NOINUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AIA?I AAEA??E AANEEUeIAE*

OAeE 535.5.511:531.7

INIIAI? OEssOE AeINssAIAIIss A?AIE*IEO

IIAEEEAINOAE IAOIAeO AE?INIIAO???

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 01.04.01- o?ceea i?eeaae?a, aeaiaio?a ? nenoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

NOIE-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?eeeaaeii? o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Noie) oa
o AAO “Oaiaein?enueeee i?eeaaeiaoae?aiee caaiae ” (i. Oaiaein?y).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Naiaiaiei
Aeueaa?o ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo i?eeeaaeii?
o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Oaeeaae/ ?ai?
Aiae??eiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai?

Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iioeee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Iia?aaiye
Ieaenaiae? Aeieo?iae/,

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “23” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae55.051.02 o Noinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

244007, i. Noie, aoe. ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa, 2, ei?i.AO, aoae.216.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Noinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17” na?iiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee
I.A.Ai?enaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?e canoinoaaii? no/anieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a
ae?iniiao??y aeicaiey? ?ic?iaeoe oe?eo ieceo aaceiioaeoieo, ia?oei?aieo,
/ooeeaeo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio iiaa?oi? oa no?oeoo?e oiieeo
iiaa?oiaaeo ie?aie. Iaa?oue i?iooia oi/i?noue o aei??thaaii?
iiey?ecaoe?eieo eoo?a ( oa ( aeicaiey? aecia/eoe oiaueio iiaa?oiaai?
ie?aee c oi/i?noth aei ( 0,1 ii, a iieaciee caeiieaiiy — c oi/i?noth aei
o?aoueiai ciaea i?ney eiie. Aeniea /ooeea?noue iaoiaeo aeicaiey?
aeine?aeaeoaaoe o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane ia iiaa?oi? oaa?aeeo o?e oa
??aeei, o?enoth/e nio? /anoee iiiioa?o, iaeiae i?e oeueiio iniiaia
cia/aiiy ia? iiaeeea?noue aei??thaaiiy aeoaea iaeeo cnoa?a cia/aiue
eoo?a ( oa (, aea ia aaniethoia oi/i?noue aei??thaaiiy oeeo eoo?a. I?ioa
i?aeoe/ii aaaeeeaa caaea/a aecia/aiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? iaa?aeiieo
ia?aiao??a aaaaoioa?iaeo iiaa?oiaaeo no?oeoo? aeey naiai caaeia?eueiiai
?ica’ycaiiy iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy i?eeaae?a, ye? caaacia/othoue
naeoiaeio (ii?yaeeo 5-10 naeoiae) oi/i?noue aei??thaaiiy naieo cia/aiue
eoo?a ( oa (, a ia o?eueee ?o cnoa?a. Oaea ae naia i?iaeaia aeieea? e
i?e aeine?aeaeaii? iaaeoiieeo (iaioa i?ae 10 ii) ie?aie, a oaeiae
ai?cio?iiieo iaoa??ae?a.

Iaaecae/aeii aeniea /ooeea?noue iaoiaeo ae?iniiao??? aei ci?ie noaio
iiaa?oi?, yea, aacoiiaii, ? ia?aaaaith iaoiaeo ? caaacia/o? o oe?eiio
aenieo oi/i?noue, o oie aea /an ii?iaeaeo? aaeee? o?oaeiiu? ia oeyoo
i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aeiia?aei?e oae?e /ooeeaino? oi/iino? a
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aei??thaaii? iiey?ecaoe?eieo eoo?a ( oa (.

?nioth/? ae?iniiao?e ia caaacia/othoue aeinoaoiuei? oi/iino?. O e?auiio
aeiaaeeo i?eionoei? aeey ieo aaniethoi? iioeaee o aecia/aii? ( oa (
neeaaeathoue a?aeiia?aeii ( 5 oa ( 6 i?ioo. Naia oaea oi/i?noue
caeeaaeaia o ae?iniiao?ao oeio EAO-CI-1, ye? aoee ?ic?iaeai? a ?inoeooo?
o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a Nea??nueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy ?in?enueei? aeaaeai??
iaoe (i. Iiainea??nuee) oa ae?iaeythoueny AAO “Oaiaein?enueeee
i?eeaaeiaoae?aiee caaiae” (i. Oaiaein?y). Aea e oeth oi/i?noue c aeayeeo
ianoaaei aaaeei ?aae?coaaoe. Iniiaiith ia?aoeiaeith ia oeueiio oeyoo
aoea a?aenooi?noue aeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaii? oai??? i?eeaaeo oa iaae?eiiai
iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy.

?icoe?aiiy iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeo ae?iniiao???, iaaeeaeaiiy aei eiai
a?aie/ieo iiaeeeainoae iia(ycaii ia eeoa c i?aeaeuaiiyi oi/iino?
aei??thaaiue iiey?ecaoe?eieo eoo?a ( oa (, aea e c ?ica(ycaiiyi
cai?ioii? caaea/? ae?iniiao???, yeo iiaeia a?aeianoe aei eeano
iaei?aeoieo iaoaiaoe/ieo caaea/. Iaoaiaoe/ia iaei?aeoi?noue cai?ioii?
caaea/? ae?iniiao??? iniaeeai yne?aai oa iai/ii aeyaey?oueny i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? iaaeoiieeo (iaioa i?ae 5 ii) iiaa?oiaaeo ie?aie. Aeey
?ica(ycaiiy oaeeo caaea/ iaiao?aeii caeo/aoe niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaee, ye?
aeicaieythoue nooo?ai ?icoe?eoe ?aiee noaeeo iiaeaeae.

