4

?INOEOOO AeAOAEOIEIA?? AII OE?A?IE

OAeE: 376.02: 159.947

OAOUessI*EEIAI? ??eie Aieiaeeie??aie

Oaia aeena?oaoe??: INIAEEAINO? OI?IOAAIIss AEEOO?AEO I???IOAOe?E A O*I?A
AeIIII?AEII? OEIEE

13.00.03 — niaoe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:– eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee Oioe?ia Ieaia Iao??aia, ?inoeooo aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? ie?aio?aiiiaaeaaia?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:– aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?aia?oiee, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? no?aeiiaaeaaia?ee ?inoeoooo
aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie Canaiei A’y/aneaa Aaneeueiae/

– eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ineoieia??
I?ae?aa?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii, Eieiieinueeee Iaoi
Eueaiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:– Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a ie?aio?aiiiaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “23” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.450.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 06060, Ee?a, aoe. I.
Aa?eeinueeiai, 9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie (06060, Ee?a, aoe. I. Aa?eeinueeiai, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “22“ aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

AEOE O. A.CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?, ci?ie a
noni?eueiiio aeeoo?, i?aeaeuaiiy iiieoo ia eaae?o?eiaai? eaae?e ? a
ca’yceo c oeei aaeeea eiieo?aioe?y i?ae /an i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy a oiiaao
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei noaaeyoue iia? aeiiae aei ??oaiiy i?iaeaie
i?aeaioiaee iieiae? aei aeeooy.

Iniaeeai aino?i oey i?iaeaia noi?oue ia?aae aeioneieeaie aeiiii?aeieo
oe?e, a?eueo?noue c yeeo cacia? cia/ieo o?oaeiiu?a i?e anooi? a
naiino?eia aeeooy oa o?oaeiao ae?yeuei?noue, iaaeiioe?ith? ?ieue
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee o oeie?, ia iiaea aaeaeaaoii ni?anoaaeoe nai?
iiaeeeaino? c iio?aaaie noni?euenoaa. Iaei??th c i?e/ei oaeiai noaiiaeua
? iaaeinoaoiy noi?iiaai?noue aai a?aenooi?noue o ieo aaeaeaaoieo
a?aeiia?aeii noni?eueieo aeiia oa aeanieo iiaeeeainoae aeeoo?aeo
i???ioaoe?e.

I?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ?icaeyaea?oueny o
ieai? ae??oaiiy caaaeueii? i?iaeaie ?ioaa?aoe?? aiiiaeueieo ae?oae o
noni?euenoa? (O.I.Aeaniaa, I.I. Aiciaa, A.A. Canaiei, I.A. Ii?iciaa,
A.TH. Ionoaoa?a, I.I.Ioaeaeueiai, I.Ae. ss?ia/aiei oa ?i.). Ie?ai?
ieoaiiy i?iaeaie uiaei ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a ii?ooothoueny a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo A. ?. Aiiaea?y, A.I.Aeoeuei?aa, N.Ae. Caa?aiii?, A.TH.
Ea?aye?na, ss.ss. E?aaae?na, A.I. Eeie, A.I.Ia?n?yiiai?, A.?. ?aeo, A.I.
Neiueiaa, E.I. Oo?/einueei? oa ?i.. O a?eueoino? c ieo eiinoaoo?oueny
iaaeinoaoiy i?aeaioiaea aeioneiee?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee aei naiino?eiiai
aeeooy, iae?aneththoueny aeaye? oeyoe iie?ioaiiy oaei? i?aeaioiaee.
Iaeiae oi?ioaaiiy o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e
ia aoei i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aea/aiiy. ?acii c oei, aiii ia?
neeaaeaoe aaaeeeaee iai?yi ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeiiii?aei?e
oeie?, ine?eueee noaiiaeaiiy a o/i?a aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e
a?aeaoaa?oueny o?eueee a ?acoeueoao? ni?yiiaoth/i? ae?? iaaeaaiaa ca
oiiae niaoe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie oa ?? iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue a iaooe? oa
i?aeoeoe? iaoiiaeee aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue o ?aieao eiiieaenii? oaie eaai?aoi???
ie?aio?aiiiaaeaaia?ee ?inoeoooo aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie
“Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae ?icaeoeo ona?aeiieaiino? o/aiai?
ae?yeueiino? o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a”.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a
o/i?a 8-9 eean?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy — nenoaia ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe c
oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a o/i?a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o i?aeaeuaii? aoaeoeaiino? oi?ioaaiiy
aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a o/i?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy
niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe.

I?e oeueiio ie aeoiaeeee c a?iioace i?i oa, ui i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
noaiiaeaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a ni?ey?
canoinoaaiiy niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii?
?iaioe, yea a?aoiao? nooi?noue iniaeno?niiai ooai?aiiy, ui oi?io?oueny,
eiai aeaee, aoaie oa iaoai?cie noaiiaeaiiy, iiaiioo oa?aeoa?enoee,
iniaeeaino? eiai i?iyao a o/i?a, iniaeeaino? canoinoaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo
cania?a a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aaeiaoa ei?aeoe?eii-?icaeaaeueiiai aieeao ?
iniaeeainoae eaoaai??? aiiiaeueieo ae?oae oa ia?aaeaa/a? canai?iiy ieie
ciaiue a?aeiinii iniiaieo noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, aeeoo?aeo ieai?a oa
ieaioaaiiy, iaieiae?iiy oi?iiyi ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae,
iiaeeea?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ? ia?aa??ee a?iioace aoee iinoaaeai? oae?
caaaeaiiy:

1) aecia/eoe nooi?noue aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
oeiey??a;

2) ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo aea/aiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a o/i?a
aeiiii?aeii? oeiee;

3) aea/eoe iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
oeiey??a;

4) ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe, ni?yiiaaii? ia
oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noni?eueii-?noi?e/ia oai??y
?icaeoeo ineo?ee ethaeeie E.N. Aeaionueeiai, iieiaeaiiy i?i i?eioeeiiao
iiaeeea?noue ?icaeoeo ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae, i?i i?ia?aeio ?ieue o
oeueiio iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy c iii?ith ia ciio iaeaeeae/iai ?icaeoeo. A
iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae iieeaaeaia caaaeueiiineoieia?/ia oai??y
ae?yeueiino? (I.I.Eaiioue?a, N.E. ?oa?iooaei oa ?i.), yea
eiie?aoeco?oueny a oai??? iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e
/I.ss.Aaeueia??i, I.O. Oaeec?ia oa ?i.); ae?yeuei?niiio i?aeoiae? o
ineoieia?? (N.E. ?oa?iooaei); oai??? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? (A.A.
Aeaaeaeia, A.A. ??ie?i, Ae.A. Aeueeii?i oa ?i.) oa aeai? i?i
caeiiii??iino? oa aoaie canai?iiy ciaiue ? oi?iue (Ae.I.
Aiaiyaeainueeee, I.I. Iai/einueea, I.I. Eaiioue?a, A.O. Eiiia, A.A.
*aaeoaaa oa ?i.).

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: oai?aoe/iee aiae?c nioe?ieia?/ii? oa
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy; aea/aiiy
i?iaeoeo?a ae?yeueiino? o/i?a, oe?eueii? aeieoiaioaoe??, ia?aaeiaiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo; niinoa?aaeaiiy; iieooaaiiy; oi?ioth/ee
aenia?eiaio; ye?niee oa e?euee?niee aiae?c aii??e/ieo aeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue c 1994 ii 1999 ??e. Aenia?eiaioaeueiith
aacith aoee aeiiii?aei? oeiee-?ioa?iaoe ?2 i. Neia’yinueea, ?1 i.
E?aniiai Eeiaio, ?1 i. Aeiiaoeueea, Aaa?ae?enueea aeiiii?aeia
oeiea-?ioa?iao E?eio. Aeine?aeiith ?iaioith ioiieaii 300 o/i?a, 60
a/eoae?a oa aeoiaaoae?a, 50 aaouee?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Ooi/iaii ineoieia?/iee ci?no aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e oa
?o oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee. Cae?eniaia ?icai?iooa
oa?aeoa?enoeea aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a uiaei
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y,
noaiiaeaiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a, iai?ioan?eii? noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa aeyaeai? ?o iniaeeaino?. ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia
ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe c oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a o/i?a
aeiiii?aeii? oeiee a?aeiia?aeii aei:

— ?o nooiino?, aeae?a, aoai?a oa iaoai?ci?a noaiiaeaiiy, iiaiioe
ineoieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee;

— iniaeeainoae i?iyao o oeiey??a aeaii? eaoaai???;

