OE?A?INEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO AEIIA?AAeO ? AEIA “IAAA?A*”

AeAEAIAEOEIA AAEA??E AOAAE??IAE*

OAeE: [634.8:631.5(477.75)]:338.124.4

INIAEEAINO? AA?IOAOI?EE AEIIA?AAeO A IA?AAeA??NUeE?E CII? E?EIO A
OIIAAO E?ECE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 06.01.08 — aeiia?aaea?noai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

sseoa -1999

Aeenna?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeiia?aaeo ? aeia “Iaaa?a/” ? a
?aaeaini?-caaiae? “Caiia?oia” N?ioa?iiieuenueeiai ?aeiio ?anioae?ee
E?ei.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aa?aecaa Aiaoie?e Ieaiiae/, ?A?A “Iaaa?a/”, aee?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?aiianueeia Aaeoa?ae ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiia?aaea?noaa
Iaeanueeiai naeueneiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo;

eaiaeeaeao n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe; aeioeaio A?eue/eineee Aaea??e
O?aioeaae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiia?aaea?noaa E?einueeiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aeiia?aaea?noaa ? aeii?ianoaa

?i. A.?. Oa??iaa, OAAI, a?aeae?e aa?ioaoi?ee, i. Iaeana.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny
______________________________________________________ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.53.365.02 o ?inoeooo?
aeiia?aaeo ? aeia “Iaaa?a/” ca aae?anith: 334200 E?ei, i. sseoa, aoe.
E??iaa, 31, ?A?A “Iaaa?a/”.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?A?A “Iaaa?a/”.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe sseooeia I.A.-1-

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii? ?iee aeiia?aaea?nueei-aeii?iaia aaeocue
cacia? oyaeeo yeiiii?/io e?eco. A?eueo?noue niaoe?aeeciaaieo
aeiia?aaea?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa, eio?? aoee ai?ae?noth
n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa E?eio, ia?aaoaathoue a
aeaetha?aeiiio noaiiaeu? ia ea?oioaeao ? ciaoiaeyoueny ia iaae?
aaie?oonoaa. A neeaaei?e aeiiii?/i?e ne?oo? ?i iaia ca?aeee /aeaoe
aeiiiiiae ? iiaeieaiiy e?ece eyaa? ia eieaeoeae oeeo ainiiaea?noa. Eeoa
cae?eniaiiy iai?aeeia?ieo ??oaiue, ye? ?ai?oa ia i?aeoeeoaaeeny a
aa?ioaoi?oe? aeiia?aaeo, a i?aai?caoe?? ? yeiiii?oe? aeiia?aaea?noaa, a
ia?a?iaoe? io?eiaii? ne?iaeie ? ?aae?caoe?? aioiai? i?iaeoeoe?? iiaea
ci?ieoe iieiaeaiiy aei e?auiai. A ca’yceo c oeei aeooaeueiei ? iiooe
eiie?aoieo oeyo?a iiaeieaiiy noaio, ui neeaany a
aeiia?aaea?nueei-aeii?iai?e aaeoc?. Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a
oiio, ui ia i?eeeaae? iaeiiai ?c niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ainiiaea?noa
ia?aaea??nueei? ciie E?eio — ?aaeainio-caaiaeo “Caiia?oia” ae??oothoueny
caaaeuei? i?iaeaie, ye? no/ani? nioe?aeuei? ? yeiiii?/i? oiiae iinoaaeee
i?aeoe/ii ia?aae an?ia niaoe?ae?ciaaieie ainiiaea?noaaie E?eio.

Ca’yceie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
iia’ycaia c oaiaoe/iei ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ?inoeoooo
aeiia?aaeo ? aeia “Iaaa?a/”, iiia?e aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
0196U010354;0196U010359.

Iaoa ?iaioe — ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co noaio aeiia?aaea?noaa a eiie?aoiiio
ainiiaea?noa?, oeiiaiio aeey ia?aaea??nueei? ciie E?eio, aecia/eoe
eiie?aoi? oeyoe, ye? caeaoi? i?aeaueoe aeiiii?/io noaa?euei?noue aaeoc?,
aeyaeoe aa?ioaoi?/i? caniae, ye? aeicaieyoue cieceoe cao?aoi?noue ?
ca?eueoeoe ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa aeiia?aaeo a ia?aaea??nueeiio
E?eio, i?iaanoe ae?iaie/o ia?aa??eo oaeeo aa?ioaoi?/ieo cania?a ?
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? c ieo aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

— i?iaanoe aiae?c no?oeoo?e aeiia?aaea?noaa ? ?? iiia?aaeiuei?
aeeiai?ee, aeeth/ath/e oae? iieacieee, ye ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?oi oaoi?/ieo
? noieiaeo ni?o?a, ?iciiae?eaiiy ni?o?a ca oa?i?iaie aeic??aaiiy ?
iai?yieaie aeei?enoaiiy, a?eiaei neeaaeii ianaaeaeaiue c iaoith
aeyaeaiiy ?aca?ao i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aaeoc?;

— ioe?ieoe nenoaio aaaeaiiy aeiia?aaea?noaa, yea neeaeany aeeth/ath/e
ieoaiiy aa?ioaoi?ee ii aeiaeyaeo ca eouai, ca a?oioii, caoenoo
ianaaeaeaiue a?ae oai?ia ? oe?aeiee?a, aaeaioeaiino? ni?oeiaioo uiaei
a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia ciie, aea?aoe iaio cao?aoi? aa?icaniae ?
aei?iaoaaoe ?o;

— i?iaanoe aiae?c i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? aaeoc?, aeeth/ath/e ieoaiiy
iaoai?caoe?? o?oaei?iieo i?ioean?a, nenoaie iieaoe;

— i?iaanoe aiae?c aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a canoinoaaiiy iao?aaeeoe?eieo
cania?a aa?ioaoi?ee oa i?aai?caoe?eieo cania?a, iai?aaeaieo ia cieaeaiiy
cao?aoiino? ? i?aeaeuaiiy ?aioaaaeueiino? aeiia?aaea?noaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a aeyaeaii? aa?ioaoi?/ieo cania?a, ye?
aeicaieythoue cieceoe cao?aoi?noue ? ca?eueoeoe ?aioaaaeuei?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa aeiia?aaeo a ia?aaea??nueeiio E?eio aac aeiaeaoeiaeo
eai?oaeueieo cao?ao: canoinoaaiiy aa?a?oeeaeo ?aoiaeai aeey ai?ioueae c
ao?’yiaie, a?inoeioeyoi?a ?inoo ?ineei yoenoei N aeey i?aeaeoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineei, ei?ioeiai ia??coaaiiy eic, e?ea?aeaoe??
c??aeaeaiiy ianaaeaeaiue iaoiaeii uaieaiiy a ?icu?i ei?aiaooaiaa,
caeaieie i?euaieaiiyie, a oaeiae canoinoaaiiy aeey ?aiiioo ianaaeaeaiue
niiniao a?aeaiaeie, canoinoaaiiy oaeineiiaeaii? iaeicao?aoii? nenoaie
caoenoo ianaaeaeaiue, a oaeiae a a?aeai?? iecee aoaeoeaieo cania?a
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa aeey a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aaaeaiiy
ainiiaea?noaa, oaeeo ye ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no?eeeo ni?o?a, aeaiaio?a
iaoai?caoe?? cai?o o?iaeath. Aeieacaia aeioe?euei?noue, a oiio /ene?
aeiiii?/ia, canoinoaaiiy an?o oeeo iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.
Iao?aaeeoe?ei? aa?ioaoi?/i? caniae, ye? aeicaieythoue cieceoe
cao?aoi?noue ? ca?eueoeoe ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa aeiia?aaeo a
ia?aaea??nueeiio E?eio, i?ieoee ae?iaie/a aei?iaoaaiiy a 1997-1998 ??. a
?aaeaini?-caaiae? “Caiia?oia” c ioe?ieith oaeoe/ii? yeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? i?e canoinoaaii? eiaeiiai caniao. E?au? aa?ii?eeiie ? iecea
i?aai?caoe?eieo cania?a ia’?aeiai? a eiiieaen cania?a, ui
ai?iaaaeaeoaaany a ?aaeaini?-caaiae? “Caiia?oia” a 1998 ?. ia ieiu? 468
aa. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiiieaeno cania?a ia an?e ieiu? aeiia?aaeiee?a
ainiiaea?noaa aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe a?iaeaei?noue ia 25 oe/aa ? io?eiaoe
i?eaooie a?eueoa 540 oen. a?i. a ??e. A?eueo?noue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ye?
iiaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, iiaea aooe canoiniaaia a oiiaao ?ioeo
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ainiiaea?noa ia?aaea??nueeiai E?eio, aeecueeeo ca
a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieie, ni?oiaeie oiiaaie oa aeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaiao/a a ?ic?iaioeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, neeaaea? a?eueo 70%.

 Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? iiaeai? ia can?aeaiiyo naeoe??
a/aii? ?aaee ?A?A «Iaaa?a/» c aeiia?aaea?noaa a 1996-1999 ??., ia
ae?iaie/ieo ia?aaeao ia’?aeiaiiy «E?ei?aaeainiaeii?ii» a 1997-1998 ??.

Ioaeeeaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 4 i?aoe? a oaoiaeo
aeaeaiiyo Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 160 no?i??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e,
aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie, aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao,
aeeth/a? 33 oaaeeoe?, 13 ?enoie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
aeeth/a? 133 aeaea?aea, a o. /. 11 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

Ia’?eoe ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy

Oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. ?iaioa aeeiiiia a 1996-1999 ??. ia
aac? ?aaeainio-caaiaeo “Caiia?oia” N?ioa?iiieueneiai ?aeiio ?anioae?ee
E?ei. Oa?eoi??y ainiiaea?noaa iaeaaeeoue aei o?aoueiai aa?iee?iaoe/iiai
?aeiio — ieaeiueiai ia?aaea??nueeiai. Na?aaei? noie aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo?
neeaaeathoue 3100-3300oN. Ceia i’yea. N?aaeiy ??/ia oaiia?aoo?a
iia?o?y aei??aith? 100N. Iaeoieiaei?oeie i?nyoeaie ? n?/aiue ? ethoee ?c
na?aaeiueith oaiia?aoo?ith — 1,3 — 0,3oN. E?oi oaiea ?c na?aaeiueith
oaiia?aoo?ith a eeii? 22oN. Na?aaeiuei??/ia e?euee?noue iiaae?a
aei??aith? 362 ii. A?oioe a ainiiaea?noa? — /i?iicaie i?aaeaii?
i?oeaey?ii-ea?aiiaoi? ia /a?aiii-ao??e aeei?, /a?iicai i?aaeaiee
i?oeaey?ii-ea?aiiaoiee ? /a?iicai ea?aiiaoiee ia aetha?? ? aeaetha??
ea?aiiaoieo ii??ae. Ai?no aoiono ia iiaa?oiaa?e /anoei? aeinyaa?
2-2,9%. Iiooaei?noue aoioniaeo ai?eciio?a — 55-80 ni ia ??aiei? ? 30-45
ni ia noeeao.

 Ia’?eoe ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. A yeino? ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiue aoea
aecia/aia aaeocue aeiia?aaea?noaa ?aaeainio-caaiaeo “Caiia?oia”.
Aeaea?aeaie ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey aiae?co noaio aaeoc? aeiia?aaea?noaa ?:
oaoiieia?/i? ea?oe ae?iuoaaiiy aeiia?aaeo, ?iai/? i?iaeoe caeeaaeee
aeiia?aaeiee?a, aeo?iaee ?ooo ieiu ? ni?oiaiai noaio a aeiia?aaea?noa?,
??/i? ca?oe ainiiaea?noaa ? ae?iaie/i-o?iainia? ieaie. Ia’?eoaie
aei?iaoaaiue cai?iiiaaieo aa?ii?eeii?a, ?o ae?iaie/i? ia?aa??ee ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? aeiia?aaei? ianaaeaeaiiy iniiaieo ni?o?a aeiia?aaeo:
?eaoeeoae?, Ia?ei, Ioneao aaiao?anueeee, Ea?aeeiae, ?oae?y, Ae?aioa,
Eaaa?ia-Niaeiueii, Oaoynea a?ea, I?ii /i?iee, Ioneao Iooiiaeue, a
oaeiae ni?o?a iiai? naeaeoe??: Iieaeiaa e Ii?oeeainueeee a?eee.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aiae?co noaio aaeoc? aeiia?aaea?noaa a ainiiaea?noaao
aoee canoiniaai? ianooii? iaoiaee: noaoenoe/iee, aiae?oe/iee,
ii??aiyeueiee. Aieea iiaeo cai?iiiiiaaieo i?eeii?a aa?ioaoi?ee ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue ? cao?aoi?noue ae?iuoaaiiy aeiia?aaeo aoei
aei?iaoaaii a ae?iaie/eo aeine?aeao; iiaoi?aiiy aeinae?ae?a o?e?aciaa;
ieiua iae?eiai? ae?eyiee — 1 aa. I?e aei?iaoaaii? niinia?a
iaoai?ciaaiiai cai?o, canoinoaaiiy ei?ioeiai ia??coaaiiy, canoinoaaiiy
aia?aicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia?? caoenoo aeiia?aaeo a?ae oai?ia,
aeei?enoaiiy ni?o?a, no?eeeo aei oai?ia ? oe?aeiee?a, aoee caae?yi?
cia/i? ieiuaae? aeiia?aaeieo ianaaeaeaiue — a?ae 37 aei 466 aaeoa?,
oiaoi oe? i?eeiie i?ieoee ae?iaie/a aei?iaoaaiiy.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue aoee aeei?enoai? caaaeueiii?eeiyo? a
aeiia?aaea?noa? iaoiaee. Aa?ia?ieia?/i? iae?ee ? niinoa?aaeaiiy,
aea/aiiy iieaciee?a a?ieia?/iiai noaio ni?o?a (eieo?oe??ioe E1 ? E2)
i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith I.A. Eaci?aanueeiai (1963), eiao?oe??io
aaeaioaoe?? ni?o?a ?ac?aoiaoaaee ca iaoiaeeeith ?.I. Aoa?ia (1984),
a?iaeae aecia/aee aaaiaei iaoiaeii, aeiaaeeio i?e?inoo aecia/aee
iaoiaeii e?i?eieo aei??thaaiue. E?euee?noue iae?eiaeo eou?a — 20-25 ia
iiaoi?. Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?iaiaeeee ca
A.A. Aeini?oiaei (1985), ioe?ieo aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? — ca
iaoiaeeeith A.O. *a?iyanueeiai (1973).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?o iaaiai?aiiy Aiae?c noaio aaeoc?
aeiia?aaea?noaa a ainiiaea?noa?, oeiiaiio aeey ia?aaea??nueei? ciie
E?eio, — a ?aaeaini?-caaiae? «Caiia?oia»

Caaaeueia ieiua caiaeueieo oa?aeue a ainiiaea?noa? — 2231 aa, c ieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue — 1944 aa, aeiia?aaeiee?a — 953 aa.
Ieiaeia? eoeueoo?e ?icoaoiaai? ia ieiu? 173 aa, ??eey neeaaea? 762 aa,
ia eeoeiaeo ieiuao — ianiaeua.

A caaaeueiiio iacyc? i?eaooeo ainiiaea?noaa i?iaeoeoe?y aeiia?aaea?noaa
neeaaea? 79%, naae?aieoeoaa — 6,5%, ??eueieoeoaa — 9,4%, oaa?eieoeoaa —
5,1%.

Iniiai? ni?oe aeiia?aaeo: ?eaoeeoae? (303,9 aa), Oaoynea a?ea
(105,2 aa), Ioneao aaiao?anueeee (86,5 aa), Ioneao Iooiiaeue (70 aa),
I?ii /i?iee (55 aa), Ea?aeeiae (40 aa), Ioneao yioa?iee (35,7 aa),
Aaaaea? (35,7 aa), Ia?ei (34,9 aa), Eaaa?ia-Nia?iueii (29,3 aa). Ni?oe
iiai? naeaeoe?? Iieaeiaa ? Ii?oeeainueeee a?eee caeiathoue a?aeiia?aeii
18 e 19 aa. Ieiu? eeoeiaeo ni?o?a eieeaathoueny io 10 aei 18 aa.

Ioe?iea nooiaiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa iieacaea,
ui ?aaeaini-caaiae «Caiia?oia» ? aeeaiei niaoe?ae?ciaaiei
aeiia?aaea?nueeei ainiiaea?noaii c aenieei ??aiai eiioeaio?aoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa. Iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy ieiu i?ae aeiia?aaeieeaie c
iaoith i?aeaeoaiiy ??aiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iaaeioe?eueii. A?eueo?noue
iniiaieo iieaciee?a, ye? aecia/athoue nooi?iue niaoe?ae?caoe?? ?
eiioeaio?aoe?? aeiia?aaea?noaa a ainiiaea?noa?, aeineoue aeecuee? aei
iioeiaeueieo.

Ioe?iea no?oeoo?e ianaaeaeaiue ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ieiu ca a?eii ?
a?eiaei a?oiai, ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi noieiaeo ? oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a, ca
ieiuaie aeeaeaiiy, noaiaie iinaaeee, aeicaieeei aeyaeoe, ui a inoaii?
10-12 ?ie?a a?aeaoeiny ca?eueoaiiy na?aaeiueiai a?eo aeiia?aaeiee?a.
Oae, yeui a 1996 ?ioe? aoei 7,8% iieiaeeo ianaaeaeaiue, 62,4% ui
anooiathoue a ieiaeiiioaiiy ? 29,8% ieiaeiiinieo, oi a 1996 ?ioe? 97,6%
aeiia?aaeiee?a aoei ieiaeiiinieo ? eeoa 2,4% iieiaeeo. A 1996 ?ioe?
aeiey ianaaeaeaiue noa?oa 10 ?ie?a neeaea 84,2%. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
na?aaeiueiai a?eo ianaaeaeaiue c?inoa? ? ?o c??aeaeaiiy.