O ca(yceo c aeuaaeeeaaeaiei ?ic?iaea iniiaieo oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy
a?aie/ieo iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeo ae?iniiao??? iaaoaa? iniaeeai?
aaaeeeaino? oa aeooaeueiino?.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue o ?aieao I?ia?aie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oeaio?o iaoeiaiai
i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy Oe?a?ie, aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeeoue AAO
“Oaiaein?enueeee i?eeaaeiaoae?aiee caaiae”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? oi?ioethaaiiy oa
ia??oiooaaiiy iniiaieo oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy a?aie/ieo iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeo
ae?iniiao???. ?iaioa aaeany ca o?ueiia aieiaieie iai?yieaie.

Ia?oee iai?yiie noino?oueny i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee
ae?iniiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo caaea/a iieyaa? a oiio,
uia caanoe ?iceeae aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue ( oa ( ii aei??thaaeueieo
ciiao aei oiai i?i?ioio, ye aeeeoo?oueny iaiao?aeiith oi/i?noth
aei??thaaiue, aea ianaiia?aae iiaeeeainoyie i?eeaaeo, ui
aeei?enoiao?oueny a aenia?eiaio?.

Ae?oaee iai?yiie i?enay/o?oueny noai?aiith iiai? iaoeiai ia??oioiaaii?
iao?ieia?? a ae?iniiao???, yea aeicaiey? ?noioii i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue
aei??thaaiiy iiey?ecaoe?eieo eoo?a oa ?ic?iaeoe ia oe?e iniia? iia?
i?eeaaee, ye? iathoue nooo?ai a?eueo? iiaeeeaino? ii??aiyii c
?nioth/eie. Aeaiee iai?yiie aaciina?aaeiuei iia(ycaiee c ia?oei.

Ia?aoo?, o?ao?e iai?yiie noino?oueny ?ic?iaee iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei
?ica(ycaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii iaei?aeoii? cai?ioii? caaea/? ae?iniiao???. I?e
oeueiio eiie?aoii ?icaeyaea?oueny aeiaaeie iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo
ie?aie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. ?ic?iaeaii caniae iiaeieaiiy iniiaieo o?oaeiiu?a ia oeyoo i?aeoe/ii?
?aae?caoe?? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee ae?iniiao??/ieo aei??thaaiue. I?e
oeueiio iaea?aeaii ianooii? iia? ?acoeueoaoe:

?ic?iaeaii iiaee oei oa?iino?eeiai eiiiainaoi?a, yeee ? ieanoeiith
iaeiiinueiaiai e?enoaeo c iioe/iith a?nnth, ?ici?uaiith i?ae ii??aiyii
iaaaeeeei eooii ( aei ii?iae? ieanoeie. Iaa?oioiaaii ?noioi? ia?aaaae
aeaiiai eiiiainaoi?a ii??aiyii c ?nioth/eie;

aea/aii i?iaeaio, yea iia(ycaia c aeayeith iaaecia/ai?noth o aeai??
thnooaaeueiiai ia?aiao?a Ei, ui a?aeiia?aea? ca?ao oaeaeei? in?
eiiiainaoi?a c ieiueiith iaae?iiy. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui noi?uaiiy
thnooaaeueiiai ia?aiao?a Ei c iieacii e?iaa E1, yeee aecia/a? iieiaeaiiy
i?i?ioio “oaeaeei?” in? iiaeeco ieiueie iaae?iiy (a iioe/i?e nenoai?
?EA: iiey?ecaoi? — eiiiainaoi? — aiae?caoi?), i?eaiaeeoue aei
anoaiiaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai ca(yceo i?ae ia?aiao?aie eiiiainaoi?a (, (1 ?
(2, ui ?noioii ci?ith? oa ni?iuo? neooaoe?th;

aia?oa i?e aecia/aii? ia?aiao??a eiiiainaoi?a (, (1 ? (2 aeei?enoaii
iaoaiaoe/io oiiao, yea caaeiaieueiy? oe? ia?aiao?e i?e noi?uaii? Ei ?
E1. THnooaaeueiee ia?aiao? Ei, ye i?aaeei, caaaeaee ca?aaany c iieacii
e?iaa E1, aea cacia/aia oiiaa i?e oeueiio aei oaaae ia a?aeanue.
O?aooaaiiy aeaii? oiiae i?eaiaeeoue aei ?noioii ?ioeo iane?aee?a
ii??aiyii c neooaoe??th, eiee oey oiiaa ia o?aoiao?oueny.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iiao iao?ieia?th ae?iniiao???:

cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei iao?ieia?? ae?iniiao???, ca?aeii c yeei
?iceeae aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue eoo?a ( oa ( ii aei??thaaeueieo
ciiao ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ia(?eoeaiee iao?ieia?/iee e?eoa??e, yeee
aecia/a? oi/i?noue aei??thaaiiy iiey?ecaoe?eieo eoo?a, a ioaea, ?
oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a;

cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaeo ?c noai?aiiy ia iniia? iiai? iao?ieia?? c?aceiaiai
eaca?iiai ae?iniiao?a, i?ecia/aiiai aeey aoanoaoe?? na??eieo
ae?iniiao??a oa iioe/ieo aeaiaio?a aei ieo. Iai?/aii noaio i?iaaaeaiiy
iao?ieia?/ieo ?ia?o.

