IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO O?CE*IIAI AEOIAAIIss ? NII?OO OE?A?IE

CAEAe?A IOOAIIAAe

OAeE 796.071.5

INIIAI? OAIAeAIOe?? EIIA?Oe?AE?CAOe?? NO*ANIIAI IE?II?ENUeEIAI NII?OO

24.00.01 • Ie?ii?enueeee oa i?ioan?eiee nii?o

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?
nii?oo

Ee?a 1999Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?
nii?oo Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao Oe?a?ie c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ?
nii?oo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
I?*OAeA TH??e Iao?iae/. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?
nii?oo Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aoiai?oa?ieo oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i;

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio NAOIIANUeEEE
Einoyioei Iaaeiae/. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?
nii?oo Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ie?ii?enueeiai oa i?ioan?eiiai nii?oo.

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? EAI?OAANUeEEE Noai?neaa
Ieoaeeiae/. Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e. Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao Oe?a?ie c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo, i.
Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 n?/iy 2000 ?ieo i 16 aiae. CI oa. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.829.01 Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo Oe?a?ie (03680, Ee?a-150, aoe.
O?ceoeueoo?e, 1). .

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe?
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo Oe?a?ie
(03680, Ee?a-150, aoe. O?ceoeueoo?e, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «27» a?oaeiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
A.E. Nioeuenueeee1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaeoie no/aniiai ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo c
eiaeiei ?ieii a?eueoith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
neooaoe?? o eiaei?e e?a?i? oa o na?o? a oe?eiio. Iaei??th c
aecia/aeueieo iniaeeainoae aeaii? neooaoe?? ? iino?eia ?ioaa?oaaiiy
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo o nenoaio ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ui aeyaey?oueny o
eiai eiia?oe?ae?caoe??.

I?aai?caoe?eii-ea??aie/? no?oeoo?e ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo (I?aeia?iaeiee
ie?ii?enueeee eii?oao (IIE), i?aeia?iaei? nii?oeai? oaaea?aoe?? (INO),
iaoe?iiaeuei? ie?ii?enuee? eii?oaoe (IIE), iaoe?iiaeuei? oaaea?aoe?? c
aeae?a nii?oo) o ca’yceo / oeei ciooai? iino?eii a?aoiaoaaoe o nai?e
ae?yeueiino? ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ia ?eieo oiaa??a oa iineoa. C
oe??th iaoith ieie c a?eueoith ?ioaineai?noth aeei?enoiaothoueny
nioe?aeuei? ea??aie/? i?ioeaaeo?e, ye? o noeoiiino? neeaaeathoue ?o
eiia?oe?eio ae?yeuei?noue.

Ca oiia nueiaiaeaiiy o?eaa? iino?eiee iiooe oeyo?a iiaeaeueoiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?. Oea
iaoiiaeaia iiaeie caaea/aie, ye? iinoathoue ia?aae ie?ii?enueeei ?ooii o
ca’yceo ?c c?inoaiiyi eiai ?ie? o no/aniiio na?o?, a oaeiae iiaith
iie?oe/iith oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith neooaoe??th o na?o? ia iaae?
noie?oue.

C?inoath/ee aieea eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? ia ?icaeoie ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo
a?aeia?aaeaiee o cia/i?e e?eueeino? ioae?eaoe?e, ye? i?enay/ai? ??ciei
?? aniaeoai. Oe?iea aena?oeaiiy o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??, cie?aia, o
?iaioao Aeae.Aeaeoio (1993), E.A?aiaee (1996), I.?.??iaeiaa (1990).
AE.A.AEeaaiiae/a (1993), ss.Eeeneinueee (1994), A.A.Eoc?ia, I.?.Eooaiiaa
(1996), E.Ethey (1992), A.Eaaei, O.Ia?a (1990), A.Iaee?ia, N.Oa?ae?
(1990), I.Niee (1994), Aeae.Neoee? (1995), Aeae.?innaa?aa (1990),
E.Oaiiaea (1992), O.Oieueoeaaaa?a (1992), I.I. Ueoiai? (1992) io?eiaee
oae? ieoaiiy, ye caaaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo ca
oiia ?eieo.

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo Aeae.Eiaee? (1991), ?.A.I?eiyia (1991), A.Oiie?iniia,
Ae.ssiaa, A.Aaeea?a, Aeae. E?anaaaoea (1996), O.Ooeueea (1989),
N.Aeooeaia (1992) eiia?oe?ae?caoe?y ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ia?aaeoiiaa
noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiaa a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?.

?noi??y aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo eiia?oe?ae?caoe??, iai?yiee oa oi?ie
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? IIE, INO, IIE, ?ieue a?ciano oa cania?a
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? o ?icaeoeo eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? aiae?cothoueny
o i?aoeyo N.?.Aonueeiaa (1992-1997), ?.E??eina (1993,1997),
Ae.I.E?oaeeiaa (1995), A.I.??eaoiiiaa (1995). A.N.Oaeaeaoe (1989).

Aaeeeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae i?i noai oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo eiia?oe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? i?noeoueny a ?ioi?iaoe?eieo aeaeaiiyo IIE, a oaeiae o
n?aooyo. aenooiao, ?ioa?a’th caniaai ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ea??aiee?a
ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo — O.A.Naia?ai/a (1997). ?.Iaoiaea (1994), I.Iaeia
(1993).

2

A oii aea /an iecea aniaeo?a eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? aeiaaa? a?eueo
iiaeeaeaiiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co. Cie?aia, iaaeinoaoiuei aeeaiei
aeine?aeaeai? ia’?eoeai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae noaiiaeaiiy
oa ?icaeoeo eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?, aioo??oi?
iaoai?cie cae?eniaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieie no?oeoo?aie ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo, ia
a?aei?aoeueiaai? iiaiith i??ith aeo?aei? i?eioeeie oa e?eoa???
?noi?e/ii? ia??iaeecaoe?? eiia?oe?ae?caoe??.

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo ia ?aae?ciaaiee nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o? ia ??cieo ??aiyo eiai
cae?eniaiiy. Iaoeiaiio aiae?co ia i?aeeyaaee oaeiae iniaeeaino?
cae?eniaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? no?oeoo?aie ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo
o e?a?iao c ??cieie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie nenoaiaie.

