I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

EE?ANUeEEE IAOEIAI-AeINE?AeIEE ?INOEOOO AI?AeAI?IEIA?? OA ?IOAEOe?EIEO
OAI?IA

?i. E.A.A?IIAOAANUeEIAI

NAAEOeUeEEE AAEA??E EAII?AeIAE*

OAeE 614.446 + 616.002.14(355/359)

INIAEEAINO? AI?AeAI?IEIA?? OA I?IO?EAEOEEE A??ONIIAI AAIAOEOO “A” NA?AAe
??CIEO EIIOEIAAIO?A

CA?IEIEO NEE OE?A?IE

14.02.02. – ai?aeai?ieia?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a a?enueeiai-iaaee/iiio ?inoeooo? Oe?a?inueei?
a?enueeiai-iaaee/-ii? aeaaeai?? II Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, no. i. n.

Ao?aeue Aiaoie?e Eaiio?eiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? a??onieo
aaiaoeo?a oa A?E-?ioaeoe??

Ee?anueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
?inoeoooo ai?aeai?ieia?? oa

?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia ?i.
E.A.A?iiaoaanueeiai

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, no. i. n.

Aeaen??iei Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? a?a??ic?a
Ee?anueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?ae-

iiai ?inoeoooo ai?aeai?ieia?? oa
?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia

?i.E.A.A?iiaoaanueeiai

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aioe TH??e Aeaieniae/

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ai?aeai?ieia??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. aeaae.
I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
?i. I.E.Ooieea, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 7 “ 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae – 26.614.02 i?e Ee?anueeiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? ai?aeai?ieia?? oa ?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia ?i.
E.A.A?iiaoaanueeiai (252038, i.Ee?a-38, oca?c I?ioan?a ss?, 4)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo ai?aeai?ieia?? oa ?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia
?i.E.A.A?iiaoaa-nueeiai (252038, i.Ee?a-38, oca?c I?ioan?a ss?, 4)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 5 “ aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe E.N.E?anthe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io e?euee?noue oai?aoe/ieo
oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia ?ice?eooy
ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae aaiaoeoo A (AA), ?ic?iaeo oa ao?eaiiy a
iianyeaeaiio i?aeoeeo iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo cania?a ae?aaiinoeee ?
i?io?eaeoeee, oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nio-th/i? nenoaie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai
iaaeyaeo, i?iaeaia aoaeoeaiiai aieeao ia ?icae-oie ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano i?e oe?e ?ioaeoe?? ana ua aeaeaea aei naiai inoaoi/iiai
ae??oaiiy. Aaiaoeo A aei nueiaiaeiyoiueiai aeiy caeeoa?oueny iaei??th c
iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo i?iaeai ioi?iie caei?ia’y, ui aecia/a?oueny ia?aae
on?i oe?ieei ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi, aenieeie ??aiyie caoai?thaaiino? c
iaaaoeaiith oaiaeaioe??th aei ?? c?inoaiiy, a?aenooi?noth aeey oe?ieiai
canoinoaaiiy a iianyeaeaii?e e?ea?-nuee?e i?aeoeoe? cania?a niaoeeo?/ii?
ae?aaiinoeee ? i?io?eaeoeee, cia/ieie nioe?-aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie
caeoeaie. ??aaiue caoai?thaaiino? ia AA iinooia?oueny a?eio oa aino?ei
?ani??aoi?iei a??oniei ?ioaeoe?yi, i?ioa, a ca”yceo c a?eueoith
o?e-aae?noth iaeiiai aeiaaeeo caoai?thaaiiy i?e AA aeiiii?/i? caeoee
a?ae iaio ?ioae-oe?e oe?eeii c??aiyi?, a i???ioiai? aeiiii?/i? caeoee
neeaaeathoue a?eueoa 100 iei. a?i. a ??e. (A.E.Ao?aeue, TH.I.Aaiac?i,
1996; A.O.O?ieia c ni?aaao., 1998; Van Damma ?., Kein I., 1996).
Oe?a?ia a?aeiineoueny aei ?aa?ii?a c na?aaeiueith aiaeai?/i?noth uiaei
AA [Bulletion of the WHO, 1995]. Oaeee oei ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?aeiinii aenieith ?ioaineai?noth oee?eoeyoe?? a??ono
aaiaoeoa A, cia/iith e?euee?noth ni?eeiyoeeaeo aei ?ioaeoe?? ae?oae
a?eueo noa?oiai a?eo oa i?aee?oe?a, a oaeiae aenieeie iieacieeaie
caoai?thaaiino? ia AA [A.O.O?ieia c ni?aaao., 1998; Chossegros P. et
al., 1994]. Iieacieee caoai?th-aaiino? ia AA a Oe?a?i? ca inoaii? o?noue
?ie?a eieeaaeenue c 301,9 (a 1994 ?ioe?) aei 59,26 (a 1998 ?ioe?) ia 100
oen. ianaeaiiy, ui a 10-60 ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao
?a?iie oa I?ai?/ii? Aia?eee [A.E.Ao?aeue, TH.I.Aaiac?i, 1996; Van Damma
?., 1994; Bulletion of the WHO, 1995;].

Iani?eyoeeaa neooaoe?y uiaei caoai?thaaiino? ia AA neeaeanue inoaii?i
/anii ? a Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie (CN Oe?a?ie). Iieacieee caoai?thaaiino?
iniaiaiai neeaaeo a?enuee a aeae?eueea ?ac?a ia?aaeuothoue
caoai?thaai?noue oeea?eue-iiai ianaeaiiy. Iathoue i?noea ye nii?aaee/i?
aeiaaeee AA oae ? cia/i? ai?aeai?/i? niaeaoe c ?io?eoaaiiyi cia/ii?
e?eueeino? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a [I.I.Ae?eaa/, 1997; TH.I.Caoieie?i,
1998].

Aeuaiaaaaeaia na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui i?iaeaia AA caeeoa?oueny iaei??th c
iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo a nenoai? ioi?iie caei?ia”y. Oea iiaiith i??ith
noino?oueny ? ai?aeai?/ii? neooaoe??, yea neeaeanue uiaei AA a CN
Oe?a?ie. Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano caeeoathoueny ia aea/aieie iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano a ??cieo aeaeao oa ?iaeao a?enuee, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iniaeeainoae a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy, ia aecia/ai? a?oie oa /eiie-ee
i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo ?io?eoaaiiy, iniiai? oeyoe ?iciianthaeaeaiiy AA a
a?e-nueeao oiui.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e
aaiaoeo? A na?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie ? aaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio
ai?aea-i?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo oa i?aai?caoe?? i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a a
a?enueeiaeo eieae-oeaao.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. Aea/eoe ai?aeai?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? AA a CN Oe?a?ie oa a ie?aieo
aeaeao ? ?iaeao a?enuee, ?ioaineai?noue ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iniaeeainoae a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
??aiy iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy iniaiaiai neeaaeo.

2. Aecia/eoe ?ieue /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ?aae?caoe?th
oaeaeueii-i?aeueiiai iaoai?cio ia?aaea/? caoaeieea i?e oi?ioaaii?
ai?aeai?/ieo ina?aaee?a AA a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao.

3. Ioe?ieoe i?io?eaeoe/io aoaeoeai?noue ?iaeoeoi?o aiaeiaaiiiai
?ioa?oa?iiiaaiaco — iaoaiai?iiai? eeneioe oa iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeee-a?noue
canoinoaaiiy ?? a yeino? caniao aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee AA na?aae
iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie.

4. Oaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo oa eiiieaen
i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo ? i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a a ina?aaeeao AA a
a?enue-eiaeo eieaeoeaao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Io?eiai? iia? aeai? i?i ai?aeai?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
AA (aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo ai?aeai??, iniiai? /eiieee oa oeyoe ia?aaea/?
caoaeieea) na?aae ??cieo eiioeiaaio?a Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny iniaeeainoyie neoaeae oa iiaooo. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaia
?ieue aieeao iniaeeainoae a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy ia ?ioaineai?noue ?icaeoeo
ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano na?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo ie?aieo aeae?a oa ?iae?a
a?enuee. Aecia/ai? iniiai? (i?ii?aei? oa e?ioeaa?) /eiieee ia?aaea/?
caoaeieea AA a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao. Aaeineiiaeaia nenoaia
ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo i?e AA a CN Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Aeey oe?ieiai i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy
cai?iiiiiaai? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaai? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
i?i-o?eaeoe/ieo ? i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo caoiae?a i?e AA a CN Oe?a?ie, ye?
aeeth/athoue: ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anieo iaoiae?a niaoeeo?/ii? eaai?aoi?ii?
ae?aaiinoeee AA, iii?oi??ia ca oee?eoeyoe??th caoaeieea a iaaeieeoiueiio
na?aaeiaeu?, ne?ei?ia a?oi i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo ?io?eoaaiiy a??onii AA,
aeei?enoaiiy cania?a aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee oa ?ic?iaeo ? ?aae?caoe?th
i?ia?aie aaeoeeiii?io?eaeoeee. Anoa-iiaeai? iniaeeaino?
a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai
caaacia/aiiy iniaiaiai neeaaeo ie?aieo aeae?a oa ?iae?a a?enuee, ye?
iiaeooue noaoe iniiaieie e?eoa??yie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy a ieo i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a. Anoaiiaeaia
aeniea i?io?eaeoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iaeoeoi?o aiaeiaaiiiai ?ioa?oa?iio —
iaoaiai?iiai? eeneioe ? iieacaia ia?niae-oeai?noue oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy
?ioiiiiaeoethth/eo i?aia?ao?a c iaoith aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee AA a
a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a
?ino?oeoeaii-iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aeao “Ai?aeai?ieia?y oa i?io?eaeoeea
aaiaoeoo A a Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a: AAIO, 1999).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
OAIA «I?iaeaiu aiai-iiai cae?aaiio?aiaieiy e iooe aai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey»
(Ee?a, 1997?.), ia ? I?aeia-?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
?ioaeoe?ii?no?a oa ai?aeai?ieia?a CN Oe?a?ie (27-29 o?aaiy 1998?.), ia
eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo iaoeiaoe?a OAIA (Ee?a, 1999?.). Ai?iaaoe?y
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoeany ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? ni?a?ia?oiee?a eaoaae?e
a?enueeiai-i?io?eaeoe/ii? iaaeeoeeie A?enueeiai-iaaee/iiai ?inoeoooo
Oe?a?inueei? A?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? Aeaaeai??,
nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai oi?aa-e?iiy Aieiaiiai a?enueeiai-iaaee/iiai
oi?aae?iiy I?i?noa?noaa Iai?iie Oe?a-?ie, Oeaio?o aea?aeaaiiai
nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie oa eaoaae?e
ai?aeai?ieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.
Aiaiiieueoey 23.03.1999 ?ieo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 8 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??ae?a oa iaoiae?a, 3 ?icae?e?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, caaa?oaiiy, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, yeee
neeaaea?oueny c 165 aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiaiee ianya aeine?aeaeaiue (aeecueei
85%) aeeiiaiee aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Iniaenoi aoa i?iaaaeaiee
iaoaioii-?ioi?ia-oe?eiee iiooe, aecia/ai? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee,
a?aeiia?aeii aei yeeo i?iaaaeai? ai?aea-i?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c
ioe?iee i?io?eaeoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaeoeoi?o aiaeiaai-iiai
?ioa?oa?iiiaaiaco – iaoaiai?iiai? eeneioe aeey aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee AA
a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao CN Oe?a?ie. Iniaenoi i?iaaaeaii ?ao?iniaeoeaiee
ai?aeai?ieia?/iee aiae?c iaoa??ae?a uiaei caoai?thaaiino? ia AA
a?enueeiaineoae-aiaoe?a CN Oe?a?ie, 3 iia?aoeaieo eiiaiaeoaaiue, 6
aeae?a oa ?iae?a a?enuee. Aaoi? i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o
i?aeaioiaoe? aeaeaiiy iaoiaee/ieo aeieoiaio?a oa iaoa??ae?a aei
iioae?eoaaiiy.

A i?aai?caoe?? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue i?eeiaee o/anoue i?aeiieeiaiee
iaaee/-ii? neoaeae neoaeae N.A.Ea?iaiei (Oeaio? aea?aeaaiiai
nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/-iiai iaaeyaeo CN Oe?a?ie), eai?oai iaaee/ii?
neoaeae N.A.N?iia?iae/ (nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/ia eaai?aoi??y,
i.I.-Aieeinueeee), ni?a?ia?oieee ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo oa i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo
a?aeae?e?a nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo caaii?a CN Oe?a?ie, ca ui aaoi?
aeneiaeth? ?i ue?o aaey/i?noue.

Aeneiaeth?ii ue?o iiaeyeo aeieoi?o iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o
I.?.Oeae-iyeo ca eiinoeueoaoeaio ? iaoiaee/io aeiiiiiao i?e aeeiiaii?
iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

?iaioa aoea caieaiiaaia ? i?iaiaeeeanue a iaaeao ieaiiai? IAe?
Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? “Iaeao?o” oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ae?yeueiino? eaoaae?e a?enueeiai-i?io?eaeoe/ii?
iaaeeoeeie Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??.

?iaioa aeeiiaia c canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoiae?a ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai
aia-e?co, niinoa?aaeaiiy oa ianoaaeaiiy ina?aaee?a, ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai
aeine?aeo, iaaeeei-aaia?ao?/ieo, i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo oa noaoenoe/ieo
iaoiae?a.

?ao?iniaeoeaiee ai?aeai?ieia?/iee aiae?c i?iaiaeeany ca iaoiaeeeith
A.Ae.A?-eyeiaa c ni?aaao. (1981) oa ca?aeii c ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie,
aeeeaaeaieie a iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo “?ao?iniaeoeaiee ai?aeai?ieia?/iee
aiae?c ?ioaeoe?eii? caoai?thaaiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo c’?aeiaiiy
(aa?i?ciio)” (i?ae caaaeueiith ?aaeaeoe??th A.A.Oeeaaiea, 1990 ?.).
Iniaeeaino? i?iyao ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA a a?enueeiaeo
eieaeoe-aao a aeaeyae? io?oe?eieo iieaciee?a caoai?thaaiino? aoee
i?iaiae?ciaai? iaie ca aeaieie “Iaaee/ieo ca?o?a i?i noai caei?ia”y oa
caoai?thaaiino? iniaiaiai neea-aeo” (oi?ia 3 iaae.) oa ca aeaieie
io?oe?eieo ca?o?a aieiaieo aea?aeaaieo nai?oa?ieo e?ea??a
oa?eoi??aeueieo nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo caaii?a (i?ny/ieo, ??/ieo).
Ao-ee aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee iica/a?aiaeo aeiianaiue i?i ai?aeai?/i?
niaeaoe AA oa caoiaee, ye? i?iaaaeai? aeey ?o eieae?caoe?? oa
e?ea?aeaoe??, ea?oe ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy ina?aaee?a
?ioaeoe?eieo caoai?thaaiue (oi?ia 23), iaoa??aee ia?aa??ie noaio
i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo oa i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo
caoi-ae?a a ie?aieo a?enueeiaeo /anoeiao, aeoe nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iiai
ianoaaeaiiy ai?aea-i?ieia?/ii cia/oueo ia”?eo?a, aeai? ae?aaiinoe/ieo
ianoaaeaiue oai?eo ia AA oa eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ia c ia’?eo?a
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (aiaee, ia’?eo?a oa?/oaaiiy oiui).

Ai?aeai?ieia?/i? ianoaaeaiiy ina?aaee?a a?oiiai? caoai?thaaiino?
i?iaiaee-eenue ca?aeii o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiaeee (A.Ae.A?eyeia c ni?aaao.,
1981; Ae.O.Oioeia c ni?a-aao., 1985; iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aie “Aeeaaiinoeea,
ea/aiea e i?ioeeaeoeea ae?on-iiai aaiaoeoa A e A a NA e ia AIO”, Iineaa:
AAIO, 1982; iaeaco I?icae?aao N?N? ? 408 a?ae 12.07.1989 ”I ia?ao ii
nieaeaieth caaieaaaaiinoe ae?oniuie aaiaoeoaie a no?aia”).

I?e?ia?ieia?/iee iaoiae ia?aaeaa/aa aecia/aiiy eie?-?iaeaeno a i?iaao
aiaee oa ye?ni? aaeoa??ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ciea?a c ia’?eo?a
oa?/oaaiiy ia aaeoa??? a?oie eeoeiai? iaee/ee.

Ai?aeai?ieia?/iee aeine?ae c ioe?iee i?io?eaeoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
?iaeoeoi?o aiaeiaaiiiai ?ioa?oa?iiiaaiaco – iaoaiai?iiai? eeneioe
a?oiooaaany ia aiae?c? caoai?thaaiino? ia AA a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a
aeine?aeii? oa eiio?ieueii? a?oi ? i?i-aiaeeany ca?aeii iaoiaeeee,
?aeiiaiaeiaaii? aeey aeei?enoaiiy aeaiiai i?aia?aoo (A.O.O?ieia c
ni?aaao., 1990; A.E.Ao?aeue, TH.I.Aaiac?i, 1996).

Noaoenoe/iee iaoiae canoiniaoaaany c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeee, ye?
?aei-iaiaeiaai? aeey aea/aiiy ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo yaeu (A.N.Aacnia?oiee c
ni?aaao., 1963; A.TH.O?aao, 1975; ?.I.Aoia??i c ni?aaao., 1975;
A.Ae.A?eyeia c ni?aaao., 1981).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

Nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea oiia neoaeae oa
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy, ye? aeyaeythoue aieea ia ?icaeoie
ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA a CN Oe?a?ie.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
ai?aeai?/iiio i?ioeano i?e AA a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao aeanoeaa cia/ia
caeaaei?noue ??aiy caoai-?thaaiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo ia AA-?ioaeoe?th
a?ae aioo??oi?o /eiiee?a, ui i?e-oaiaii? a?enueeiaei eieaeoeaai. Ia?o ca
ana, oea noino?oueny i?aai?caoe?? aiaei-iinoa/aiiy, oa?/oaaiiy,
?ici?uaiiy a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, i?aai?caoe?? i/euaiiy, eaiae?coaaiiy
oa oo?eiaiiy oa?eoi??? a?enueeiaeo i?noa/ie, a oaeiae iniaeeainoae
neoaeae oa iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy iniaiaiai neeaaeo
ie?aieo aeae?a oa ?iae?a a?enuee. I?iaaaeai? niinoa?aaeaiiy oa aiae?c
oaeoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a nai?-oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo na?ae/aoue
i?i oa, ui a Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie neeaeenue ni?eyoeea? ia?aaeoiiae
aeey cia/iiai ai?aeai?/iiai iioe?aiiy eeoei-aeo aio?iiiiic?a, cie?aia
aaiaoeoo A.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui aiaeii?ia?aeia aiaea o
a?enueeiaeo i?n-oa/eao, aea aoei ca?a?no?iaaii niaeaoe ?ioaeoe?eieo
caoai?thaaiue c aiaeiei oey-oii ia?aaea/?, ia a?aeiia?aeaea aeiiaai
AeNOo 2874-82 “Aiaea ieoia” ca iieacie-eaie, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
ai?aeai?/io aaciaeo ieoii? aiaee (eie?-oeo?, eie?-?iaeaen) a 27-32%
i?ia, a a aeayeeo aa?i?ciiao – 50-80%. Ca aeaieie aiae?co, a?eueoa i?ae
a 60% a?enueeiaeo i?noa/ie a?ae/oaaany cia/iee aeao?oeeo aiaee aeey
ieoieo oa ainii-aea?nueeeo iio?aa. Iniaeeai iaaaeueiith oey i?iaeaia
aoea aeey a?enueeiaeo /anoei I?aaeaiiiai iia?aoeaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy,
aeao?oeeo ieoii? aiaee a yeeo eieeaaany a iaaeao 40-80%.