Na?aaei? c??aeaeaiiy — a?ey 8%, ui a?aeiia?aea? 75 aa ieiu?, ye?
ionoothoue. I?e na?aaei?e a?iaeaeiino? a ainiiaea?noa? a?ey 40 oe/aa
ui??/iee iaaeia?? i?iaeoeoe?? neeaaea? a?ey 280 oiii. Aea ca na?aaei?i
c??aeaeaiiyi i?eoiao?oueny cia/ii a?eueo aeniea c??aeaeaiiy ca ieceith
ie?aieo ni?o?a: 26% ca ni?oii Ii?oeeainueeee a?eee, 20,3% —
Eoeueaeaeeinueeee, 18,5% — ?oae?y, 14,1% — Ae?aioa. E?ea?aeaoe?y
c??aeaeaiiy aeicaieeoue ??cei i?aeaeueoe ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa.

90% aeiia?aaeiee?a ainiiaea?noaa iathoue noaio iinaaeee 3o1,5 ? 3,5o1,5
? (ieiua aeeaeaiiy neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii 4,5 ? 5,25 i2). Iaea?eueo
neeueii?ine? ni?oe, i?euaieai? ia Aa?eaiae???? o ??ia??y Eiaa?a 5AA,
oaeiae ye ? Aaaaea?, Eoeueaeaeeinueeee, iathoue noaio iinaaeee 3,5o1,75,
3,5o2 e 4o1,5 i (ieiua aeeaeaiiy eoua 6, 6,125 ? 7 i2 a?aeiia?aeii).
Aiae?c ?icaeoeo ?ineei ? aeeiai?ea o?iaeaeiino? oaeeo ianaaeaeaiue
aeicaiey? iai c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ca?eueoaiiy ieiu aeeaeaiiy eou?a a
ia?aaea??nueeiio E?eio aei 6-7 i2 i?eaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai cieaeaiiy
a?iaeaeiino? c iaeeieoe? ieiu? ii??aiyii c ianaaeaeaiiyie, ye? iathoue
ieiuo aeeaeaiiy eou?a 4,5-5,25 i2. Ioaea, i?e ?aeiino?oeoe??
ianaaeaeaiue ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe ia?aaaao noaiai 3-3,5o1,5 i.

Ioe?iea ni?oeiaioo, oi neeaany a ainiiaea?noa? iieacaea, ui a iueiio
iaaeinoaoiuei iiaeai? ni?oe aeoaea ?aiiueiai, na?aaeiuei-?aiiueiai ?
n?aaeiueiai oa?i?i?a aeic??aaiiy. A oie aea /an iaiaa?oioiaaii aaeee?
ieiu? a?aeaaaeai? i?ae ni?oe i?ciueiai no?ieo aeic??aaiiy. I?e
cae?eniaii? iiaeaeueoi? ieaiiai? ?aeiino?oeoe?? iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe
ieiu?, ui caeiathoue aeoaea ?aii?ie, na?aaeiuei-?aii?ie ? na?aaei?ie
ni?oaie, — aei 15% ii eiaei?e a?oi?. Cae?enieoe oea iiaeeeai i?e
iaeii/aniiio nei?i/aii? ieiu i?ae ni?oaie i?ciueiai no?ieo aeic??aaiiy —
aei 25% a?ae caaaeueii? ieiu? ianaaeaeaiue. ?nioth/a iieiaeaiiy ?
?aoe?iiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ni?o?a ca oa?i?iaie aeic??aaiiy aeey
oeiiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ia?aaea??nueei? ciie E?eio iiaeaii ia ?en.1 ia
i?eeeaae? ?aaeainio-caaiaeo “Caiia?oia”.

Aaci?aenoaaii iae? a ainiiaea?noa? ? ieiu?, ui a?aeaaaeai? i?ae ni?oe,
no?ee? aei oai?ia ? o?eiena?e — aiie neeaee ca ni?oaie, no?eeeie aei
i?eaeueth, i?ae?oio, n???e aiee?, o?eiena?? ? ii?ico, a 1996 ?ioe?
a?aeiia?aeii 1,5; 0,2; 10,7; 1,5 e 61,2%. Iiaiaei? oiiae
1996-1997 ?ie?a iieacaee, ui ?c-ca oeueiai ainiiaea?noai iana aaeee?
caeoee a?iaeath. Ioaea iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe ianaaeaeaiiy no?eeeo ni?o?a
ye ii a?oi? noieiaeo, oae ? ii a?oi? oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a.

Noieia? ni?oe a ainiiaea?noa? caeiathoue a?ey 30% ieiu. Aei ii/aoeo 90-o
?ie?a ?aae?caoe?y ?o i?iaeoeoe?? ia neeaaeaea o?oaeiiu?a, a ae?iuoaaiiy
aoei aeoaea i?eaooeiaei. A inoaii? ?iee iiieo ia noieiaee aeiia?aae
??cei cieceany, ?aae?coaaoe eiai i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai ? oiio a?eueoa
/anoeia aenieiye?nii? i?iaeoeoe?? ?aea ia ia?a?iaeo ia aenieiye?ni?
aeiiiaoa??aee. Ioaea, a i?ioean? ?aeiino?oeoe?? iaiao?aeii iinooiiai
nei?i/oaaoe ieiu? i?ae noieiaeie ni?oaie — i?eaeecii aei 12%.

Iaie ?ic?iaeaiee ?aoe?iiaeueiee eiiaaea? ni?o?a aeey ainiiaea?noaa
ia?aaea??nueeiai E?eio, yeee iiaeaiee ia ?en.2.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaii? ai?iaaoe?? aeiia?aaeieo ianaaeaeaiue a
ainiiaea?noa? aoei aeyaeaii, ui i?aeoe/ii o an?o ni?o?a, ui
ae?iuothoueny a iinaaeeao, ? eou?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iecueeith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth aiane?aeie ai?io?iiy ya?ae ? iaaeniei? ieiaeiiiniino?;
i?e oeueiio aiie a?ae??ciythoueny aeia?eie iieacieeaie ?icaeoeo.
Oae? eou? a ainiiaea?noa? caeiathoue ieiuo a?eueoa 27 aa, a iaaeia??
o?iaeath a?ae ieo neeaaea? ui??/ii a?eueoa 62 oiii. A i?ioean?
ai?iaaoe?? anoaiiaeaii, ui 3,4% eou?a neeioee i?euaiio /anoeio ?
?inoooue a aeaeyae? eou?a i?aeuaiieo ni?o?a. Oe? ?ineeie niiaeeaathoue
a?oioiaa ? na?oiaa aeeaeaiiy, aieiao aac anyei? a?aeaea/? ia o?iaeae.
Ieiua, ui caeia?oueny ieie, neeaaea? a?ey 32 aaeoa?, a iaaeia?? o?iaeath
— iaeaea 120 oiii ui??/ii. Ocaaaeueiai? iaie aeai? aiai?youe i?i oa, ui
oae? iaaaoeai? iieacieee ye c??aeaeaiiy, iaeii?iaeoeoeai? eou?, ye?
neeioee i?euaiio /anoeio, neeaaeathoue a ainiiaea?noa? a?eueoa 14%, a
ui??/iee iaaeia?? a?iaeath ?c-ca ?o iayaiino? aeinyaa? 460 oiii.
Onoiaiiy iacaaieo iaaaoeaieo iieaciee?a ? iaeiei c ae?eiaeo ?aca?a?a
i?aeaeoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiia?aaea?noaa a ainiiaea?noa?.

