?i i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua iaaeeai? i?e?iaee ? ?ic?iaeoe
aoaeoeai? caniae ?o eiie?aoecaoe??.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nai???aei?noue ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo neaaici?eo
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a, iayai?noue o ieo neeaaeiiai ii?ooaiiy
iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia oi?ioaaii? eiie?aoieo oyaeaiue i?i
iaaeieeoi?e na?o. Oea noai?th? cia/i? o?oaeiiu? a ?icai?oaii? ?o
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?. sseui aei i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue oeeo
o/i?a i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo iaeneiaeueii caeo/aoe caa?aaeai? aiae?caoi?e
oa ??ciiiai?oi? aeaee i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, oi iiaeia
aeiiaaaoeny cia/iiai iaeiie/aiiy eiie?aoiiai /ooo?aiai aeina?aeo o/i?a,
noi?iiaaiino? a?eueo oi/ieo ? iiaieo oyaeaiue i?i aeiae?eey. Oea oaeiae
ni?eyoeia ei?aeoe?? aeueo oi?i i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a
(ieneaiiy, iiaeaiiy, iai’yo?) e a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?o c
eiiiainaoi?iith oa iaa/aeueiith iaoith.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ? ia?aa??ee a?iioace ae??ooaaeeny oae? caaaeaiiy :

1.I?iaiae?coaaoe noai ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie a caaaeuei?e ?
niaoe?aeuei?e ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oa aecia/eoe
iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy.

2. Aea/eoe ??aaiue ?icaeoeo oa aeae?eeoe niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?
oyaeaiue i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo o neaaici?eo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae a
ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie eaoaai??yie ae?oae.

3. ?ic?iaeoe ci?no ? iaoiaeeeo eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue o/i?a i?i iaaeeao
i?e?iaeo caniaaie i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa aeine?aeeoe ??
aoaeoeai?noue.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaeaia a?o/eciyieie
ineoieiaaie eiioeaioe?y oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue ye aca?iiiia’ycaii?
ae?yeueiino? an?o aiae?caoi??a, caaaeyee /iio aeinyaa?oueny aeieeiaiiy a
ei?? aieiaiiai iiceo aaeeei? e?eueeino? anioe?aoeaieo ca’yce?a
(A.A.Aiaiue?a, A.N.Einothe, ?.I.Iaaeia, ?.I.Na/aiia, A.I.Oaieia oa ?io.)
oa eiiiainaoi?ieo i?ioean?a (E.N.Aeaionueeee, I.?.Caioeiaa, I.A.Eeoaae,
?.N.Ii?aoe?n, E.N.Nieioeaaa oa ?io.). I?ia?aeio ?ieue a oeueiio i?ioean?
a?ae?a?a? ieneaiiy ? iiaeaiiy (E.N.Aeaionueeee, I.?.AEeie?i,
I.I.Eaiioue?a , ?.O.Niaioiae/, N.ss.?oa?iooaei oa ?io.); eiioeaioe?y
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aiiy o/i?a (A.?.Aiiaea?, TH.E.Aaaainueeee,
TH.?.Iaeueiaaiee oa ?io.); oai??? ei?aeoe?eii-?icaeaaeueiiai ?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a ia iniia?
anaa?/iiai a?aooaaiiy ?o i?ciaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae (A.?.Aiiaea?,
E.N.Aaa?ia, A.A.Ai?iieiaa, A.I.Aeoeuei?a, ?.A.??aiaiei, I.I.Eiceaiei,
A.I.Ia?n?yiiaa, A.?.Oo?/einueea, I.I.Oioe?ia oa ?io.); i?eioeeie
niaoe?aeueii? oa caaaeueii? iaoiaeeee ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy (O.I.Aaeaa?a,
I.I.A?a?e, E.N.Aaa?ia, ?.I.A?ioaieia, A.I.??iaeia, I.N.Eiaaeue,
I.I.E?eeiaa, O.I.Nae?eaethe, I.I.Neaoe?i, A.E.Ooiiiiaia, N.A.Oaaei?aiei
oa ?io.).

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, i?aeoeee ?iaioe
oe?e c ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo o ??cieo
eaoaai??e ae?oae; niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oiaeii iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano ia
o?ieao iiynithaaeueiiai /eoaiiy, i?aaeiaoieo o?ieao, ei?aeoe?eieo
caiyooyo; aiae?c i?iaeoeo?a ae?yeueiino? o/i?a; aieaooaaiiy a/eoae?a,
aaouee?a; oanooaaiiy; iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia oa oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
a ?acoeueoao? eiai i?iaaaeaiiy aeyaeaii oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? oyaeaiue
i?i i?e?iaeo a o/i?a c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii, ?ice?eoi ?o
iaaeineiiae?noue. O i?ioean? niaoe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ei?aeoe?eiiai
iaa/aiiy aeine?aeaeaii ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii eiiieaen aoaeoeaieo
cania?a eiie?aoecaoe?? o oe??? eaoaai??? o/i?a oyaeaiue i?i iaaeeao
i?e?iaeo oa ?ice?eoi oeyoe ?o aeei?enoaiiy o aeiiii?aeieo eeanao oeiee
aeey neaaici?eo ae?oae. Oe? iieiaeaiiy caaaa/othoue a?aeiiino? i?i
i?ciaaaeuei? iiaeeeaino? ae?oae c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii, aecia/athoue
caniae ei?aeoe?eiiai aieeao, ni?yiiaai? ia iiaeieaiiy oa?aeoa?iiai aeey
ieo aa?aae?cio ciaiue ? oyaeaiue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy cia/ii ?icoe?ththoue aaea a?aeii? a aeaoaeoieia?/i?e
iaooe? ? i?aeoeoe? ciaiiy i?i cia/i? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? oa
iniaeeaino? iaa/aiiy ae?oae c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii. ?ic?iaeai? caniae
eiie?aoecaoe?? ?o oyaeaiue i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a/eoaeyie oe?e aeey ne?ieo ? neaaici?eo ae?oae, ?ioeo oei?a
niaoe?aeueieo oe?e ia ??ciiiai?oieo o?ieao ? a iicao?i/iee /an, a oaeiae
aeey eiiieaeniiai ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai aea/aiiy, ni?yiiaaiiai ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae oeeo ae?oae oa i?aai?caoe?? ?o
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iaa/aiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey iiaeaeueoiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai aeey niaoe?aeueieo aeioe?eueieo
onoaiia oa aeiiii?aeieo eean?a ii/aoeiai? eaiee niaoe?aeueieo oe?e aeey
ae?oae c aeeaieeie ii?ooaiiyie ci?o, i?aeoeee ?iaioe niaoe?aeueieo
aeioe?eueieo caeeaae?a aeey ne?ieo ? neaaici?eo ae?oae,
ineoieiai-iaaeeei-iaaeaaia?/ieo eiinoeueoaoe?e.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? o aeae?eaii? ia’?eo?a aeoeaioiaaiiai
aieeao ia neaaici?o aeeoeio c ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iaaeinoaoi?noth a
i?ioean? eiie?aoecaoe?? ?? oyaeaiue i?i i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua iaaeeai?
i?e?iaee oa aecia/aii? aoaeoeaieo cania?a ?o oi?ioaaiiy ia iniia?
iie?naini?iiai ni?eeiaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy: a?aeaoaaeeny a
i?ioean? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe o i?aeaioia/eo a?oiao niaoe?aeueiiai
aeioe?eueiiai caeeaaeo ?569 oa a?oiao aeey neaaici?eo ae?oae
aeioe?eueiiai caeeaaeo ?72 i. Ee?aa, iieiaeoeo aeiiii?aeieo eeanao
Ee?anueei? niaoe?aeueii? oeiee-?ioa?iaoo ?5 aeey ne?ieo ae?oae ?i.
ss.Aaothea; i?ae /an aenooi?a c aeiiia?aeyie ia ia?aaeao oa
iaoiaeia’?aeiaiiyo oeeo caeeaae?a, ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
(1996-1999 ?.?.) oa tha?eaei?e iaoeia?e nan?? ?inoeoooo aeaoaeoieia??
AII Oe?a?ie (n?/aiue 1999 ?.); oeyoii ioae?eaoe?? noaoae c oaie
aeena?oaoe??.