A?eueo noai?i? iaoeiai? ioe?iee aeiaaathoue oaeiae iaaaoeai? aniaeoe,
ye? i?eaiinyoueny eiia?oe?ae?caoe??th o no/aniee ie?ii?enueeee ?oo.
Aaaeeeaa i?noea o iaoeiaiio aiae?c? iiaeii? iin?noe ieoaiiy, ye?
iia’ycai? c aecia/aiiyi aoaeoeaiino? ea?oaaiiy eiia?oe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o? c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy iaaeei?enoaieo
iiaeeeainoae oa ?aca?a?a ?? c?inoaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c ieaiaie EAe?; ?iaioa aeeiiaia ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia
aeine?aeaeaiue c oaie 2.5.2 «Caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
nii?oeaiiai ia?eaoeiaa» ( iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 019ae 10541)
Caaaeaiiai ieaio ]O o aaeoc? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa nii?oo ia 1998-2000
?iee.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — c’ynoaaoe ia’?eoeaia i?ae??oioy oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? no/aniiai ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo, aecia/eoe
oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o/aniee?a ie?ii?enueeiai
?ooo.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?acoeueoao ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o? oa aecia/eoe ia oeueiio i?ae??oio? ci?no
eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo.

2. Cae?enieoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio ia??iaeecaoe?th ?icaeoeo
eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?.

3. Ciiaeoethaaoe nenoaio eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ie?ii?enueeiio
nii?o?, aeyaeoe oa noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aca?iica’ycee i?ae i?aenenoaiaie.

4. Aecia/eoe aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?, yea ooieoe?iio? ia no/aniiio aoai?.

5. Aecia/eoe oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo.

3

6. C’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o? e?a?i, ye? ?icaeaathoueny (ia i?eeeaae? N????), oa
e?a?i c ia?ao?aeieie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie nenoaiaie (ia i?eeeaae?
Oe?a?ie).

Iaoeiaa iaa?/ia ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui:

— aia?oa o iiae?aieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo eiia?oe?eia ae?yeuei?noue a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?a? ?icaeyaeaeany ye neeaaeia aeeiai?/ia nenoaia,
oa?aeoa? ooieoe?iioaaiiy yei? iaoiiaeth?oueny ye ?? aioo??oiueith
no?oeoo?ith oa aca?iica’yceaie, oae ? ciai?oi?ie ca’yceaie c ?ioeie
nioe?aeueieie nenoaiaie;

— aecia/ai? ia’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? ie?ii?enueeiai
nii?oo, ye? aeieeaathoue c oa?aeoa?o ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? o aaeoc?
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo;

— ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?noi?e/i?
aoaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo nenoaie eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?;

— iaa?oioiaai? oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o aaeoc?
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny oei, ui o i?e
noi?ioeueiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?aai?caoe?? oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia ??cieo ??aiyo ea??aieoeoaa no/aniei
ie?ii?enueeei ?ooii. I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c aeei?enoaiiy eiie?aoieo
oi?i eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? aae?aniaai? iaoe?iiaeueiei ie?ii?enueeei
eii?oaoai oa iaoe?iiaeueiei oaaea?aoe?yi c aeae?a nii?oo N???? oa
Oe?a?ie c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae na?aaeiaeua, o yeiio aiie
cae?eniththoue naith eiia?oe?eio ae?yeuei?noue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oaeiae iiaeooue noaoe i?ae??oioyi aeey
/eoaiiy niaoeeo?no «Eiia?oe?ae?caoe?y a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?»
nooaeaioai aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa nii?oo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaaia o ?ic?iaeo iaoeiai? aaie, yea
aeine?aeaeo?oueny, iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? iei iiaiai iaoiaeieia?/iiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ?icaeyaeo noo? oa ci?noo eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?, a iaa?oiooaaii? iaiao?aeiino? ?? ?icaeyaeo ye
neeaaeii? nenoaie, o oi?ioaaii? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? noeoiiino?
e?eoa???a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
ia ??cieo ??aiyo ea?oaaiiy no/aniei ie?ii?enueeei nii?oii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeeaaeaeenue caeiaoaa/ai o aeaeyae? iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeae ia II
I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? -No/aniee ie?ii?enueeee nii?o» (Ee?a. 1997). ia
III I?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiaiio eiia?an «No/aniee ie?ii?enueeee nii?o»
(Aa?oaaa, 1999); Caaaeueiioe?a?inuee?e

4

iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? ani??aio?a aaeoc? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa
nii?oo (Euea?a, 1999), a oaeiae ia iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa nii?oo Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
oanoe iioae?eiaaieo ?iaioao: o /ioe?ueio iaoeiaeo noaooyo o i?ioan?eieo
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo aeo?iaeao oa aeaio oacao aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo
eiia?anao oa eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia
188 noi??ieao oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, o yeiio iaaaaeai? 169 aeaea?ae, na?aae
ieo 101 ?iaioa ?in?enueeith oa oe?a?inueeith iiaaie ? 68 ?ia?o
?iicaiieie. Aeena?oaoe?y ai?uo? 27 oaaeeoeue ? 6 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi aena?oeth? aeooaeuei?noue oaie, yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny, ca’ycie
aeine?aeaeaiiy c oaiaie IAe?, eiai iaoo oa caaea/?, ia??oioiao? iaoeiao
iiaecio aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue eiai
?acoeueoao?a, ai?uo? a?aeiiino? i?i iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a, eiai
ioae?eaoe?? c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oa

ai?iaaoe?? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Noai ieoaiiy, yea aea/a?oueny. Eiia?oe?ae?caoe?y
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo ye iaoeiaa i?iaeaia» a?aeia?aaeaiee nooi?iue
aea/aiiy oaie oa ?? ie?aieo ieoaiue ca aeaieie iiiia?ao?/ii? oa
ia??iaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??ae?a i?aeia?iaeieo oi?oi?a, eiioa?aioe?e
? io?oe?eieo aeieoiaio?a IIE;

i?iaiae?ciaai? i?aeoiaee ea??aiee?a i?aeia?iaeiiai ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo
oa IIE aei ioe?ithaaiiy i?ioeano eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? no/aniiai
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo, aecia/ai? iniiai? iai?yiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iaoiaeeea, iaoiaee oa i?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy »
iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— eiioaio-aiae?c iiiia?ao?/ii? oa ia??iaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, a oaeiae
io?oe?eieo aeieoiaio?a IIE, INO, IIE oa ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?eii-ea??aie/eo
no?oeoo? no/aniiai ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo;

— nenoaiii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee aiae?c ainiiaea?/i? ae?yeueiino? o aaeoc?
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo;

— nioe?ieia?/i? iaoiaee (aieaooaaiiy, iieooaaiiy, i?eaaoi? aan?aee);

— iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee oa ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co oeeo?iaeo
aeaieo i?i i?iaeaae i?aa ia oaeao?aineyoe?th Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?.

5

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Eiia?oe?ae?caoe?y ye oiiaa ?icaeoeo
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo» aena?oeththoueny oae? ieoaiiy ye «Nioe?aeuei?
ia?aaeoiiae noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? no/aniiai
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo» ? «Aoaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
eiia?oe?ae?caoe??»‘.