Ni?oeOa?i?ie iinoa/aiiy
i?iaeoeoe??eeiaiuena?iaiueaa?anaiueaeiaoaiueNoieia?Ioneaoyioa?ieeEa?aeei
aeEiae?yieaEi?ieaaa aeiia?aaeiee?aIoneao aaiao?anueeee?oae?y, Iieaeiaa,
Aaaaea?Oaoi?/i?I?ii /i?iee,

Oaoynea a?eaI?ii n??ee,

Neeueaaia?Ae?aioa, Nia?iueii caeaiee?eneeia ?aeinueeee, Caei ae?iueaeue,
A?aieiEaaa?ia-Cia?iueii,

Aanoa?aei iaaa?a/nueeee?eaoeeoae?, Ii?oeeanueeee a?eee?ec. 2.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee eiiaaea? ni?o?a aeey ?aaeainio-caaiaeo “Caiia?oia”.
— iinoa/aiiy i?iaeoeoe?? ca ni?oaie

A ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue iaie aoea i?iaaaeaia ioe?iea aaeaioeaiino?
ae?iuoaaieo a ainiiaea?noaao ni?o?a uiaei a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia
ciie. Eiao?oe??ioe aaeaioaoe??, ?ac?aoiaai? aeey eiaeiiai ni?oo
(oaae.1) iieacaee, ui iniiaia iana ni?o?a a?aeiineoueny aei a?oie
aeinoaoiuei ia?niaeoeaieo. Iniaeeai ia?niaeoeai? ni?oe: I?ii /i?iee,
Ae?aioa, Ii?oeeainueeee a?eee. A oie aea /an aeae?eai? ni?oe, ye?
a?aeiinyoueny aei a?oie iaia?niaeoeaieo aeey ae?iuoaaiiy a aeai?e cii?:
Ea?aeeiae, Ei?ieaaa aeiia?aaeiee?a, Aaaaea? — ?c-ca ?o iecueei?
ceiiaino?eeino?, iecueei? no?eeino? aei oai?ia ? iecee ?ioeo oaeoi??a.
A ia?niaeoea? oe? ni?oe iio?aaothoue cai?ie ia ?io?, a?eueo
aenieiaaeaioeai?.

Oaaeeoey 1 — Ioe?iea iniiaieo aa?ia?ieia?/ieo iieacaiee?a ni?o?a a aaeao
? eiao?oe??io aaeaioaoe??Ni?oe Eiao?-oe??io ieiaei-iioa-iiyEiao?-oe??io
ieiaei-iinii-no?O?i-aeae-i?noue

Oeoe?e-no?noue nieo ya?aeOeoe-?en-o?noue

a?/ieIi?i-cino?e-e?noueNo?e-e?noue aei oai-?ia Noia aae?a Eiao?-oe??io
aaeai-oaoe???eaoeeoae?32234433162,0Oaoynea
a?ea53234423468,0Ioneaoaaiao?anueeee33232222856,0Ea?aeeiae31132232652,0I
a?ei32234433162,0I?ii
/i?iee44244433672,0Eoeueaeaeeinueeee31233322656,0Ioneao-Iooiiaeue4224332
3162,0Ioneao
yioa?iee32134433162,0Eaaa?ia-Nia?iueii42244533570,0Nia?iueii
caeaiee43134523366,0Ae?aioa44244433672,0Aanoa?aei
iaaa?a/nueeee42244433468,0Aaaaea?41123332652,0Iieaeiaa42134443366,0Ii?oe
eainueeee a?eee54235554080,0?oae?y32233332958,0

Aiae?c aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a aaeoc? aeiia?aaea?noaa ca inoaii? 10
?ie?a iieacaa, ui o?iaeaei?noue, aaeiaa ae?iaieoeoai aeiia?aaeo ?
iia’ycaia c oeei i?eaooeia?noue ae?iaieoeoaa, iaooeeueii cieaeothoueny.
Iniaeeai yaii oea i?iyaeeiny, ii/eiath/e c 1992 ?ieo. ??cei ci?ieeanue
no?oeoo?a nia?aa?oino?. Oae, a 1990-1994 ?ieao a no?oeoo?? nia?aa?oino?
ca?ia?oia ieaoa neeaaeaea 45-54%, a a inoaii? ?iee anueiai eeoa 16%,
oiaoi ?? ieoiiia aaaa cieceeany a?eueoa i?ae a o?e ?ace. Cieaeaiiy oea
a?aeaoeiny ia ca ?aooiie ?inoo i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ? nooiaiy
iaoai?caoe?? o?oaei?iieo i?ioean?a, a ca ?aooiie a?aeiinii a?eueo
??ceiai ?inoo ?ioeo iieaciee?a nia?aa?oino?. Iaea?eueoa ae?inee
aeo?aoe ia o?i?/i? caniae caoenoo — a 90 ?ac?a ii??aiyii c 1990 ?ieii.
A 20 ?ac?a ae?inee aeo?aoe ia ?iaioe ? iineoae, ui ca’ycaii n ??ceei
iiaei?iae/aiiyi iaeueii-ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a. A oie aea /an caaaeai?
aei i?i?ioio aeo?aoe ia aeia?eaa, iinaaeeiaee iaoa??ae, oo?aoia?
ieaoaae?. Oea aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui a inoaii? 5-6 ?ie?a ainiiaea?noai ia
aiineoue aeia?ea, ia aaaea ieaiiao ?aeiino?oeoe?th, ao?aoeei
iiaeeea?noue /anoeiai? eiiiainaoe?? aeo?ao o aeiaaeeo iani?eyoeeaeo
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo i?iya?a.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c noaio aaeoc? aeiia?aaea?noaa a ?aaeaini?-caaiae?
«Caiia?oia» — oeiiaiio ainiiaea?noa? ia?aaea??nueeiai E?eio, aeicaieeee
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ?aca?ae i?aeaeoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaiao?aeii
aeooeoaaoe a nai?e aaeoc? ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy aa?ioaoi?/ieo
i?eeii?a ? i?aai?caoe?eieo cania?a, ye? aeicaieythoue cieceoe
cao?aoi?noue ? i?aeaeueoe ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa, oaeeo ye
e?ea?aeaoe?y c??aeaeaiiy ianaaeaeaiue, oaeineiiaeaiiy ai?ioueae c
ao?’yiaie ? oai?iaaie, canoinoaaiiy ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo ?ineei,
iioeiaeueii? aeiaaeeie ia??coaaiiy eic, iaoai?caoe?? cai?o o?iaeath
aeiia?aaeo, a a iiaeaeueoiio, i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? ianaaeaeaiue — ca
?aooiie iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e ianaaeaeaiue, canoinoaaiiy iioeiaeueieo
noai iinaaeee eou?a (3 o 1,5 e 3,5 o 1,5 i), oaeineiiaeaiiy ni?oiaiai
neeaaeo ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai eiiaaea?a ni?o?a aeiia?aaeo.

Aa?ioaoi?/i? i?eeiie ? i?aai?caoe?ei? caniae, ye? aeicaieythoue cieceoe
cao?aoi?noue ? ca?eueoeoe ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa aeiia?aaeo a
ia?aaea??nuee?e cii? E?eio (ia i?eeeaae? ?aaeainio-caaiae? «Caiia?oia
«)

Canoinoaaiiy aa?a?oeeae?a ?aoiaeai ? othcaeaae noia?. Aeey oni?oiiai
iiaeaaeaiiy ao?’yi?a o aeiia?aaea?nueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, ?icoaoiaaiiio a
ia?aaea??nuee?e cii? E?eio, iaiao?aeii i?iaaaeaiiy aeaio ? a?eueoa
eoeueoeaaoe?e i?ae?yaeue ia aeiia?aaeieeo ? aeaio i?aeeouiaeo ia?iaie
a?oioo. A ?aaeaini?-caaiae? «Caiia?oia» ia oea ao?a/aeiny a?ey 123
a?eaaiue ia 1 aa ca ??e. Canoinoaaiiy iaeii?aciaiai iai?eneoaaiiy
aaaaooth/eo ao?’yi?a a 1996-1997 ?ieao aa?a?oeeaeaie ?aoiaeai ?
othcaeaae noia? ca ii?iith canoinoaaiiy 3 ea/aa aeicaieeei cieceoe
cao?aoe a?aeiia?aeii aei 96 ? 94 a?eaaiue ia 1 aa ? aeinyaoe aeiiii??
26 ? 29 a?eaaiue ia 1 aa. I?e oeueiio canoinoaaiiy ?aoiaeaia, ii??aiyii
c othcaeaaeii noia?, aeicaieeei a?eueo aoaeoeaii cieueoe ye ceaeia?, oae
? aeaiaeiii? ao?’yie, ui, a naith /a?ao, ni?eyei ca?eueoaiith o?iaeath
aeiia?aaeo. ?aioaaaeuei?noue canoinoaaiiy ?aoiaeaia neeaea 54%.