— iniaeeainoae canoinoaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo cania?a (oi?i, iaoiae?a oiui)
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aaeiaoa ei?aeoe?eii-?icaeaaeueiiai aieeao oa
iniaeeainoae ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy,
ine?eueee ni?eythoue iiaeeaeaiith ?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueii? i?e?iaee
iniaenoino?, cie?aia ?icoiiai a?aenoaei? aeeoeie, ?? ni?yiiaaiino?;
caaaa/othoue aeai? uiaei ineoieia?? oaei? aeeoeie, iniaeeainoae oa
iiaeeeainoae ?? ?icaeoeo, uiaei iai?yi?a ei?aeoe?eii-?icaeaaeueii?
?iaioe a aeiiii?aei?e oeie? oa ?? iaaeaaia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeicaieythoue iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii i?aeoiaeeoe aei i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe c o/iyie aeiiii?aeieo oe?e o
ieai? oi?ioaaiiy o ieo aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e. O iaaeaaia?/iiio i?ioean?
iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeai? i?i iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e
aeaii? eaoaai??? ae?oae a?aeiinii iniiaieo noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?,
iaoiaeeea ?o aea/aiiy oa nenoaia ?o oi?ioaaiiy o aeoiai?e ?iaio?.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aeey iaaeaaia?a,
nooaeaio?a-aeaoaeoieia?a oa o/i?a aeiiii?aeieo oe?e; i?ae /an /eoaiiy
eaeoe?e c aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia aeaoaeoieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao iaaeaaia?/ieo
aoc?a oa eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a
nenoaie niaoe?aeueii? ina?oe.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a ooi/iaii? ineoieia?/iiai ci?noo
aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e oa ?o oi?ioaaiiy o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a, o
?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee ?o aea/aiiy oa aeyaeaii? ?o iniaeeainoae o aeaii?
eaoaai??? ae?oae, o ?ic?iaoe? nenoaie ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe,
ni?yiiaaii? ia ?o oi?ioaaiiy.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/aia iii?ith ia
iaoeiao iaoiaeieia?th, canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo
i?aaeiaoo, iao? oa caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy, cia/iei ianyaii
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo, e?euee?niei oa ye?niei eiai aiae?cii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaoaaeenue ia iaeaniiio nai?ia?? canooiiee?a
aee?aeoi??a c iaa/aeueii? oa aeoiaii? ?iaioe niaoeoe?e-?ioa?iao?a aeey
ae?oae c ii?ooaiiyie ?icaeoeo (Neia’yinuee, 1995); ia can?aeaiiyo
eaai?aoi??? ie?aio?aiiiaaeaaia?ee ?inoeoooo aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie
(1997-1999); o aeiiii?aei?e oeie?-?ioa?iao? ?1 i. E?aniiai Eeiaio (1998-
1999); ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (Neia’yinuee, NAeI?,
1997-1999).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ao?eai? a i?aeoeeo
?iaioe aeiiii?aeieo oe?e-?ioa?iao?a: ?2 i. Neia’yinueea, ? 1 i.
Aeiiaoeueea, ? 2 i.Iae??aee, ?1 i. E?aniiai Eeiaio. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aena?oeai? o eaeoe?eieo oa nai?ia?nueeeo caiyooyo ia
noaoe?iia?iiio oa cai/iiio a?aeae?eaiiyo aeaoaeoieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Neia’yinueeiai iaae?inoeoooo, o aenooiao ia eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a niaoe?aeueieo oe?e, ia caiyooyo
Aeiiaoeueeiai iaeaniiai Oi?aa?neoaoo aeaoaeoieia?/ieo ciaiue.

Iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. AEeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? — oea noeoii?noue oe?eae oa caaaeaiue ia
iaeaooi?. A iniiao aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e iieeaaeathoueny aeeoo?a? ieaie,
ye? ? caniaii ? ?acoeueoaoii ona?aeiieaiiy iniaeno?noth aeanieo iio?aa,
iiaeeeainoae o ni?anoaaeaii? ?o ?c noni?eueieie aeiiaaie.

2. ?icoiiai a?aenoae? oeiey?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ianoi?iiaai?noth,
aaoa?io?iii?noth noaiiaeaiiy oa niaoeeo?/ieie iniaeeainoyie i?iyao
aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a on?o noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (i?ioan?eii?,
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y, noaiiaeaiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo
noinoie?a, iai?ioan?eii? noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?): ?o iaaeinoaoiueith
iiaiioith, ?aaeuei?noth, no?ee?noth, ona?aeiieai?noth. ?aae?caoe?y
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a o a?eueoino? c ieo ?ic?aoiaaia ia?aaaaeii ia
a?aeaeaeaio a /an? ia?niaeoeao.

3. Noaiiaeaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a o/i?a iieyaa? o oi?ioaaii? a ieo
ai?iiy ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae, oiaoi aecia/aoe oe?e?, oeyoe oa
caniae ?o aeinyaiaiiy. Iaoai?ci eiai oi?ioaaiiy iieyaa? o ia?aoiae? a?ae
iana?aeiii? iinoaiiaee iaoe aei na?aeiii? iiaoaeiae oyaeaiiy i?i
ia?niaeoeae naiai iaeaooiueiai ia iniia? ona?aeiieaiiy noa’?eoeaieo oa
ia’?eoeaieo iiaeeeainoae, aei caeaoiino? i?aai?coaaoe naith iiaaae?ieo,
??ci? aeaee ae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aeii aei na?aeiii i?eeiyoeo iai???a,
oe?eae aeeooy.

Oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiaa a?aenoaeeo caaacia/o?oueny a
i?ioean? aeei?enoaiiy niaoe?aeueii? nenoaie ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe
c o/iyie ia?aaeon?i noa?oiai oe?eueiiai a?eo a caeeaaeao ina?oe. Nenoaia
?iaioe ia?aaeaa/a? a?aooaaiiy nooiino? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e, ?o aeae?a,
iaoai?ci?a oa neeaaeiaeo noaiiaeaiiy, iiaiioe ineoieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee; iniaeeainoae ?o i?iyao o oeiey??a aeaii? eaoaai???;
iniaeeainoae canoinoaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo cania?a (oi?i, iaoiae?a oiui)
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aaeiaoa ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaiiai aieeao oa iniaeeainoae
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae ? ni?yiiao?oueny ia iiaioaaiiy o/iyie
ciaiiyie i?i iniiai? noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa ieaioaaiiy; iiaioaaiiy
aeania ai?iiyi ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae; canoinoaaiiy oeeo ciaiue
oa ai?iiy a ??ciiiai?oieo oiiaao.

Ii oai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 6 ?ia?o, na?aae yeeo 3 noaoo? o
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao, 3 oac o ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??: anooi, o?e ?icae?ee, aeniiaee, caeeth/aiiy,
nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (198 iaeiaioaaiue), 3 aeiaeaoee (ianyaii
11 noi??iie). O ?iaio? ai?uaii 29 oaaeeoeue (caaaeueiee ianya 12
noi??iie), 3 ?ethno?aoe?? ia 2 noi??ieao. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe??
— 180 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE.

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/athoueny ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoa, a?iioaca, caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaathoueny eiai
iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “I?iaeaia aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e oa ?o oi?ioaaiiy o
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a” -cae?eniaii aiae?c i?iaeaie a caaaeuei?e
oa niaoe?aeuei?e ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, aecia/ai?
oai?aoe/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi ineoieia?/iee ci?no iniiaieo
iiiyoue.

Oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o iieiae? ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
i?iaeai, ui noiyoue ia?aae noni?euenoaii. Ciaeoe caniae, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeeo iiaeia aoei a ?aaoethaaoe noaiiaeaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o
oeiey??a, — icia/a? ae??oeoe iaeia c aeooaeueieo caaaeaiue aeoiaaiiy.
Aeey oeueiai aaaeeeai ciaoe nooi?noue aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e iieiae?, ?o
aeaee, iieacieee aeyao, iaoai?cie noaiiaeaiiy, oiiae oa oaeoi?e ?o
oi?ioaaiiy.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e iieaco?, ui a caaaeuei?e iaaeaaia?oe? oa ineoieia??
aea/aiith aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a ??ci?e i??? i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
A.Ae. Aiaiue?aa, E.?.Aiaeiae/, A.?. AEo?aaeueiaa, I.A. Cae?aaiieneiaa,
N.I. ?eiiieeiai?, ?.N. Eiia, I.I. Eaiioue?aa,A.I. Iyneuaaa, I.I.
?ooeaae/a, A.I. Oaieiaa, I.O. O?oie oa ?i..