C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o?e noaoo? a ae. ”Aeaoaeoieia?y”.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (144 iaeiaioaaiiy
ianyaii 14 noi??iie ), aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 178
noi??iie. O oaeno? ai?uaii 12 oaaeeoeue, 3 iaethiee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue, aecia/aii ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoo, a?iioaco, caaaeaiiy, aenia?eiaioaeueio aaco,
?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “I?iaeaia ?icaeoeo ni?eeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo
o ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo c ii?ooaiiyie ci?o oa ?ioaeaeoo” –
i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoeia? i?aoe? c i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue o ae?oae a
caaaeuei?e oa niaoe?aeuei?e ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??.

Aiae?c oeoeieia?/ieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
cana?ae/ea, ui oi?ioaaiiy o aeeoeie c aeeaieeie ii?ooaiiyie ci?o
aeinoia??ieo oyaeaiue i?i iaaeieeoith ae?eni?noue a o?e /e ?io?e i???
oe?eaaeei aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a (A.N.Aaiaeae?e, I.?.Caioeiaa,
A.N.?cioiaa, TH.I.Eoeaa?i, ?.N.Ii?aoe?n, O.I.Nae?eaethe, E.?.Nieioeaaa,
A.E.Ooiiiiaia, I.N.Oea?ee oa ?io.). Aaeaea eeoa ca oiiae noai?aiiy a
o/i?a eiie?aoieo, aeeaieeo ? aaeaeaaoieo oyaeaiue i?i iaaeieeoi?e na?o
iiaeooue aooe caaacia/ai? ae?enii iaoeia? i?e?iaeie/? ciaiiy ?
noi?iiaaiee o ethaeeie iaoeiaee na?oiaeyae (A.A.Aiaiue?a,
I.I.Eaaaiiaa-Iaeea? oa ?io.).

O o?c?ieia?/ieo ? ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo (A.A.Aiaiue?aa,
I.I.Eaiioue?aa, ?.I.Iaaeiaa, ?.I.Na/aiiaa, A.I.Oaieiaa
oa ?io.) aeiaaaeaii, ui aoaeue-yea ae?y ciai?oiueiai iiae?acieea ia
iaiaaeo?oueny o/anoth a?aeiia?aeiiai aiae?caoi?a, — aei ?iaioe
caeo/a?oueny a?oia aiae?caoi??a. Oae, oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue a?aeaoaa?oueny
caaaeyee niieo/ai?e aca?iiae?? ci?iaiai, neooiaiai, aeioeeiaiai,
ithoiaiai e ?ioeo aiae?caoi??a. I?ia?aeio ?ieue i?e oeueiio a?ae?a?a?
ieneaiiy (cae?eniaiiy aiae?co ? neioaco, ii??aiyiiy, anoaiiaeaiiy
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a oiui). Iniaeeai aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy o
oi?ioaaii? oyaeaiue iaeaaeeoue iiaeaiith, yea aeiiiiaaa? ?o
aeaoae?coaaoe, oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe, ooi/ithaaoe, aaeineiiaethaaoe, aaeaea
oyaeaiiy ethaeeie, ye aeacoaaa ?.I.Iaaeia, oi?iothoueny ? ?icaeaathoueny
ia iniia? aca?iiae?? neiaa ? ia?aco.

Ia iniia? a/aiiy ?.I.Na/aiiaa ? ?.I.Iaaeiaa i?i aeuo ia?aiao
ae?yeuei?noue a?o/eciyieie o?c?ieiaaie ? ineoieiaaie ?ic?iaeai?
oai?aoe/i? iniiae ? i?eioeeie eiiiainaoe?? i?e ii?ooaii? ineo?/ieo
ooieoe?e (aeine?aeaeaiiy I.E.Aiio?ia, E.N.Aeaionueeiai, I.I.Eaiioue?aa,
I.?.Eo??y oa ?io.). Nai???aei?noue ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a eiiiainaoe??,
a?aeiiaeaiiy ? aei?aaeaiiy ii?ooaieo ? iaaei?icaeiaieo ooieoe?e o
aiiiaeueieo ae?oae ?ice?eo? a oe?eiio ?yae? aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo
aeaoaeoieia?a (?.I.Aine?n, I.?.Caioeiaa, I.I.Eiceaiei, ?.?.Eaa?ia,
I.I.Eeoaae, ?.N.Ii?aoe?n, I.N.Iaacia?, A.A.Iao?iaa, A.I.Neiueia,
E.?.Nieioeaaa, A.I.Oaieoenoiaa oa ?io.).

Ine?eueee a iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? aa?ooue o/anoue ae?oe c? neeaaeiei
aeaoaeoii (neaaici??noue oa ?ioaeaeooaeueia iaaeinoaoi?noue), oi e
oeyoaie eiiiainaoe?? iaaei?icaeoeo ?o oyaeaiue iiaeooue aooe ia?ai? o?,
ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey eiiiainaoe?? ooeiaeaeaiiai ci?o ? ?icoiiai?
a?aenoaeino?. Aea oea ia? aooe ia i?inoi iaoai?/ia ii?aeiaiiy oeeo
oeyo?a, a aeei?enoaiiy ?o ia aeuiio, a?eueo aeineiiaeiio ??ai?.

O caaaeuei?e ineoieia?/i?e ? iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ??ciei aniaeoai
oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue i?enay/aii ?yae oai?aoe/ieo i?aoeue ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue (A.A.Aiaiue?a, A.?.Aaeeei?iaeiiaa,
E.A.Caieia, A.?.?aiaoue?a, I.I.Ioaeaeueiai, A.I.Oaieia, O.I.Oaiye?i oa
?io.). A ieo, cie?aia, noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui oyaeaiiy ia iiaeooue
?icaeyaeaoeny ye uinue iacaaaeaee aeaia. Iiai? e /?oe? oyaeaiiy
aeieeathoue ia ieoo?ai, a oi?iothoueny, iinooiiai aaeineiiaethth/enue ?
ci?ithth/enue, i?ae aieeaii ana iiaeo ? iiaeo oe?eani?yiiaaieo
ni?eeiaiue.