?ice?eaath/e ia?oa ieoaiiy, aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c iaiao?aeiino? ?icaeyaeo
ci?noo ?acoeueoaoo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?. Oaeith n iineoaa ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo (IIN), yea
oyaey? c naaa noeoiio ae?yeuei?noue o/aniee?a ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo, ui
ni?yiiaaia ia caaeiaieaiiy caieo?a niiaeeaa/?a. IIN
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny neeaaeiith aaaaoieiiiiiaioiith no?oeoo?ith. Oea
ia’?eoeaii iaoiiaeaia nooi?noth ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo. Aeoiaey/e c eiai
??oioiaieo i?eioeei?a, ye? cao?eniaai? a Ie?ii?enuee?e oa?o??, iiaeia
aeae?eeoe iniiai? eiiiiiaioe ci?noo IIN, ye? aecia/athoue ?? ei?eni?noue
aeey niiaeeaa/?a ye iioaioe?eiiai oiaa?o: 1) eoeueoo?ii-na?oiaeyaeiee;
2) eiioi?eaoeaiee; 3) iie?oe/iee; 4) aeaeiaeuiee. Aiie o?nii iia’ycai?
i?ae niaith, ia iiaeooue ?aae?ciaoaaoenue ie?aii iaeei a?ae iaeiiai. A
neeo oeueiai o nai?e aca?iiae?? aiie aecia/athoue iaiiaoi?i?noue IIN ye
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oaiiiaia, ?? ??cieoeth a?ae ?ioeo aeae?a
iineoa.

Ca oiia ?eieiaeo noinoie?a IIN iaaeeeth/ii ia?aoai?th?oueny o oiaa?.
yeee ian. nai?o niiaeeaa/?a. O ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y
niiaeeaa/?a ca e?eoa???i iaoe aeei?enoaiiy IIN. Aeae?eythoueny aea?
iniiai? a?oie niiaeeaa/?a: ia?oi?yaei? (aeyaea/?) oa ae?oai?yaei?
(i?aaenoaaieee ae?eiaiai na?oo, a oaeiae cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??).

Aaoi?ii a?aoiaioo?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i oa. ui i?ae??oioyi
eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo aenooia? i?ioean anoaiiaeaiiy
no?eeeo eiioaeo?a i?ae nii?oeaieie i?aai?caoe?yie oa ae?oai?yaeieie
niiaeeaa/aie IIN. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, eiia?oe?ae?caoe?y ie?ii?enueeiai
nii?oo ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean aca?iiiai caeeaeaiiy oa
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?ae o/anieeaie i?aeia?iaeiiai ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo oa
i?aaenoaaieeaie ae?eiaiai na?oo, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia c?inoath/eo
?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoyo ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo, aeei?enoaii? no/anieo
ea??aie/eo oaoiieia?e oa caaacia/o? ?aae?caoe?th ?ioa?an?a iaio noi??i.

Ae?oaa ieoaiiy i?enay/aia i?iaeai? ia??iaeecaoe?? i?ioeano
eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo. Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaai? e?eoa???
ia??iaeecaoe??, na?aae yeeo: noai ?eieo IIN ia eiie?aoiiio ?noi?e/iiio
aoai?. yeee ai?uo? oa?aeoa? caieoo oa i?iiiceoe?? ia IIN. niaoeeo?eo
aca?iei i?ae ieie; ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ??cieie neaiaioaie ?eieo, ia?aae
on?i oaeeie, a yeeo a?aeia?aaeathoueny iieoiie/? ia?aaaaeaiiy
«ia?oi?yaeieo» oa «ae?oai?yaeieo» niiaeeaa/?a IIN: oa?aeoa? oa oi?ie
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?eii-ea??aie/eo no?oeoo?
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo: iayai?noue niaoe?aeueieo i?ae?icaee?a aai
iinaaeiaeo in?a a i?aai?caoe?eii-ea??aie/eo no?oeoo?ao ie?ii?enueeiai
nii?oo. ye? caaacia/othoue eiia?oe?eio ae?yeuei?noue:

6

??aaiue ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? o/aniee?a ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo aei
o/ano? o eiia?oe?ei?e ae?yeueiino?; ??aaiue
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?.

Ea?oth/enue iaaaaeaieie e?eoa??yie, aaoi? aeae?ey? oa oa?aeoa?eco?
iniiai? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo:

ia?oee ia??iae — e?iaoeue XIX noie?ooy — 60-? ?iee XX noie?ooy:

ae?oaee ia??iae — 60-? — 70-? ?iee;

o?ao?e ia??iae — 80-? ?iee — e?iaoeue XX noie?ooy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Eiia?oe?eia ae?yeuei?noue a ie?ii?enueeiio
nii?o?» ?ica’ycothoueny caaea/?, ye? iia’ycai? c iiaeaethaaiiyi nenoaie
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o/aniee?a i?aeia?iaeiiai ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo,
oa?aeoa?enoeeith ?? i?aenenoai.

Nenoaia eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o? ian
‘???a?o?/io no?oeoo?o. Iiaeia aeae?eeoe ieceo ??aiaaeo i?aenenoai:

1 — eiia?oe?eia ae?yeuei?noue, yea cae?enith?oueny ia aeiaaeueiiio
(na?oiaiio) ??ai?;

11 — eiia?oe?eia ae?yeuei?noue, yea cae?enith?oueny ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio
??ai?;

III — eiia?oe?eia ae?yeuei?noue, yea cae?enith?oueny ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio
??ai?;

1O — eiia?oe?eia ae?yeuei?noue, yea iia’ycaia c i?aeaioiaeith oa
i?iaaaeaiiyi Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?.

Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui eiia?oe?eia ae?yeuei?noue a ie?ii?enueeiio
nii?o? a nioe?aeueiith nenoaiith. Oea nenoaia a?aee?eoiai oeio, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny /eneaiieie ciai?oi?ie ca’yceaie. Aiia n i?aenenoaiith
nenoaie ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo oa ooieoe?iio? a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa ??
?icaeoeo. A naith /a?ao, nenoaia ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo aenooia? iaei??th
c i?aenenoai noni?euenoaa, oa?aeoa? ooieoe?iioaaiiy yei? aecia/a?oueny
noni?eueieie iio?aaaie, ye? iiaeia caaeiaieueieoe ca aeiiiiiaith iineoa
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo. Caaea/ath eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ? ?
caaacia/aiiy oiia aeey iaeneiaeueiiai caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa noni?euenoaa o
IIN. Ia iaio aaaeeeaith ?? caaea/ath ? caeo/aiiy ?ano?n?a, ye? iayai? o
noni?euenoa?, aeey ?icaeoeo ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo.