3. ?icaeiooi iaoiaee ?ica’ycaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/? ae?iniiao???:

aeiaaaeaii, ui cai?ioia caaea/a ae?iniiao??? aeey iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo
ie?aie iaeaaeeoue aei eeano iaoaiaoe/ii iaei?aeoieo;

iieacaii, ui iiaee i?aeo?ae aei ?ica(ycaiiy iaei?aeoii? cai?ioii?
caaea/? ae?iniiao??? aeey iaaeoiieeo i?ici?eo iiaa?oiaaeo ie?aie, yeee
i?iiiio? iia? e?eoa??? aeai?o iioeiaeueii? oi/ee, i?eaiaeeoue aei noaeeo
?acoeueoao?a ? aeicaiey? oni?oii aeine?aeaeoaaoe iiaa?oiaa? ie?aee
oiaueiith a?ae 2 aei 10 iaiiiao??a. Ae?eoee aeniiaeo i?i aaeee?
ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a ?ica(ycaiiy iaei?aeoieo
iaoaiaoe/ieo caaea/ a ae?iniiao???.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aaciina?aaei? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy iathoue on? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??. Iiaa iao?ieia?y,
a iniia? yei? eaaeeoue iaeiiciiia iaoiaeeea ae?iniiao?e/ieo
aei??thaaiue, ? iniiaith aeey noai?aiiy c?aceiaiai eaca?iiai
ae?iniiao?a, a oaeiae eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ic?iaie iiaeo oei?a
i?aoeec?eieo i?eeaae?a.

Iiaee i?aeo?ae aei ?ica(ycaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii iaei?aeoii? cai?ioii? caaea/?
ae?iniiao??? aeey iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo ie?aie aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe
noae? ?acoeueoaoe aeey iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo no?oeoo?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee oa ?ioaa?aeueii? iioeee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o
ianooiiiio:

1.?ic?aooiie iiaiai oeio oa?iino?eeiai eiiiainaoi?a.
?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? eiai aeaioiaeaiiy [1].

2.Aiae?c iniaeeainoae iioe/iiai thnooaaiiy eiiiainaoi?a c
a?aei?iieie a?ae ioey iaae?aaiiaeueieie aeaiaioaie eiai iao?eoe?
Aeaeiina. Aeaaaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? oiiae, yeo caaeiaieueiythoue ia?aiao?e
eiiiainaoi?a i?e aeei?enoaii? noaiaea?oii? iaoiaeeee iioe/iiai
thnooaaiiy [1,3].

3.Aiae?c oiia, ye? caaacia/othoue iaea?eueo oi/ia
aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a eiiiainaoi?a [1,3].

4.O/anoue a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ?aae?caoe?? iaeiiciiii?
iaoiaeeee ae?iniiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue [5].

5.Iaa?oiooaaiiy iiai? iao?ieia?? oa i?iaeoo ?c noai?aiiy
ia iniia? iiai? iao?ieia?? c?aceiaiai eaca?iiai ae?iniiao?a [1,4,5].
?ic?iaea noaie i?iaaaeaiiy iao?ieia?/ieo ?ia?o [7,8].

6.Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oa ia?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo
?acoeueoao?a, ye? aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe oa?aeoa? iaei?aeoiino? cai?ioii?
caaea/? aeey iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo ie?aie [2,6]. O/anoue o ?ic?iaoe?
iaoaiaoe/ii? i?ia?aie aeey ?ica(ycaiiy (ia i?aenoaa? iiaiai i?aeoiaeo)
iaei?aeoii? cai?ioii? caaea/? oa ia?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a
ia iniia? oe??? i?ia?aie [2,6].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aena?oethaaeeny ia 11-e I?aeia?iaei?e Aaaeeianuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c
iae?i?eii? iioeee (Iiainea??nuee, 24-28 /a?aiy 1997 ?.), a oaeiae ia
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao a ?inoeooo? o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a NA ?AI
(a?oaeaiue 1995 ?.) oa a ?inoeooo? aiae?oe/iiai i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy ?AI
(n?/aiue1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Nienie iaoeiaeo i?aoeue caeiaoaa/a neeaaea?oueny c 11
aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa oa 52 ae?oeiaaieo ?ia?o, o oiio /ene? ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe?? — 8 ioae?eaoe?e caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,5 ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa,
c yeeo 4 iaae?oeiaai? o ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, ye? aoiaeyoue aei
ia?ae?eo aeiia, aecia/aieo AAE Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i(yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.
Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe neeaaea? 125 noi??iee, o oiio /ene? 10 ?enoie?a,
5 oaaeeoeue oa nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?c 112
iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aei aeena?oaoe?? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeaii?
oaiaoeee, oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? oe?e? oa caaea/? ?iaioe,
?ice?eaathoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e oa aea??
iniiaieo iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1 aea?oueny caaaeueiee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c oaie, o
?acoeueoao? aeae?eai? iniiai? iai?yiee, c yeeie caaaeaee ae??ooaaeeny
i?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? iaaecae/aeii aenieeo iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeo
ae?iniiao???. Ia?aaeon?i aei ieo iaeaaeaoue iioei?caoe?y i?ioeano
ae?iniiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue, aiae?c oa caniae onoiaiiy aieeao
iaaeineiiaeinoae iioe/ieo aeaiaio?a, noai?aiiy iiaeo oei?a i?eeaae?a, a
oaeiae ?icaeoie caaaeueii? oai??? iaoiaeo.