Cai?ia iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo eou?a aeiia?aaeo ia?auaieaiiyi ? a?aeiiaeaiiy
eou?a, ui ceeioee i?euaiio /anoeio. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi uaieaiiy,
i?iaaaeaia niiniaii a ?icuai ei?aiaooaiaa, caaacia/eea i?eaeeaeaiiy ia
??ai? 93-96% ? aeia?ee ?icaeoie ?ineeie. Ia ae?oaee ??e i?ney
ia?auaieaiiy o an?o eou?a aoei caaa?oaii noai?aiiy oi?ioaaiea ? o
a?eueoino? c ieo aoa io?eiaiee a?aeiinii aeia?ee a?iaeae, yeee ca
nai?th ianith a 2-3 ?ace ia?aaaaeaa o?iaeae c oeeo aea eou?a aei
ia?auaieaiiy (oaae.2). Ca?eueoaiiy a?iaeaeiino?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae
ni?oo ? /enea iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo eou?a, neeaei a?ae 0,5 aei 2,7 oe/aa.
Eiaeia aeo?a/aia ia ia?auaieaiy a?eaiy oaea ia ae?oaee ??e i?eiineoue
a?ae 1,99 aei 2,7 a?i. /enoiai i?eaooeo. ?acia? aeo?aoe ia ia?auaieaiy
iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo eou?a aoaeooue caaacia/oaaoe iino?eia ca?eueoaiiy
o?iaeath i?ioyaii anueiai ianooiiiai aeeooy aeiia?aaeieea. Ua a?eueo
aenieo aoaeoeai?noue caaacia/eei ? a?aeiiaeaiiy eou?a, ye? ceeioee
i?euaiio /anoeio niiniaii ia?auaieaiiy (oaae.2). I?eaeeaeaiiy uaieaiue
neeaea 94-96%. Ca?eueoaiiy o?iaeaeiino? ia ae?oaee ??e i?ney uaieaiiy
neeaei, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?oo ? /enea eou?a, ye? ceeioee i?euaiio
/anoeio, a?ae 1,8 aei 7,8 oe/aa. ?aioaaaeuei?noue cao?ao ia ia?auaieaiiy
neeaaea? a?ae 567 aei 870%. I?e i?iaaaeaii? oaei? ?iaioe ia an?e ieiu?,
caeiyo?e ni?oii ?eaoeeoae?, ainiiaea?noai iaea?aeeoue aeiaeaoeiai a?ey
53 oiii o?iaeath ? aeiaeaoeiaee /enoee i?eaooie a?ey 14 oen. a?i.
Cao?aoe i?e oeueiio neeaaeathoue a?eueoa 1600 a?i.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Aoaeoeai?noue ia?auaieaiiy i?e cai?i? iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo
eou?a ? eou?a, ui ceeioee i?euaio (?aaeaini-caaiae “Caiia?oia”,
1996-1998 ??.)Ia?ai?euaieaiiy iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo eou?a I?euaieaiiy eou?a,
ye? ceeioee i?euaioIieacieeeni?oeni?oeIa?ei?eaoee-oae?Ioneao
aaiao?-anueeeeIa?ei?eaoee-oae?Ioneao aaiao?-anueeeeIaaaoeaia iciaea,
%11,51,65,317,23,35,5I?eaeeaeaiiy i?euaieaiue,
%93,496,1100,094,896,295,3Ca?eueoaiiy a?iaeath ia ae?oaee ??e i?ney
i?euaieaiue c iaeeieoe? ieiuaae?, oe/aa2,70,51,17,81,81,4Cao?aoe ia
i?euaieaiiy ia 1 aa, a?i.27,63,812,928,05,48,9?aae?caoe?eia oe?ia ia
oe/aa aeiia?aaea, a?i.31,029,440,031,029,443,0Aa?o?noue aeiaeaoeiai?
i?iaeo-eoe?? c iaeeieoe? ieiu?, a?i.83,714,744,0241,552,059,8*enoee
i?eaooie ia 1 aa, a?i.56,110,931,1213,546,650,9?aioaaaeuei?noue cao?ao
ia i?euaieaiiy, % 199,5270,4226,7762,5870,0567,0E?ea?aeaoe?y c??aeaeaiiy
a?aeaiaeeaie. A iieueiaiio aeine?ae? aoea aeaia ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino?
e?ea?aeaoe?? c??aeaeaiiy iia?o?yieie a?aeaiaeeaie: a ia?oee ??e
io?eiaii iaaaeeeee aeiaeaoeiaee a?iaeae, a ia ae?oaee ??e ii ni?oo
?oae?y ca?eueoaiiy a?iaeaeiino? noaiiaeea 6,7 oe/aa, ii ni?oo Ae?aioa –
3,4 oe/aa. *enoee i?eaooie ia aaeoa? i?e oeueiio neeaa a?aeiia?aeii
226 ? 100 a?eaaiue. ?aioaaaeuei?noue eioo?a, aeeaaeaieo a e?ea?aeaoe?th
c??aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii iia?o?yii? a?aeaiaeee, neeaaea? 322-551%.

Aei?iaoaaiiy niiniao e?ea?aeaoe?? c??aeaeaiiy ia ei?aiaaeaniiio ni?o?
Iieaeiaa iaoiaeii a?aeaiaeee eicith iieacaei, ui, oi/a cao?aoe ia
oeth ?iaioo, a ia?a?aooieo ia aaeoa?,iaeaea a 3 ?ace aeu?, i?ae i?e
aeeiiaii? iia?o?yieo a?aeaiaeie, aea a?i caaacia/o? aenieee ??no
o?iaeaeiino?. *enoee i?eaooie ia aaeoa? i?e oeueiio neeaaea? 222 a?eai?,
a ?aioaaaeuei?noue cao?ao — 258%.

Canoinoaaiiy noeioeyoi?a ?inoo ?ineei — aienoeia N aeey i?aeaeoaiiy
a?iaeaeiino?. ?aaoeyoi?e ?inoo ana a?eueoa noathoue iaa?ae’?iieie
aeaiaioaie ?ioaineaieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?. Aeine?ae uiaei aei?iaoaaiiy a?o/eciyiiai a?inoeioeyoi?a
iiaiai iieie?iiy — aienoei N — aoei caeeaaeaii ia ni?o? ?eaoeeoae?
(i?aeuaia Eiaa?a 5AA). Aei?iaoaaee 3 ii?ie canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo a
?ic?aooieo ia aaeoa? — 25,50 ? 75 a/aa. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo
aeniea ca?eueoaiiy o?iaeath (5oe/aa) caaacia/eea ii?ia 50 a/aa. E??i
i?aeaeoaiiy a?iaeaeiino? niinoa??aaeinue nooo?aa i?aeaeoaiiy ai?noo
oeoe?o a yaiaeao, iineeaiiy i?e?inoo ? iie?auaiiy eiai aeic??aaiiy. I?e
ii??aiyii iaaaeeeeo cao?aoao ia a?inoeioeyoi? – 12,5 — 37,5 a?i. aoei
io?eiaii cia/ia i?aeaeoaiiy a?iaeaeiino?, cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino?, ui
aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe a?ae 80 aei 247 a?eaaiue aeiaeaoeiaiai /enoiai
i?eaooeo ia aaeoa?. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui aeiaeaoeia? cao?aoe i?e
canoinoaaii? a?inoeioeyoi?a aienoei N aeeth/a? eeoa aa?o?noue naiiai
i?aia?aoo. Eiai aianaiiy aeoaea aeia?a ii?aeio?oueny c i?iaaaeaiiyi
?aca?aiiai iai?eneoaaiiy aeiia?aaeieea ia?aae ea?ooaaiiyi aeiia?aaeo.
A?inoeioeyoi? ?inoo aeiaea?oueny a ?iai/ee ?ic/ei aaciina?aaeiuei a
aae iai?eneoaa/a.

Iinaaeea aeiia?aaeiee?a ??ciei iinaaeeiaei iaoa??aeii. Ioe?iea caeeaaeee
aeiia?aaeieea ??cieie aeaeaie iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo aoea aeaia iaie a
iieueiaiio aeine?ae? c iaoith iiooeo oeyo?a cieaeaiiy cao?ao ia
caeeaaeeo iiaeo ianaaeaeaiue. A yeino? eiio?ieth aeei?enoiaoaaee
iaeii??/i? i?euaii? naaeaeaioe? ni?oo ?eaoeeoae? ia i?aeuai? Eiaa?a 5AA.
E??i oiai, aeey iinaaeee aeei?enoiaoaaee iaeii??/i? ei?aiaaeani?
naaeaeaioe? ? aeeaoe? eiiieaenii-no?eeeo ni?o?a Ii?oeeainueeee a?eee.
Iinaaeeo i?iaiaeeee oaeiae ? aeeaoeyie i?aeuaie Eiaa?a 5AA c ianooiiei
uaieaiiyi ia ?ineeie ni?oo ?eaoeeoae?, ui i?eaeeeeny. Iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe (oaae.3) iieacaee, ui aa?o?noue iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo ia 1
aa i?e aeei?enoaii? aeeaoe?a no?eeiai ni?oo aai i?aeuaie (iaa?oue i?e
iinaaeoe? ii 2 aeeaoe? a iaeia iinaaeeiaa i?noea) a 5-7 ?ac?a
ieae/a, i?ae i?e aeei?enoaii? uaiieo ? ei?aiaaeanieo naaeaeaioe?a.
I?eaeeaeaiiy aeeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo aoei ieae/a, i?ae naaeaeaioe?a,
aea caaaeuei? aeo?aoe ia aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o uiaei iinaaeee ? ?aiiioo,
a o aeiaaeeo c i?aeuaiieie aeeaoeyie ? ca i?euaieaiiyi, aeyaeeinue a
4-6 ?ac?a iaioa. Ioaea, aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe iinaaeeo
aeiia?aaeieea aeeaoeyie eiiieaenii-no?eeeo ni?o?a ? i?aeuaiieo ni?o?a c
ianooiiei uaieaiiyi ia i?noe?.