Aiae?c oaeoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iee noai a?eueoa i?ae 70%
nieaeaonueeeo ?aeaeaiue aoa iecueeee aai iacaaeia?eueiee. Ia?aaaaeia
e?euee?noue ?aeaeaiue ia oeiiieaeoiaai? noi-eiaei oa eooiiiei iinoaeii
ia 20-40%, caaacia/ai? oaoiieia?/iei oa oieiaeeeue-iei onoaoeoaaiiyi ia
50-70%, c yeiai aeecueei 50% iio?aao? ?aiiioo aai niena-iiy ca
iai?eaeaoi?noth aei aeei?enoaiiy, ui i?eaiaeeei aei ii?ooaiiy oaoiieia??
i?eaiooaaiiy ?ae?. A?eueoa 50% nieaeaonueeeo ?aeaeaiue ia caaacia/ai?
i?ioi/iith aa?y/ith aiaeith, iinoaeiieei? iaoeie aeeoee c eaaeo,
ii?oooaaeanue oaoiieia?y ieooy iinoaeo, ui i?eaiaeeei aei ianiaiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, a oiio /ene? ? iaoiaaiieo, ia
ia’?eoao oa?/oaaiiy. Iai?yiei iieacieeii oeueiai aoea aeniea
caa?oaeiai?noue iinoaeo, oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy, niaoeiaeyao oa ?oe
eooa??a aaeoa??yie a?oie eeoeiai? iaee/ee, a?aenioie aen?ao yeeo
eieeaaany a iaaeao a?ae 10% aei 60%.

A oiae? ianoaaeaiue nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo oiia ?icoaooaaiiy iniaiaiai
neea-aeo anoaiiaeaii, ui a a?enueeiaeo /anoeiao aa?i?cii?a E?eaee ??a,
N?ioa?iiieue, A?iieoey oa ?ioeo e?aeea a niaeueieo i?ei?uaiiyo
?icoaoiaai? a aeaa y?one, ui i?eaiaeeei aei cia/iiai neoi/aiiy
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa caieaeaiiy ieiu? aei 2,0-2,5 i2 (i?e ii?i? 4
i2) ia iaeiiai a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey.

Eiaeai aeae a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia? ?yae oa?aeoa?ieo
iciae, /eiiee?a a?enueeiai? neoaeae oa iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai
caaacia/aiiy, ye? a ia-aeao ie?aieo ?iae?a oa aeae?a a?enuee oi?iothoue
aeanoea? eeoa aeey ieo iniaeeaino?. Anoaiiaeaii aeaee oa ?iaee a?enuee
CN Oe?a?ie, a yeeo aeacai? aeua iniaeeaino? iaaoee ae??oaeueiiai
cia/aiiy oa aieeao ia ?icaeoie ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ??aiyie ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oe??? ?ioaeoe??.
Ianaiia?aae oea noino?oueny A?enueeiai-Ii?nueeeo Nee, ?aeaoieo a?enuee,
cae?cie/ieo a?enuee oa a?e-nueeiaeo aoae?aaeueieo caaii?a.

?acii c oei nooo?aee aieea ia ?icaeoie ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano iathoue
cia-i?oi? /eiieee, ye? aecia/athoueny ai?aeai?/iith neooaoe??th a e?a?i?
oa a ?aeii? aeeneieaoe?? a?enuee, aeieia?/iith oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith neooaoe??th a noni?eue-noa?.

Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e aaiaoeo? A a
Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie.

Aeai? ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai aiae?co caoai?thaaiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN
Oe?a?ie na?ae/aoue, ui inoaii?i /anii a CN Oe?a?ie neeaeanue
iani?eyoeeaa ai?-aeai?/ia neooaoe?y uiaei AA, na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/iee
iieaciee caoai?thaaiino? ia yeee ca ia??iae c 1993 ii 1997 ??. noaiiaea
657101 ia 100 oen. a?enueeiai-neoaeaiaoe?a, ui oaeoe/ii a 2-3 ?ace
ia?aaeuoaaei na?aaei? iieacieee caoai-?thaaiino? oeea?eueiiai ianaeaiiy
ca aeacaiee ia??iae. Ianoaaeie, ui neeaeenue a noni?euenoa? oa CN
Oe?a?ie, i?ecaaee aei ii/aoeo ai?aeai?/iiai i?aeeiio caoai-?thaaiino? a
1992 ?ioe?, eiee ?? iieaciee a ii??aiyii? c 1991 ?ieii ca?eueoea-ny
ia 66%. Iaeneiaeueiee iieaciee caoai?thaaiino? – 954 ia 100 oen. aoei
ca?a-?no?iaaii a 1994 ?ioe?. A ai?aeai?/iee i?ioean aoei aoyaiooi
iniaiaee neeaae an?o iia?aoeaieo iai?yie?a, aeae?a oa ?iae?a a?enuee CN
Oe?a?ie.

I?iaaaeaiiy ii??aiyeueiiai ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai aiae?co caoai?thaaiino? ia
AA-?ioaeoe?th a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a no?ieiai? neoaeae ? oeea?eueiiai
ianaeaiiy na?ae-/eoue, ui ?icaeoie ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA na?aae
iniaiaiai neeaaeo ? i?y-iei a?aeaeca?eaeaiiyi ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano na?aae oeea?eueiiai ianaeaiiy uiaei oeeee?/iino? i?aeeii?a oa
niaae?a caoai?thaaiino? (?en.1.). Ia i?ioyc? o?eaa-eiai /ano
ia??iaee/i?noue iaeneiaeueieo oa i?i?iaeueieo iieaciee?a caoai?thaaiino?
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa ianaeaiiy ni?aiaaeaee ii ?ieai,
a?ae??ciyth/enue eeoa ca ??aiai caoai?thaaiino?, ui iaoiiaeaii
iniaeeainoyie i?aai?caoe?? a?enueeiaeo eieaeoea?a,
a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa eiioiaeueii-iiaooiaiai
caaacia-/aiiy oiui. Oaea a?aeiinia neio?iii?noue ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano iaoiia-eaia caaaeueieie /eiieeaie, ye? iaeii/anii aeyaeythoue
aieea ia ana ianaeaiiy oa ia a?enueeia? eieaeoeae CN Oe?a?ie ye eiai
neeaaeiao /anoeio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? ia AA a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a
no?ieiai? neoaeae, ye? a ?iee a?aeiinii? noaa?e?caoe?? ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano ia oae nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae iieaciee?a caoai?thaaiino?
io?oea?nueeiai neeaaeo, a ?iee ia??iaee/ii? aeoea?caoe?? ia?aaeuoaaee
inoaii? a aeaa-o?e ?ace. Oea yaeua iaoiia-eaii oei, ui AA – ?ioaeoe?y
ia?aaaaeii i?aai?ciaaieo eieaeoea?a, iaea?eueo yne?aaei i?eeeaaeii yeeo
? naia eieaeoeae nieaeao?a, /?oei ie?aneai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie,
a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eieie oa eiioiaeueii-iiaooiaeie iaaeaie. A
i?ioeeaaei?noue aei ieo ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue io?oea??a iica iaaeaie
nai?o neoaeai-aeo iaia’yce?a a oiiaao ie?iiai /ano, c aeayeeie
iaiaaeaiiyie, oaeoe/ii ? /an-oeiith ianaeaiiy. Naia oeei ie iiaeaii
iiynieoe oa, ui iieacieee, ye? oa?ae-oa?ecothoue caoai?thaai?noue
io?oea?nueeiai neeaaeo i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae iieaciee?a
caoai?thaaiino? oeea?eueiiai ianaeaiiy.

Ai?aeai?ieia?/iee aiae?c caoai?thaaiino? aeicaieea aeyaeoe
ia??aiii??i?noue iioe?aiiy AA-?ioaeoe?? na?aae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ia
??cieo oa?eoi??yo e?a?ie. Ii??aithth/e iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? ii
iia?aoeaiei eiiaiaeoaaiiyi aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aenieee
na?aaei?e iieaciee caoai?thaaiino?, yeee cia/-ii ia?aaeuoaaa aiaeia?/i?
iieacieee a ?ioeo iia?aoeaieo eiiaiaeoaaiiyo, a?aei?-/aany a I?ai?/iiio
iia?aoeaiiio eiiaiaeoaaii? ? noaiiaea 1379217, ui ia 53% ia?aaeuoaaei
na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/i? iieacieee ii CN Oe?a?ie. I?ioa ne?ae a?aecia-/eoe,
ui iacia/iee oa?i?i ?nioaaiiy oeueiai iia?aoeaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy (c 1996
?ieo) oa aeineoue cia/ia aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue caoai?thaaiino? ia
aeicaieeee i?iaan-oe aeinoia??iee ii??aithaaeueiee ai?aeai?ieia?/iee
aiae?c c ?ioeie iia?aoeaieie eiiaiaeoaaiiyie. Aenieee ??aaiue
caoai?thaaiino? ia AA a?aecia/aii oaeiae na?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo
I?aaeaiiiai iia?aoeaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy, na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/iee ??aaiue
caoai?thaaiino? (1992-1997 ??.) a yeiio noaiiaea 1093 225 ia 100 oen.
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, ui ia 46% aeua a?ae aiaeia?/iiai iieacieea ii CN
Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio. Na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/iee iieaciee caoai?thaaiino? ia AA
a a?enueeiaeo /anoeiao Cao?aeiiai iia?aoeaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy oaeoe/ii a
aeaa ?ace ieae/ee a?ae na?aaei?o iieaciee?a ii CN Oe?a?ie ? neeaaeaa
519+98 ia 100 oen., ui aeicaieeei a?aeianoe eiai ia o?ao? i?noea ca
iieacieeaie iioe?aiino? AA.