Ie?aieie aaoi?aie aeine?aeaeoaaeenue iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue o
ae?oae c ineoio?ce/ieie ii?ooaiiyie. Oae, oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue i?i
aeea? ia’?eoe o ne?ieo ae?oae aea/aea I.N.Oea?ee, iniaeeaino? oyaeaiue
i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo o ne?ieo aeioe?eueiee?a — A.N.?cioiaa.

Iniaeeaino? ni?eeiaiue ? oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae
anaa?/ii aeine?aeaeaii a?o/eciyieie ineoieiaaie (E.?.Aa?anionueea,
E.I.Eoae?yaoeaaa, I.I.Ioaeaeueiai, ?.I.Nieiaeia, I.I.Noaaeiaiei). Aiie
aeyaeee, ui iaea?eueo ae?aaeaiei iaaeie?eii ni?eeiaiiy ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo ae?oae ? iaaeinoaoiy aeoeai?noue, neaaea oe?eani?yiiaai?noue
oeueiai ineo?/iiai i?ioeano. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue E.N.Aaa?ii?,
A.I.Aeoeuei?aa, ?.A.??aiaiea, O.A.AEoe, I.I.Eiceaiei, A.A.Iao?iai?,
A.I.Neiueiaa, I.I.Oioe?ii?, AE.?.Oeo oa ?io. ia?aeiieeai aeiaaee, ui
i?ae aieeaii niaoe?aeueiiai iaa/aiiy a aeeiai?oe? ?icaeoeo ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo o/i?a a?aeaoaathoueny iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy.

Na?aae /eneaiieo ?ic?iaie aiae?ciaaii? i?iaeaie eiinoaoo?oueny iacia/ia
e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaai??? ae?oae c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii. Oae,
A.O.Eiaae/oe, aea/ath/e caniae aeoea?caoe?? iaa/aiiy ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
ne?ieo ? neaaici?eo o/i?a, aaeeeiai cia/aiiy ni?aaaaeeeai iaaeaaaea
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?. ?.N.Ii?aoe?n, aeine?aeaeoth/e
iniaeeaino? oyaeaiue ne?ieo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae 1-4 eean?a i?i
oaa?ei, ioao?a, oeieo e ?io., aeyaea a?aenooi?noue o aeaii? a?oie ae?oae
i?oeieo aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ia?ac?a oeeo ia’?eo?a, cia/i? ii?ooaiiy ?o
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?. ?acii c oei a/aiee a?aecia/aa, ui i?ae
aieeaii niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiiai iaa/aiiy, a i?ioean? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo ne?i? ae?oe c ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iaaeinoaoi?noth
iiaiiaothoue aeinooii? caniae ? i?eeiie i?ciaiiy.

Ioaea, ??ci? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue o ae?oae c ineo?/ieie ?
naini?ieie ii?ooaiiyie aea/aeeny aaaaoueia aeine?aeieeaie, aea iacia/ia
?o e?euee?noue noinoaaeanue ae?oae c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii. I?e oeueiio
an?ia aaoi?aie i?aee?anethaaeanue aoaeoeaia ?ieue a oeueiio i?ioean?
niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiiai iaa/aiiy, iniaeeai i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? o/i?a.

Aiae?c i?aeoeee iaa/aiiy o/i?a c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii a aeiiii?aeieo
eeanao niaoe?aeueieo oe?e aeey ae?oae c? cieaeaiei ci?ii aeyaea
a?aenooi?noue nenoaiiino? ? ianooiiino? o oi?ioaaii? o ieo oyaeaiue i?i
i?aaeiaoe iaaeeai? i?e?iaee. Ia aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui a iaa/aeuei?e
i?ia?ai? oe?eeii aeinoaoiuei aiaeei aeae?eaii ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ae?oae
ca i?e?iaeith, ia aea/aiiy iaaeeai? i?e?iaee ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
iaaei?aaaeaii iaei /ano. *a?ac oea ae?oae ia iciaeiieththoue c ?yaeii
aaaeeeaeo aeey oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo ? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?aaeiao?a
iaaeeai? i?e?iaee.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaia eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue neaaici?eo ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo o/i?a i?i ia’?eoe ? yaeua iaaeeai? i?e?iaee ? aeooaeueiith ?
iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiith. Oea ? iaoiiaeei aea?? i?aaeiaoo iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aiiy eiai caaaeaiue ? iai?yie?a aenia?eiaioaeueii?
?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Iniaeeaino? oyaeaiue neaaici?eo ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo ae?oae i?i iaaeieeoi?e na?o” – i?aaenoaaeaii caaaeaiiy,
iaoiaeeeo, ?ice?eoi o?ae ? ?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo.

C iaoith aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oyaeaiue i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo o
neaaici?eo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae, ye? i?eoiaeyoue aei ia?oiai eeano
niaoe?aeueii? oeiee, iaie aoa ?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaen ae?aaiinoe/ieo oano?a
c aeei?enoaiiyi e?eueeio i?aeoiae?a: e?euee?niiai, ye?niiai ? ??aiaaiai.

Oanoe i?noeee caaaeaiiy a?aeoai?thth/iai oa?aeoa?o (iaiaethaaoe,
?iciia?noe, ni?aa?aeianoe iaethiee ? iiynieoe), aeey aeeiiaiiy yeeo
ia?aaeaa/aeinue iaaeaiiy iio??aii? ianoaaeoaaiei aeiiiiiae: iiaoi?aiiy
neiaanii? ?ino?oeoe??, iieac niiniao aeeiiaiiy, ni?eueia c o/iai
aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiiy.

E?euee?niiio oa ye?niiio aiae?co i?aeeyaaee ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaiiy o/iyie
anueiai eiiieaeno oano?a. Ia oe?e iniia? aeae?eyeenue ??ai?
noi?iiaaiino? oyaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?i iaaeieeoith i?e?iaeo a
oeie?.

Anueiai aenia?eiaioii aoei ioiieaii 195 ae?oae, c yeeo — 45 neaaici?eo
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a, 60 neaaici?eo c ii?iaeueiei ?ioaeaeoii, 58
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo c ii?iaeueiei ci?ii, a oaeiae a?oia c 32 ae?oae, o
yeeo c?? oa ?ioaeaeo aoee a ii?i?.

Ine?eueee nooi?iue ii?ooaiue aino?ioe oeaio?aeueiiai ci?o, iiea ci?o,
ci?ia? ae?aaiice, a oaeiae nooi?iue cieaeaiiy ?ioaeaeoo o ae?oae
iaiaeiaeia?, oi e noai noi?iiaaiino? oyaeaiue i?i ioi/oth/ee na?o aoaea
??ciei. Oiio a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ie a?aoiaoaaee an? iniaeeaino?
noaio ci?o oa nooi?iue o?aaeaiiy ?ioaeaeoo eiaeii? aeeoeie.

Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oae? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: aiae?c iniaiaeo ni?aa
ae?oae, aan?aea, aieaooaaiiy aaouee?a, oanooaaiiy o/i?a, iaaeaaia?/ia
niinoa?aaeaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy aeicaieeee eiinoaooaaoe, ui ae?oe c? neeaaeiei
aeaoaeoii (niieo/aiiyi ?icoiiai? a?aenoaeino? c? neaaici??noth) iaeaea
ia iathoue ocaaaeueithth/eo oyaeaiue i?i ioi/oth/ee na?o. sse ? aeey
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae acaaae?, aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ia i?inoa
ia?ae?/oaaiiy oiai, ui aiie aa/aoue, aac ni?ia eiai ocaaaeueieoe. O
33,5% oeeo ae?oae ocaaaeueithth/a oyaeaiiy acaaae? aoei a?aenooi?i, a a
20% — iai?aaeeueiei. O oie /an o 40% ae?oae c ii?iaeueiei ?ioaeaeoii ?
ci?ii ? oaeiai ae a?aenioeo ae?oae c ii?ooaiei ci?ii ? ii?iaeueiei
?ioaeaeoii aeyaeaii i?aaeeueia iiaia ocaaaeueithth/a oyaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii o 60% ? 50% — iaiiaia. Iai?aaeeueiiai ocaaaeueithth/iai
oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo o oeeo ae?oae ia aeyaeaii. Ae?oe c ?icoiiaith
a?aenoae?noth oa ii?iaeueiei ci?ii iiaia i?aaeeueia oyaeaiiy aeyaeee o
10,7% aeiaaee?a, iaiiaia – o 35,7%, iai?aaeeueia – o 28,6%, a?aenooi? –
o 25%.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?iiy ?ic??ciyoe i?aaeiaoe aeeai? ? iaaeeai? i?e?iaee,
a oaeiae aeyaeyoe ?o nooo?a? iciaee iathoue i?noea o oeo ae?oae, ye?
cono??/aeeny c ieie /ano?oa a aeiiaoi?o oa ?ioeo iiaooiaeo oiiaao,
oe?eaaeeeny ieie, aeey /iai naiino?eii a?aee ?o a ?oee, ianoaaeoaaee,
a?aeeny c ieie. Oea, ia?aaaaeii, ae?oe c ii?iaeueiei ci?ii oa
?ioaeaeoii. Cian?i ?iaeoee noai aeyaeaii o ae?oae, aeeoo?aee aeina?ae
yeeo iaiaaeaiee, ye? ia i?iyaeee caoe?eaaeaiino? a i?ciaii? ioi/oth/iai
na?oo. Oea ae?oe c ii?ooaiei ?ioaeaeoii, a iniaeeai c? neeaaeiei
aeaoaeoii.

?acoeueoaoe iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee aaea a?aeii? a
aeaoaeoieia?? oaeoe, ui aeae?eaiiy nooo?aeo iciae ia’?eo?a ? aeey
aaaaoueio ae?oae c ineoio?ce/ieie ii?ooaiiyie neeaaeiith ?icoiiaith
ae??th, yea niiioaiii o aaaaoueio c ieo ia oi?io?oueny.

C’ynoaaiiy iayaiino? oa ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? o neaaici?eo ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo ae?oae oyaeaiue i?i ia’?eoe iaaeeai? i?e?iaee (caiey, aiaea,
iia?o?y), noa?e ?o aeei?enoaiiy oa ia?ciaiino? c? cia/aiiyi o aeeoo?
ethaeeie cana?ae/eei, ui oe? oyaeaiiy ia?aaaaeii iaiiai? aai iaa??i?.
Ae?oe a?ae/oaaee cia/i? oo?oaeiaiiy o aeae?eaii? oeeo ia’?eo?a, ?o
iciae, iicia/aii? ?o neiaii, iaia?ciai?noue c ?o i?ecia/aiiyi ?
aeei?enoaiiyi a aeeoo? ethaeeie (aeea. oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

?icoi?iiy o/iyie ( a % ) noa? aeei?enoaiiy aeayeeo i?e?iaeieo ia’?eo?a

(caiey, aiaea, iia?o?y)

? i/i

A?oie o/i?a E?euee?noue ianoaaea-ieo E?euee?noue o/i?a ( a %) ,ye?
iathoue oae? ??ai? ?icoi?iiy:

?icoi?? i?aaeeueii ?icoi?? iai?aaeeueii

Ia ?icoi??

1 Neaaici?? ?icoiiai a?aenoae?

45

53,4

46,6

2 Neaaici?? c ii?iaeueiei ?ioaeaeoii

60

90

10

3 ?icoiiai a?aenoae? c ii?iaeueiei ci?ii

58

57,2

42,8

4 Ae?oe c ii?iaeueiei ci?ii oa ?ioaeaeoii

32

100

Iayai?noue oeeo iaaeie?e?a iaoiiaeaia cia/iith i??ith oei, ui ae?oe ia
ciathoue cia/aiiy ne?a, ye? iicia/athoue o? /e ?io? eiie?aoi? i?aaeiaoe
/e iciaee. Oyaeaiiy i?i iciaeo /anoi ia ni?aiaaeathoue o ieo c? neiaii,
yeei aiia iicia/a?oueny, oiaoi ca neiaii iaia? eiie?aoiiai oyaeaiiy i?i
i?aaeiao, niinoa??aa?oueny eeane/iee aa?aae?ci oyaeaiue.

I?e aeeiiaii? ie?aieo caaaeaiue ae?oyi on?o a?oi, ye? aoee iani?iiiaei?
naiino?eii ?o aeeiiaoe, iaaeaaaeany iaiao?aeia i??a aeiiiiiae. Oaei?
aeiiiiiae iio?aaoaaei 16 a?aenioe?a ae?oae c ii?iaeueiei ci?ii oa
?ioaeaeoii; 25 a?aenioe?a ae?oae neaaici?eo c ii?iaeueiei ?ioaeaeoii;
35,7 a?aenioe?a ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae; 46,8 a?aenioe?a ae?oae c?
neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii. I??a iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae a ??cieo a?oiao aoea
??ciith. sseui a a?oiao ae?oae c ii?iaeueiei ?ioaeaeoii iaaeaaaeanue
ia?oa i??a (iiaoi?aiiy neiaanii? ?ino?oeoe??) ? eeoa a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao
ae?oaa (iieac niiniao aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiiy), oi a a?oiao ae?oae c
ii?ooaiiyi ?ioaeaeoo oa c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii ia?aaaaeaea ae?oaa i??a
aeiiiiiae, a iae/ano?oa – o?aoy i??a aeiiiiiae (aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiiy
ni?eueii c aenia?eiaioaoi?ii).

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui neaaici?? ?icoiiai a?aenoae?
ae?oe i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi aeiiiiiae ia
ei?enoothoueny ci?iaei noaaeaiiyi ca ae?yie aei?ineiai
(aenia?eiaioaoi?a), ui ? iniiaith iao/?iiy /a?ac iane?aeoaaiiy, yea a
oeae ia??iae ? aeii?ioth/ei niiniaii io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
iaaeieeoi?e na?o. A?aenooi?noue ci?iaiai noaaeaiiy iiaeia iiynieoe, c
iaeiiai aieo, ae??th noa’?eoeaiiai oaeoi?o, ui aeieea? aiane?aeie aaae
ci?o (iecueea aino?ioa ci?o, caoaeaiiy iiey ci?o oiui), c ae?oaiai –
iecueeei ??aiai eiioeaio?aoe?? oaaae oa ?? ia?a?iciiae?eo o aeeoeie c
ii?ooaiiyi ?ioaeaeoo. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aiia a?eueoa i???ioo?oueny ia
aiioe?eia ni?eeoaaiiy c aei?ineei, a ia ia i?aeoe/io ni?aae?th.
Neooaoe?y i?aeoe/ii? ni?aae?? i?aei?ith?oueny aiioe?eiei, a ia
ae?yeuei?niei ni?eeoaaiiyi. C oe??? i?e/eie ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy
aeiiiiiae o oe??? eaoaai??? ae?oae ? iaeieae/ee.