I?ae i?aenenoaiaie ?niothoue aca?iica’ycee, ye? o nai?e noeoiiino?
aecia/athoue oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo nenoaie. I??i?eoaoia iieiaeaiiy iin?aea?
i?aenenoaia aeiaaeueii? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. I?ae iath oa ?ioeie
i?aenenoaiaie anoaiiaeththoueny aa?oeeaeuei? ca’ycee. Noa’?eoe
aeiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? — IIE, INO, i?aaenoaaeyth/e aa?oiaio aeaaeo
ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo, anoaiiaeththoue «i?aaeea a?e» o an?e nenoai?,
eiio?ieththoue ?? aeeiiaiiy caaacia/oth/e oei naiei oe?e?ni?noue nenoaie
oa ?aeeio ni?yiiaai?noue ?? ?icaeoeo.

No/ania eiia?oe?eia ae?yeuei?noue IIE ni?yiiaaia ia aeinyaiaiiy oaeeo
oe?eae:

7

— caaacia/aiiy iiaii? o?iainiai? iacaeaaeiino? ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo oa
iaea?aeaiiy caniaaie oeueiai iiaeeeaino? iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae o ?icaeoeo
ie?ii?cia o na?o?;

— ?ic?iaea aeiaaino?ieiai? i?ia?aie yea iiaea a?oiooaaoeny ia oni?oi?e
ae?yeueiino? iino?eii ae?th/eo i?aai?caoe?eieo eii?oao?a Ie?ii?enueeeo
?ai?, ia i?ioeaaao a?aeoai?aiith eiia?oe?eieo no?oeoo? aeey eiaeieo
iiaeo Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?;

— caaacia/aiiy ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?iciiae?eo i?eaooe?a o an?o aaeocyo
ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo i?ae IEI?, iaoe?iiaeueieie ie?ii?enueeeie eii?oaoaie
oa ?o eiioeiaioaeueieie anioe?aoe?yie, i?aeia?iaeieie nii?oeaieie
oaaea?aoe?yie oa ?ioeie i?aeia?iaeieie nii?oeaieie i?aai?caoe?yie,
aeeth/ath/e o?iainiao i?aeo?eieo e?a?iai, ye? ?icaeaathoueny:

ciaioaiiy iiaeeeaino? »aaceiio?ieueii? eiia?oe?ae?caoe??»
ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo, nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino? eiia?oe?eieo ia?oia??a oa
eiio?ieue aeei?enoaiiy ie?ii?enueei? neiaie?ee.

Aeinyaiaiiy aeacaieo oe?eae caaacia/o?oueny oeyoii ?aae?caoe?? iecee
ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ia?ai, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue:

i?ia?aie ae?eiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c oaeaa?c?eieie eiiiai?yie ia
i?aaeiao i?iaeaaeo ?i i?aa ia cae?eniaiiy o?aineyoe?e ciaaaiue
Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?;

?aeeaiii-niiini?nuee? i?ia?aie (OI? Sponsor Programmes); -e?oeaic?ei?
i?ia?aie ( ION Licensing );

— i?ia?aie ae?eiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c iinoa/aeueieeaie (IOC
Suppliers);

— i?ia?aie aeioneo ie?ii?enueeeo iiiao (IOC Coin Programmes);

— i?ia?aie aeioneo ie?ii?enueeeo iiooiaeo ia?ie (Olimpic Philatelic
Programmes).

?aae?caoe?y aeacaieo i?ia?ai i?eiineoue ie?ii?enueeiio ?ooo iino?eii
c?inoath/? i?eaooee ( oaae. 1,2).

I’yoee ?icae?e «Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?» i?enay/aiee aecia/aiith oeyo?a aaeineiiaeaiiy
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia iaaeo noie?oue.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?ic?iaeai? iei e?eoa???, aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa,
ui c 80-o ?ie?a niinoa??aa?oueny no?eea oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy
nioe?aeueii? oa aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?. Aiia ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iecoe?
iiiaio?a: cia/iiio ?ino? iiceoeaiiai ?i?aeaea ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo o
na?o?; ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? e?a?i-o/aniee?a Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?;
nei?i/aii? aac?ia?ooy o e?a?iao-i?aai?caoi?ao ciaaaiue, iniaeeai o
i?noao oa ?aa?iiao, ye? ? aaciina?aaei?ie ainiiaea?yie ciaaaiue;
c?inoaii? ??aiy ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? c aieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo ia i?aenoaa? i?eioeei?a
«aae?aniai? eiia?oe?ae?caoe?» («addressing commercialisation»), yea
ni?yiiaaia ia aei?noea iaiaaeaiiy noa?e aieeao eiia?oe?eieo noinoie?a a
ie?ii?enueeiio

8

nii?o?; aaeineiiaeaii? ?iciiae?eo i?eaooe?a a?ae ?aae?caoe??
eiia?oe?eieo i?ia?ai i?ae o/anieeaie ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo; ?ino?
?iaanoeoe?e aei nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?e e?a?i oa i?no-ainiiaea??a
Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Caaaeuei? i?eaooee a?ae i?iaeaaeo oaeaa?c?eieo i?aa
o 80-90-o ?ieao

I?eaooee, iei aeie. NOA??EI?noea i?iaaaeaiiy Ie?ii?aaee ?a?e
Ie?ii?aaeeCeiia? Ie?ii?enuee? ?a?e1980

1980

1984

1984

1988

1988

1992

1992

1994

1996Iineaa

Eaee-Iean?ae

Ein-Aiaeaeaean

Na?a?ai

Naoe

Eaeaa??

Aa?naeiia

Aeueaa?a?eue E?eeaoaiia?

Aoeaioa101

287

403

636

896

21

103

325

292

353

C 70-o ?ie?a, cie?aia, aei ?iciiae?eo i?eaooe?a, ye? io?eiothoueny a?ae
i?iaeaaeo i?aa ia oaeao?aineyoe?th Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?, oa?eoee IIE. IIE
ia?a?aoiao? eiooe IIEai /a?ac i?ia?aio «Ie?ii?enueea nie?aea?i?noue»,
yea caoaa?aeaeaia c iaoith i?aai?caoe?? ??cieo eo?n?a, nai?ia??a c
i?aeaioiaee eaae??a, iaaeaiiy oaoi?/ii? aeiiiiiae ie?ii?enueeiio ?ooo,
ia?aae on?i o e?a?iao, ye? ?icaeaathoueny. Oae, o 1982-1992 ?ieao c
oe??th iaoith aoei aeo?a/aii 24,4 iei. aeiea??a. Ie??i oiai, IIE niea/o?
IIE /anoeio aeo?ao ia o/anoue a ?a?ao. Iai?eeeaae, aeey o/ano? a ?a?ao o
Eaeaa?? oa Naoe? IIE io?eiaa a?eueo, i?ae 23 iei. aeiea??a.