Iaeiae i?aaeeueiee aea?? iioeiaeueieo oiia i?iaaaeaiiy ae?iniiao?e/ieo
aei??thaaiue, ye ? niiniae iineaaeaiiy aieeao iaaeineiiaeinoae iioe/ieo
aeaiaio?a i?eeaaeo, aeicaieyth/e iie?aueoe aenia?eiaioaeueio neooaoe?th,
a oie aea /an ia aeathoue ciiae ioe?ieoe ?aaeueio oi/i?noue i?eeaaeo ?,
oei a?eueoa iai?oeoe oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy i?eioeeiiaeo iiaeeeainoae
ae?iniiao???. Oeth i?iaeaio iiaeia ae??oeoe, eeoa aeoiaey/e ?c
caaaeueii? oai??? iaoiaeo ae?iniiao???, yea aaco?oueny ia oaeeo
iiiyooyo, ye aei??thaaeuei? ciie oa ?iaa??aioe ae?iniiao???. O ca(yceo c
oeei o i?ae?icae?eao 1.2 -1.5 iiaeaii aeaoaeueiee iaeyae oa aiae?c
caaaeueii? oai???, ia iniia? yeiai iai?/ai? aieiai? iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aei??thaaeuei? ciie i?eeaaeo (ae?iniiao?a) a?ae?a?athoue iniaeeao
?ieue a ae?iniiao?e/iiio aeine?ae?.

Aeey ?aeaaeueiiai i?eeaaeo ciii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ye? aecia/athoue
aeey ?cio?iiieo na?aaeiaeu eooe ( oa ( /a?ac aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yi?
iieiaeaiiy aan?iiy iiey?ecaoi?a oa aiae?caoi?a, aeathoue ?acoeueoaoe,
ye? ca?aathoueny ca an?ia aei??thaaeueieie ciiaie. Oea aoaeooue,
i/aaeaeii, i?aaeeuei? ?acoeueoaoe. Aeey ?aaeueiiai ae i?eeaaeo /a?ac
aeaye? i?e/eie niinoa??aa?oueny ?iceeae aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue ( oa
( ii aei??thaaeueieo ciiao. ? /ei a?oa?oa i?eeaae, oei a?eueoa
aeyaey?oueny ?iceeae ii ciiao.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aecia/aiiy iiey?ecaoe?eieo
eoo?a ( oa (, ye i?aaeei, aeei?enoiaothoue i?ioeaaeo?o ona?aaeiaiiy
aei??yieo cia/aiue ( oa ( ii aei??thaaeueieo ciiao. Aeei?enoaiiy
aeaiciiii? aai /ioe?eciiii? iaoiaeeee ona?aaeiaiiy, aacoiiaii,
i?eaiaeeoue aei iie?ioaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aea oaeee
i?aeo?ae, i?eoiaoth/e aeaoaeoe i?eeaaeo ? ?iaey/e iaiiaeeeaei aeyaeaiiy
iiaa?oiaai? ai?cio?ii?? a?aeaeaieo nenoai, ?noioii iaiaaeo? iiaeeeaino?
iaoiaeo ae?iniiao???. Aeae?eaiiy a yai?e oi?i? iioeaie i?eeaaeo c
i?ioeano ae?iniiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue ? ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ?o ?noioiiai
ciaioaiiy yaeythoue niaith aeiyoeiai aaaeeeao caaea/o. ? ?ica(ycaoe ??
iiaeeeai eeoa oeyoii aea/aiiy ? ciaioaiiy ?iceeaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
cia/aiue eoo?a ( oa ( ii aei??thaaeueieo ciiao, ?ic?iaeyth/e oa
aeei?enoiaoth/e aeey oeueiai niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaee.

Oaeei /eiii, ?iceeae aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue ( oa ( ii
aei??thaaeueieo ciiao iaiao?aeii aeciaoe ia(?eoeaiei e?eoa???i, yeee
aecia/a? oi/i?noue ?o aei??thaaiiy. Oiio caaea/a iieyaa? o caaaeaii?
oeueiai ?iceeaeo aei oiai i?i?ioio, yeee aeeeoo?oueny iio??aiith
oi/i?noth aei??thaaiue, aea ia?o ca ana iiaeeeainoyie aeei?enoaiiai a
aenia?eiaio? i?eeaaeo. ?ioeie neiaaie, caaea/a iieyaa? a ?aae?caoe??
iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee ae?iniiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
aea?aaeaioi?noue aei??thaaeueieo cii, a ioaea, ? aeinoaoi?noue
aei??thaaiue onueiai eeoa a ye?enue iaei?e cii?.

I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee ae?iniiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue
noeea?oueny c aeayeeie nooo?aeie o?oaeiiuaie. Ianaiia?aae oea
oaiia?aoo?ia iano?ee?noue ia?aiao??a aeei?enoiaoaaieo oaciaeo
eiiiainaoi??a. Oey caaea/a iiaea aooe ?ica’ycaia oeyoii ?ic?iaee oa
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo oei?a eiiiainaoi??a.