Oaaeeoey 3 — Ii??aiyeueia ioe?iea caeeaaeee aeiia?aaeieea ??cieie
aeaeaie iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo ?aaeaini-caaiae “Caiia?oia”, 1996-1998
??.Aeae iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo

Iieacieeeiaeii??/i? uaii? naaeaeaioe? (eiio?ieue)iaeii??/i? ei?aiaaeani?
naaeaeaioe?aeeaoe?i?aeuaii? aeea-oe? c ianooiiei uaieaiiyiIN?05

Ni?oe?eaoeeoae? ia Eiaa?aIi?oeeainue-eee a?eee?eaoeeoae? ia
Eiaa?aIi?oeeainueeee a?eeeNoaia iinaaeee3o1,53o1,53o1,53o1,5E?euee?noue
iinaaeeiaiai ia-oa??aeo a iaeiiio ai?cae?, oo.

1

1

2

2Aa?o?noue iinaaeeiaiai iaoa-??aeo a iaeiiio ai?cae?, oo.

1,5

1,0

0,2

0,3Aa?o?noue iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo ia 1 aa,
a?i.333322224444666,6I?eaeeaeaiiy, %89,192,378,882,96,32Cao?aoe ia
?iaioe ia iinaaeeo 1 aa, a?i.41,241,241,241,2Cao?aoe ia ?aiiio 1 aa,
a?i. (?iaioa ? iinaaeeia? iaoa??aee)

367,5

174,2

105,3

121,3Cao?aoe ia uaieaiiy 1 aa, a?i.—60,8Caaaeuei? cao?aoe ia
iinaaeeiaee iaoa??ae, iinaaeeo, ?aiiio ? uaieaiiy ia 1 aa, a?i.

3741,7

2437,4

590,9

829,1Aeiiii?y cao?ao ii??aiyii c iinaaeeith uaieaieie naaeaeaioeyie

1304,3

3150,8

2912,6

0oe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeiia?aaeieea ia?a-uaieaiiyi.
Ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeiia?aaeieea ia?auaieaiiyi a
?icu?i ei?aiaooaiaa cae?enithaaee ia noieiaiio ni?o? Ea?aeeiae,
i?euaiith ia i?aeuai? Eiaa?a 5AA. A yeino? i?euaie aeei?enoiaoaaee
aeeaoe? ni?oo Ae?aioa. Aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaeo aecia/eee, ii??aithth/e
iaea?aeai? aeai? c aiaeia?/ieie i?e canoinoaaii? o?aaeeoe?eiiai niiniao
?aeiino?oeoe?? aeiia?aaeieea (oaae.3). Aeei?enoaiiy ia?auaieaiiy a
?icuai ei?aiaooaiaa aeeeth/? iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o c
?icei?/oaaiiy, c onoiaiiy, a iio?i c onoaiiaee oiaea?e, c i?aeeiio
ieaioaaea. E??i oiai aa?o?noue aeeaoeaaiai iaoa??aeo aeey ia?auaieaiiy ?
naii? ?iaioe ia?auaieaiiy iaeaea a 8 ?ac?a ieae/a aa?oino? uaiiiai
iinaaei/eiaiai iaoa??aeo. Ia??iae ?aeiino?oeoe?? nei?i/o?oueny aei
2-o ?ie?a, cao?aoe ia ?? cae?eniaiiy iaeaea a i’youe ?ac?a iaioa, a
oa?i?i ?o ieoiiino? ia ia?aaeuo? aeaio ?ie?a.

Aeaiaioe iaoai?caoe?? cai?o a?iaeath. I?ioyaii aeae?eueeio ?ie?a aoea
i?iaaaeaia ii??aiyeueia ioe?iea ianooiieo niinia?a cai?o: ?o/ia c
a?ae?a, c aeiinii a aoiea?e, ?icnoaaeai? ia i?aeee?oeii?e aei?ic?;
?o/iee ca?? a aoiea?e, iaa?oaii? ia i?eno?i? ia aac? AeAeA-100I
(“Iaoaeee”); eiiaaeiiaee ca?? c aeei?enoaiiyi eiiaaeio EA?-1.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy cai?noue i?eeiyoi? oaoiieia?? ?o/iiai
cai?o c aeei?enoaiiyi i?eno?ith ia aac? AeAeA-100I aai cai?o
aeiia?aaeicae?aeueiei eiiaaeiii EA?-1, ui aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? a?aeiia?aeii a 2-5 ?ac?a. I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia
oea, ainiiaea?noai a?aeaea? ia?aaaao i?eno?ith ia aac? AeAeA-100I
«Iaoaeee». Iiynith?oueny oea iaiaae?ei?noth eiiaaeia EA?-1, eiai
/anoeiaeie iieiieaie ? o?oaeiiuaie oaoi?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy. E??i oiai,
ca ?iee niinoa?aaeaiue a?aei?/aii iecueeo ye?noue cai?o aeayeeo ni?o?a ?
cia/ia o?aaioaaiiy ae/aie eiiaaeio aaaioi??/ieo /anoei aeiia?aaeieo
eou?a, ui i?eaiaeeoue a iiaeaeueoiio, aei cieaeaiiy ?o
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino?.

Aia?aicaa??aath/a oaoiieia?y caoenoo aeiia?aaeo a?ae oai?ia. Iaie ?acii
c a?aeae?eii iaoai?caoe?? OIEO? «I?iae-iaoi?iaeo» aoee i?iaaaeai?
aei?iaoaaiiy iiaea?i?ciaaieo iai?eneoaa/?a IIA-2000 ? IIAe-1400.
?acoeueoaoe iieacaee, ui canoinoaaiiy iiaea?i?ciaaieo iai?eneoaa/?a
aeicaiey? aeiiiieoe aei 0,33 o. ?iai/iai ?ic/eio yaeio?i?eao?a ia
aaeoa?, ia noio 10,6 a?eai?. Aeiiii?y cao?ao i?aoe? ia i?eaiooaaiiy,
?ic/eio ? iai?eneoaaiiy neeaea 0,23 ethae./aei. ia noio 0,93 a?eai?.
Aeiiii?y cao?aoe iaeeaa neeaea 1,86 ea/aa ia noio 0,93 a?i. Noia?ia
aeiiii?y eioo?a ia 1 aa neeaea 12,49 a?i. Caaaeueia aeiiii?y eioo?a
a?ae canoinoaaiiy aia?aicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia?? caoenoo aeiia?aaeieo
ianaaeaeaiue a ?aaeaini?-caaiae? «Caiia?oia» i?e 4-o ?aciaiio
iai?eneoaaii? ca an??th ieiuath neeaaea? 47646 a?i. I?e oeueiio
caaacia/o?oueny aeniea ye?noue caoenoo a?ae oai?ia ? iie?auo?oueny
caaaeueia aeieia?/ia ioi/aiiy.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no?eeeo ni?o?a aeiia?aaeo. I?iaaaeai? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
oaeeie iiaeie ni?oaie, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny a?oiiaith no?ee?noth aei
o?eiena?e, a?eaeiaei oai?iaai ? iani?eyoeeaei oaeoi?ai aeiae?eey, ye
Ii?oeeainueeee a?eee ? Iieaeiaa ii??aiyii c ni?oii ?eaoeeoae? iieacaee,
/oi aeiiii?y cao?ao oeeo ni?o?a ianooia?, oaea ii/eiath/e c aa?oino?
iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo. A iiaeaeueoiio aiia caaacia/o?oueny ??ceei
cei?i/aiiyi cao?ao ia caoeno a?ae oai?ia aai iiaiei eiai aeeeth/aiiyi.
Oea ni?ey? cieaeaiith nia?aa?oino? ? i?eaiaeeoue aei ?inoo /enoiai
i?eaooeo ? ?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iaieoeoaa. Oae, ni?oe Ii?oeeainueeee
a?eee ? Iieaeiaa, ii??aiyii c ni?oii ?eaoeeoae?, aeaee /enoee i?eaooie
ia 1 aa ? ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ae?inea a?eueo ye a o?e ?ace.
E??i oeueiai cia/ii iie?aueeinue aeieia?/ia ioi/aiiy ia aeiia?aaeieeao.

Aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy ei?ioei? ia??cee. I?oyaii i’yoe ?ie?a
i?iaaaeai? aei?iaoaaiiy ei?ioeiai ia??coaaiiy ia oaeeo ni?oao: Oaoynea
a?ea, Ioneao Iooiiaeue, Eaaa?ia-Nia?iueii, Ae?aioa, I?ii /i?iue, Ioneao
aaiao?anueeee. An? oe? ni?oe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith ieiaeiiini?noth
iaaii?a, ui ?icaeaathoueny a iniia? eic ieiaeiiioaiiy. Onoaiiaeaii, ui
canoinoaaiiy ei?ioeiai ia??coaaiiy, yea aeeiio?oueny a?o/io ca
aeiiiiiaith n?eaoi?a, aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ia
51%, nei?ioeoe cao?aoe i?aoe? ia 49 ethae.//an ia 1aa. Aeiiii?y cao?ao
ia iieaoo i?aoe? i?e oeueiio neeaaea? a?ey 36 a?i. ia aaeoa?. Cia/ii
ni?iuo?oueny aeeiiaiiy nooiai i?aea’ycoaaiiy, aeeeth/a?oueny i?iaaaeaiiy
caeaiiai i?aea’ycoaaiiy, oae ye eou? ia aenieiooaiaiaeo oi?ioaaiiyo c
ei?ioeith ia??ceith aaaeooueny c a?eueiei caenaiiyi i?e?inoo. Ca
?aooiie oeueiai aeinyaa?oueny aeiiii?y i?aea’yceiaiai iaoa??aeo, yea
aeinyaa? 13 ea aai 39 a?i. ia aaeoa?. O a?eueoino? aei?iaoaaieo ia
ei?ioeiio ia??coaaii? ni?o?a iieacieee ca o?iaeaei?noth a n?aaeiueiio ca
5 ?ie?a aeyaeeenue i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaeie c eiio?ieueieie aa??aioaie, aea
canoiniaoaaeanue ia??cea ca oeiii ieiaeiai? eaiee. Aeeeth/aiiy neeaaea?
eeoa ni?o Ioneao aaiao?anueeee, o yeiai canoiniaoaaiiy ei?ioeiai
ia??coaaiiy i?eaaei aei i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ia 20%. Aeiaeaoeiaei
iiceoeaiei oaeoi?ii, yeee iaoiiaeea ei?ioea ia??cea, ? c?inoaiiy
na?aaeiuei? aeiaaeeie iiaii?a ? iie?auaiiy aec??aaiiy iiaii?a, ui
iiceoeaii aieeioei ia ia?aceioaaiiy eou?a ? ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue. A
oaia??oi?e /an ieiua aeiia?aaeiee?a, aea canoiniao?oueny ei?ioea
ia??cea, neeaea? a?eueo 460 aaeoa?, /oi aeicaiey? aeiiiieoe a?ey 35 oen.
a?i.

Ioe?iea aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aa?ioaoi?/ieo ? i?aai?caoe?eieo
cania?a, ui i?iiiiothoueny

Cai?iiiiiaai? caniae ioiieththoue oe?ieee niaeo? aoaeoeaiino? — a?ae
nioe?aeueiiai aoaeoa (??no i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ? iie?auaiiy oiia i?aoe?),
ioi?iie aeiae?eey, aeiiii?? aia?aaoe/ieo ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a aei
i?aeaeoaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ? /enoiai i?eaooeo c iaeeieoe? ieiu?. Iecea
cania?a aeathoue ??ciia?/iee aoaeo. Iai?eeeaae, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no?eeeo
ni?o?a aeicaiey? iie?aueoe oiiae i?aoe?, ae??oeoe caaea/o ioi?iie
aeiae?eey, caaacia/eoe aia?ai- ? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, i?aeaeueoe
a?iaeaei?noue, aeiaeoenue aeiiii?? eioo?a ? i?aeaeueoe aeiiii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cai?iiiaaiiai eiiieaeno cania?a
aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe a?iaeaei?noue a ainiiaea?noa? ia 25 oe/aa ?
ca?eueoeoe aaeiaa ae?iaieoeoai ia 1430 oiii. Noia?ia aeiiii?y cao?ao ia
ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe?? iiaea neeanoe, i?ney ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cania?a,
a?eueo ye 308 oen. a?i. ca ??e. I?e oeueiio ??aaiue aa?ioaoi?ee
ae?iuoaaiiy aeiia?aaeo ia o?eueee ia cieceoueny, iaaiaee, aoaea
a?aeiia?aeaoe no/aniei aeiiaai iaoee ? ae?iaieoeoaa. Iai?/aii
i?aeaeoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ia naieo o?oaei?iieo ?iaioao –
ia??coaaii? ? cai?? aeiia?aaeo. Cia/ii nei?ioyoueny aeo?aoe
yaeio?i?eao?a, i?aeaeueoueny aoaeoeai?noue ?o ae?? ? iie?aueoueny
aeieia?y aeiae?eey ia aeiia?aaeieeao.

Noia?iee /enoee i?eaooie a?ae eiiieaeno cai?iiiaaieo cania?a neeaaea?
a?ey 540 oen. a?i. ca ??e.

Aeniiaee

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiooeo oeyo?a aeoiaeo aaeoc?
aeiia?aaea?noaa ?aaeainio-caaiaeo «Caiia?oia» ?c e?ece aeicaiey?
c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye? iathoue cia/aiiy ia
eeoa aeey ?aaeainio-caaiaeo «Caiia?oia», aea ? aeey aiiiaea?noa
ia?aaea??nueei? ciie E?eio, aeecueeeo ca a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieie,
ni?oiaeie oiiaaie, ??aiai niaoe?aeecaoe?? ? aeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie.

1.?aaeaini-caaiae «Caiia?oia» ? aeeaiei niaoe?ae?ciaaiei ainiiaea?noaii
c aenieei ??aiai eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, aeecueeei aei
iioeiaeueiiai. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoe ae?iaieoeoaa ca
?aooiie aeuaiacaaieo oaeoi??a iaiiaeeeaa.

2. ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoe iaiao?aeii ciaoiaeeoe a nai?e aaeoc?
aeiia?aaea?noaa ca ?aooiie iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e ianaaeaeaiue,
oaeineiiaeaiiy ni?oiaiai neeaaeo, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aa?ioaoi?ee,
cieaeaiiey cao?aoiino? ? iie?auaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa.

3. Oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ianaaeaeaiue iaiao?aeii aanoe a ianooiieo
iai?yieao: ciaioeoe ieiuaae? i?ae noieiaeie ni?oaie aei 12%; aaanoe
eiiaaea? noieiaiai aeiia?aaeo ca ?aooiie i?aeai?a ni?o?a ??cieo
oa?i?i?a aeic??aaiiy; nei?ioeoe ieiu? i?ae i?ci?ie oaoi?/ieie ni?oaie
aei 25% a?ae caaaeueii? ieiu? oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a; ca?eueoeoe ieiu? i?ae
ni?oaie ?aiiuei-na?aaeiueiai ? na?aaeiueiai oa?i?i?a aeic??aaiiy aei 45%
oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a; a?aeiiaeoe ieaiiao ?aeiino?oeoe?th aeiia?aaeiee?a,
i?aeo?eioaaoe ieiuo i?ae iieiaeeie aeiia?aaeieeaie ia ??ai? 10% a?ae
caaaeueii? ieiu? ianaaeaeaiue.

4. Oaeineiiaeaiiy ni?oiaiai neeaaeo ne?ae aanoe oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy ieiu
i?ae aenieiye?nieie oaoi?/ieie ni?oaie, ye? ?aeooue ia ae?iaieoeoai
oaiiainueeeo aeiiiaoa??ae?a, aeiaaaeaiiy ieiu i?ae no?eeeie oaoi?/ieie
? noieiaeie ni?oaie aei 30% a?ae ieiu?, caeiyoi? eiaeiith ?c
oeeo a?oi ni?o?a.

5. I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aa?ioaoi?ee ? ca?eueoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
aeiia?aaeiee?a ne?ae aeiaeaaoenue ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy aa?a?oeeae?a
aeey ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie; canoinoaaiiy ei?ioei? ia??cee aeey iecee
noieiaeo ? oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a; canoinoaaiiy no/anii? aia?aicaa?aaath/i?
oaoiieia??, o?i?/iiai caoenoo aeiia?aaeiee?a; e?ea?aeaoe?? c??aeaeaiiy
ianaaeaeaiue oeyoii iia?o?yieo a?aeaiaeie ? ia?auaieaiiy eou?a, ye?
ceeioee i?euaiio /anoeio; canoinoaaiiy a?inoeioeyoi??a oeia aienoei N
ia ieiaeiiinieo ianaaeaeaiiyo; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ni?o?a, no?eeeo aei
o?eiena?e, a?eaeiaeo caoai?thaaiue, ? iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a ioi/aiiy.

Oea i?eaaaea aei cieaeaiiy cao?aoiino? ? i?aeaeoaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? aaeoc?.