?acoeueoaoe aieaooaaiiy aaouee?a ae?oae c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii aeaee
ciiao anoaiiaeoe, ui a?eueo?noue c ieo ia ?icoi?? aaaeeeaino? iaaeaaiiy
?oi?ie ae?oueie oyaeaiue i?i aeiae?eey aeey caaaeueiiai ? ?icoiiaiai
?icaeoeo, i?aeaioiaee aei oni?oiiai iaa/aiiy a oeie?.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c on?o c?a?aieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a aeicaieea
eiinoaooaaoe iecueeee ??aaiue iayaiino? oyaeaiue i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo o
neaaici?eo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae, ye? i?eoiaeyoue aei ia?oiai eeano
niaoe?aeueii? oeiee. Oe? oyaeaiiy, iaa?oue i?i a?eueo ciaeii? i?aaeiaoe,
a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia/?oe?, iaiiai?, iaeiie?aoi?, a aeaeiee
niioai?ai? aai ia a?aeiia?aeathoue ae?eniino?, ? iaeiicia/ii
iaaeeaeathoueny aei oeiiaeo oyaeaiue ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae c?
caa?aaeaiei ci?ii.

Iaei??th c i?e/ei oaeiai noaio ? a?aenooi?noue a ?iaio? niaoe?aeueieo
oe?e iaeaaeii? nenoaie, yea a ia?aaeaa/aea iaaio aoaii?noue o oi?ioaaii?
oeeo oyaeaiue o aeaii? eaoaai??? ae?oae. A i?aeoeoe? ia? i?noea
aacnenoaii?noue oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue i?i i?aaeiaoe iaaeeai? i?e?iaee, yea
caeeaaeaia e o i?ia?ai?, ui iaoiiaeth? o?aaiaioa?i?noue ? iiaa?oia?noue
oeeo oyaeaiue a o/i?a c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii.

Eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio iinea oa?aeoa? iiooeiaiai, a ?acoeueoao? yeiai
aoei oaeiae aecia/aii iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? caniae eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue
o/i?a c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo, ye? iaa?oioiaaii o
ianooiiiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? cania?a
eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo o neaaici?eo ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo o/i?a” — a?aeia?aaeaii ci?no oa ?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaioo, ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia aae?ano i?aeoee?a
uiaei iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia aeoea?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ae?oae
c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii.

Aeae?eeaoe ye i?aaeiao ei?aeoe?? oyaeaiiy neaaici?eo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
ae?oae i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo, ie ?ic?iaeee oa ai?iaoaaee eiiieaen cania?a
eiie?aoecaoe?? oeeo oyaeaiue ? aecia/eee iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aeoea?caoe??
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oe??? eaoaai??? ae?oae, aeioe?euei?noue yeeo
aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueii.

Iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy ?ic?iaeyeany ia iniia?
ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo (eaae?o?eaoe?y aeaoaeoo, aeei?enoaiiy a ei?aeoe?eiiio
iaa/aii? caa?aaeaieo ooieoe?e i?aai?cio) oa aeeaeaeoe/ieo (aeinooiiino?,
iai/iino?, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo,
eiiieaeniino?, ei?aeoe?eii? ni?yiiaaiino?) i?eioeei?a. O iaoiaeeoe?
/anoeiai aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ai?aae, cai?iiiiiaai? o aeine?aeaeaiiyo
A.N.?cioiai?, O.I.Nae?eaethe, I.N.Oea?ee, aaeaioiaai? iaie aeey ?iaioe c
o/iyie c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii.

Eiie?aoecaoe?y oyaeaiue a i?ioean? ei?aeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy a?aeaoaaeanue
o iaai?e aeeaeaeoe/i?e iine?aeiaiino?, iaoiiaeai?e caeiiii??iinoyie
i?inoaaiiy o/i?a a?ae iaciaiiy aei ciaiiy, ? aeeth/aea:

— iinoaiiaeo ia?aae o/iyie i?ciaaaeueiiai caaaeaiiy;

— noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo neooaoe?e aeey iiyae o ieo i?ciaaaeueiiai
?ioa?ano oa iaa/aeueiiai iioeao;

— ni?eeiaiiy ia’?eoo i?ciaiiy ia iie?naini?i?e iniia? c ??ciiiai?oieo
aeaea?ae;

— anaa?/ia aea/aiiy ia’?eoo i?ciaiiy — aeae?eaiiy ? ona?aeiieaiiy eiai
nooo?aeo iciae, aeanoeainoae;

— ocaaaeueiaiiy ni?eeiyoiai iaoa??aeo c iaoith i?aeaaaeaiiy i?ae
iiiyooy;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy ? cae??ieaiiy noi?iiaaieo oyaeaiue;

— aeei?enoaiiy iaaooeo ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie a iiaeo neooaoe?yo;

— aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aiiy, ia?aa??eo aaeaeaaoiino? ? iiaiioe
noi?iiaaieo oyaeaiue.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiei iaa/aiiyi aoei ioiieaii 30 ae?oae c? neeaaeiei
aeaoaeoii (neaaici??noue oa ?ioaeaeooaeueia iaaeinoaoi?noue) 2-3 eean?a
niaoe?aeueieo oe?e-?ioa?iao?a ?4 ? 5 i. Ee?aa. Aiii i?iaiaeeeinue o
1997-98 iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe?.

Oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio aeeth/aa o?e aoaie: eiio?ieueia ia?aa??ea,
iaa/aeueiee aenia?eiaio, iiaoi?ia eiio?ieueia ia?aa??ea.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy i?iaaaeai? aea?
eiio?ieuei? ia?aa??ee, ci?no ? iaoiaeeea yeeo aoea iaeaea ?aeaioe/iith c
iaoiaeeeith eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa/aiiy ia?aaeaa/aei aeaa aoaie – i?aeaioia/ee oa
iniiaiee.

I?iiaaeaaoe/ia ?iaioa c? neaaici?eie ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeie ae?oueie ia
ia?oiio aoai? aoea ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ci?iaiai ?
neooiaiai ni?eeiaiiy, eii?aeeiaoe?? ?oo?a ? i?inoi?iaiai i???iooaaiiy,
?icaeoie aiae?oeei-neioaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aeia?eueii? oaaae,
ca?eueoaiiy aa?aaeueii? iai’yo?, ooi/iaiiy cia/aiue ie?aieo ne?a. Aac
oeeo ia?aaeoiia iaiiaeeeaa oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoieo oyaeaiue.

C oe??th iaoith aoee aaeaioiaai? aaea a?aeii? e ?ic?iaeai? iaie
niaoe?aeuei? eiiieaene ?ai? ? ai?aa, ye? aiooaaee ae?oae aei ni?eeiaiiy
ia’?eo?a iaaeeai? i?e?iaee.