Aaeee? neeaaeiino? iia’ycai? c iaiao?aei?noth aeinoaoiuei oi/iiai
aecia/aiiy on?o o?ueio eiiieaenieo ia?aiao??a eiiiainaoi?a, yeee o
oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeiai aooe aaea oa?iino?eeei.

?niothoue oaeiae i?iaeaie i?eioeeiiaiai oa?aeoa?o, iia(ycai? c
thnooaaiiyi iioe/ii aeoeaiiai oaciaiai eiiiainaoi?a. Iioe/ia aeoeai?noue
eiiiainaoi?a coiiaeth? oe?eaao iniaeea?noue a iioe/iiio thnooaaii?
oeueiai aeaiaioa, yeo oaeiae iaiao?aeii i?iaiae?coaaoe ? a?aooaaoe i?e
i?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe?? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee. Oei a?eueoa, ui oaea
iniaeea?noue iaoiiaeaia ia eeoa iioe/iith aeoeai?noth , aea e iioeaeaie
a onoaiiaeaii? i?inoi?iai? i???ioaoe?? eiiiainaoi?a a?aeiinii in?
na?oeiaiai io/ea, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei ci?ie iaae?aaiiaeueieo aeaiaio?a
iao?eoe? Aeaeiina eiiiainaoi?a ( aei a?aei?iiino? a?ae ioey ia?aiao??a
(1 oa (2 iaa?oue ca a?aenooiino? iioe/ii? aeoeaiino? ).

Na?eici? o?oaeiiu? aeieeathoue /a?ac iayai?noue iiaa?oiaai? ai?cio?ii??
o aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?aceao. Aeey ?? o?aooaaiiy ? i?aaeeueiiai aecia/aiiy
iiey?ecaoe?eieo eoo?a iaiao?aeii ocaaaeueiaiiy iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee.
Oea ?iaeoueny a ?aieao iaoiaeo ocaaaeueiaiiy aei??thaaeueieo cii a
ae?iniiao??? ai?cio?iiieo na?aaeiaeu. A aeena?oaoe?? /?oei iai?/aii oeyo
aeey oeueiai, iaeiae aenia?eiaioaeueia ?aae?caoe?y iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee
ca ocaaaeueiaiith noaiith — oea i?aaeiao iniaeeai? ?iciiae.

Aaeeea cia/aiiy iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee ae?iniiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue
aecia/a?oueny ua e iiaeeea?noth iiaoaeiae ia ?? iniia? iiaiai, iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaiiai, iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ae?iniiao???, ui oaeiae
caaacia/o? iia? ia?niaeoeae o ?icaeoeo iaoiaeo ae?iniiao???.

Nooo?aa ca?eueoaiiy iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeo ae?iniiao??? aaciina?aaeiuei
iia(ycaia c ?ica(ycaiiyi cai?ioii? caaea/? ae?iniiao???. ?nio? /eneaiia
e?oa?aoo?a c oeueiai ieoaiiy. A on?o ?iaioao aeaiiai iai?yieo
aeei?enoiao?oueny eeane/iee i?aeo?ae aei ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/?
ae?iniiao???. Oaeiae aaaaoi e?oa?aoo?e c oeueiai ieoaiiy. A oie aea /an
cai?ioia

caaea/a ae?iniiao??? a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iiaea aooe a?aeianaia aei
eeano iaei?aeoieo iaoaiaoe/ieo caaea/. Iaoaiaoe/ia iaei?aeoi?noue
cai?ioii? caaea/? ae?iniiao??? iniaeeai /?oei ? iayaii aeyaey?oueny i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? iaaeoiieeo (iaioa 5 iaiiiao??a) iiaa?oiaaeo ie?aie. Aeey
?ica(ycaiiy oaeeo caaea/ iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe niaoe?aeuei?
iaoiaee, ye? aeicaieythoue cia/ii ?icoe?eoe ?aiee noaeeo iiaeaeae.

Oaeei /eiii, o ia?oiio ?icae?e? iai?/ai? iniiai? oeyoe o ?ica(ycaii?
iinoaaeaii? a aeena?oaoe?? caaea/?. Ie??i i?iaeaie, yea iia(ycaia c
i?aeoe/iith ?aae?caoe??th iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee, oea ua e ?ic?iaea
iiaiai iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ae?iniiao???, a iniia? yeiai eaaeeoue
iaeiiciiia iaoiaeeea. Aei ieo i?e?iaeii i?eieea? ? iaeaaaeeea?oa caaea/a
c ?icaeoeo iaoiae?a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ae?iniiao?e/ieo
aei??thaaiue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeai? niiniae iiaeieaiiy iniiaieo o?oaeiiu?a ia
oeyoo i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee ae?iniiao?e/ieo
aei??thaaiue.

Iaei??th c aieiaieo o?oaeiiu?a ? oaiia?aoo?ia iano?ee?noue, yea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aaeeeeo iioeaie o aei??yieo cia/aiiyo ( oa (.

O no/anieo ae?iniiao?ao ca eiiiainaoi? iae/ano?oa aeei?enoiao?oueny
ieanoeia iaeiiinueiaiai e?enoaea c iioe/iith a?nnth, yea eaaeeoue o
ieiuei? ieanoeie. Oaiia?aoo?ia iano?ee?noue ia?aiao??a aeaiiai
eiiiainaoi?a iaoiiaeaia eiai aaeeeith oiaueiith (d=1500-2000 iei).