Aiae?c caoai?thaaiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo ia AA ca a?eueo o?eaaeee
i?ii?-aeie /ano (1973–1991??.) a a?enueeiaeo /anoeiao eieeoiueiai N?N?,
aeeneieiaa-ieo a 5 nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie (Cao?aeiiio,
I?ai?/iiio, Oeaio?a-eueiiio, No?aeiiio oa I?aaeaiiiio), aeicaieea
anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??ia cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano a
iai?yieo c I?aaeaiiiai Noiaeo ia I?ai?/iee Cao?ae. Na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/i?
iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? noaiiaeee: I?aaeaiiee ?aa?ii — 765134,
No?aeiee — 72492, Oeaio?aeueiee — 24829, I?ai?/iee — 34946, Cao?aeiee —
36273 ia 100 oen. a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a.

A?aecia/aia aeineoue cia/ia ??cieoey a ??aiyo caoai?thaaiino? ia AA a
??c-ieo aeaeao ? ?iaeao a?enuee. Oae, a ia??iae c 1992 ii 1997 ??.,
iaea?eueo? ?? iieacieee aoee aeyaeai? a A?enueeiai-Ii?nueeeo Neeao, a
a?enueeiaeo aoae?aaeueieo caaiiao oa cae?c-ie/ieo a?enueeao,
na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/i? iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? a yeeo neeaaeaee
1544+500, 1098+350 oa 572+58 ia 100 oen. a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a
a?aeiia?aeii. Iaea?eueo iecueeee ??aaiue caoai?thaaiino? – 241+25 ia
100 oen. aoei a?aecia/aii a A?enueeiai-Iia?o?yieo Neeao. Iieacieee
caoai?thaaiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie ca ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiiy
aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey aeniei?ioaineaiiai oeio ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano.

Iieacaii, ui a caaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? caoai?thaaiino? ia AA /anoea
a?oiiai? caoai?thaaiino? noaiiaeea 56,7%. Iieacieee niaeaoiai?
caoai?thaaiino? a a?enue-eiaeo eieaeoeaao iaoiiaeai? ia?aaaaeii
ai?aeai?/ieie ina?aaeeaie AA c? cia/iith e?euee?noth ?io?eiaaieo (5-10 ?
a?eueoa). A no?oeoo?? a?oiiai? niaeaoiai? caoai?th-aaiino? /anoea
ina?aaee?a c 3-5 aeiaaeeaie caoai?thaaiue noaiiaeea 18%, c 5-10
ae-iaaeeaie – 49%, c 10 ? a?eueoa aeiaaeeaie – 33%. I?eaaaeai? aeai?
aeathoue i?aenoaao eiinoaiooaaoe, ui aenie? iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? ia
AA a CN Oe?a?ie iaoiia-eai? niaeaoiaith caoai?thaai?noth.

I?e aea/aii? caoai?thaaiino? ia AA a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao ca ia??iae c
1973 ii 1997 ?iee aoei a?aecia/aii, ui ia??iaee/i? i?aeeiie
caoai?thaaiino? ?a?n-o?oaaeenue c ?ioa?aaeaie a 6-7 ?ie?a. ?o ?icae?eyee
?iee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue cieaeaiiyi aeoeaiino? ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano, ui i?iyaeyeinue a?aeiia?aeieie ??aiyie caoai?thaaiino?.

Anoaiiaeaia in?iiuei-ceiiaa naciii?noue caoai?thaaiino? c iaeneiaeueiei
??aiai a a?oaei?. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caoai?thaaiino? ia AA a ia??iae
naciiiiai i?aeae-uaiiy ca 7 ?ie?a aoei ne?aeoth/ei: a aeiaoi? – 16,4%,
eenoiiaae? – 21,1%, a?oaei? – 24,6%, n?/i? — 19,8% ? a ethoiio – 18,3%.
Ia aeacai? 5 i?nyoe?a i?eiaaeaei 58,9% an??? na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/ii?
caoai?thaaiino?. A ie?ai? ?iee /anoea caoai?thaaiino?, iaoiiaeaii?
ae??th naciiieo /eiiee?a eieeaaeanue a iaaeao 30-40%. Aecia/aii
iayai?noue ia?aaaaeii aeaio i?aeeii?a caoai?thaaiino? ia AA a
iaa/aeueieo /anoeiao oa oeaio?ao a aeiaoi?-a?oaei? oa o?aai?-/a?ai?,
eiee a a?enueeia? eieaeoeae aeeaaeinue iieiaea iiiiaiaiiy.

Aecia/aia ?ieue ie?aieo eiioeiaaio?a a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ?
neoaeaiaoe?a CN Oe?a?ie, ye iioaioe?eieo aeaea?ae caoaeieea AA.
Aeoea?caoe?y ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano, iieacieeii yei? ? ca?eueoaiiy
caoai?thaaiino?, a?aecia/aeanue i?ney i?eaoooy o a?enueeia? /anoeie
iieiaeiai iiiiaiaiiy. Na?eicio iaaaciaeo c oi/ee ci?o iiae-eeaino?
?io?eoaaiiy cia/ieo eiioeiaaio?a iniaiaiai neeaaeo noaiiaeyoue
neoaeaia-oe? oa a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? aeae?aoiaaieo a?oi. A ia?oo /a?ao
oea noino?oueny i?aoe?a-iee?a nieaeaonueeeo ?aeaeaiue, /aeieo oa
i?iaeiaieue/eo iaaacei?a a?enueeoi?ao, neoaeaiaoe?a CN Oe?a?ie, ye?
caaacia/othoue oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy aiaeii?ia?aeieo oa
eaiae?caoe?eieo eiioi?eaoe?e. Oae, a 42% niaeao?a c oa?/iaei oeyoii
ia?aaea/? aeaea?aeii caoaeieea ?ioaeoe?? neoaeeee i?aoe?aieee nenoaie
oa?/oaaiiy, ye? ciaoi-aeeeenue a ?ieoaaoe?eiiio ia??iae? aai aoee oai??
ia aacaeiaoyie/i?, noaee?i?/i? oi?ie AA-?ioaeoe??.

Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a 79 ai?aeai?/ieo niaeao?a AA, ui aeieeee a CN Oe?a?ie
a ia??iae c 1993 ii 1997 ??. iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo ?noioia cia/aiiy a
iioe?aii? caoaeieea AA-?ioaeoe?? a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao iaa aiaeiee
/eiiee. Io?eiai? oaeoe/i? iaoa??aee aeiaiaeyoue, ui iaea?eueoa
e?euee?noue niaeao?a – 37 (46,83%) iao-iiaeai? aeei?enoaiiyi aeey ieoieo
iio?aa iaaeia?iye?nii? aiaee, 32 niaeaoe (40,51%) – oa?/iaei /eiieeii ?
10 (12,66%) – iiaooiaeie eiioaeoaie. Anoa-iiaeaii aenieee nooi?iue
ca’yceo iieaciee?a caoai?thaaiino? ia AA c ye?noth aiaee aeaea?ae
aiaeiiinoa/aiiy oa e?euee?noth aiaee ia iaeiiai a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey ca
aeiao (i?e cia/aii? eiao?oe??ioa ei?aeyoe?? r>0,7). A?enueeia? aa?i?ciie
c iaeneiaeueieie ??aiyie caoai?thaaiino? ?ici?uoaaeenue a ?aa?iiao c
iaea??oeie oiiaaie aiaei-iinoa/aiiy. Oa?aeoa? ?io?eoaaiiy aiaee caeaaeaa
a?ae oiia aiaeiiinoa/aiiy oa ?? ca’yceo c oaeaeueiei caa?oaeiaiiyi
aeaea?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oa aaoiiiiiiai ai-aeiiinoa/aiiy a?enueeiaeo
/anoei, i?iieeiaiiyi no?/ieo aiae o aiaeii?ia?aeio ia-?aaeo. A
a?eueoino? aa?i?cii?a CN Oe?a?ie a?ae 10% aei 25% aeine?aeaeaiue i?ia
ieoii? aiaee ia a?aeiia?aeaei aeiiaai AeNOo 2874-82 ca aaeoa??ieia?/ieie
iieacieeaie. A ia??iae ai?aeai?/iiai i?aeeiio caoai?thaaiino? ia AA
e?euee?noue ianoaiaea?oieo i?ia ca?eueooaaeanue aei 30-50%%, a a ie?aieo
aa?i?ciiao — aei 70-85%%.