A a?eueoino? c ieo aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny ye neeaaeia
ineoieia?/ia ooai?aiiy, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ni?yiiaai?noue iniaenoino?. Aiie
noaiiaeyoue nooo?ao aeaoa?i?iaioo nioe?aeueii? aeoeaiino? ethaeeie,
aaaeeeaee oaeoi? oi?ioaaiiy ?? aeeoo?aeo onoaiiaie. AEeoo?a? i???ioaoe??
oeiey??a aecia/athoueny ye noeoii?noue oe?eae oa caaaeaiue ia iaeaooi?,
ye? ? caniaii ? ?acoeueoaoii ona?aeiieaiiy iniaeno?noth nai?o iio?aa,
iiaeeeainoae o ni?aa?aeiioaii? c noni?eueieie aeiiaaie (E.A. Aa?aiaa).
No?eaeiai aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ?icaeyaeathoueny aeeoo?a? ieaie
iniaenoino?. I?e oeueiio o ?o o?aeooaaii? niinoa??aathoueny ??ci?
i?aeoiaee. Oae, iaei? aaoi?e ?c aeeoo?aeie ieaiaie iia’ycothoue eeoa
aea?? i?ioan?? (A.A. Aiaeceinueea, N.?. Aieiaaoa, N.I. Eeeiia, N.I.
Iaaethoaieia, I.O. O?oia, A.A. ss?ioaiei oa ?i.), ?io? — caaaeueia
aecia/aiiy oe?eae ? caaaeaiue ia iaeaooi? (?.N. Eii, I.ss.Neiii?ioia,
I.I.?ooeaae/, TH.I. Iao?ia, O.?. O?e?iia oa ?i.).

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?aaeeueiee aea?? i?ioan?? ia? ia?oi/a?aiaa cia/aiiy
aeey aeeoo?aiai naiiaecia/aiiy oeiey??a. ? a?ae oiai, iane?eueee
i?aaeeueii ia?aia i?ioan?y, caeaaeeoue aoaeoeai?noue ?o o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino?, iiaeeea?noue ?ice?eooy caaeaoe?a oa cae?aiinoae.
Aiaeii/an, aea?? i?ioan??, i?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue — eeoa iaeia, oi/ ?
iaea?eueo nooo?aa, ?c noi??i aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. AEeoo?a? ae ieaie
iathoue ioiiethaaoe nioe?aeueio i???ioaoe?th iniaenoino? caaaeii. O
ca’yceo c oeei a aeine?aeaeaii? aeeoo?a? ieaie ?icaeyaeathoueny ye iaaia
iiaeaeue iiaeaeueoiai aeeooy iniae, a ye?e ciaoiaeyoue a?aeia?aaeaiiy ye
?? i?ioan?eia, oae ? iai?ioan?eia noa?e, iia’ycai? c ieie ?ioa?ane,
oyaeaiiy i?i niin?a aeeooy ? i?noea a iueiio, iaai? ii?aeuei? c?acee
oiui. Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e iieaco?, ui naiceoeaiei ia??iaeii aeey
oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e aecia/a?oueny thiaoeueeee a?e oeiey?a.

AEeoo?a? i???ioaoe??, ye neeaaeia iniaeno?nia ooai?aiiy, ioiieth? ??ci?
noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. Aeae?eythoueny i???ioaoe?? uiaei i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a (n?i’? oa noinoie?a c ae?ocyie,
eieaeoeaii), iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y ,iai?ioan?eii? noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (caiyoue o a?eueiee /an oa eoeueoo?iiai
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy). Oaeei /eiii, aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny
ye yaeua, ui ioiieth? ??ci? neeaaeia? naiiaecia/aiiy iniaenoino?, a naia
i?ioan?eiiai, aoe/iiai oa anoaoe/iiai ieaio. O ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe??
iaaiaeyoueny oaeiae ?nioth/? a iaooe? aeai? i?i aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe??
o/i?a noiniaii cacia/aieo noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. Cia/ia oaaaa
a?aeaiaeeoueny aena?oeaiith oeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo
iieacothoue niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
ae?oae. Cia/ia i?noea a aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaiaeeoueny aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e c
iaoith oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy oi?ioaaiiy
o iieiae? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ia?aaeon?i a i?ioean? aeeoo?aiai
ieaioaaiiy.

O ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aea/aiiy ieoaiiy i?i aeeoo?aa
ieaioaaiiy ethaeeie o ??cieo aeaeao ?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
cae?enith?oueny o ca’yceo c aeyaeaiiyi oeyo?a ? cania?a, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeeo iniaeno?noue ia? iai?? aeinyaaoe iai?/aieo oe?eae (A.A. Aiaiue?a,
I.A. Cae?aaiieneia, ?.N. Eii, A.I. Iyneuaa, I.ss.Neiii?ioia, A.I. ssaeia
oa ?i.). Aeoiaey/e c ieo, aeeoo?aa ieaioaaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
neeaaeiee aeeiai?/iee i?ioean, o yeiio a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ao?ae a?ae
ieoo?ai?, iaona?aeiieaii? iinoaiiaee iaoe aei na?aeiii? iiaoaeiae
oyaeaiiy i?i ia?niaeoeae naiai iaeaooiueiai ia iniia? ona?aeiieaiiy
aeanieo iiaeeeainoae (ciaiue, oi?iue, ?ioa?an?a, cae?aiinoae,
iniaeeainoae oa?aeoa?o, oaiia?aiaioo ? o.ae.) oa ia’?eoeaieo ianoaaei ?
aeae? aei caeaoiino? i?aai?coaaoe naith iiaaae?ieo, ??ci? aeaee
ae?yeueiino? o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c na?aeiii i?eeiyoeie iai??aie, oe?eyie
aeeooy.

Naia aeua?icaeyioo? iieiaeaiiy neoaoaaee iniiaith ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo
canaae i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo
i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a.

Aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e iieacaei, ui a
ie?aio?aiiiaaeaaia?oe? i?iaaaeaii oe?iea eiei aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo
ii?ooothoueny ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiith noaiiaeaiiy a o/i?a
aeiiii?aeieo oe?e aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e. Oea aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc?
o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy o/i?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee (O.I. Aeaniaa,
A.I. Aeoeuei?a, ?.A. ??aiaiei, A.?. Eoaianueeee, A.A.Iao?iaa, A.?.
I?inueeee oa ?i.); ?o o?oaeiai? aaeaioaoe?? oa i?ioi???ioaoe??
(I.E.Aaaaaeyi, A.?. Aiiaea?, A.I. Aenioeueea, I.I. Aiaothe, A.TH.
Ea?aye?n, A.I.Ia?n?yiiaa, N.E. Ie?nueeee, E.I. Oo?/einueea oa ?i.);
nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??, i?aeaioiaee o/i?a aei naiino?eiiai aeeooy
(N.TH. Eiiiieynoa, A.I.Eeia, I.I.Iaaeiaa, A.I. Neiueia, I.I. N?a??ia,
A.?. ?aeo oa ?i.). Iaoa??aee oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aeiieeai
aeiaiaeyoue, ui ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a
cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae ae??oaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo ieoaiue, a naia
aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae niaoe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a, i?aeaioiaee ?o aei i?aoe? oa naiino?eiiai
aeeooy a oe?eiio.

Aea/aiiy oai??? oa iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui o
aeiiii?aei?e oeie? oi?ioaaiith aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e i?eae?ey?oueny
iaaeinoaoiy oaaaa. ?? ae??oaiiy caiaeeoueny, a iniiaiiio, aei
?ica’ycaiiy ieoaiue nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiai? aaeaioaoe?? ? ia?aaeon?i aei
aeai?o i?ioan??. O ?icae?e? aena?oeththoueny iaeaaaeeea?o? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeaie aeai?o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeie oeiey?aie
i?ioan??, aea/aiiy ?o i?ioan?eieo ?ioa?an?a, cia/aiiy i?ioi???ioaoe??
aeey aeeoo?aiai naiiaecia/aiiy o/i?a aeaii? eaoaai???. Aiaeii/an
i?ioan?eia naiiaecia/aiiy ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a ?icaeyaea?oueny
eeoa ye iaeei c iae?noioi?oeo iai?yi?a ?o i?aeaioiaee aei naiino?eiiai
aeeooy. Ia iaio aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? ? noaiiaeaiiy o ieo i???ioaoe?e
noiniaii iaeaooiueiai n?iaeiiai aeeooy, noinoie?a c ae?ocyie,
eieaeoeaii, i?aai?caoe?? a?eueiiai /ano oa aeica?eey,
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y. A.I. Eeia, I.I. Iaaeiaa, A.?.?aeo,
A.I. Neiueia oa ?io? eiinoaoothoue oaeoe cia/ieo o?oaeiiu?a i???iooaaiiy
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a o cacia/aieo noa?ao ? a?aeiinyoue ?o aei
oaeeo, ui iio?aaothoue niaoe?aeueieo ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaieo coneeue.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, a aeaoaeoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?iaeaia
oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a noiniaii
on?o iniiaieo noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ua ia ciaeoea naiai ae??oaiiy.
Oaeee noai, cae/aeii, iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia i?aeaioiaoe? o/i?a
aeiiii?aeieo oe?e aei naiino?eiiai aeeooy oa ?o ?ioaa?aoe?? o
noni?euenoa?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo o/i?a” — aena?oeththoueny ?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai aoaio
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A aeine?aeaeaii? cae?enithaaeinue aea/aiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a o/i?a
aeiiii?aeii? oeiee o noa?? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y, noaiiaeaiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo
noinoie?a oa o noa?? iai?ioan?eii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (i???ioaoe?e
a?eueiiai /ano oiui). Iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie ?o aiae?co aecia/ai? oe?ioa,
?aaeuei?noue, no?ee?noue, eiie?aoi?noue, ona?aeiieai?noue oa
ia?niaeoeai?noue.