C iaoith onoiaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? iano?eeino? cai?iiiiiaaii eiiiainaoi?,
yeee yaey? niaith ieanoeio iaeiiinueiaiai e?enoaea c iioe/iith a?nnth,
ui ?ici?uaia i?ae ii??aiyii iaaaeeeei eooii ( aei ii?iae? ieanoeie. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo aoaeoeaia oiaueia ieanoeie, yea aecia/a?oueny
oi?ioeith

dao = d sin2(,
(1)

ii?iaiyii c ?aaeueiith oiaueiith iiaea aooe ciaioaia ia aeaa ii?yaeee,
a oea icia/a?, ui oaiia?aoo?ii eieeaaiiy oaciaiai ia?aiao?a ( o
?icaeyiooiio aeiaaeeo oaeiae cieaeothoueny ia aeaa ii?yaeee.

Iaa?oioiaaii cia/ii ia?aaaae aeaiiai oa?iinoieeiai eiiiainaoi?a
ii?iaiyii c inioth/eie. Aeei?enoaiiy oaeiai eiiiainaoi?a iiaea
aeiei?iiii ciiieoe aenia?eiaioaeueio neooaoeith a aeiiniiao?i?,
iia’ycaio c oaiia?aoo?ieie eieeaaiiyie.

I?iaiaeiciaaii iniaeeainoi iioe/iiai thnooaaiiy i?eeaaeo (aeiiniiao?a)
c iioe/ii aeoeaiei eiiiainaoi?ii. Iaea?aeaii ae?ace, yei aecia/athoue
(aiaeiinii ieiueie iaaeiiiy) o? iieiaeaiiy «oaeaeei?» ini eiiiainaoi?a,
yeei aiaeiiaiaea? iiiiioi iioaineaiinoi naioeiaiai io/ea ia aeoiaei
iioe/ii? nenoaie ?EA, ani o?e iioe/ii aeaiaioe yei? aiaeiiaiaeii aei
cae/aeii? i?ioeaaeo?e thnooaaiiy ciaoiaeyoueny ia iaeiie ini, i?e/iio
iai?yiie i?iioneaiiy iiey?ecaoi?a eaaeeoue o ieiueii iaaeiiiy, a
aiaeicaoi?a — ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ?e. Oei ae?ace aeicaieeee i?iaiaeicoaaoe
neooaoeith, yea iia’ycaia c aeayeith iaaecia/aiinoth o aeai?i
thnooaaeueiiai ia?aiao?a E0, ui aiaeiiaiaea? ca?ao «oaeaeei?» ini
eiiiainaoi?a c ieiueiith iaaeiiiy. O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo oaeiai ca?ao
iaia?, ui coiiaeaii ia eeoa iioe/iith aeoeai?noth eiiiainaoi?a, aea e
iioeaeaie o anoaiiaeaiii eiai i?inoi?iai? i?i?ioaoei? aiaeiinii ini
naioeiaiai io/ea. Ciiia cia/aiiy E0 oyaia ca niaith i ciiio ia?aiao?ia
(1 oa (2 , a oaeiae iniiaiiai oaciaiai ia?aiao?a (, oiaoi oei aeai
caaea/i (anoaiiaeaiiy E0 i aecia/aiiy ia?aiao?ia eiiiainaoi?a) oinii
iia’ycaii iiae niaith. Aieueo oiai, c’yaey?oueny iiaeeeainoue iaeaieueo
iioeiaeueiiai aeai?o E0, i?e yeiio iaaiei /eiii ca’ycothoueny ia?aiao?e
eiiiainaoi?a.

Oaea neooaoeiy aeieea?, yeui noiinoeoe thnooaaeueiee ia?aiao? E0 c
iieacii eiiaa eiiiainaoi?a E1, yeee aiaeiiaiaea? iieiaeaiith iiiiioio
«oaeaeei?» ini iiaeeco ieiueie iaaeiiiy, aiaeiiaeaoenue oei naiei aiae
ni?ia noiiuaiiy ii/aoeiaiai iieiaeaiiy oei?? ini c ieiueiith iaaeiiiy. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeioeieueii aaanoe aoaeoeaio «oaeaeeo» a?nue, yea i?e
E0 = E1 ca?aa?oueny c ieiueiith iaaeiiiy i, oaeei /eiii, aiaeoeey?oueny
aiae ia? ia eoo (e ( (0,900), yeee aiae?aoiao?oueny aiae iieac?a eiiaa
E1. A oea icia/a?, ui aeey iieiaeaiiy iiiiioio aoaeoeaii? «oaeaeei?»
ini, yea aiaeiiaiaea? iieaco E1,

((e = 0.
(2)

sse aeieeaa? c io?eiaii? a aeena?oaoei? oi?ioee, yea aecia/a? iieiaeaiiy
iiiiioio E1 (o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iieiaeaiiy iiiiioio aoaeoeaii?
«oaeaeei?» ini) aiaeiinii ieiueie iaaeiiiy, oiiaa (2) aeeiio?oueny eeoa
o oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui ia?aiao?e eiiiainaoi?a (, (1 oa (2 iia’ycaii
niiaaiaeiioaiiyi

(1 — (* ) ( (1 — (2) + (1 — () ((*1 — (*2) = 0.
(3)

Oaeei /eiii, noi?uath/e thnooaaeueiee ia?aiao? E0 c iieacii eiiaa E1,
ie aeiaeaa?iiny aeeiiaiiy niiaaiaeiioaiiy (3), ui nooo?ai ciiith? i
ni?iuo? neooaoeith.