A i?aeo?eioe? aeniei? ?ioaineaiino? ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e
AA a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao ?noioia ?ieue iaeaaeeoue oa?/iaiio /eiieeo.
A oiae? aiae?co iaoa??ae?a ai?aeai?/ieo ianoaaeaiue 32 a?oiiaeo niaeao?a
AA iaie aoei a?aecia/aii, ui aeaea?aeii caoaeieea ?ioaeoe?? a 13
aeiaaeeao aoee naia i?aoe?aieee ia’?eo?a oa?/oaaiiy. A caaaeuei?e
no?oeoo?? caoai?thaaiino? ia AA a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa neoaeaiaoe?a,
ye? a?aeiineeenue aei aeae?aoiaaieo eiioeiaaio?a, /anoea
caoai?thaa-iino? eooa??a neeaaeaea 58,27%. Anoaiiaeaii, ui e?ioeaaeie
/eiieeaie ia?aaea/? a??ono AA a nieaeaonueeeo ?aeaeueiyo aoee ia?aaaaeii
aioia? no?aae, ye? ia i?aeey-aathoue oa?i?/i?e ia?iaoe? (oieiaei?
caeonee, naeaoe, iieiei, eiiaeae?iae oiui). Aeecueei 14% ai?aeai?/ieo
niaeao?a AA, c oa?/iaei oeyoii ia?aaea/? a??ono aoee ni?e/eiai?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiei oa?/oaaiiyi ie?aieo a?oi a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a iica
iaaeaie nieaeaonueeeo ?aeaeaiue.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano
i?e AA o a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao ? oaeoe/ii a?aenooi?noue iiiioaeoi?ieo
ai?aeai?/ieo niaeao?a, ye? aoee iaoiiaeai? eeoa iaeiei /eiieeii aai
oeyoii ia?aaea/?. Oae, ??ceee i?aeeii caoai?thaaiino?, i?e/eiith yeiai
noaea aeoeaaoe?y aiaeiiai /eiieeo ia?aaea/? c iaeiiiiiaioiei ianiaei
?io?eoaaiiyi iniaiaiai neeaaeo i?eaiaeea aei ?i?oe?aoe?? oa?/iaiai oa
iiaooiaiai /eiiee?a ia?aaea/?, a?ae aeoeaiino? yeeo a eii-e?aoieo oiiaao
ia?aaaaeii e caeaaeaea o?eaae?noue niaeaoo oa eiai e?euee?ni? iaae?. A
i?inoaaeaieo iaie ina?aaeeao a?ae 30% aei 50% caoai?thaaiino? aoee
iaoiiaeai? i?e?aeiaiiyi aei iniiaiiai aiaeiiai /eiieeo aeiiii?aeieo a
aeaiiio aeiaaeeo – oa?-/iaiai oa iiaooiaiai. Oea i?eaiaeeei aei
iiaeiaaeaiiy /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a niaeaoo aei 1,5-3,0 ?ieoaaoe?eieo
ia??iae?a, ui i?iyaeyeinue aeeiai?eith caoai?thaaiino? ini-aiaiai
neeaaeo.

Oaeineiiaeaiiiy nenoaie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo oa oeyoe
i?aeae-uaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a i?e aaiaoeo? A a
Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie.

I?aai?caoe?y oa i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo i?io?eaeoe/ieo oa
i?ioeai?aea-i?/ieo caoiae?a i?e AA a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao ia iiaiio
ye?niiio ??ai? iiae-eeaa nueiaiaei? eeoa ca oiiae aeinoaoiueiai
eaai?aoi?ii-a??onieia?/iiai caaac-ia/aiiy a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? oa
nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/ii? neoaea. ?c c?inoaiiyi
a?enueeiai-ai?aeai?ieia?/ii? cia/eiino? AA aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy nenoaie nai?oa?ii-a??onieia?/iiai eiio?ieth ca ia’?eoaie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?a-aeiaeua a a?enueeiaeo /anoeiao. Aeei?enoaiiy
nai?oa?ii-iieaciai? i?e?ioei?e ia iiaea aooe aeciaii caaeia?eueiei aeey
ioe?iee caa?oaeiaiiy ia’?eo?a aeiae?eey a??o-nii AA, iine?eueee eiai
no?ee?noue a iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu? ia aeae?eueea ii-?yaee?a aeua ca
E.noli. A?eueo a??ia?aeieie iieacieeaie ? aecia/aiiy eie?-oaa?a oa
aioa?ia??on?a. Ca no/anieie oyaeaiiyie, aeey aoaeoeaiiai
nai?oa?ii-a??onieia?/-iiai eiio?ieth aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia
iia?/i? nai?oa?ii-aaeoa??ieia?/i? iieacieee, a cae?enithaaoe
aaciina?aaei? aeyaeaiiy a??ono AA aai eiai aioeaai?a a ia’?eoao
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, iniaeeai a aiae?. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoea-iino? i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo caoiae?a a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao
iaiao?aeii ai?iaaaeeoe canoinoaaiiy no/anieo iaoiae?a ?ioiiae?aaiinoeee
AA (?ioiioa?iaioiiai aiae?co), ye? aaea oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny
oeea?eueiith nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/iith neoae-aith c iaoith ?aiiueiai
aeyaeaiiy oai?eo a ?ieoaaoe?eiiio ia??iae? oa oai?eo c aoe-iiaeie oa
?iaia?aioieie oi?iaie ?ioaeoe??, ye iniiaieo aeaea?ae a??ono AA. Ii?yae
c caoiaeaie, ye? i???ioiaai? ia ?ic?ea iaoai?cio ia?aaea/? ?ioaeoe??,
?iaee-eaoe?y aioeo?e aei a??ono AA (aioe-AAA), ye? a?aeiinyoueny aei
?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a eeano M iiaeiia noaoe iaia’yceiaith neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith a caaaeuei?e nenoai? i?io?-eaeoe/ieo oa i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo
caoiae?a, ye? iai?aaeai? ia iaiaaeaiiy iioe?aiiy AA-?ioaeoe?? a
a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao.

Aei inoaiiueiai /ano iniiaiei caniaii ?ioiii?io?eaeoeee AA a CN Oe?a-?ie
aoei canoinoaaiiy ii?iaeueiiai ?ioiiaeiaoe?io ethaeeie. Iacaaaeath/e ia
aaaa-oi??/ia canoinoaaiiy ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a aeey aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee
AA, ana ua ia-ia? ?aeeiiai iiaeyaeo uiaei iaoai?cio ?o ae??, noai, aeic
oa oa?i?i?a aaaaeaiiy. E??i oiai, caoeniee aoaeo oeueiai caoiaeo ia
ia?aaeuo? 3-4 i?nyoe?, a aoi?eiia aaaaeaiiy i?aia?aoo a ?yae? aeiaaee?a
i?eaiaeeei aei cieaeaiiy i?io?eaeoe/iiai aoaeoo. ?nio-thoue aeai?,
ca?aeii c yeeie /anoa canoinoaaiiy ?ioiiaeiaoe?io iiaea ni?eyoe
ia?a-aiaeo oeiiaeo iai?oanoieo oi?i ?ioaeoe?? a aoeiia? aacaeiaoyie/i?
oa ?iaia?aioi?. A?eueo aoaeoeaiei caniaii niaoeeo?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee AA ?
?ioiiaeiaoe?i ni?y-iiaaii? ae?? c oeo?ii aioe-AA 1:8000 – 1:16000. Aea
niaoeeo?/iee ?ioiiaeiaoe?i ua ia io?eiaa cia/iiai iioe?aiiy a CN
Oe?a?ie, ye can?a aeno?aii? i?io?eae-oeee AA. Ne?ae aeacaoe, ui inoaii?i
/anii a?aecia/a?oueny /?oea oaiaeaioe?y uiaei iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy
i?aia?ao?a e?ia? a ca’yceo c ?eceeii ?io?eoaaiiy A?E (I.A.Ai?aoiia c
ni?aaao., 1989; A.E.Ao?aeue, TH.I.Aaiac?i, 1996; A.O.O?ieia c ni?aaao.,
1998).

Ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii i?io?eaeoeee AA ? canoinoaaiiy
?ioiiii-aeoethth/eo i?aia?ao?a, caeaoieo aeoeaoaaoe nenoaio aiaeiaaiiiai
?ioa?oa?iio. A ?acoeueoao? oe?ieiai ne?ei?iao i?e?iaeieo oa neioaoe/ieo
?ioiiiiaeoeyoi??a anoaiiaeaii ae?aaeai? ?ioa?oa?iinoeioethth/?
aeanoeaino? iaoaiai?iiai? een-eioe (IOE), ui caaacia/o? ianiaoeeo?/iee
caoeno i?aai?cio caaeiaai aei oi?io-aaiiy niaoeeo?/iiai ?ioi?oaoo
(A.A.O?ieia c ni?aaao. , 1998).

A a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iinoaaeaieo caaea/ a 1997-1998 ??. a ie?aieo
a?enueei-aeo /anoeiao I?ai?/iiai iia?aoeaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy oa i.Ee?aa
iaie aoee i?iaaaeai? eiio?ieueiaai? ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii
aea/aiith iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy ?iaeoeoi?o aiaeiaaiiiai
?ioa?oa?iiiaaiaco – iaoaiai?iiai? eeneioe aeey aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee AA
a ai?aeai?/ieo ina?aaeeao a?oiiai? caoai?thaaiin-o? a a?enueeiaeo
eieaeoeaao. I?ae iaaeyaeii a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaoiaeeeinue 954
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?, c yeeo 267 neeaaeaee aeine?aeio a?oio, 194 —
a?oio aioo??o-iueiai eiio?ieth ? 493 aoee a?aeianai? aei a?oie
ciai?oiueiai eiio?ieth. A?enueeiai-neoaeaiaoeyi aeine?aeii? a?oie
i?ecia/aany i?aia?ao a ia?o? 3 aei? i?ney aeyaeaiiy 1-2 oai?eo a
a?enueeiaiio eieaeoea?. A?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyi c a?oie aioo??oiueiai
eiio?ieth a yeino? ieaoeaai i?ecia/aany aetheiiao eaeueoe?th. Aiae?c
caoai?thaa-iino? a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue i?ae
niinoa?aaeaiiyi iieacaa, ui na?aae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a aeine?aeieo
a?oi, ye? io?eioaaee IOE, iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? noaiiaeee 6,85–8,26
ia 1000 /ie., a a a?oiao aioo??oiueiai oa ciai?oiueiai eiio?ieth –
28,99-53,57 ia 1000 /ie. A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? na?aae
a?enueeiai-neoaeaiaoe?a, ye? io?eiaee i?aia?ao c iaoith aeno?aii?
i?io?eaeoeee aoee a 4,5-8,5 ?ac?a ieae/eie i?ae a eiio?ieueieo a?oiao
(Oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?io?eaeoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? IOE, ye caniao
aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee AA na?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie.