Aei ci?noo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy ia iniiaiiio aoai?, a?aoiaoth/e
aeyaeai? iaie iaaeie?ee ?icaeoeo oyaeaiue o neaaici?eo ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a, aoei aeeth/aii aea/aiiy oaeeo
a?aeiiinoae i?i ia’?eoe ? yaeua aeiae?eey:

— oa?aeoa?i? iciaee yaeu iaaeeai? i?e?iaee o ??ci? ii?e ?ieo;

— aeeaa ? iaaeeaa i?e?iaea (nooo?a? aeanoeaino?, ii??aiyiiy, aecia/aiiy
? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y );

— ia’?eoe iaaeeai? i?e?iaee: oaa?ae? ia’?eoe oa ?o aeanoeaino?
(oaa?ae?noue, iayai?noue oi?ie); neio/? oa ieanoe/i? ia’?eoe
(ci?ithaai?noue oi?ie); ??aeeia oa ?? iniiai? aeanoeaino? (??aee?noue ?
ieeii?noue).

Iniiaieie caniaaie eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?i oe?
ia’?eoe ? yaeua aoei ia?aii i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue, a?o,
iaethaaiiy, ??ciiiai?oi? aa?aaeuei? ai?aae.

Naia oe? caniae caaaeueiiaeciai? iaea?eueo i?e?iaeieie e aeinooiieie
aeey iaa/aiiy ? ?icaeoeo ae?oae c ineo?/ieie ? naini?ieie ii?ooaiiyie
(A.?.Aiae???iei, A.I.Aeoeuei?a, ?.N.Ii?aoe?n,
A.O.Eiaae/oe, A.A.Iao?iaa, A.I.?aiaaeaanueea, I.N.Oea?ee oa ?io.), ye?
iaaeinoaoiuei aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy o ae?oae c?
neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii oyaeaiue i?i ioi/oth/ee na?o. O/anoue o oeeo aeaeao
ae?yeueiino? aeiiiiiaa? inoaii?i ia eeoa iaeiie/oaaoe eiie?aoiee
/ooo?aee aeina?ae ia iie?naini?i?e iniia?, a e noi?ioaaoe iiaiioe?ii?
oyaeaiiy i?i aeiae?eey. Oea oaeiae ni?ey? ei?aeoe?? i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oeeo o/i?a, oi?ioaaiith o ieo iaa/aeueieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie.

Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ni?yiiaaiiai ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? eiie?aoieo oyaeaiue i?i
iaaeeao i?e?iaeo, cana?ae/o?, ui aeei?enoaiee iaie eiiieaen ei?aeoe?eieo
cania?a eiie?aoecaoe?? o ae?oae oyaeaiue i?i i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua iaaeeai?
i?e?iaee ni?eya a?eueo aoaeoeaiiio ?icaeoeo ??aiy oeeo oyaeaiue o
neaaici?eo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a.

I?ae /an eiio?ieueiiai iieooaaiiy o/i?a a e?ioe? aenia?eiaioo aiie
iaaiaeeee o a?aeiia?aeyo a?eueoo e?euee?noue ia’?eo?a, iaa?oue oaeeo, ui
ia aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a aenia?eiaioaeueieo caaaeaiiyo (THey A. ia
ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo :”??aeeia – oea aiaea, ai iie?a”; a e?ioe? eiai :”
Aiaea, iieiei, n?e, /ae, eaeai – ana ??aeeia, ai oa/a oa ci?ith?
oi?io”). Iiae?ai? a?aeiia?ae? aiai?youe i?i oa, ui a o/i?a noi?ioaaeinue
ocaaaeueiaia oyaeaiiy i?i aeaiee ??ae ia’?eo?a iaaeeai? i?e?iaee.

O ?acoeueoao? ei?aeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy cia/ii i?aeaeueany ??aaiue
naiino?eiino? o/i?a i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy iaa/aeueieo ? eiio?ieueieo
caaaeaiue (aeea. ?en.1). sseui aei aenia?eiaioo a?eueoa /anoeia c ieo
ciaoiaeeeany ia ianeaii-?ai?iaeoeoeaiiio (80%) ? ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiio (20%)
??aiyo, oi i?ney niaoe?aeueiiai iaa/aiiy cia/ia /anoeia aeinyaea
?ai?iaeoeoeaii-i?iaeoeoeaiiai (20%) ? ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai (25%) ??aiy
naiino?eiino?.

Aei niaoe?aeueiiai iaa/aiiy I?ney niaoe?aeueiiai
iaa/aiiy

?en.1 ?iciiae?e o/i?a (a %) ca ??aiai naiino?eiino? aeeiiaiiy
eiio?ieueieo caaaeaiue.

I?e oeueiio aoee aecia/ai? oae? ??ai? aeeiiaiiy eiio?ieueieo
oano?a-caaaeaiue:

naiino?eia ioi/a aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue (iiaia ocaaaeueithth/a oyaeaiiy) –
aeyaeaii o 20% o/i?a;

aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiiy c aeiiiiiaith ca aeoeaiith o/anoth aeeoeie (iaiiaia)
– 66%;

iaai?iiy aeeiioaaoe caaaeaiiy /a?ac a?aenooi?noue oyaeaiue (ioeueiaa) –
14%;

iaa??ia aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiiy iaa?oue c aeei?enoaiiyi aeiiiiiae
(iai?aaeeueia) – ia aeyaeaii.

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a eiio?ieueieo caaaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeeei
aoaeoeai?noue ia?aieo iaie cania?a eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue o neaaici?eo
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a i?i i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua iaaeeai? i?e?iaee, yea
aeyaeeany o c?inoaii? e?eueeino? ae?oae c aenieei ??aiai iayaiino? oeeo
oyaeaiue, ia?aoiaeii a?eueoino? o/i?a ia ?ai?iaeoeoeaiee (25%) oa
?ai?iaeoeoeaii-i?iaeoeoeaiee (20%) ??aaiue naiino?eiino? aeeiiaiiy
caaaeaiue.

O ?acoeueoao? ei?aeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy a o/i?a ?icii/aee aeoeaii
oi?ioaaoeny oae? ?icoiia? ae??, ye ni?anoaaeaiiy i?aaeiao?a, aeae?eaiiy
a eiaeiiio c ieo caaaeueieo iciae, a?oioaaiiy i?aaeiao?a ca oeeie
iciaeaie, eiie?aoecaoe?y oa ?io.

Aeiaaaeaii iiaeeea?noue niaoe?aeueiiai iaa/aiiy ae?oae c? neeaaeiei
ii?ooaiiyi aeei?enoaiith canai?ieo ciaiue i?i iciaee ? aeanoeaino?
iaaeeai? i?e?iaee i?ae /an neiaanieo iien?a i?e?iaeieo yaeu, e?ieaiiy,
aie?eaoe?e, aaeaeaaoiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?o o iaethieao.

Iiceoeai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oyaeaiue o neaaici?eo ae?oae c
?ioaeaeooaeueiith iaaeinoaoi?noth aeyaeeeny e o ?icoe?aii? ?o ianeaiiai
? iniaeeai aeoeaiiai neiaieea. O ieo c’yaeeeny eiie?aoi? oyaeaiiy i?i o?
i?aaeiaoe, ye? aiie iaceaaee, ona?aeiieaia iia?oaaiiy neiaaie-iacaaie
??cieo i?e?iaeieo yaeu, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aoaeoeai?noue ia?aai?aiiy
aa?aae?cio oa ?iaa??aioiino? ne?a.