Aea/aiith iniaeeainoae aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?? o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
oeiey??a ia?aaeoaaei aeyaeaiiy iayaiino? o ieo aeeoo?aeo ieai?a.
Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui a?eueo?noue o/i?a 8-9 eean?a
aeiiii?aeii? oeiee ua ia iathoue ieai?a ia iaeaooi? (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1.

Aeai? i?i iayai?noue aeeoo?aeo ieai?a o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a

Eeane e?euee?noue o/i?a aeeoo?a? ieaie aecia/ai?

e?euee?noue %

8 150 41 27,3

9 150 56 37,3

Anueiai 300 97 32,3

Oaaee/i? aeai? iieacothoue, ui eeoa 32,3 % o/i?a 8-9 eean?a iathoue
oyaeaiiy i?i nai? iaeaooi?. I?e oeueiio aiie caciathoue aaeeeeo
o?oaeiiu?a i?e aecia/aii? oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy iai?/aieo oe?eae. Aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui o aeioneiee?a aeiiii?aeieo
oe?e i???ioaoe?y o noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? a iaai?e i??? c?inoa?. Oae,
o 9 eean? e?euee?noue o/i?a, ui aaea iathoue ieaie, ii??aiyii c 8
eeanii, ca?eueoeeanue a?ae 27,3% aei 37,3%. O oe?eiio ae, ye iieacothoue
aeai? i?iaaaeaieo aieaooaaiiy o/i?a ? aan?ae c ieie, noa?oieeanieee ia
noaaeyoue iaoo neeaaeaoe aeeoo?a? ieaie, aaaaeath/e oea iaaeioe?eueiei a
iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao, iieeaaeath/enue, a iniiaiiio, ia
aeiaaeeia? oaeoi?e.

Aeae? o aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e
o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a noiniaii an?o noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

Aoei aeyaeaii, ui noiniaii i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ci???ioiaaii eeoa
49,0% o/i?a. I?e/eiith oaeiai noaiiaeua, ye iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?
uiiaeia?oa iaiaaeaiee ia?ae?e i?ioan?e, i?iiiiiaaieo aeey aea/aiiy a
aeiiii?aei?e oeie?. sse oaeee, ?o aea?? o iaaeao oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy
oaeoe/ii ia oiiaeeeaeth?oueny. I?aeaioiaea cae?enith?oueny a iniiaiiio c
oeo i?ioan?e, aeey iiaioaaiiy yeeo ? iaiao?aeia a oeie?
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca, iaaeaaia?/iee ia?niiae oiui, ? yeui
ia?aaeaa/ai? i?ioan??th aeaee ?ia?o o/ith ia i?ioeiieacai?. Ie??i oiai,
?icoiiai a?aenoae? oeiey?? “/a?ac naith ineo?/io ?iaeoeai?noue
aeyaeythoue oaiaeaioe?th caieeaoe aea?? i?ioan?? oe?eueieie
i???ioe?aie”. Oiaoi ia noaiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eieo i???ioaoe?e cia/iee aieea
ia? aeiiii?aeia oeiea ? iniaeeai i?ioi???ioaoe?eia ?iaioa, yea a i?e
i?iaiaeeoueny. Iaeiae, oeae aieea ia caaaeaee noa? ae??oaeueiei o
i?ioan?eiiio naiiaecia/ai? oeiey??a. I?ioan?y, yea iaaoaa?oueny a oeie?,
ia caaaeaee noa? i?aaeiaoii aeeoo?aiai ieaioaaiiy o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
oeiey??a.

C /enea i?ioan?e, ui aea/athoueny o oeie?, o/i? ia?aaaaeii iaceaathoue
oae?, ye oaa/ea, eoe?ia?, eooa?, noiey?, oaaoeue, iaey?-oooeaoo?,
aoae?aaeueiee. An? aiie aeinooii? aeey iiaioaaiiy ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeie
ae?oueie. Oiio i?ioan?ei? ieaie, ye? i???ioiaai? ia oe? i?ioan??,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ye ?aaeuei?. Oae? ieaie aeyaeaii o 67,0%
noa?oieeaniee?a. Aiaeii/an 33,0% o/i?a iathoue ia?aaeuei? i?ioan?ei?
ieaie, ine?eueee aiie ia?aaeaa/athoue i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue, yea ia
a?aeiia?aea? ?o iiaeeeainoyi. Oae? oeiey?? ci???ioiaai? ia i?ioan??
?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe?: a/eoaeue, e?ea?, aeoiaaoaeue, eiino?oeoi?, ia
i?ioan?? o noa?? a?ciano: a?cianiai, iaiaaeaea?, aee?aeoi? o??ie, aaie??
oa ?i.

Iaaaeaeaaoia, caaeuaia naiiioe?iea iniaenoi? i?ioan?eii? i?eaeaoiino?, ?
iaeiei ?c ?noioieo iaaeie?e?a ieaioaaiiy ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeie ae?oueie
i?ioan?eieo ia?niaeoea. Iae/ano?oa aecia/aeueiei iioeaii i?e neeaaeaii?
i?ioan?eieo ieai?a ? iaoa??aeueiee oaeoi?. Naia oiio “i?ioan?? a?ciano”
aeey oeiey??a ? cia/oueie ? a ca’yceo c oeei cia/ia ?o /anoeia
ci???ioiaaia ia oeth i?anoeaeio, c ?o oi/ee ci?o, i?ioan?eio
ae?yeuei?noue. Aiaeii/an ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui oae? o/i? iaeaea ia
ciaeii? c? ci?noii oeeo i?ioan?e. Uiaei ieo ciaiiy oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iiaa?oia?noth, ni?iuaiei ?icoi?iiyi ?o iniaeeainoae. Iaoi/ieie
aeyaeeenue ? oyaeaiiy o/i?a i?i iaoa??aeueio noi?iio iacaaieo ieie
i?ioan?e. A?eueo?noue ae?oae i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? i?ioan?e iineea?oueny
ia ie?ai? , aei oiai ae ianooo?a? iciaee. I?ioan?ei? i???ioaoe??
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ? iaaeinoaoiueith ?o
no?ee?noth. Aeyaeaii, ui ci?io ia?aii? i?ioan?? ia?aaeaa/athoue 52,3%
o/i?a. A?aoiaioo?oueny oea ia?aaeon?i iaoa??aeueieie /eiieeaie (37,7%),
a?aenooi?noth ?ioa?ano aei i?ioan?? (9,6 %), ?ioeie i?e/eiaie (iiaeeeaee
iiaaiee ea??aiee, iiaeeeaa nei?i/aiiy) ? o.ae.. I?ioan?ei? ieaie o/i?a
aeiiii?aeii? oeiee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ? iaaeinoaoiueith eiie?aoi?noth,
oiaoi a?aenooi?noth a ieo aeac?aie ia oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy iai?/aieo
oe?eae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeei iaaeinoaoith noi?iiaai?noue o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
noa?oieeaniee?a ye ciaiue, oae ? oi?iue, iaiao?aeieo aeey ieaioaaiiy
i?ioan?eieo ia?niaeoea. ?o ciaiiy a?aeiia?aeathoue, a iniiaiiio,
iieacieeai iecueeiai ??aiy ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny nai?th iaoi/i?noth,
ni?iuai?noth, iaona?aeiieai?noth. Iaeaea a?aenooi? o ieo ciaiiy i?i
ae??, iaiao?aei? aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo oe?eae, i?i aeioe?eueio ?o
iine?aeiai?noue. Iaaeinoaoiuei ona?aeiieaiith a o/i?a ? iaiao?aei?noue
a?aoiaoaaoe nai? iniaeeaino? oa iiaeeeaino?, iio?aae noni?euenoaa oa
ciaiiy i?i ieo. Oi?iiy noa?oieeaniee?a ieaioaaoe i?ioan?ei? ia?niaeoeae
oaeiae a?aeiia?aeathoue iieacieeai iecueeiai ??aiy. ?aae?caoe?th
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a iae/ano?oa aiie iia’ycothoue c a?eii 30-40 ?ie?a.