A?oie ianoaaeaieo a?enueeiai-neoaeaiaoe?a?ici?? a?oi,
/ieCaoai?thaai?noue ia AA?iaeaen aoaeoeaiino?aanietho-i? iieac-ieeeia
1000 /ieii aioo- ??oiueiio eiio?ieth

ii cia-

i?oiueiio

eiio?iethAeine?aei? a?oie

A?oie aioo??o-

iueiai eiio?ieth

A?oie ciai?o-iueiai eiio?ieth267

194

4932

7

297,49

36,08

58,824,82

7,85Anoaiiaeaia /?oea caeaaei?noue aoaeoeaiino? i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?? a?ae
/ano, ui i?ieoia c iiiaioo aeyaeaiiy aeaea?aea ?ioaeoe?? — iaea?eueoee
caoeniee aoaeo niinoa??aaany i?e canoinoaaii? i?aia?aoo ia i?ci?oa 3
aeiy i?ney aeyaeaiiy ia?-oiai oai?iai a ina?aaeeo. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo
?iaeaen aoaeoeaiino? neeaaeaa 4,8, a ca-oeuai?noue iniaiaiai neeaaeo
a?ae ?eceeo ?io?eoaaiiy eieeaaeanue a iaaeao 75-85 %%. I?e
canoinoaaii? IOE i?ci?oa 5-6 aeiy c iiiaioo eiioaeoo c aeaea?aeii
?i-oaeoe?? ?noioii? ??cieoe? a iieacieeao caoai?thaaiino? ia aoei
aeyaeaii. Ine?eueee aoaeoeai?noue i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?? IOE ioe?ithaaeanue
eeoa ia iniia? aeyaeaiiy iai?oanoieo oi?i caoai?thaaiiy oi oea aea?
i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui i?io?eaeoe/ia ae?y IOE a?eueo ae?aaeaia, i?ae
aoei iaie aecia/aii. I?aia?ao i?ecia/aany i?ney aeyaeaiiy ee?i?/ii
iai?oanoieo oi?i AA. Oai?? c aacaeiaoyie/ieie oa noaee?-i?/ieie oi?iaie
oai?iae, ye? a?ae?a?athoue i?ia?aeio ?ieue a i?aeo?eioe? ai?aeai?/iiai
i?ioeano, ye i?aaeei, caeeoaeenue ia?ici?ciaieie. Ia?aaaaith
aeei?enoaiiy IOE, ye caniao aeno?aii? ianiaoeeo?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee AA a
a?enueeiaeo eieae-oeaao ia?aae ?ioeie i?aia?aoaie ? i?inoioa
canoinoaaiiy, cia/iee i?ioaeoea-iee aoaeo, aeeeth/aiiy ia?aioa?aeueieo
ao?o/aiue. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeathoue i?aenoaae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe
?iaeoeoi? aiaeiaaiiiai ?ioa?oa?iiiaaiaco IOE aeey aeei?enoaiiy c iaoith
aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee AA a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao CN Oe?a?ie.

Aeniea a?enueeiai-ai?aeai?ieia?/ia cia/ei?noue AA oa iieacieee
caoai?th-aaiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie aeathoue i?aenoaae
a?aeianoe a?enueeia? eieae-oeae aei a?oi i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo ?io?eoaaiiy
a??onii AA, ui ? i?yiei iiea-caiiyi aeey oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy
niaoeeo?/ii? aaeoeeiii?io?eaeoeee. ?ic?iaea no?aoaa??
aaeoeeiii?io?eaeoeee, ai?aeai?ieia?/ia aei?iaiaoaaiiy oa
ao?eaiiy i?i-a?aie

Ai?aeai?ieia?/iee iaaeyae ca ?icaeoeii ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA a
CN Oe?a?ie?ioi?iaoe?eiee aeieAiae?oe/iee aeie· Ca?oi? oi?ie;

· Iaoa??aee eiio?ieth ca ia‘?eoaie iaaeieeo-iueiai na?aaeiaeua;

· Iaoa??aee ianoaaeaiiy ai?aeai?/ieo ina?aaee?a.· ?ao?iniaeoeaiee
ai?aeai?ieia?/iee aiae?c;

· Iia?aoeaiee ai?aeai?ieia?/iee aiae?c.Aeie oi?aae?iiy. I?eeiyooy
??oaiiy, aecia/aiiy i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a i?aai?caoe?? i?io?eaeoe/ieo
caoiae?a.I?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaeeI?ioeai?aeai?/i?
caoiaeeNai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iee

eiio?ieue ca ia”?eoaie

?eceeo (aiaeiiinoa/aiiy, oa?/oaaiiy, oiui)Ianiaee ne?ei?ia iniaiaiai
neeaaeo c iaoith ?aiiueiai aeyaeaiiy oa ?cieyoe?? oai?eo.

Iaaee/iee eiio?ieue ca a?oiaie ?eceeo (aeae?a-oiaai? eiioeiaaioe, a?e-

Aaeaeaaoia

eaai?aoi?ii -Nai?oa?ii – a?a??i?/i?

caoiaee, ye? iai?aaeai? ia ?ic?ea oaeaeueii-

i?aeueiiai iaoai?cio nueeiaineoaeaiaoe? o a?ae-?yaeaeaiiyo, a?aeionoeao
oiui).a??onieia?/ia

caaacia/aiiyCanoinoaaiiy IOE c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee ?io?eoaaiiy AAA a

a?oiao ?eceeo.Aeno?aia i?io?eaeoeea a ina?aaeeao c aeei?enoaiiyi IOE.

Aaeoeeiaoe?y iniaiaiai neeaaeoAeno?aiia i?io?eaeoeea a ina?aaeeao c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioiiaeiaoe?io Nai?oa?ii – ina?oiy ?iaioani?yiiaaii?
ae???enoiie 2.No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia noaia eiiieaenii? nenoaie
i?io?eaeoeee AA a CN Oe?a?ie.

niaoeeo?/ii? ?ioiii?io?eaeoeee AA a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao ?
i??i?eoao-iei iai?yieii uiaei ia?niaeoea iiaeeeaino? ?aaoeyoe?? ?icaeoeo
ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA a CN Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?c ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA a CN Oe?a?ie iieacaa, ui
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo ca
oe??th ?ioae-oe??th iio?aaothoue aaeineiiaeaiiy. Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo
na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e oa aein-a?aeo i?ioeai?aeai?/ii? ?iaioe a ina?aaeeao
AA aeicaieythoue iai i?aaenoaaeoe eii-ieaenio i?ia?aio i?io?eaeoeee
aaiaoeoo A a CN Oe?a?ie (?en. 2.). No?oeoo?ia nenoaia ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai
iaaeyaeo neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio aeaiaio?a:

1) ?ioi?iaoe?eiee aeie (ioiieth? ca?? oaeoe/ieo ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo
aeaieo, ye? neeaaeathoueny ?c ca?oieo oi?i, iaoa??ae?a eiio?ieth ca
ia’?eoaie iaaeieeo-iueiai na?aaeiaeua, iaoa??ae?a ianoaaeaiiy
ai?aeai?/ieo ina?aaee?a);

2) aiae?oe/iee aeie (?ao?iniaeoeaiee oa iia?aoeaiee ai?aeai?ieia?/iee
aiae?c);

3) aeie oi?aae?iiy, a?oiooth/enue ia aeaieo iiia?aaei?o aeie?a,
ia?aaeaa/a? i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy oa aecia/aiiy i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a
i?aai?caoe?? i?io?-eaeoe/ieo oa i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo caoiae?a.

A iniia? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo eaaeeoue
aaeaeaaoia eaai?aoi?ii-a??onieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy an?o ??ai?a
nai?oa?ii-ai?aea-i?ieia?/ii? neoaeae, aac yeiai nueiaiaei? iaiiaeeea?
ni?iae ea?oaaiiy ?icaeoeii ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai i?ioeano. A noai? ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeaiaioe ai?aeai?i-eia?/iiai iaaeyaeo, ye? ?aaeueii ?
aoaeoeaii iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ia no/an-iiio aoai? ?icaeoeo
Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie oa ?o a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? neoaeae. C iaoith
aaeineiiaeaiiy ai?aeiaaeyaeo ca AA oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
i?io?eae-oe/ieo caoiae?a i?iiiio?oueny aianoe aeiiiaiaiiy a eiai nenoaio
(ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiae?a niaoeeo?/ii? eaai?aoi?ii? ae?aaiinoeee,
iii?oi??iao ca oee?eoeyoe??th caoaeieea a iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu? oa
ia ia’?eoao ?eceeo, ianiaiai ne?ei?iao eiioeiaaio?a i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo
?io?eoaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy ?ioiiaeiaoe?io ni?yiiaaii? ae?? oa IOE,
aaeoeeiii?io?eaeoeee oa ?i.).

Aeniiaee

1. A??oniee aaiaoeo A ? iaeiei c iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo ?iioaeoe?eieo
caoai?thaaiue iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie. Ca a?enueeiai-ai?aeai?/iith
cia/ei?n-oth a?i iin?aea? o?ao? ?aiaiaa i?noea a no?oeoo?? ?ioaeoe?eii?
caoai?thaaiino?, iin-ooiath/enue eeoa aino?ei ?ani??aoi?iei a??oniei
?ioaeoe?yi oa aia?iai. ?icaeoie ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA-?ioaeoe??
a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao a?aeaoaa?oueny ca aeniei?ioaineaiei oeiii —
na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/iee iieaciee caoai?thaaiino? neea-aeaa 657±101 ia 100
oen. c /?oei aecia/aiith oaiaeaioe??th aei c?inoaiiy.