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ae?iaieoeoao (?aaeainiia?-caaiaeo “Caiia?oia”)

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiia?aaea?noaa iaiao?aeii ai?iaaaeeoe
canoinoaaiiy aa?a?oeeae?a ia an?e ieiu? aeiia?aaeiee?a, i?iaeiaaeeoe ?
caaa?oeoe ia an?e ieiu? ?iaioo uiaei ia?auaieaiiy iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo
eou?a ? eou?a, ui ceeioee i?euaiio /anoeio, cieceoe c??aeaeaiiy
ianaaeaeaiue ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy a?aeaiaeie eicith ? iia?o?yieo
a?aeaiaeie, canoinoaaoe caeeaaeeo aeiia?aaeiee?a i?aeuaiieie
aeeaoeyie c ianooiiei uaieaiiyi ia i?noe?, caaa?oeoe ia?auaieaiiy 20
aaeoa? noieiaeo ni?o?a ia oaoi?/i?, niiniaii a ?icuai ei?aiaooaiao,
ai?iaaaeeoe ca?? c aeei?enoaiiyi i?eno?ith ia aac? AeAeA-100 IA ia an?e
ieiu? oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a, ai?iaaaeeoe aia?aicaa??aath/o oaoiieia?th
caoenoo a?ae oai?ia ia an?e ieiu? aeiia?aaeiee?a, i?iaeiaaeeoe ?iaioo ?
aeiaanoe ieiu? i?ae no?eeeie ni?oaie aei 30%, ai?iaaaeeoe ei?ioeo
ia??ceo ia an?o ni?oao, ui caaacia/othoue iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe a
aeine?aeaeaii?, ai?iaaaeeoe cai?iiiiiaaiee eiiaaea? ni?o?a.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o:

1. Aeiaiaea I.A., Aeaeaiaeoeia A.A., Iaeueie/oe A.A. Yia?ai-naa?aaathuay
oaoiieiaey i?eiaiaiey n?aaenoa caueou ?anoaiee //Iaaa?a/”.
Aeiia?aaea?noai e aeiiaeaeea.-1997.-?3.-C.34-35.

2. Aeiaiaea I.A., Aeaeaiaeoeia A.A. Yia?ainaa?aaathuay oaoiieiaey ooiaea
ca aeiia?aaeii// Naae, aeiia?aae e aeii Oe?aeiu.- 1998.-?
4-5(6-7).-N.31.

3. Aeaeaiaeoeia A.A. Euai iooe i?aiaeieaiey e?ecena a aeiia?aaea?noaa//
Naae, aeiia?aae e aeii Oe?aeiu.- 1998.-?10-12.-N.28-29.

4. Aeaeaiaeoeia A.A. Ioeaiea yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe aiaae?aiey
onoie/eauo ni?oia aeiia?aaea// Yeiiiieea e
oi?aaeaiea.-1999.-?2.-N.14-16.

Aiiioaoeey

Aeaeaiaeoeia A.A. “Iniaaiiinoe aa?ioaoieee aeiia?aaea a i?aaeai?iie ciia
E?uia a oneiaeyo e?ecena” //?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.08 —
aeiia?aaea?noai — Einoeooo aeiia?aaea e aeia » Iaaa?a/», OAAI, sseoa,
1999 aiae.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia auyaeaieth aa?ioaoie/aneeo i?eaiia,
iicaieythueo nieceoue cao?aoiinoue e oaaee/eoue ?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa aeiia?aaea a i?aaeai?iii E?uio aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo
eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao. Yenia?eiaioaeueii aeieacaia yooaeoeaiinoue e
iainiiaaiiinoue ii iieacaoaeyi ?aioaaaeueiinoe eniieueciaaiey
aa?aeoeeaea ?aoiaeai aeey ai?ueau n ni?iyeaie, aeinoeioeyoi?a ?inoa
?anoaiee yoenoei N aeey iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ?anoaiee, ei?ioeie
ia?acee eic, eeeaeaeaoeee ec?aaeaiiinoe ianaaeaeaiee iaoiaeaie i?eaeaee
iaeii?iaeoeoeaiuo eonoia, eonoia, na?ineaoeo i?eaie, e ni?oiniane a
?anuai ei?iaooaiaa, caeaiuie i?eaeaeaie, a oaeaea eniieueciaaiea aeey
?aiiioa ianaaeaeaiee niiniaa ioaiaeie, i?eiaiaiey oniaa?oainoaiaaiiie
iaeicao?aoiie nenoaiu caueou ianaaeaeaiee, aiaae?aiea onoie/eauo ni?oia
Iieaeiaa e Iieoeeaineee aaeue, i?eiaiaiea i?e nai?a o?iaeay
i?eniiniaeaiey ia aaca AeAeA -100I “Aaai/ea”. Aeey oeie/iiai
aeiia?aaea?neiai oicyenoaa i?aaeai?iiai E?uia auyaeaia iioeiaeueiay
ieiuaaeue ieoaiey eonoia, ii?aaeaeaia iioeiaeueiay no?oeoo?a
ianaaeaeaiee ii iai?aaeaieth eniieueciaaiey e n?ieai nic?aaaiey ni?oia,
auyaeai o?iaaiue aaeaioeaiinoe au?aueaaaiuo ni?oia, ?ac?aaioai ni?oiaie
eiiaaea?. I?iaaaeaia ioeaiea yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eo/oeo
aa?ioaoie/aneeo i?eaiia, a oaeaea aiaae?yaiiai — ii ?acoeueoaoai
i?iaaaeaiiie ?aaiou — eiiieaena aa?ioaoie/aneeo e oicyenoaaiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi noiia?iue /enoue aeioiae io eiiieaena
i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia?ii?eyoee a oicyenoaa ninoaaeo ieiei 540 ouny/ a?eaiae a
aiae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?ioaoie/aneea iaoiaeu, aeiia?aae, nieaeaiea cao?ao,
yia?ainaa?aaeaiea, noeioeyoi?u ?inoa ?anoaiee, ia?ai?eaeaea,
aaeaioaoeey, e?ecen.

Aiioaoe?y

Aeaeaiaeoeia A.A. “Iniaeeaino? aa?ioaoi?ee aeiia?aaeo a ia?aaea??nuee?e
cii? E?eio a oiiaao e?ece”//?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth
06.01.08 — aeiia?aaea?noai. — ?inoeooo aeiia?aaeo ? aeia “Iaaa?a/”,
OAAI, sseoa, 1999 ??e.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia iiooeo aa?ioaoi?/ieo ? i?aai?caoe?eieo cania?a,
ye? aeicaieythoue cieceoe cao?aoi?noue ae?iaieoeoaa aeiia?aaeo ?
i?aeaeueoe eiai aoaeoeai?noue. Aei?iaoaai? iao?aaeeoe?ei? i?eeiie:
cai?ia iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo eou?a ia?auaieaiiyi, e?ea?aeaoe?y c??aeaeaiiy
a?aeaiaeeaie, ?aeiino?oeoe?y aeiia?aaeieea ia?auaieaiiyi; caeeaaeea
aeiia?aaeieea iao?aaeeoe?eieie aeaeaie iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo,
canoinoaaiiy ei?ioei? ia??cee, aia?aicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia??, o?i?/iiai
caoenoo ? iaoai?caoe?y cai?o a?iaeath. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue
cai?iiiiiaaiee eiiieaen cania?a, ye? aeicaieythoue ii?yae ?c nei?i/aiiyi
cao?ao, i?aeaeueoe a?iaeaei?noue ? aaeiaee ca??, iie?aueoe aeieia?th
aeiae?eey, i?aeaeueoe aooaeoeai?noue ? iiaeieaoe e?ecia? yaeua a aaeoc?
aeiia?aaea?noaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoiaee aa?ioaoi?ee, cieaeaiiy aeo?ao,
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy, noeioeyoi?e ?inoo, ia?auaieaiiy, aaeaioeai?noue,
e?eca.

Annotation

Jemakoulov V.B. «Peculiarities of vine farming techniques in the
premountainous zone of the Crimea under conditions of an economical
crisis» // Manuscript.

Thesis to obtain a Degree of Candidate of Agricultural Sciences in
Speciality 06.01.08 — Viticulture — Institute for Vine and Wine
«Magarach», Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Yalta, 1999.

The Thesis is concerned with the search for farming techniques and
organizational measures aimed at reducing costs of grape cultivation
and improving its efficiency. Nontraditional methods of grape
cultivation (replacement of low-productive vines with regrafted ones,
compensation for missing plants with layering, reconstruction of
vineyards by regrafting, establishment of vineyards based on
nontraditional planting material, short pruning, energy-saving methods
of chemical control of pests and diseases, mechanical harvesting) have
been tested. A number of measures have been suggested permitting to
reduce costs of grape cultivation, to increase crop capacity of vines
and yields, to improve the ecological situation and efficiency of the
grape industry and to overcome phenomena of the crisis.

Key words: farming techniques, vine, reduction of costs, energy
saving, regrafting, adaptation, crisis.

ae?oe. a?oia ?A?A “Iaaa?a/”, 1999

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 09.04.99

Oi?iao 60o84 1/16

Oi. ae?. a?e. 1,0 Oe?aae 100

Caeac ?15

334200 i. sseoa, aoe. E??iaa,31

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