Aeae? o ?icae?e? aena?oeththoueny ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy aeeoo?aeo
i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a uiaei iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai
aeaaiiieo//y, a iniia? yeeo ?icaeyaeathoueny ciaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o oa aeeoo?aee aeina?ae ethaeeie. Aoei aeyaeaii, ui o oe?e noa??
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ci???ioiaaii 19,7 % o/i?a. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui o
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? a?aeiinii
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y aeyaeeenue iaeiaio aecia/aieie
(aeey ii??aiyiiy: a?aeiinii i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? aecia/ai? o 49,0%
o/i?a, i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a — o 35,7%, iai?ioan?eii?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? — o 25,7%). I?e/eiith oaeiai noaiiaeua, ye iieacaei
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? iaiaaeai?noue o ieo ciaiue aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o oa
aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo aiane?aeie niaoeeo?/ieo oiia ?o ia?aaoaaiiy a
oeie?-?ioa?iao?. Naia oiio i???ioaoe?? ae?oae a oe?e noa??
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaeinoaoiueith ?aaeuei?noth.
A?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?ic?aoiao? ia ca?ia?oio ieaoo a iaaeao 500,
1000 aeiea??a aai a?eueoa 1000 a?eaaiue (63,0%). Eeoa 7,7% o/i?a
iaceaathoue ?aaeueiee ?ici?? ca?ia?oii? ieaoi? (a?ae 80 aei 120
a?eaaiue). Aiaeia?/ia ea?oeia aeyaeaia ? uiaei ?ioeo iai?yie?a
aeinyaiaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai aeaaiiieo//y. Oae, 62,0% o/i?a ieaiothoue
iaoe ie?aio, i?e/iio aeai-, o?ee?iiaoio eaa?oe?o; 38,0% — aeaniee
aoaeeiie (?8,3% -aeaiiiaa?oiaee iniaenoee aoaeeiie); 83,5%
niiae?aathoueny iaoe iaoeio, yooo, aea/o. Aiie ieaiothoue oaeiae iaoe a
iniaenoiio ei?enooaaii? oae? “aeoaea aei?ia? ?a/?”, ye iaai?oioii,
oaeaa?ci?, a?aeaiiaai?oioii, a?aeaieaia?o, aaaaoi eeeei?a, cieioi oa
?i.. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, o oe?e noa?? aeeoo?a? ieaie ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
a iaea?eueo?e i??? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ia?aaeuei?noth. sse iieacaei
aeine?aeaeaiiy, o/i? noa?oeo eean?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee iaaeinoaoiuei
ci???ioiaai? o aa?oino? ?a/ae oa iaeaea ia ia?ciai? c oe?iaie ia
iaea?eueo iaiao?aei? i?iaeiaieue/? oa i?iieneia? oiaa?e, ia ciathoue
iniiaieo noaoae ?icoiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo, ia iathoue iiiyooy i?i
aeioiaee oa ia?oi/a?aia? iio?aae n?i’?, ia ciathoue, ye ?aoe?iiaeueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a?io?, ye? aiie iathoue o ?icii?yaeaeaii?, ui aiai?eoue
i?i iecueeee ??aaiue ona?aeiieaiino? i???ioaoe?e o noa??
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy i???ioaoe?e o noa?? iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai
aeaaiiieo//y aeyaea ?o neooaoeai?noue oa iano?ee?noue. Aeey a?eueoino?
noa?oieeaniee?a oa?aeoa?iei ? oaeiae iaciaiiy eiie?aoieo oeyo?a oa
niinia?a aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae o oe?e noa?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. sse iniiai?
oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y, aeine?aeaeoaai?
iaceaathoue: iaea?aeaiiy i?ioan??, aeiiiiiaa aaouee?a, iaa/aiiy oa ?ioa
(a?aeeeaaeaoe a?io?, iaea?aeaoe niaaeueio oiui). Oi?iiy ieaioaaoe
aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae a?aeiinii iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y a
o/i?a i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ?o noi?iiaai?noue
aeyaeeanue iaea?eueo iecueeith o ii??aiyii? c oi?iiyie ieaioaaoe
aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae uiaei an?o ?ioeo noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. O/iyi
aaaeei nieaioaaoe iniaenoee athaeaeao ia i?nyoeue, aiie ia iiaeooue
?ic?aooaaoe iianyeaeaii? iioi/i? aeo?aoe, iath/e eeoaiueeia? a?io?, ia
ai?thoue ?o ?icoiii aeo?a/aoe, ia iiaeooue aaeaeaaoii ni?aa?aeianoe
aeeoo?a? ieaie a oe?e noa?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? c? nai?ie iiaeeeainoyie ?
oaea ?ioa. E??i oiai, o/i? ia iathoue oyaeaiue i?i oa?i?i cae?eniaiiy
nai?o ieai?a, oiaoi aeey a?eueoino? c ieo aiie caeeoathoueny eeoa
i???th, oaioac??th.

Aeae? a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny aeai? i?i aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe??
?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a o noa?? i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a (aaaeaia
ae?oaei? ioi/aiiy oa iaeaooi? iiae?oaei? aeeooy). ?o iayai?noue aeyaeaia
o 35,7% o/i?a. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ?icoiiai a?aenoae? oeiey??, a
iniiaiiio, ?aaeueii ieaiothoue nai? n?iaeia aeeooy. Oae, aiie aeineoue
?aaeueii aecia/athoue na?e a?e anooio aei oethao (ae?a/aoa — 20-23 ?iee
— 68,0%, oeiioe? — 24-28 ?ie?a — 85,0%), ia?ac naiai iaeaooiueiai
ia?aioey, ?iciiae?e iaia’yce?a o nai?e iaeaooi?e n?i’?. sse iieacothoue
aeai?, iiaeyaee noa?oieeaniee?a a?aeiia?aeathoue o?aaeeoe?eiei
noa?aioeiai, i?eeiyoei o no/aniiio noni?euenoa?. Iaeiae, ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui ?icoiiai a?aenoae? oeiey?? ia caaaeaee iathoue ?aaeuei?
oyaeaiiy i?i nai? iaeaooi? noinoiee c ae?ocyie ? eieaeoeaii. Oe? ieaie
a?ae??ciythoueny iaaiei ianei?ciii ? ? iaaaeaeaaoii caieaeaieie.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae iieacaei, ui ?o aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? o noa??
i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a i?aeoe/ii ia ci?iththoueny a?ae ii/aoeo ? aei
e?ioey iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo, ui aiai?eoue i?i iaaio ?o noae?noue.
I???ioaoe?? a oe?e noa?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeiae iaaeinoaoiueith
ona?aeiieai?noth. Oae, aiae?c noaaeaiiy ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
noa?oieeaniee?a aei ieoaiue n?iaeiiai aeeooy iieacaa, ui iiiaae 60,0%
o/i?a ia aa/aoue iaiao?aeiino? iaaoaaoe ciaiiy i?i n?iaeia aeeooy, ?io?
— 40,0% iieoaieo — i?aeaioiaeo aei n?iaeiiai aeeooy ?icoi?thoue ye
iaaoooy caaaeueieo a?aeiiinoae aai o?eueee ye oeyo aei aeei??iaiiy
aoaeue-yeeo iaaaoeaieo yeinoae naiai oa?aeoa?o. Aeai? aiai?youe i?i
iaaeinoaoi? ?icoi?iiy aeioneieeaie aeiiii?aeieo oe?e niaoeeo?ee n?iaeieo
a?aeiinei, a oaeiae iaiao?aeieo aeey ieo yeinoae iniaenoino?.
Iaaeinoaoiuei ona?aeiieaieie aeyaeeenue ieaie noa?oieeaniee?a, iniaeeai
thiae?a, i?i e?euee?noue ae?oae oa ?o aeoiaaiiy, n?iaeia aeica?eey, i?i
noinoiee c ae?ocyie oa eieaeoeaii. AEeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? o cacia/ai?e
noa?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeiae iaaeinoaoiueith eiie?aoi?noth oa
ia?niaeoeai?noth.