Oaeiae aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? noiniaii aeai?o iiceoeaiiai iai?yieo
iaa?oaiiy iioe/ieo aeaiaioia, yeee o caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ((1 i (2 (0 )
ia iiaea aooe aeiaieueiei.

O oeueiio ieoaiii aeioeieueii ea?oaaoeny ianooiieie ii?eoaaiiyie.
sseui ia?aiao?e eiiiainaoi?a (1 oa (2 aecia/aii i?e caaeaiiio
(caaaeueiiio aeey on?o iioe/ieo aeaiaioia) iiceoeaiiio iai?yieo, oi c
oeeie ia?aiao?aie iiaeia i?aoethaaoe eeoa i?e aeaiiio iiceoeaiiio
iai?yieo. Ciiieaoe oeae iai?yiie ia cai?ioiee, ie iiaeiii iiiiiyoe ciaee
aaee/ei (1 oa (2 .

I?e i?aeoe/i?e ?aaeicaoe?? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee aeiiniiao?e/ieo
aeii?thaaiue iniaeeaa oaaaa ia? aooe i?eaeieaia i?iaeaii aeinoaoiuei
oi/iiai aecia/aiiy o?ueio eiiieaenieo ia?aiao?ia eiiiainaoi?a (, (1 oa
(2. I?iaaaeaiee aiaeic iieacaa, ui aeey ?ica(ycaiiy oei?? i?iaeaie
aeei?enoaiiy iiaa?iaioia aeiiniiao?i? icio?iiieo na?aaeiaeu aeyaey?oueny
iaaeinoaoiii, iaiaoiaeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiaa?iaioii niiaaiaeiioaiiy
aeiiniiao?i? aiicio?iiieo na?aaeiaeu, uia a?aooaaoe iiaa?oiaao
aiicio?iiith a?aeaeaaieo nenoai. I?e oeueiio i?eiaioeoe ?ieue ia?aiao?a
(2 aai ciaoooaaoe eiai iai?eionoeii.

Iniaeeao ?ieue i?e aecia/aiii ia?aiao?ia (, (1 oa (2 aiaeia?a?
a?aooaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? oiiae (3), yeo caaeiaieueiythoue oei ia?aiao?e
i?e noiiuaiii E0 oa E1. THnooaaeueiee ia?aiao? E0, ye i?aaeei,
caaaeaee noiiuaany c iieacii eiiaa E1, aea cacia/aia oiiaa i?e oeueiio
ia a?aoiaoaaeanue. Iiaa?iaioii niiaaiaeiioaiiy aeiiniiao?i? aiicio?iiieo
na?aaeiaeu, yei ?aii?othoue oiiao (3), i?e iayaiinoi iacia/ieo iiieeie o
aeii?thaaiii ao?aeieo o oe? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eooiaeo iieiaeaiue aaniiiy
iioe/ieo aeaiaioia aecia/athoue oi cia/aiiy (, (1 oa (2, yei
aiae?iciythoueny aiae cia/aiue oeeo ia?aiao?ia, iaea?aeaieo c oeo aea
?iaiyiue, aea i?e a?aooaaii? oiiae (3). A?aoiaoth/e oiiao (3), ie ia
eeoa ciaioo?ii e?euee?noue iacaeaaeieo iaaiaeiieo ia?aiao?ia o
?iaiyiiyo, cieaeoth/e oei naiei i ?ieue aenia?eiaioaeueieo iiieeie, aea,
ia?aaeon?i, ciiith?ii a iio??aiiio iai?yieo ooieoeiiiaeueio caeaaeiinoue
aiae ia?aiao?ia (, (1 oa (2 a iiaa?iaioieo niiaaiaeiioaiiyo,
caoaeoth/e ?? a i?inoi?i oeeo ia?aiao?ia. A oea e i?eaiaeeoue aei iioeo
iie?ioaieo ?acoeueoaoia.

O o?aoueiio ?icaeiei ?icaeyiooi i?aeoe/io ?aaeicaoeith iaeiiciiii?
iaoiaeeee aeiiniiao?e/ieo aeii?thaaiue oa iiaee iao?ieiai/iee e?eoa?ie.

Iiaeeeainoue i?aeoe/ii? ?aaeicaoei? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee
aeiiniiao?e/ieo aeii?thaaiue ia?aa??aia ia i?eeaaei EAO-3I-1.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeii?thaaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia i`yoe c?aceao, /ioe?e c
yeeo yaeythoue niaith iaaeoiiei ieiaee aeaiieeno e?aiiith ia e?aiii?, a
iaeei — iaaeoiieo ieiaeo oaeo?o ia e?aiii?. I?e oeueiio aeey eiaeiiai
c?acea aeei?enoaii eooe iaaeiiiy naioeiaiai io/ea aiae 500 aei 750 /a?ac
2,50 (anueiai 11 eooia).

Ia?aiao?e eiiiainaoi?a aecia/aii a ?acoeueoaoi /enaeueiiai ?ica(ycaiiy
nenoaie ?iaiyiue, yei yaeythoue niaith iiaa?iaioii niiaaiaeiioaiiy
aeiiniiao?i? aiicio?iiieo na?aaeiaeu. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io i?ia?aio
aeey ?ica(ycaiiy aiaeiiaiaeii? cai?ioii? caaea/i. I?e oeueiio aoei
a?aoiaaii niiaaiaeiioaiiy (3), yea aeaei ciiao io?eiaoe aieueo
iaaeieia ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/i.