Oaaeeoey 2

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aeeaiii-niiini?nueeeo i?ia?ai OII

Iacaa i?ia?aie?iee ?aae?caoe??*enei eiiiai?eIaea?aeai? i?eaooee iei.
aeie. NOAOII 1

OII 2

OIIC1985-1988

1989-1992

1993-19969

12 1097

175

300

Iine?aeiaii c?inoa? /anoea IIE ? o ?iciiae?e? i?eaooe?a, ye?
iaea?aeothoueny a?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai OII. Oae. yeui o 1988 ?ioe?
aiia neeaaeaea eeoa a?ey 20% (OII — 1), oi o 1992 ?ioe? — 42%. sseui
aiai?eoe i?i aaniethoi?

oeeo?e, oi i?eaooee IIE a?ae niiini?nueeeo i?ia?ai c?inee a?ae 20 iei.
aeiea??a o 1984 ?ioe? aei 194 iei. aeiea??a o 1994 ?ioe?, oiaoi iaeaea o
aeanyoue ?ac?a. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue
i?ia?ai ie?ii?enueeiai ia?eaoeiaa aeey ia?iae?a, ye? i?aaiooue aeoeaii
?ioaa?oaaoe aei i?aeia?iaeiiai ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo.

Nooo?ai ci?ieeanue ? no?oeoo?a i?eaooe?a, ye? iaea?aeothoue i?aeii?oaoe
Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?. sseui aei e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a ieoiia aaaa i?eaooe?a
a?ae i?iaeaaeo oaeaa?c?eieo i?aa noaa?eueii neeaaeaea 80% caaaeueii?
noie eiia?oe?eieo i?eaooe?a i?aai?caoi??a ?ai?, oi ia e?iaoeue 90-o
?ie?a aiia i?aeoe/ii c??aiyeanue c /anoeith i?eaooe?a, ye? io?eiothoueny
a?ae eiiiai?e-niiini??a (?en.1).

XVIII ceiia? Ie?ii?enuee? ?a?e (Iaaaii, 1998 ?.)

?a?e XXVI Ie?ii?aaee (Aoeaioa, 1996 ?.)

A — i?aaa ia oaeao?aineyoeeth; A — niiini?noai; A — aeeaou;

A- eeoeaice?iaaiea; Ae — ae?oaea i?iaeou

?en.1. No?oeoo?a i?eaooe?a IEI? a 90-? ?iee.

10

A oie aea /an aaoi? cacia/a?, ui c?inoaiiy aoaeoo o ianooaaao on???
nenoaie eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? aeinyaa?oueny aieiaiei /eiii caaaeyee
aeoeai?e (oi/a ? ia iicaaaeai?e iaaeie?e?a) eiia?oe?ei?e iie?oeoe? IIE.
Aianie aea ?ioeo i?aenenoai (ca aeiyoeii, iiaeeeai, i?aenenoaie
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, yea iia’ycaia c i?aeaioiaeith oa i?iaaaeaiiyi
Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?) ia iiaea caaeiaieueiyoe iio?aaai ?icaeoeo
ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo o XXI a?oe?.

Oea noino?oueny ia?aae on?i oaeeo eaiie, yeeie ? IIE e?a?i, ye?
?icaeaathoueny, c ianoi?iiaaieie ie?ii?enueeeie o?aaeeoe?yie (N???y), a
oaeiae IIE iieiaeeo iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa c ia?ao?aeieie noni?eueieie
nenoaiaie (Oe?a?ia, ?in?y, NIAe).

Ana oea aeiaaa? aianaiiy ei?aeoea aei ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?, ye? aeicaieeee a o
ia?niaeoea? ci?oeieoe oa iineeeoe oaiaeaioe?th aei c?inoaiiy ??
aoaeoeaiino?.

AENIIAEE

Eiia?oe?ae?caoe?y ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo ca no/anieo oiia ? iaa?ae’?iiith
oa?aeoa?iith ?enith i?aeia?iaeiiai ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo oa iaia’yceiaith
oiiaith eiai oni?oiiai ?icaeoeo. Aiia caeiiii??ii ii?iaeaeaia ci?noii
ae?yeueiino? o aaeoc? ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie
oiiaaie eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Niaoeeo?ea ?icai?oaiiy i?ioeano eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? a ie?ii?enueeiio
nii?o? o o?e /e ?io?e e?a?i? iaoiiaeth?oueny nooiaiai iiaiioe ?eieo
iineoa ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo, ??aiai ?icaeiooino? eiai neaiaio?a, a
oaeiae oa?aeoa?ii aca?iiae?? i?ae ieie. Eiia?oe?ae?caoe?y a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o? ? iino?eii ci?iiei nioe?aeueiei oaiiiaiii, yeee o
nai?io ?icaeoeo iine?aeiaii i?ieoia ieceo ?noi?e/ieo aoai?a.

Aca?iia i?aaiaiiy iaeei aei iaeiiai i?aaenoaaiee?a a?ciano oa
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo, yea aeieea? ca oiia
?eieo, ?aae?co?oueny ia i?aeoeoe? o oi?i? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
o/aniee?a ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo. Aiia oyaey? c naaa neeaaeio aeeiai?/io
nioe?aeueio nenoaio a?aee?eoiai oeio, yea neeaaea?oueny c iecee
i?aenenoai, ye? aca?iiiia’ycai? oa aca?iiae?thoue i?ae niaith ca
aeiiiiiaith aa?oeeaeueieo oa ai?eciioaeueieo ca’yce?a a?aeiia?aeii aei
aieiaii? iaoe eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?. I?ia?aeia ?ieue
o nenoai? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaeaaeeoue i?aenenoai? eiia?oe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, yea cae?enith?oueny ia aeiaaeueiiio (na?oiaiio) ??ai?.
Nenoaia eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o? ca aeiiiiiaith
ciai?oi?o ca’yce?a aca?iiae?? c ?ioeie nioe?aeueieie nenoaiaie:
nenoaiith ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo, nenoaiith a?ciano oiui. A ?acoeueoao?
aca?iiae?? aiia caa??aa? oa a?aeoai?th? nai? aeanoeaino? ye nioe?aeueii?
nenoaie.