Aeae? o aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny iaea?aeai? aeai? uiaei aeeoo?aeo
i???ioaoe?e ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a o noa?? iai?ioan?eii?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (i?aai?caoe?? a?eueiiai /ano oiui). Oe? i???ioaoe??
aeyaeaii o 25,7% o/i?a. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a iieacaa, ui aeeoo?a? ieaie
o/i?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee uiaei oe??? noa?e caeaa?eueoiai iaiaaeothoueny
“ianeaiei” i?iaaaeaiiyi /ano: i?iaoeyieaie ii i?noo, ia?aaeyaeii
oaeaia?aaea/, a?aea?aeoaaiiyi e?ii. Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie caiyooyie o/i?a
o a?eueiee /an o no?iao oeiee ? i?iaoeyiee ia na?aeiio iia?o??, ?ooeea?
?a?e, e?ieaiiy, iaethaaiiy, a’ycaiiy, iano?euei? ?a?e. A oe?eiio ae ia
aeyaeaii o oeiey??a noo?aiaaiino? c i?eaiaeo i?iaaaeaiiy ieie a?eueiiai
/ano. sse iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy, cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? ?icoiiai
a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a o oe?eiio, iaoiiaeaia ii?ooaiiyi ?ioaeaeoo,
a?aeaeaa?oueny ? ia aeai?? caiyoue o a?eueiee /an. O/i? iaeaea ia
ieaiothoue a?aea?aeoaaiiy oaao??a, caiyooy o?ceoeueoo?ith oa nii?oii,
?icoiiee ? aeoeaiee, iioiaee oa ?i.

Ci?no ieai?a a?aeiinii i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueiiai /ano i?aeoe/ii ia
ci?ith?oueny c a?eii noa?oieeaniee?a, aiie ? ?aeaioe/ieie o o/i?a 8 ? 9
eean?a ia ii/aoeo ? a e?ioe? iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo. O oe?eiio aeeoo?a?
i???ioaoe?? ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a o noa?? iai?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaeinoaoiueith eiie?aoi?noth,
ona?aeiieai?noth, ia?niaeoeai?noth. Iaea?eueoeo o?oaeiiu?a
noa?oieeanieee caciathoue i?e neeaaeaii? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a ia
ia?niaeoeao.

Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c iaea?aeaieo aeaieo aeyaea iaaeinoaoith
noi?iiaai?noue aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?? ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a
noiniaii an?o iniiaieo noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. O oe?eiio ?o
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaaeinoaoi?: iiaiioa, ?aaeuei?noue, noae?noue,
ona?aeiieai?noue, eiie?aoi?noue. Iaaeineiiaeeie ? e oyaeaiiy oeiey??a
uiaei nai?? iaeaooiuei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ia ia?niaeoeao. Ana oea
iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia ?o i?aeaioiaoe? aei naiino?eiiai aeeooy oa
i?ioean? nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiai? aaeaioaoe??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Nenoaia ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe c oi?ioaaiiy
aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?? o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a” — aena?oeth?oueny
iaoiaeeea oa ?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo.

A iniiao ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o/i?a
iieeaaeai? ?icoi?iiy nooiino? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e, iniiao yeeo
neeaaeathoue aeeoo?a? ieaie iieiae? a?aeiinii an?o noa?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (A.?.AEo?aaeueia, ?.N.Eii, A.O.E?nianueeee,
TH.I.Iao?ia oa ?i.); ieaioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo ia?niaeoea (A.A.Aiaiue?a, E.?.
Aiaeiae/, I.I. ?ooeaae/, A.I. Oaieia oa ?i.) oa aoai?a eiai noaiiaeaiiy
(canai?iiy ciaiue i?i iniiai? noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, i?i aeeoo?a?
ieaie oa ieaioaaiiy, iaieiae?iiy oi?iiyi ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae,
iiaeeeaino? ?o canoinoaaiiy — E.?. Aiaeiae/, N.I. ?eiiieeiaa, I.I.
?ooeaae/); aoai?a noaiiaeaiiy ieaioaaiiy ye ae?yeueiino? (A.I.
Ia?n?yiiaa, A.?. I?inueeee, I.I. Oioe?ia oa ?i.), a oaeiae ineoieia?/i?
iniaeeaino? ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a oa aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ?o
aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a on?o noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

Nenoaia ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe c oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e
ia?aaeaa/a?:

— canai?iiy o/iyie ciaiue i?i iniiai? noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, i?i
iaiao?aei?noue aeeoo?aiai ieaioaaiiy, i?i ieaie, nooi?noue ieai?a oa
ieaioaaiiy, ?o no?oeoo?o, /eiieee, ye? i?e oeueiio aaaeeeai a?aoiaoaaoe
(iio?aae noni?euenoaa, ?ioa?ane oeiey??a, ?o iniaeeaino? oa
iiaeeeaino?);

— iiaioaaiiy ai?iiyi neeaaeaoe ieai uiaei iaeaooiueiai aeeooy o iaai?e
noa?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (noaaeoe oe?e?, eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy oa
aecia/aoe niiniae ?o aeinyaiaiiy o aeaeyae? eiie?aoieo ae?e o iaai?e
iine?aeiaiino?);

— canoinoaaiiy ciaiue oa ai?iiy.

Oi?ioaaiiy ai?iiy neeaaeaoe ieai uiaei iaeaooiueiai aeeooy o iaai?e
noa?? ia?aaeaa/a? iaaoooy aeeoeiith a?aeiia?aeiiai iniaenoiai aeina?aeo,
noaiiaeaiiy o ia? i?aai?ciaaiino? o iianyeaeaiiiio aeeoo?, cie?aia i?e
aeeiiaii? ?aaeeiieo iiiaio?a. ?o ieaioaaiiy ? iaei?ino?oei i?eeeaaeii
iiaoaeiae ieai?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa aeo?aeiith iniiaith ?o
noaiiaeaiiy.

Nenoaiith oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ia?aaeaa/a?oueny a?aooaaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? noaiiaeaiiy on?o cacia/aieo aoai?a oa oiia, a?aeiia?aeii
aei yeeo ae?a?ai? iaoiaee, iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie oa caniae (aeey canai?iiy
an?o eiiiiiaio?a ciaiue, ai?iiy neeaaeaoe aeeoo?a? ieaie, canoiniaoaaoe
?o ia i?aeoeoe?). Canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? canai?ieo ciaiue oa ai?iiy
oiiaeeeaeth?oueny caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith niaoe?aeueieo ?ic?iaeaieo
ai?aa, ci?no yeeo iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeaiee aei ?aaeueieo aeeoo?aeo
neooaoe?e (iiaeaethaaiiy aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?e, a?oiiaa aeeneon?y,
nthaeaoii-?ieueiaa a?a oa ?i.). Niaoe?aeueia i?aai?caoe?y iaaeaaia?/iiai
i?ioeano ni?yiiao?oueny ia noaiiaeaiiy a o/i?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee
aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ?c iaeyaeo ia iiaiioo ?o oa?aeoa?enoee: oe?ioe,
?aaeueiino?, no?eeino?, eiie?aoiino?, ia?niaeoeaiino?, ona?aeiieaiino?.

Oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a ie?aieo noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
?aae?ciao?oueny o oaeeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?iao ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano:

1) aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? noiniaii i?ioan?eii? noa?e — oaiaoe/i? aan?aee
(“I?i iaeaooith i?ioan?th”, “Oeeo i?ioan?e iaa/athoue o oeie?”, “ss ?
i?ioan?y”); aeneo?n?? (ia i?aei?e?inoai neoaeae iiaooo, ia oaaeio
oaa?eeo oiui); ao?oeiaa ?iaioa (“THiee aoae?aaeueiee”, “THia oaa/ea”,
“Eoe?ia?” oa ?i.); niaoe?aeuei? eo?ne (“Ainiiaeeiy”, “Nai?ie ?oeaie”,
“E?auee eoe?ia?”); cono??/? c oe?eaaeie ethaeueie (iai?eeeaae, c
i?aaenoaaieeaie ?ia?oie/eo i?ioan?e);

2) aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? noiniaii iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y —
oaiaoe/i? aan?aee (“Oa?e n?iaeiee athaeaeao”, “Ui y ciiaeo eoieoe ia
naith ca?ia?oio ieaoo”, “Oe?ia ? iiaea” oa ?i.); aeneo?n?? a iaaaceie,
ia i?aei?e?inoaa, neoaeae iiaooo; nthaeaoii-?ieueia? ?a?e (“Iaaacei”,
“Oa?/oaaiiy n?i’?”, “Athaeaeao n?i’? oa ?i.);

C) aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? a?aeiinii noaiiaeaiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a
— oaiaoe/i? aan?aee (“Iiy iaeaooiy n?i’y”, “?iciiae?e iaia’yce?a o
n?i’?”, “Aeiiae aei iaeaooiueiai ia?aioey”, “N?i’y oa ae?oe” oa ?i.);
aeeniooe (“I?aoey o eiaei?e n?i’?”, “N?i’y ? oeiea”); i?iaaaeaiiy
eaeoe?e ia ii?aeuei? oaie (“*e iiaaaea?o oe noa?oeo?”, “Oaiy aeiiiiiaa a
n?i’? — i?eeoaaiiy i?i aeecueeeo”), anoaoe/i? (“N?iaeia aeica?eey”,
“Ioceea o n?i’?”, “sse aeia?a ai?oe /eoaoe!”), i?aaia? (“Caei?iaee
ee?iao o n?i’?”, “Ieyoeoao — a?e!”) oa ?io? oaie; ciaeiinoai c
o?aaeeoe?yie aeaaiiieo/ieo n?iae, iiaeaethaaiiy ?aaeueieo n?iaeieo
neooaoe?e;

4) aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? a?aeiinii iai?ioan?eii? noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
— oaiaoe/i? aan?aee (“Ui oaea a?eueiee /an?”, “Aeica?eey oai?o
?iaaniee?a”, “Eiaeiiio — oethaeaia caiyooy o a?eueiee /an”, “?icaaae
naaa nai” oa ?i.); iania? i?ciaaaeuei? caoiaee (cono??/?, eiieo?ne,
ao?oee), a?aea?aeoaaiiy ??cieo iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a (noaae?iio,
?a?ioaee, e?iioaao?o, a?ae?ioaee), iiaeaethaaiiy aeeoo?aeo neooaoe??
(i?aai?caoe?y a?eueiiai /ano c o?aooaaiiyi ia?aaeaa/oaaii? i?ioan?eii?
iaeaaeiino?).

Aoaeoeai?noue aieeao niaoe?aeueii? nenoaie aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia oi?ioaaiiy
aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e aecia/aeanue, aeoiaey/e c ?acoeueoao?a noaio
noi?iiaaiino? ciaiue a?aeiinii iniiaieo noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ieai?a,
ieaioaaiiy, aeaniiai oi?iiy neeaaeaoe aeeoo?a? ieaie oa iiaeeeaino? ?o
canoinoaaiiy a ??cieo aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?yo.

A ?acoeueoaio? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo cia/ii c??n ??aaiue aecia/aieo
ciaiue noa?oieeaniee?a — aiie noaee a?eueo iiaieie, i?aaeeueieie,
ona?aeiieaieie, nenoaiaoeciaaieie oa i?oeieie (aoaeoeai?noue aeeiiaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaieo eiio?ieueieo caaaeaiue a na?aaeiueiio c?inea aaea?/?).
AEeoo?a? ieaie oeiey??a iaaoee oa?aeoa?o ?icai?iooeo iien?a, a ieo
aeyaeai? ciaiiy i?i ae??, iaiao?aei? aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae, oa ii
?aae?caoe?? ieai?a o aecia/aieo noa?ao, ?o ?aoe?iiaeueio
iine?aeiai?noue, iniiai? /eiieee, ye? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e
iiaoaeia? aeeoo?aeo ieai?a.

Aeyaeeanue a?aei?oia oaeineiiaeai?noue ? ai?iiy noa?oieeaniee?a
ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae. Oae, ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaiiy eiio?ieueieo
caaaeaiue ia ieaioaaiiy a na?aaeiueiio c?inee aaea?/?. Aeyaeeenue
noi?iiaaieie ai?iiy aecia/aoe aeeoo?a? oe?e? oa ae?? ii ?o aeinyaiaiith
o an?o noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ?o ?aoe?iiaeueio iine?aeiai?noue.
Ae?oe iaa/eeeny a?aoiaoaaoe i?e ieaioaaii? aeeoo?aeo ia?niaeoea on?
iaeaaaeeea?o? aeaoa?i?iaioe, canoiniaoaaoe canai?i? ciaiiy oa ai?iiy o
??cieo aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?yo.

Oa?aeoa?iei aeey o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie ? ona?aeiieaiiy
cia/eiino? noaiiaeaiiy aeeoo?aeo ieai?a aeey ?o naiiaecia/aiiy,
caoe?eaaeaia oa iiceoeaia noaaeaiiy aei ?acoeueoao?a aeanii?
ae?yeueiino? c ieaioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo ia?niaeoea, canoinoaaiiy iayaieo
ciaiue o iianyeaeaiiiio aeeoo?.

?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo iieacothoue cia/io ia?aaaao aeaieo
o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie, ye? ia?aaa?oothoue aeai? o/i?a
eiio?ieueii? a?oie ca eiaeiith neeaaeiaith oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo
i???ioaoe?e, ca on?ia iieacieeaie, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aoaeoeai?noue
?ic?iaeaii? iaie nenoaie ?iaioe.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieea c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo
oeiey??a aecia/athoueny ?o ineoieia?/iei ci?noii (nooi?noth, aeaeaie,
iaoai?ciaie oa aoaiaie noaiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaiioe
oa?aeoa?enoee), iniaeeainoyie ?o i?iyao a o/i?a oa iniaeeainoyie
iaaeaaia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ?o oi?ioaaiiy.

2. AEeoo?a? i???ioaoe??, ye iniaeno?nia ooai?aiiy, — oea noeoii?noue
oe?eae ? caaaeaiue ia iaeaooi?. ?o iniiao neeaaeathoue aeeoo?a? ieaie,
ye? ? caniaii ? ?acoeueoaoii ona?aeiieaiiy iniaeno?noth aeanieo iio?aa,
iiaeeeainoae o ni?anoaaeaii? ?c noni?eueieie aeiiaaie. A?aeiia?aeii aei
iniiaieo noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aeae?eythoueny aeeoo?a? ieaie noiniaii
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y,
i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a oa iai?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

3. Noaiiaeaiiy aeeoo?aeo ieai?a iieyaa? o oi?ioaaii? a o/i?a ai?iiy
ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae, oiaoi aecia/aii? oe?eae, oeyo?a ?
cania?a ?o aeinyaiaiiy. Iaoai?ci eiai oi?ioaaiiy neeaaea? ia?ao?ae a?ae
iana?aeiii? iinoaiiaee iaoe aei na?aeiii? iiaoaeiae oyaeaiiy i?i
ia?niaeoeae naiai iaeaooiueiai ia iniia? ona?aeiieaiiy noa’?eoeaieo oa
ia’?eoeaieo iiaeeeainoae, aei caeaoiino? i?aai?ciaoaaoe naith iiaaae?ieo
a?aeiia?aeii aei aecia/aieo iai???a, oe?eae aeeooy. Noi?iiaai?noue
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a aecia/a?oueny ?o ona?aeiieai?noth, no?ee?noth,
eiie?aoi?noth, ia?niaeoeai?noth.

4. ?icoiiai a?aenoae? oeiey?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaeinoaoiueith
noi?iiaai?noth aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ca an?ia iieacieeaie. ?aae?caoe?y
aeeoo?aeo ieai?a o a?eueoino? c ieo ?ic?aoiaaia ia a?aeaeaeaio o /an?
ia?niaeoeao, iia’ycaio ia?aaeon?i c aeiiiiiaith aaouee?a. Uiaei ?icaeoeo
ie?aieo aeae?a aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e niinoa??aa?oueny yaeua
aaoa?io?iiiino?: iaea?eueo ci???ioiaai? o/i? o noa?? i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, iaeiaio — o noa?? iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y ?
iai?ioan?eii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

5. AEeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? o/i?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee o ??cieo noa?ao
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iathoue iniaeeaino?. Oae, i???ioaoe?? uiaei
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaaaeaeaaoi? o ieai? caaeuaii? naiiioe?iee
nai?o iiaeeeainoae. I???ioaoe?? noiniaii iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai
aeaaiiieo//y oa?aeoa?ecothoueny caaeuaieie iaoa??aeueieie caieoaie,
iaaeinoaoi?noth aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue oa iniaenoiai aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo.
I???ioaoe?? uiaei noaiiaeaiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a ? iaaaeaeaaoii
caieaeaieie, a a?aeiinii iai?ioan?eii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? — iaiaaeaieie
? iia’ycaieie ia?aaeon?i c i?aai?caoe??th a?eueiiai /ano. I?e oeueiio ?o
aeeoo?a? ieaie ia?aaaaeii ia ia?aaeaa/athoue eoeueoo?iiai oa ii?aeueiiai
naiioaeineiiaeaiiy. ?icoiiai a?aenoaeei ae?oyi i?eoaiaiia a a?eueo?e
i??? neooaoeaia ieaioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo ia?niaeoea i?e iaaeinoaoiueiio
?icoi?ii? iaiao?aeiino? oa i?aeoe/ii? cia/ouino? oeueiai i?ioeano.