2. Ai?aeai?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA
na-?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ia??aiii??i?noth
iioe?aiiy ?ioaeoe?? a ??cieo iia?aoeaieo eiiaiaeoaaiiyo, aeaeao oa
?iaeao a?enuee, ia??iaee/-ieie i?aeeiiaie oa niaaeaie caoai?thaaiino?,
ae?aaeaiith in?iiuei-ceiiaith nacii-i?noth, ia?aaaaeii niaeaoiaei
oa?aeoa?ii caoai?thaaiino?.

3. Aiaeiee oeyo ia?aaea/? a??ono AA, yeee ?aae?co?oueny, ye e?ioeaaee
/eiiee ia?aaea/? (ieoia aiaea) aai iiina?aaeeiaaii /a?ac ?aeo (iinoae,
i?iaeoeoe oa?/o-aaiiy), a?ae?a?a? i?ia?aeio ?ieue a iioe?aii?
AA-?ioaeoe?? na?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie. Iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy
a?i ia? a a?enueeao I?aaeaiiiai iia?aoeaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy, a
A?enueeiai-Ii?nueeeo Neeao, a?enueeiaeo aoae?aaeueieo caaiiao oa
cae?cie/ieo a?enueeao. A?eueoa 46,5% an?o niaeao?a iaoiiaeai?
aeei?enoaiiyi aeey ieoieo iio?aa iaaeia?iye?nii? aiaee. Anoaiiaeaii
i?yiee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie caoai?thaaiino? ia AA iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN
Oe?a?ie c ye?noth aiaee aeaea?ae aiaeiiinoa/aiiy oa e?euee?noth aiaee ia
iaeiiai a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey ca aeiao.

4. Ia ?icaeoie oa ?ioaineai?noue ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano i?e AA a
a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao aieeaathoue iniaeeaino? a?enueeiai? neoaeae a
oe?eiio, niaoeeo?/i? iciaee a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy iniaiaiai neeaaeo ie?aieo aeae?a oa
?iae?a a?enuee cie?aia. Aei a?oi i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo ?io?eoaaiiy
a?aeiinyoueny iieiaea iiiiaiaiiy, a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? aeae?a-oiaaieo
eiioeiaaio?a, a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? o a?ae?yaeaeaiiyo oa /a?aiaeo
a?aeiono-eao, iniaiaee neeaae A?enueeiai-Ii?nueeeo Nee, a?enueeiaeo
aoae?aaeueieo caaii?a oa cae?cie/ieo a?enuee.

5. Anoaiiaeaia aeniea aoaeoeai?noue ?iaeoeoi?o aiaeiaaiiiai
?ioa?oa?iii-aaiaco — iaoaiai?iiai? eeneioe, ye caniao aeno?aii?
i?io?eaeoeee AA a ina?aae-eao a?oiiai? caoai?thaaiino? (?iaeaen
aoaeoeaiino? i?aia?aoo 4,5-6,5, a iieaciee caoeuaiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo
a?ae ?eceeo caoai?thaaiiy – 75-85%), ui aeaei i?ae-noaae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe
canoinoaaiiy ?? c iaoith aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee AA a a?enueeiaeo
eieaeoeaao Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie.

6. ?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia i?ia?aia i?io?eaeoeee AA, iaoeiai iaa?oioi-aai?
oa cai?iiiiiaai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ai?aeiaaeyaeo ca oe??th
?ioaeoe??th a CN Oe?a?ie, ye? aeeth/athoue cie?aia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
no/anieo iaoiae?a niaoeeo?/ii? eaai?aoi?ii? ae?aaiinoeee AA, iii?oi??iao
ca oee?eoeyoe??th caoaeieea a iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?, ne?ei?iao a?oi
i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo ?io?eoaaiiy a??onii AA, canoinoaaiiy c iaoith
aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee ?iaeoeoi??a aiaeiaai-iiai ?ioa?oa?iio oa
?ioiiaeiaoe?io ni?yiiaaii? ae??.

IA?AE?E ?IA?O, UI IIOAE?EIAAI? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Noaoia I.E., Oeaeiye I.E., Ai?ei A.A., Oea/aiei A.E., Naaeoeeee A.E.
Aiaeec i?e/ei caaieaaaaiinoe ee/iiai ninoaaa AN Oe?aeiu ae?on-iui
aaiaoeoii A //I?iaeaiu cae?aaiio?aiaiey e iooe aai ?aoi?ie?i-aaiey/ Iiae
?aae. i?io. Aaa?eiaa A.E. — Aeiiaoee: III «Eaaaaeue», 1997. — N.
245-246.

2. Oeaeiye I.?., Naaeoeueeee A.E., Aoeae A.I., Oea/aiei A.?.
Ai?aea-i?ieia?/ia neooaoe?y ii AA a Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie
ioi?iie caei?ia’y a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa oeyoe eiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy.
Ca??iee Oe?a-?inueei? a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??. – Ee?a: AAIO,
1997. — N. 125-127.

3. Naaeoeueeee A.E. Aiae?c iniiaieo oeyo?a ia?aaea/? caoaeieea AA o
a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie //I?iaeaiu aiaiiiai
cae?aaiio?aiaieiy e iooe aai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey. Nai?iee Oe?aeineie
aiai-ii-iaaeeoeeineie aeaaeaiee. — Eeaa: Eiain, 1998. — N.223-225.

4. Ao?aeue A.E., Naaeoeueeee A.E. Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo caoiae?a i?e a??oniiio aaiaoeo? A a Ca?ieieo Neeao
Oe?a?ie //I?iaeaiu aiaiiiai cae?aaiio?aiaieiy e iooe aai
?aoi?ie?i-aaiey. Nai?iee Oe?aeineie aiaiii-iaaeeoeeineie aeaaeaiee. —
Eeaa: Eiain, 1998. — N. 225-227.

5. Ao?aeue A.E., Oeaeiye I.?., Naaeoeueeee A.E. Iniaeeaino? oi?io-aaiiy
caoai?thaaiino? ia aaiaoeo A a Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie //Nia?a-iaiiua
aniaeou aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu. Nai?iee o?oaeia ? Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee eioaeoeeiienoia e yieaeaieieiaia AN
Oe?aeiu 27-29 iay 1998 a. — Eeaa, 1998. — N. 205-207.

6. Naaeoeueeee A.E. Aei ?ice?eooy i?e/ei niaeaoiai? caoai?thaa-iino? ia
aaiaoeo A o a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie //Nia?aiai-iua
aniaeou aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu. Nai?iee o?oaeia ? Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/-ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee eioaeoeeiienoia e yieaeaieieiaia AN
Oe?a-eiu 27-29 iay 1998 a. — Eeaa, 1998. — N. 325-327.

7. Naaeoeueeee A.E. Iniaeeaino? a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
iiaooiaiai caaacia/aiiy, ye? aecia/athoue aeoeai?noue ?icaeoeo
ai?aeai?/-iiai i?ioeano a??oniiai aaiaoeoo A na?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo
a?enueeiaeo aoae?aaeueieo caaii?a CN Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie ioi?iie
caei?ia’y a?enueeiai-neoaeaiaoe?a oa oeyoe eiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy. Ca??iee
Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??. – Ee?a: AAIO, 1999.- A.1. —
N. 56-58.

8. Aoeae A.I., Ao?aeue A.E., Oeaeiye I.?., Ea?iaiei N.A., Naaeoeueeee
A.E. Iniiai? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy iani?eeiyoeeaino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo
Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie aei a??ono aaiaoeoo A// I?iaeaie ioi?iie caei?ia’y
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa oeyoe eiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy. Ca??iee Oe?a?inueei?
a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??. – Ee?a: AAIO, 1999.- A.2. — N. 69 -71.

AIIOAOe??

Naaeoeueeee A.E. “Iniaeeaino? ai?aeai?ieia?? oa i?io?eaeoeee a??oniiai
aaiaoeoo “A” na?aae ??cieo eiioeiaaio?a Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie.” –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca nia-oe?aeuei?noth 14.02.02. – ai?aeai?ieia?y. – Ee?anueeee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ai?-aeai?ieia?? oa ?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia ?i.
E.A.A?iiaoaanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aia?oa aea/ai? ai?aeai?iei?/i? iniaeeaino? aaiaoeoo A na?aae ??cieo
eii-oeiaaio?a Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie. Anoaiiaeaia aecia/aeueia ?ieue
aieeao inia-eeainoae a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaiai caaacia-/aiiy ia ?ioaineai?noue ?icaeoeo
ai?aeai?/iiai i?ioeano na?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo ie?aieo aeae?a oa ?iae?a
a?enuee. Aecia/ai? iniiai? (i?ii?aei? oa e?ioeaa?) /eiieee oa oeyoe
ia?aaea/? caoaeieea aaiaoeoo A a a?enueeiaeo eieaeoeaao. Anoaiiaeaia
aeniea aoaeoeai?noue ?iaeoeoi?a aiaeiaaiiiai ?ioa?oa?iiiaaiaco –
iaoaiai?iiai? eeneioe oa iaa?oiooaaia iiaeeea?noue ?? caoinoaaiiy aeey
aeno?aii? i?io?eaeoeee aaiaoeoo A na?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie.
Aaeineiiaeaia nenoaia ai?aeai?i-eia?/iiai iaaeyaeo ca aaiaoeoii A a CN
Oe?a?ie ? cai?iiiiiaaia ?? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia noaia, yea
aeeth/a? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiae?a niaoeeo?/ii? eaai?a-oi?ii?
ae?aaiinoeee, iii?oi??iao ca oee?eoeyoe??th caoaeieea a iaaeieeoiueiio
na?a-aeiaeu? oa ia ia’?eoao ?eceeo, ianiaiai ne?ei?iao eiioeiaaio?a
i?aeaeuaiiai ?e-ceeo ?io?eoaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy ?ioiiaeiaoe?io
ni?yiiaaii? ae?? oa ?iaeoeoi??a aiaeiaaiiiai ?ioa?oa?iio (iaoaiai?iiai?
eeneioe), ye cania?a aeno?aii? i?io?-eaeoeee, aaeoeeiaoe?th iniaiaiai
neeaaeo, ye eiioeiaaio?a i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo ?io?eoaaiiy. ?aae?caoe?y
oe??? nenoaie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai iaaeyaeo aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a i?e AA a CN Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaiaoeo A, caoai?thaai?noue, /eiiee ia?aaea/?,
a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue, iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaa caaacia/aiiy,
ai?aeai?ieia?/iee iaaeyae, aeno?aia i?io?eaeoeea, ?iaeoeoi? aiaeiaaiiiai
?ioa?oa?iio, aaeoeeiaoe?y.