11

Aieea eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o? ia ?icaeoie
ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo oa nioe?aeueiee i?ia?an i?inoaaeo?oueny /a?ac ci?ie
?? aoaeoeaiino?. Aeoiaey/e ?c aioo??oiueiai ci?noo eiia?oe?ae?caoe??,
iiaeia aeae?eeoe aea? neeaaeia? ?? aoaeoeaiino?: nioe?aeueio oa
aeiiii?/io. Ia?oa a?aeia?aaeo? ia?aaaaeii ye?niee aniaeo, a ae?oaa —
e?euee?niee aniaeo cae?eniaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Aiae?c
aeeiai?ee aeei?enoaieo o ?iaio? ye?nieo oa e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui, ii/eiath/e c 80-o ?ie?a, niinoa??aa?oueny no?eea
c?inoaiiy ye nioe?aeueii?, oae ? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? eiia?oe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?. A oie aea /an iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? no?eio?oueny iaaaoeaieie iane?aeeaie eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?, ia iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa iiaeieaiiy yeeo ni?yiiaai?
coneeey o/aniee?a i?aeia?iaeiiai ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo, na?oiai?
a?iiaaenueeino?.

C iaoith ye?niiai aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny:

1. IIE, INO, IIE, ye? o?eaaeee /an cae?eniththoue nenoaiaoeciaaio
eiia?oe?eio ae?yeuei?noue, ?ic?iaeoe oa ?aae?coaaoe caoiaee c? ci?ie
ci?noo ae?eiaeo ca’yce?a c eiiiai?yie, ye? ni?a?ia?oie/athoue c ieie, c
oei, uia iaaeaoe oeei ca’yceai oa?aeoa?o ?aaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, yea
a?oioo?oueny ia oi/iiio ?ic?aooieo oa aca?ii?e aeaiae?.

C oe??th iaoith:

— INO oa IIE noai?eoe niaoe?aeuei? i?aaie (a?aeae?ee aai eii?n??), ye? a
caaacia/oaaee ia i?ioan?eiiio ??ai? (o e?aeiueiio aeiaaeeo, ia
aeia?ia?eueieo canaaeao) ?ic?iaeo oa ?aae?caoe?th eiia?oe?eieo i?ia?ai;

— INO oa IIE anoaiiaeoe ae?eia? eiioaeoe c i?aeia?iaeieie
i?aai?caoe?yie, ye? niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia ieoaiiyo iaaeaiiy
eiinoeueoaoeaieo aai iina?aaeieoeueeeo iineoa nii?oeaiei i?aai?caoe?yi
a?aeiinii cae?eniaiiy ?o eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?;

— IIE, IIE, INO ?ic?iaeoe iaoai?ci i?aeoe/ii? o/ano? eiaeiiai ?c nai?o
/eai?a o i?iiaaaiae? aniaeo?a no/aniiai ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo, ye?
aecia/athoue eiai eiia?oe?eio i?eaaaeea?noue, c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy
ca’yce?a c i?aaenoaaieeaie ae?eiaiai na?oo. ?acii c oeei ia?aaeaa/eoe
caoiaee, ye? aeeeth/athoue iiaeeea? aeiaaeee iaaacei?eneeaiai
i?ioaeoe?iiae?cio c aieo /eai?a IIE, IIE, INO ?ioa?an?a IEI? aai
i?aaenoaaiee?a ae?eiaiai na?oo;

— IIE ?ic?iaeoe iaoai?ci aeinyaiaiiy caaeainoaaiiy i?ae ia?aaeaa/oaaiei
aeiiii?/iei oa nioe?aeueiei aoaeoii eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?ae /an
aeai?o i?noa-ainiiaea?y Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?;

IIE iaaeaaaoe nenoaiaoe/io iaoiaee/io oa o?iainiao aeiiiiiao a
i?aai?caoe?? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aeia?iaeiei nii?oeaiei
oaaea?aoe?yi oa iaoe?iiaeueiei ie?ii?enueeei eii?oaoai, ye? ia’?eoeaii
ia iathoue aeinoaoi?o ?i?aeaeaaeo iiaeeeainoae.

12

2. INO, OeIE, nie?ath/enue ia ?ic?iaeaiee IIE i?aeo?ae, ii?aoethaaoe
iaoai?ci ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?iciiae?eo i?eaooe?a, ye? io?eiothoueny a?ae
?aae?caoe?? eiia?oe?eieo i?ia?ai. Iniaeeao oaaao aa?oi i?eae?eeoe
i?iaeai? noeioethaaiiy on?o nii?oniai?a-o/aniee?a Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai?, a
ia eeoa ia?aiiaeoe?a oa i?eca??a.

3. IIE N???? cae?enieoe i?aeaioia/o ?iaioo, yea ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy
?aaeueieo ia?aaeoiia aeey i?iaaaeaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?:

aecia/eoe ye ia?oi/a?aiao caaea/o oi?ioaaiiy o na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy
e?a?ie ( na?aae ieo ? o i?aaenoaaiee?a ae?eiaiai na?oo ) /?oeiai ia?aco
no/aniiai ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo ye oaeiai, yea ai?uo? o nia? aaeee?
iiaeeeaino? ye o ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio, oae ? o ?icaeoeo
a?o/eciyiiai a?ciano. Aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe o ?ica’ycaii? aeaii?
caaea/? iiaeeeaino? cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??:

noai?eoe eii?n?th o neeaae? IIE, yea caeiyeany a ii?aoethaaiiyi ieoaiue
c? neeaaeaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? eiia?oe?eieo i?ia?ai, aeoiaey/e c?
niaoeeo?ee N????:

?acii c iaoe?iiaeueieie oaaea?aoe?yie aecia/eoe aeaee nii?oo (a oaeiae
ie?aieo nii?oniai?a), o yeeo e?a?ia aeinyaea iaecia/i?oeo oni?o?a ia
i?aeia?iaeieo ciaaaiiyo, ia i?aaeiao aeei?enoaiiy ?o ?i?aeaea i?ae /an
?ica’ycaiiy eiia?oe?eieo i?iaeai;

— i?iaanoe na??th nai?ia??a i?ae aa?aeith IIE aeey /eai?a IIE oa ?ioeo
oao?aoe?a, yeei aeiaaaeaoueny ?ic?iaeoe oa ?aae?coaaoe eiia?oe?ei?
i?ia?aie;

i?aeaiooaaoe caeiiii?iaeoe aai aeiiiaiaiiy aei ae?th/eo caeii?a, o yeeo
ia?aaeaa/eoe caoiaee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?. ?aae?coaaoe caoiaee th?eaee/ii? aa?aio??
aeeeth/ieo i?aa IIE N???? ia eiia?oe?eia aeei?enoaiiy ie?ii?enueei?
neiaie?ee;

aianoe ci?ie oa aeiiiaiaiiy aei Noaoooo IIE N????, ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue
eiai eiia?oe?eio ae?yeuei?noue a?aeiia?aeii aei iieiaeaiue Ie?ii?enueei?
oa?o??.