6. A oiiaao niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao
aeyaeythoueny iiaeeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a
aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo ?o neeaaeiaeo.
AEeoo?a? ieaie o/i?a iaaoaathoue oa?aeoa?o ?icai?iooiai iieno, noathoue
a?eueo aaeaeaaoieie, ona?aeiieaieie, no?eeeie, eiie?aoieie.
Oaeineiiaeth?oueny ai?iiy ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae: oeiey??
ni?iiiaei? i?aaeeueii noaaeoe oe?e? oa aecia/aoe ae?? ? ?o
iine?aeiai?noue aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae a iniiaieo noa?ao
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, aaeaeaaoii ni?anoaaeyoe ?o c? nai?ie iiaeeeainoyie
oa aeiiaaie noni?euenoaa. Oo?i iaea?eueo noi?iiaaieie o oeiey??a
aeyaeythoueny ciaiiy i?i noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, iaio noi?iiaaieie —
ai?iiy ieaioaaoe. Iaea?eueo? o?oaeiiu? o oeiey??a aeeeeea? aecia/aiiy
ae?e ii aeinyaiaiith aeeoo?aeo oe?eae (iniaeeai uiaei
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y) oa a?aooaaiiy iniiaieo /eiiee?a,
a?ae yeeo caeaaeeoue aaeaeaaoi?noue oa ?aae?noe/i?noue aeeoo?aeo ieai?a.

7. Noaiiaeaiith aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a ni?ey?
aeei?enoaiiy o iaaeaaia?/iiio i?ioean? aeiiii?aeii? oeiee nenoaie
niaoe?aeueii? ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe, ni?yiiaaii? ia oi?ioaaiiy
ai?iiy ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae, ui ia?aaeaa/a? : iiaioaaiiy
o/iyie ciaiiyie i?i noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa ieaioaaiiy; iaieiae?iiy
o/iyie aeania ai?iiyi ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae; canoinoaaiiy
canai?ieo ciaiue ? ai?iiy o ??ciiiai?oieo oiiaao. Oaea nenoaia ?iaioe
ia?aaeaa/a? niaoe?aeueio i?aai?caoe?th on?o eaiie iaaeaaia?/iiai
i?ioeano: ci?noo, iaoiaeeee, i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i. Iniaeeaa i?noea a
noaiiaeaii? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a
a?aeaiaeeoueny cae?eniaiith ieie ieaioaaiiy aeanii? iianyeaeaiii?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (?aaeeiieo i??ii?e?inoa oiui), ui ? i?iiaaeaaoeeith
oi?ioaaiiy o ieo ai?iiy ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a? ia?niaeoeae.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaiee o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. AEeoo?a? i???ioaoe?? noa?oieeaniee?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee //
Aeaoaeoieia?y, 1997. — ?4. — N. 23-25.

2. Iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo noa?oieeaniee?a
a?aeiinii iai?ioan?eii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? // Aoiai?caoe?y
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. Aei. IV. — Neia’yinuee: ?CII — NAeI?,
1998. — N. 255-260.

3. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o/i?a
aeiiii?aeii? oeiee ye iniiaa ?o i?aeaioiaee aei naiino?eiiai aeeooy //
Aoiai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. Aei. V. — Neia’yinuee: ?CII
— NAeI?, 1999. — N.205-210.

4. E aii?ino i aeeciaiiuo i?eaioaoeeyo oinoaaiii ionoaeuo
noa?oaeeannieeia // Ae?oe c iaiaaeaieie o?ce/ieie oa ?icoiiaeie
iiaeeeainoyie a nenoai? ei?aeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy: Iaoa??aee
i?aei. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. (27-28 o?aaiy 1997 ?.) — E., 1997. -N.
147-149.

5. Oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo ieai?a o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae ye neeaaeiaa
/anoeia ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe // ?ioaa?aoe?y aiiiaeueii? aeeoeie a
no/ani?e nenoai? nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei: Iaoa?. Anaoe?. iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiio. (2-3 eeno. 1994?.) — E. , 1994. — N. 40-41. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c
A.I.. Eeiith).

6. E?eoa??? aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a o/i?a
aeiiii?aeii? oeiee // Iaoai?cie oa e?eoa??? ae?aaiinoeee ineoio?ce/iiai
?icaeoeo ae?oae a nenoai? ei?aeoe?eii? ?iaioe: Iaoa?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.
(25-28 o?aaiy 1999 ?.) — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: I?ii?iue, 1999. — N. 78-79.

Oaoueyi/eeiaa ?.A. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e a o/i?a
aeiiii?aeii? oeiee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.03 — niaoe?aeueia iaaeaaia?ea. — ?inoeooo
aeaoaeoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? oi?ioaaiiy o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo o/i?a
aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e.

C’yniaaii ineoieia?/iee ci?no aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e, aecia/ai? ?o aeaee,
neeaaeia? ? iaoai?cie noaiiaeaiiy, iieacieee noi?iiaaiino?; aeyaeai?
iniaeeaino? aeeoo?aeo i???ioaoe?e o ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo oeiey??a
noiniaii i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai aeaaiiieo//y,
i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a, iai?ioan?eii? noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?;
?ic?iaeaia niaoe?aeueia nenoaia ei?aeoe?eii-?icaeaaeueii? ?iaioe,
ni?yiiaaia ia oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a aeiiii?aeii? oeiee aeaiiai
iniaeno?niiai ooai?aiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nenoaia ei?aeoe?eii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe, ?icoiiai a?aenoae?
o/i?, aeeoo?a? i???ioaoe??, aeeoo?a? ieaie, ai?iiy ieaioaaoe aeeoo?a?
ia?niaeoeae.

Oaoueyi/eeiaa E.A. Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey aeeciaiiuo i?eaioaoeee o
o/aueony aniiiiaaoaeueiie oeieu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.03 — niaoeeaeueiay iaaeaaiaeea. — Einoeooo
aeaoaeoieiaee AII Oe?aeiu. — Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey o oinoaaiii ionoaeuo
o/aueony aeeciaiiuo i?eaioaoeee.

Ii?aaeaeaii ineoieiae/aneia niaea?aeaiea aeeciaiiuo i?eaioaoeee,
ii?aaeaeaiu eo aeaeu, ninoaaiua e iaoaieciu noaiiaeaiey, iieacaoaee
noi?ie?iaaiiinoe; auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe aeeciaiiuo i?eaioaoeee o
oinoaaiii ionoaeuo oeieueieeia ioiineoaeueii i?ioanneiiaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iaoa?eaeueii-auoiaiai aeaaiiieo/ey, iaaeee/iinoiuo
ioiioaiee, iai?ioanneiiaeueiie noa?u aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe; ?ac?aaioaia
niaoeeaeueiay nenoaia ei??aeoeeiiii-?acaeaathuae ?aaiou, iai?aaeaiiie ia
oi?ie?iaaiea o o/aueony aniiiiaaoaeueiie oeieu aeaiiiai ee/iinoiiai
ia?aciaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nenoaia ei??aeoeeiiii-ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou, oinoaaiii
ionoaeua o/aueany, aeeciaiiua i?eaioaoeee, aeeciaiiua ieaiu, oiaiea
ieaie?iaaoue aeeciaiiua ia?niaeoeau.

Tatyanchikova I.V. The peculiarities of the forming of the vital
orientations of auxiliary school pupils. — The manuscript.

The thesis for the candidate’s degree in pedagogical sciences,
speciality 13.00.03 — special pedagogics. — The Institute of the
defectology of Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine. — Kiev, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the problem of the forming of the vital
orientations of the mentally deficient pupils.

The phsychological content of the vital orientations is defined as well
as their types, the components and mechanisms of their formation, the
indexies of the forming are defined too; the peculiarities of the vital
orientations of the mentally deficient pupils are revealed relatively to
the professional activity, the materials-domestic welfare, the
interpersonal attitude, non-professional sphere of the vital activity;
the special system of the correctional work, turned to the forming of
the diven personal education to the auxiliary school pupils is
developed.

Key words: the system of the correctional-educational work, mentally
deficient pupils, an orientation of life, plans of life, an ability of
the planing life-perspective.

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