I?ney i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy a?aecia/aii i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy naiino?eiino? o/i?a i?e aeeiiaii? iaa/aeueieo caaaeaiue.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie
aecia/aii iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aeoea?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
o/i?a c? neeaaeiei ii?ooaiiyi.

Aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee :

Aiae?c caaaeueii? oa niaoe?aeueii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c
i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aeoeee iaa/aiiy o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a c?
neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii ia?aeiieeai aeiaaee, ui ieoaiiy eiie?aoecaoe??
oyaeaiue neaaici?eo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a i?i
i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua iaaeieeoiuei? i?e?iaee ye iaoeiaa i?iaeaia
niaoe?aeueii ia ?ic?iaeyeeny.

Iacaaeia?eueiee ??aaiue niiioaiiiai ?icaeoeo oyaeaiue i?i i?aaeiaoe ?
yaeua iaaeeai? i?e?iaee a o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii,
yeee aeyaeaii a oiae? eiinoaooth/iai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aeneeth?
cia/ou?noue ?aiiueiai ei?aeoe?eiiai aieeao ia ?icaeoie oeeo oyaeaiue o
aeaii? eaoaai??? ae?oae.

I?iaaaeaia iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaei ciiao eiinoaooaaoe aeeaieo
niaoeeo?/i?noue ni?eeiaiiy iaaeeai? i?e?iaee o neaaici?eo ae?oae c
?ioaeaeooaeueiith iaaeinoaoi?noth, ye? i?eoiaeyoue aei 1 eeano. Cie?aia,
o ieo aeyaeaii ia/?oe?, iaiiai?, iaeiie?aoi?, a aeaeiee e niioai?ai?
oyaeaiiy iaa?oue i?i iaea?eueo ciaeii? ia’?eoe (iai?eeeaae, aiaeo,
iia?o?y, i?nie, aeeio, ni?a oiui), ye? /anoi ia a?aeiia?aeathoue
ae?eniino?. Oe? oyaeaiiy o aeaii? eaoaai??? ae?oae /anoi aacothoueny ia
iaei?e ?c nooo?aeo aai ianooo?aeo iciae, ye? ia caaaeaee ? aeinoia??ieie
? eiie?aoieie.

?acoeueoaoe niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiiai ei?aeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy
neaaici?eo o/i?a c ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iaaeinoaoi?noth i?aeoaa?aeeee
aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy a i?ioean? eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue i?i
iaaeeao i?e?iaeo ??cieo cania?a i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?:
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/i? ae??, a?a, iaethaaiiy, aie?eaoe?y oa ?io.

Oni?oi?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy aeinyaa?oueny ca oaeeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia :

— a?aooaaiiy ineoio?ce/ieo iniaeeainoae, i?ciaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae oa
iiia?aaeiueiai aeina?aeo eiaeii? aeeoeie;

canoinoaaiiy a i?ioean? ei?aeoe?eieo caiyoue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiae?a;

— aaaaeaiiy a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean ia an?o eiai iniiaieo aoaiao
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ieo ae?e;

— canoinoaaiiy ?a?iai? oa ia?acioai?/i? ae?yeueiino? a i?ioean?
eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue ae?oae;

— aa?aaeuei?noue on?o aeae?a ae?yeueiino? o/i?a oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?y ?o
iiaeaii?aiai ?icaeoeo;

— i?aai?caoe?y niaoe?aeueiiai iaa/aiiy ia ??ai? i?aei?aaeiaoieo
ca’yce?a.

I?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii ia ae/a?io?oueny ieoaiiyie, ?icaeyiooeie a
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?. Aei aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a oe??? i?iaeaie,
ye? aeiaaathoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy, iaiao?aeii, ia iaoo aeoieo,
a?aeianoe: oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai aeey o/i?a
aeiiii?aeieo eean?a ii/aoeiai? eaiee oe?e aeey neaaici?eo ae?oae;
?ic?iaeo ci?noo i?iiaaeaaoe/ii? i?e?iaeiciaa/i? i?aeaioiaee neaaici?eo
ae?oae c ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iaaeinoaoi?noth aei oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy a
a?oiao niaoe?ae?ciaaieo naaee?a aeey neaaici?eo ae?oae aai a caaaeueieo
a?oiao oeeo naaee?a, o i?aeaioia/eo eeanao ca niaoe?aeueiith i?ia?aiith.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo :

1.?icaeoie ni?eeiaiiy aeiae?eey iieiaeoeie neaaici?eie ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeie o/iyie // Aeaoaeoieia?y. – 1996. — ?2. – N.25-27.

2.Oyaeaiiy neaaici?eo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae i?i iaaeieeoi?e na?o //
Aeaoaeoieia?y. – 1999. — ?3. – N.47-50.

3.Oyaeaiiy neaaici?eo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo //
Aeaoaeoieia?y. – 1999. — ?4. – N.25-28.

Iaethoiaa I.?. Iniaeeaino? eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue neaaici?eo ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo o/i?a i?i ioi/oth/ee na?o (ia iniia? ?o i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.03 – ei?aeoe?eia iaaeaaia?ea. – ?inoeooo
aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999. – 178 n.

?iaioo i?enay/aii aeooaeuei?e i?iaeai? oi?ioaaiiy ? eiie?aoecaoe??
oyaeaiue neaaici?eo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a i?i yaeua ? ia’?eoe
iaaeeai? i?e?iaee ia iniia? ?o i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Aeyaeaii, ui oyaeaiiy oe??? eaoaai??? ae?oae i?i aeiae?eey iathoue
niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?, na?aae yeeo ia?aaaaeathoue o?, ui iaoiiaeai? a
a?eueo?e i??? ?ioaeaeooaeueiei iaaei?icaeoeii. Iniaeeai iaaeineiiaeeie ?
?o oyaeaiiy i?i iaaeeao i?e?iaeo, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaiiaiioith,
ia/?oe?noth, ?ica?aei?noth neiaa ? ?aaeueiiai ia?aco, a o cia/ii?
e?eueeino? ae?oae acaaae? a?aenooi?.

Aeiaaaeaii i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue iiia?aaeaeaiiy oaeeo iaaeie?e?a ca
oiiae niaoe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ?o i?aeoe/ii? e ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?
ia iie?naini?i?e iniia?.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii e iaa?oioiaaii aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy a
i?ioean? ?icaeoeo e eiie?aoecaoe?? oyaeaiue aeaii? eaoaai??? ae?oae i?i
iaaeeao i?e?iaeo ??cieo cania?a i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?:
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ieo ae?e, a?e, iaethaaiiy, a oaeiae aa?aaeueieo ai?aa.
Aeiaaaeaii ?o ei?eaoth/ee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy o neaaici?eo ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a oyaeaiue i?i i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua
iaaeeai? i?e?iaee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?oe c? neeaaeiei aeaoaeoii, oyaeaiiy, eiie?aoecaoe?y,
iaaeeaa i?e?iaea, ei?aeoe?eia iaa/aiiy.

Iaethoiaa I.E. Iniaaiiinoe eiie?aoecaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiee neaaiaeaeyueo
oinoaaiii ionoaeuo o/aueony ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a (ia iniiaa eo
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.03 – ei??aeoeeiiiay iaaeaaiaeea. –
Einoeooo aeaoaeoieiaee AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999. – 178 n.