4. IIE Oe?a?ie cae?enieoe caoiaee, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia caaacia/aiiy
nenoaiaoe/ii? ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? c o?aooaaiiyi iiioey?iino?
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo na?aae ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
neooaoe??, yea neeaeany;

— aea/eoe aeina?ae eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? IIE, INO, IIE ?ioeo e?a?i.
C oe??th iaoith i?iaanoe i?ae aa?aeith IIE na??th oaiaoe/ieo nai?ia??a
aeey ea??aiee?a oa oao?aoe?a nii?oeaieo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie;

— nie?ath/enue ia i?aeo?eieo IIE, anoaiiaeoe eiioaeoe c i?aeia?iaeieie
eiiiai?yie (15Ue, ?II oiui), ye? niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia iaaeaii?
ia?eaoeiaiaeo iineoa nii?oeaiei i?aai?caoe?yi;

noi?ioaaoe ?aoaeueii i?ae?a?ai? oa aeia?a ioi?ieai? iaeaoe i?i ae?eiaa
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ia?aaeaa/oaaiei niiini?ai. ?iciianthaeeoe ?o a ia?oo
/a?ao na?aae ?iicaiieo eiiiai?e, o oiio /ene? ae?th/eo a Oe?a?i?;

13

— ii?aoethaaoe ieoaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy niiini?nueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue (ioe?a) c /enea a?o/eciyieo eiiiai?e o i?aeo?eieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ie?ii?enueeeo eiiaiae;

?i?oe?thaaoe i?eeiyooy caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a aai aeiiiaiaiue aei /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie c iaoith iaaeaiiy i?euea eiiiai?yi, ye?
iiaeathoue o?iainiao /e ?ioo aeiiiiiao iaoe?iiaeueiei ie?ii?enueeei
eiiaiaeai;

— ai?iaaaeeoe o i?aeoeeo aeionee na??e iai’yoieo iiooiaeo ia?ie oa
iiiao, ye? i?enay/ai? o/ano? oe?a?inueeeo nii?oniai?a a Ie?ii?enueeeo
?a?ao.

Nienie ?ia?o, ye? iioae?eiaai? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Caeaeea I. I?aaeiinueee noaiiaeaiiy e ?acaeoey eiiia?oeeaaeecaoeee
ieeiieeneiai nii?oa: Iaaeaaia?ea, ineoieia?y oa iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i?
i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue i?ae
?aae. ??iaeiaa N.N.

— Oa?e?a:OOI?,1999. — ? 13. — N. 52-56.

2. Caeaeea I. Yooaeoeaiinoue eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ieeiieeneii
nii?oa: Oece/aneia ainieoaiea nooaeaioia oai?/aneeo niaoeeaeueiinoae.
Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia iiae ?aae. A?iaeiaa N.N. -Oa?ueeia:OOIE, 1999. —
? 7. — N.45-49.

3. Caeae?? I. Nenoaia eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?
//Oai??y ? iaoiaeeea o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo. Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iee
aeo?iae.-1999.-? 1.-N. 73-81.

4. Caeae?? I. Oi?aae?iiy eiia?oe?ae?caoe??th ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo:

Iieiaea nii?oeaia iaoea Oe?a?ie. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae ani??aio?a
aaeoc? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa nii?oo. — Euea?a: EAe?OE, 1999. — N. 65-71.

5. Caeaeea I. Niiini?noai e eiiia?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue IIE // Oacenu
II Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iao/iiai eiia?anna «Nia?aiaiiue ieeiieneee nii?o».
— E.: OAOOAN, 1997. — N. 25 (ia aiae. ycuea).

6. Caeaeea I., Ie/oaea TH.I. Eiiia?oeeaeecaoeey ieeiieeneiai nii?oa ia
ii?iaa XXI noieaoey: i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau // Oacenu III
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iao/iiai eiia?anna «Nia?aiaiiue ieeiieneee nii?o».
-Aa?oaaa: AOA, 1999. — N. 444-445 (ia aiae. ycue?ea).

Caeae?? Iooaiiaae. Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? no/aniiai
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo c? niaoe?aeueiino? 24.00.01. — Ie?ii?enueeee ?
i?ioan?eiee nii?o, Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?
nii?oo Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/aii iaoeiaiio aiae?co i?ioeano eiia?oe?ae?caoe??
ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo ye iaeiiai c aecia/aeueieo oaeoi??a eiai ?icaeoeo
ia

14

iaae? noie?oue. Aeyaeai? ia’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae oa iniiai? oaiaeaioe??
?icai?oaiiy i?ioeano eiia?oe?ae?caoe??, aeoiaey/e ye ?c aioo??oi?o
caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo, oae ? c niaoeeo?ee
ciai?oiueiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, iniaeeainoae
no/aniiai na?oiaiai ?eieo.

A ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeaii nenoaio eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ?? oe?eueiaee eiiiiiaio oa
aioo??oi? ca’ycee, i?iaiae?ciaaii eiia?oe?ei? i?ia?aie o/aniee?a
i?aeia?iaeiiai ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo. Aaoi?ii iaa?oioiaai? e?eoa???
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
ie?ii?enueeiio nii?o?, aecia/aii aieiai? iai?yiee ?? iiaeaeueoiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy.

?iaioa i?noeoue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? I?aeia?iaeiiio ie?ii?enueeiio eii?oaoo,
i?aeia?iaeiei nii?oeaiei oaaea?aoe?yi, iaoe?iiaeueieie ie?ii?enueeei
eii?oaoai uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy ?oiuei? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ie?ii?enueeee nii?o. I?aeia?iaeiee ie?ii?enueeee
eii?oao, i?aeia?iaei? nii?oeai? oaaea?aoe??, iaoe?iiaeuei? ie?ii?enuee?
eii?oaoe, eiia?oe?ae?caoe?y ie?ii?enueeiai nii?oo.

Caeaeea Iooaiiaae. Iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee nia?aiaiiiai
ieeiieeneiai nii?oa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe ii
oece/aneiio ainieoaieth e nii?oo ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 24.00.01 —
Ieeiieeneee e i?ioanneiiaeueiue nii?o. Iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao
oece/aneiai ainieoaiey e nii?oa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Enneaaeiaaiea iinayuaii aiaeeco i?ioeanna eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee
nia?aiaiiiai ieeiieeneiai nii?oa ia i?aaeiao auyaeaiey caeiiiia?iinoae
aai noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey, a oaeaea ia?niaeoea inouanoaeaiey a iiaii
ouny/aeaoee.