Naaeoeeee A.E. “Iniaaiiinoe yieaeaieieiaee e i?ioeeaeoeee ae?oniiai
aaiaoeoa “A” n?aaee ?acee/iuo eiioeiaaioia Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee Oe?aeiu.” –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.02.02. – yieaeaieieiaey. – Eeaaneee
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeue-neee einoeooo yieaeaieieiaee e eioaeoeeiiiuo
aieaciae ei. E.A.A?iiaoaa-neiai IIC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa aia?aua eco/aiu yieaeaieieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe aaiaoeoa A
n?aaee ?acee/iuo eiioeiaaioia Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee Oe?aeiu. A AN Oe?aeiu
nei-aeeeanue iaaeaaii?eyoiay yieaeaie/aneay neooaoeey ii caaieaaaaiinoe
aaiaoeoii A. Iieacaia caaeneiinoue eioaineaiinoe yieaeaie/aneiai
i?ioeanna i?e AA a aieineeo eieeaeoeaao io aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia.
Iieacaoaee caaieaaaaiinoe ee/iiai ninoaaa AN Oe?aeiu ca ia?eiae
iaaethaeaiey (1992-1997 aa.) auee oa?ae-oa?iu aeey aunieieioaineaiiai
oeia ?acaeoey yieaeaie/aneiai i?ioeanna ai anao aeaeao, ?iaeao aiene e
anao iia?aoeaiuo eiiaiaeiaaieyo. Onoaiiaeaia ii?aaeaey-thuay ?ieue
aeeyiey iniaaiiinoae aiaiii-i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe (oa?a-eoa?
neoaeau, iai?yaeaiiinoue, ia?eiaee/iinoue o/aaii-aiaaie iiaeaioiaee e
o.ae.) e iaoa?eaeueii-auoiaiai iaania/aiey (i?aaiecaoeey
aiaeiniaaaeaiey, ieoaiey, eaia-eecaoeee e i/enoee oa??eoi?ee, ?aciauaiey
ee/iiai ninoaaa e o.ae.) ia eioai-neaiinoue ?acaeoey yieaeaie/aneiai
i?ioeanna n?aaee ee/iiai ninoaaa ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia e ?iaeia aiene.
Ioia/aii nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea yieaea0-ie/aneiai i?ioeanna
aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony yieaeaie/aneie neooaoeeae a
no?aia e a ?aeiia aeeneieaoeee aieineeo /anoae, yeieiae/aneie e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeeae a iauanoaa. Aeieacaii, /oi aunieea
iieaca-oaee caaieaaaaiinoe ee/iiai ninoaaa aaiaoeoii A iaoneiaeaiu
a?oiiiaie aniu-oa/iie caaieaaaaiinoth ni cia/eoaeueiui /eneii caaieaaoeo
a i/aaa. Ii?aaea-eaia ?ieue ioaeaeueiuo eiioeiaaioia aiaiiineoaeaueo e
neoaeaueo, eae a?oii ii-auoaiiiai ?enea eioeoee?iaaiey aicaoaeeoaeai
aaiaoeoa A. E a?oiiai ?enea ioianaiu iieiaeia iiiieiaiea, eeoea ec /enea
aeae?aoe?iaaiiuo a?oii (?aaio-ieee nieaeaoneeo noieiauo, /aeiuo,
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo iaaaceiia aiaioi?aa, neoaeauea, eioi?ua
iaania/eaatho oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea aiaeii?iaiaeiuo e
eaiaeecaoeeiiiuo eiiioieeaoeee), aiaiiineoaeauea, i?eauaathuea ec
neoaeaaiuo eiiaiaee?iaie e i/a?aaeiuo ioioneia, ee/iue ninoaa
Aiaiii-Ii?neeo Nee, aiai-iuo no?ieoaeueiuo io?yaeia e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo
aiene.

Aeieacacaii, /oi iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea a ?ani?ino?aiaiee
aicao-aeeoaey aaiaoeoa A a aieineeo eieeaeoeaao eiaao aiaeiue oaeoi?.
Onoaiiaeaia ei??aeyoeeiiiay naycue iieacaoaeae caaieaaaaiinoe aaiaoeoii
A n ea/anoaii aiaeu enoi/ieeia aiaeiniaaaeaiey e eiee/anoaii aiaeu ia
iaeiiai aiaiiineoaea-uaai a nooee.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi i?aaiecaoeey e
i?i-aaaeaiea yooaeoeaiuo i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo e i?ioeaiyieaeaie/aneeo
ia?ii?eyoee i?e aaiaoeoa A a aieineeo eieeaeoeaao ia ea/anoaaiii iiaii
o?iaia aiciiaeia naaiaeiy oieueei i?e oneiaee aeinoaoi/iiai
eaai?aoi?ii-ae?onieiae/aneiai iaan-ia/aiey anao o?iaiae
aiaiii-iaaeeoeeineie neoaeau AN Oe?aeiu e oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey
nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia eiioiiaeeaaiinoeee aaiaoeoa A.

Onoaiiaeaia aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue eiaeoeoi?a yiaeiaaiiiai
eioa?oa?i-iiaaiaca – iaoaiaieiiaie eeneiou, eae n?aaenoaa yeno?aiiie
i?ioeeaeoeee aaiaoeoa A a i/aaao a?oiiaie caaieaaaaiinoe (eiaeaen
yooaeoeaiinoe i?aia?aoa 4,5-6,5, a iieacaoaeue caueuaiiinoe ee/iiai
ninoaaa io ?enea caaieaaaiey – 75-85 %%), /oi aeaao iniiaaiey
?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aa eniieueciaaiea aeey yeno?aiiie i?ioeeaeoeee aaiaoeoa
A a aieineeo eieeaeoeaao AN Oe?aeiu.

Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu
yieaeaieieiae-/aneiai iaaeci?a ca aaiaoeoii A a AN Oe?aeiu e
i?aaeeiaeaia aa no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiay noaia, eioi?ay aeeth/aao
aiaae?aiea nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia niaoeeoe/aneie eaai?aoi?iie
aeeaaiinoeee, iiieoi?eiaa ca oee?eoeyoeeae aic-aoaeeoaey a ie?oaeathuae
n?aaea ia iauaeoao ?enea, ianniaiai ne?eieiaa eii-oeiaaioia iiauoaiiiai
?enea eioeoee?iaaiey, eniieueciaaiea eiaeoeoi?ia yiaeiaaiiiai
eioa?oa?iia (iaoaiaieiiaie eeneiou) e eiioiiaeiaoeeia iai?aaeaiiiai
aeaenoaey eae n?aaenoa yeno?aiiie i?ioeeaeoeee, aaeoeeiaoeeth ee/iiai
ninoaaa eae eiioeiaaioia iiauoaiiiai ?enea eoeoee?iaaiey. ?aaee-caoeey
yoie nenoaiu ?ieaeaieieiae/aneiai iaaeci?a aeano aiciiaeiinoue iiauneoue
yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee i?e AA a AN Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaiaoeo A, caaieaaaaiinoue, oaeoi?u ia?aaea/e,
aiaiii-i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue, iaoa?eaeueii-auoiaia
iaania/aiea, yieaea-ieieiae/aneee iaaeci?, aeno?aiiay i?ioeeaeoeea,
eiaeoeoi? yiaeiaaiiiai eioa?oa?iia, aaeoeeiaoeey.

Savitsky V.L. The special features of epidemiology and the prophylactic
mea-sures of the virus A hepatitis in the various contingents of the
Armed Forces of Ukraine. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a degree of candidate of medical science in speciality
14.02.02. – epidemiology. Kiev L.V.Gromashevsky Scientific Reserarch
Institute of Epide-miology and Infections diseases of Ministry of Health
of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to questions of special features of the
epidemiology and the prophylactic measures of the virus A hepatitis in
the variosus contingents of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. In the work is
studied the impact of the special features of the logistic and the daily
activity of the Armed Forces onto the development of the epidemiologic
process among a staff of the variosus kinds of the Armed Forces. The
high efectiveness of the endogenous interferon initiator – the mefenamin
acid – in the prophylaxis of the virus A hepatitis was found out. The
new scheme with the additional epidemiologic supervision measures was
proposed. The used scheme showed the high effectiveness of the proposed
supervision measures.

Key words: A hepatitis, incidence of sickness, transmission,
epidemiological supervision, armed force logistic, emergency
prophylaxis, endogenous interferon initiator, vaccination.

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