Enneaaeiaaiea iinayuaii aeooaeueiie i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeaiee
neaaiaeaeyueo oinoaaiii ionoaeuo o/aueony ia iauaeoao e yaeaieyo
iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu ia iniiaa eo i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Io o?iaiy noi?ie?iaaiiinoe o aeaiiie eaoaai?ee aeaoae eiie?aoiuo, /aoeeo
e i?aaeeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie caaeneo oniaoiia iaeaaeaiea eie anaie iniiaaie iaoe. Iiyoiio
eiie?aoecaoeey i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?aaeiaoao e yaeaieyo ie?oaeathuaai ie?a
yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo caaea/ iao/aiey aeaoae ni neiaeiui
aeaoaeoii.

Ianiio?y ia i?iyaeyaiue e aeaiiie i?iaeaia eioa?an i?aeoeeia e
enneaaeiaaoaeae, inoathony iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aiiuie iniaaiiinoe yoeo
i?aaenoaaeaiee, a oaeaea ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathuea aiciiaeiinoe iiiaeo
aeaeia i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eae iaeaieaa aeeceiio e
aeinooiiiio oeio aeayoaeueiinoe ia aeaiiii aic?anoiii yoaia,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia oi?ie?iaaiea eiie?aoiuo e /aoeeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia
ie?oaeathuai ie?a, i iaaeeaie i?e?iaea, a /anoiinoe, o aeaiiie eaoaai?ee
aeaoae.

I?iaaaeaiiue iaie aiaeec i?aeoeee iao/aiey o/aueony ni neiaeiui
aeaoaeoii ai aniiiiaaoaeueiuo eeannao niaoeeaeueiuo oeie aeey aeaoae ni
nieaeaiiui c?aieai iieacae ionoonoaea nenoaiiinoe e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
a oi?ie?iaaiee o ieo i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?aaeiaoao iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu.
Ionoonoaoao i?ia?aiiii-iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea i?ioeanna eo
ei??aeoeeiiiiai iao/aiey. Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaeaia eiie?aoecaoeee
i?aaenoaaeaiee neaaiaeaeyueo oinoaaiii ionoaeuo o/aueony i i?aaeiaoao e
yaeaieyo iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu yaeyaony aeooaeueiie e iaaeinoaoi/ii
eco/aiiie, /oi e iaoneiaeei auai? oaiu aeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Ia iniiaaiee yoiai iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey aue ii?aaeaeai i?ioeann
iciaeiieaiey neaaiaeaeyueo oinoaaiii ionoaeuo o/aueony n ie?oaeathuei
ie?ii; i?aaeiaoii – eiie?aoecaoeey o ieo i?aaenoaaeaiee i iaaeeaie
i?e?iaea n?aaenoaaie i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a i?ioeanna
ei??aeoeeiiiiai iao/aiey.

Aeiioacie enneaaeiaaiey yaeeinue i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
iaeneiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeaiee o
yoeo o/aueony i iaaeeaie i?e?iaea nio?aiiuo aiaeecaoi?ia e ?acee/iuo
aeaeia i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue
cia/eoaeueiiio iaeiieaieth o ieo eiie?aoiiai /oanoaaiiiai iiuoa,
oi?ie?iaaieth aieaa oi/iuo e iieiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a,
ei??aeoeee aunoeo oi?i iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe (iuoeaiey, ?a/e,
iaiyoe).

A ?acoeueoaoa eiinoaoe?othuaai enneaaeiaaiey auyaeaii, /oi
i?aaenoaaeaiey yoie eaoaai?ee aeaoae ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a eiatho
niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe, a aieueoae ia?a iaoneiaeaiiua eo
eioaeeaeooaeueiui iaaei?acaeoeai. E?aeia ianiaa?oaiiuie yaeythony eo
i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaaeeaie i?e?iaea, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony iaiieiioie,
ia/aoeinoueth, ianiaiaaeaieai neiaa e ?aaeueiiai ia?aca, a o
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe o/aueony aiiaua ionoonoaotho.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?othony i?e/eiu oeacaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia
i?aaenoaaeaiee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a o neaaiaeaeyueo oinoaaiii ionoaeuo
aeaoae.

Aeieacaia i?eioeeieaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey eo iiyaeaiey
o o/aueony i?e oneiaee niaoeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee i?aeoe/aneie e
oinoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia iieenaini?iie iniiaa.

Yenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iae?iaaia yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey a i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey e eiie?aoecaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiee aeaiiie eaoaai?ee aeaoae i
iaaeeaie i?e?iaea ?acee/iuo n?aaenoa i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe:
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee, ea?u, ?eniaaiey, a oaeaea aa?aaeueiuo
oi?aaeiaiee.

Aeieacaii eo ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathuaa aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea o
o/aueony ni neiaeiui aeaoaeoii i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?aaeiaoao e yaeaieyo
iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu i?e niaethaeaiee ?yaea auaeaeaiiuo iaie a oiaea
enneaaeiaaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaaeaaiae/aneeo oneiaee:

— o/aoa ineoioece/aneeo iniaaiiinoae, iiciaaaoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae e
i?aaeuaeouaai iiuoa eaaeaeiai o/aieea;

— i?eiaiaiey a i?ioeanna ei??aeoeeiiiuo caiyoee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea;

— aaaaeaiea a o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiue i?ioeann ia anao aai iniiaiuo
yoaiao i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee;

— eniieueciaaiea ea?iaie e ecia?aceoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a i?ioeanna
eiie?aoecaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiee o/aueony;

— aa?aaeueiinoue anao aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony, eioaineoeeaoeey eo
?a/aaiai ?acaeoey;

i?aaiecaoeey niaoeeaeueiiai iao/aiey ia o?iaia iaaei?aaeiaoiuo naycae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaoe ni neiaeiui aeaoaeoii, i?aaenoaaeaiey,
eiie?aoecaoeey, iaaeeaay i?e?iaea, ei??aeoeeiiiia iao/aiea.

Maljuchova N.I. Peculiarities of vision instantiation of the pupils with
visual and mental defect about outward things (based on their practical
activity). — Manuscript.- 178 p.

The dissertation application for a scientific degree of the candidate of
Pedagogical Sciences, specialty 13.00.03 — correctional pedagogic. —
Institute of Defectology Ukrainian Academy of pedagogical Science, Kyiv,
1999.

The research is devoted to an actual problem of visual conformation of
the pupils with visual and mental defect about subjects and phenomena of
an inanimate nature based on their practical activity.

Is revealed that visions of the children of this category about outward
things have the specific features among, which dominate that ones which
have higher level of intellectual defect. And most incomplete are then
vision about inanimate nature, which are characterized by
incompleteness, illegibility. Incongruity of a word and actual image and
at a significant part of children this is absents.

An possibility of warning of emerging of such defects at the pupil of
suchcateggory under condition of special organization of practical and
mental activity on a polysensory keystone is proved. Experimentally
checked efficiency of use during conformation and vision instantiation
in this category of children about an inanimate nature of various means
of practical activity: practical operations, game, drawing, and also
verbal exercises. Their correctional influence on conformation of to
shaping at the pupil with visual and mental defect of junior classes on
vision about subjects and phenomena of an inanimate is proved.

Key words: children with complicated defect, vision, instantiation,
inanimate nature, correctional tutoring.

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