?anniao?eaay i?ioeann eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee, aaoi? enoiaeeo ec
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aiaeeca niaea?aeaiey ?acoeueoaoa
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea a ieeiieeneii nii?oa —
oneoae ieeiieeneiai nii?oa (OIN), eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niaieoiioth aeayoaeueiinoue o/anoieeia ieeiieeneiai aeaeaeaiey,
iai?aaeaiioth ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea cai?inia iio?aaeoaeae. OIN
oa?aeoa?ecoaony neiaeiie iiiaieiiiiiaioiie no?oeoo?ie.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee OIN iaecaaaeii i?aa?auaaony a oiaa?,
eioi?ue eiaao naieo iio?aaeoaeae. A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey
iio?aaeoaeae ii e?eoa?eth oeaee eniieueciaaiey OIN. Auaeaeyaony aeaa
iniiaiua a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae: 1) ia?ae/iua (c?eoaee) e 2) aoi?e/iua
(i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaeiaiai ie?a, a oaeaea n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee).

15

Aaoi?ii a?aoiaioe?oaony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi iniiaie
eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee ieeiieeneiai nii?oa aunooiaao i?ioeann onoaiiaeaiey
onoie/eauo eiioaeoia iaaeaeo nii?oeaiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e aoi?e/iuie
iio?aaeoaeyie OIN. Enoiaey ec yoiai, eiiia?oeeaeecaoeey ieeiieeneiai
nii?oa ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?ioeann acaeiiiai naeeaeaiey e
nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ieeiieeneiai
aeaeaeaiey e i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aeaeiaiai ie?a, iniiaaiiue ia
aic?anoathueo ?uii/iuo aiciiaeiinoyo ieeiieeneiai nii?oa,
eniieueciaaiee nia?aiaiiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo oaoiieiaee e iaania/eaathuee
?aaeecaoeeth eioa?ania iaaeo noi?ii.

A ?aaioa auaeaeaiu e ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu iniiaiua ia?eiaeu ?acaeoey
eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee ieeiieeneiai nii?oa ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey
iainiiaaiiuo aaoi?ii e?eoa?eaa ia?eiaeecaoeee.

Ioaeaeueiue ?acaeae ?aaiou iinayuai iiaeaee?iaaieth nenoaiu eiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe o/anoieeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ieeiieeneiai aeaeaeaiey,
oa?aeoa?enoeeie aa iiaenenoai. Aaoi?ii i?aaenoaaeaia iiaeaeue nenoaiu
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ieeiieeneii nii?oa, eioi?ay ninoieo ec
?yaea o?iaiaauo iiaenenoai:

I — eiiia?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, inouanoaeyaiay ia aeiaaeueiii
(ie?iaii)o?iaia;

II — eiiia?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, inouanoaeyaiay ia ?aaeiiaeueiii
o?iaia;

III — eiiia?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, inouanoaeyaiay ia iaoeeiiaeueiii
o?iaia;

IV — eiiia?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, naycaiiay n iiaeaioiaeie e
i?iaaaeaieai Ieeiieeneeo ea?.

Iaaeaeo iiaenenoaiaie nouanoaotho acaeiinayce, eioi?ua a naiae
niaieoiiinoe ii?aaeaeytho oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey nenoaiu. I?ei?eoaoiia
iieiaeaiea caieiaao iiaenenoaia aeiaaeueiie eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aaaeiia ianoi a ?aaioa caieiaao iainiiaaiea iooae niaa?oainoaiaaiey
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ieeiieeneii nii?oa ia ?oaaaea noieaoee.
Eniieuecoy ?ac?aaioaiiua ei e?eoa?ee, aaoi? i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo i oii,
/oi n 80-o aiaeia iaaethaeaaony onoie/eaay oaiaeaioeey iiauoaiey
nioeeaeueiie e yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a
ieeiieeneii nii?oa.

A oi aea a?aiy aaoi? ioia/aao, /oi ?ino yooaeoa a ianooaaao anae nenoaiu
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeinoeaaaony aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y
aeoeaiie (oioy e ia eeoaiiie iaaeinoaoeia) eiiia?/aneie iieeoeea IIE.
Aeeaae aea ae?oaeo iiaenenoai (ca eneeth/aieai, iiaeaeoe, iiaenenoaiu
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n iiaeaioiaeie e i?iaaaeaieai

16

Ieeiieeneeo ea?) ia iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoyi ?acaeoey
ieeiieeneiai aeaeaeaiey a XXI aaea.

Yoi eanaaony i?aaeaea anaai oaeeo eo caaiueaa, eioi?uie yaeythony IIE
?acaeaathueony no?ai n iaonoiyaoeieny ieeiieeneeie o?aaeeoeeyie (Ne?ey),
a oaeaea IIE iieiaeuo iacaaeneiuo ainoaea?noa n ia?aoiaeiuie
iauanoaaiiuie nenoaiaie (Oe?aeia, ?inney, no?aiu NIA).

Ana yoi o?aaoao aianaiey ei??aeoeaia a ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ieeiieeneii nii?oa, eioi?ua iicaieeee au a
ia?niaeoeaa cae?aieoue e oneeeoue oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo aa yooaeoeaiinoe.
Aaoi?ii i?aaeeiaeai eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
niaa?oainoaiaaiea eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe o/anoieeia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ieeiieeneiai aeaeaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ieeiieeneee nii?o. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ieeiieeneee
eiieoao, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua nii?oeaiua oaaea?aoeee, iaoeeiiaeueiua
ieeiieeneea eiieoaou, eiiia?oeeaeecaoeey ieeiieeneiai nii?oa.

Zaydiye Mukhammad. The major tendencies in commercialization of the
modern Olympic sports. — Manuscript.

Thesis for defending the degree of Candidate of Science in Physical
Education and Sport in Specialty 24.00.01 — Olympic and Professional
Sports, National University of Physical Education and Sport of Ukraine,
Kyiv, 1999.

The study was dedicated to scientific analysis of commercialization
process in Olympic Sports as one of determinants in its development on
the threshold of centuries. Objective prerequisites and major tendencies
in the development of commercialization process were elicited issuing
from both internal regularities in the development of Olympic Sports and
specifics in external socio-economic environment, features in modem
world market.

In this work, a system of commercial activity in Olympic Sports was
presented, its purposeful components and internal relations were
characterized, commercial programs by participants of international
Olympic movement were analyzed. The author substantiated criteria of
socio-economic efficiency for commercial activity in Olympic Sports,
determined the major directions for its further improvement.

The work contains recommendations, to the International Olympic
Committee, International Sports Federations, National Olympic Committees
concerning the improvement of their commercial activity.

Key words: Olympic Sports, the International Olympic Committee,
International Sports Federations, National Olympic Committees,
commercialization of Olympic Sports.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 24.12. 1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ionaoiee.
Ae?oe ionaoiee. Ianya 1,0 ae?oe.a?e. Oe?aae 70 aec. Caiiaeaiiy ? 27.

Oiaa?enoai «Ciaiiy» Oe?a?ie- Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio?, 252005, Ee?a-5, aoe.
Aaeeea Aaneeuee?anueea, 57/3.

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