Iaaaaeaii o iiae?icaeiei 3.1 ?acoeueoaoe (aeea. oaaeeoeth 1., a ye?e ((
? (( ( iaeneiaeuei? a?aeoeeaiiy eoo?a ( ? ( ii aei??thaaeueieo ciiao
a?ae ?o na?aaei?o cia/aiue (n? ? (n? ). yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooiiiue
i?aeoe/ii? ?aaeicaoei? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee aeiiniiao?e/ieo
aeii?thaaiue, ia ia?oee iiaeyae ? ia aeineoue caaeiaieueieie. Iaeiae ia
nueiaiaeiioiie aeaiue — oea e?aui ?acoeueoaoe, yeeo aaeaeiny aeinyaoe
caaaeyee aeeiiaiith on?o ia?aei/aieo o iiia?aaeiueiio ?icaeiei
?aeiiaiaeaoeie i aeiia, iia’ycaieo ?c oa?iinoiee?noth oaciaiai
eiiiainaoi?a, aecia/aiiyi iiaiiai iaai?o eiai ia?aiao?ia, a oaeiae c
iioe/iei thnooaaiiyi eiiiainaoi?a. Oei ?acoeueoaoe iiaeia nooo?ai
iie?aueoe, yeui aieueo ?aoaeueii iiaeieoe aei iiaeai?o c?aceia, ca
aeii?thaaiiyie ia yeeo aecia/athoueny ia?aiao?e eiiiainaoi?a.
?acoeueoaoe iiiioii iie?auothoueny i a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui i?e
aeineiaeaeaiii icio?iiieo c?aceia a?aoiao?oueny iiaa?oiaaa aiicio?iiiy
oeeo c?aceia, aeey /iai aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiae ocaaaeueiaieo
aeii?thaaeueieo cii, yeee ?aaeico? iaeiiciiio iaoiaeeeo ca
ocaaaeueiaiith noaiith.

Oaaeeoey 1 ( ?iceeae iiey?ecaoe?eieo eoo?a ( ? ( ii aei??thaaeueieo
ciiao

Eoo Iiia? (n? (n? (( ((

iaae?iiy c?acea

1 270 47′ 1780 33′ 6′ 12′

2 270 49′ 1770 15′ 9′ 18′

550 3 270 47′ 1750 27′ 11′ 19′

4 270 45′ 1750 11′ 11′ 22′

5 270 59′ 1660 56′ 10′ 19′

1 230 16′ 1780 04′ 7′ 13′

2 230 17′ 1760 11′ 10′ 24′

600 3 230 18′ 1730 44′ 14′ 20′

4 230 20′ 1730 25′ 11′ 21′

5 230 36′ 1610 58′ 13′ 19′

1 170 37′ 1770 02′ 8′ 20′

2 170 39′ 1740 15′ 11′ 23′

650 3 170 46′ 1700 35′ 12′ 21′

4 170 48′ 1690 51′ 12′ 20′

5 180 33′ 1530 33′ 18′ 25′

yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooiiiue i?aeoe/ii? ?aaeicaoei? iaeiiciiii?
iaoiaeeee aeiiniiao?e/ieo aeii?thaaiue, ia ia?oee iiaeyae ? ia aeineoue
caaeiaieueieie. Iaeiae ia nueiaiaeiioiie aeaiue — oea e?aui ?acoeueoaoe,
yeeo aaeaeiny aeinyaoe caaaeyee aeeiiaiith on?o ia?aei/aieo o
iiia?aaeiueiio ?icaeiei ?aeiiaiaeaoeie i aeiia, iia’ycaieo ?c
oa?iinoiee?noth oaciaiai eiiiainaoi?a, aecia/aiiyi iiaiiai iaai?o eiai
ia?aiao?ia, a oaeiae c iioe/iei thnooaaiiyi eiiiainaoi?a. Oei
?acoeueoaoe iiaeia nooo?ai iie?aueoe, yeui aieueo ?aoaeueii iiaeieoe
aei iiaeai?o c?aceia, ca aeii?thaaiiyie ia yeeo aecia/athoueny ia?aiao?e
eiiiainaoi?a. ?acoeueoaoe iiiioii iie?auothoueny i a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui
i?e aeineiaeaeaiii icio?iiieo c?aceia a?aoiao?oueny iiaa?oiaaa
aiicio?iiiy oeeo c?aceia, aeey /iai aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiae
ocaaaeueiaieo aeii?thaaeueieo cii, yeee ?aaeico? iaeiiciiio iaoiaeeeo ca
ocaaaeueiaiith noaiith.

Aeith/a o ieiioiie /an a aeiiniiao?i? iao?ieiaiy aaco?oueny ia
aeei?enoaiii aoaeiiiiai c?acea oa ona?aaeiaiii aenia?eiaioaeueieo
cia/aiue iiey?ecaoeieieo eooia ( oa ( ii /ioe?ueio aeii?thaaeueieo
ciiao. I?ioa ona?aaeiaii cia/aiiy eooia ( oa (, ia caaaeath/e ia
aeayea ?o iie?ioaiiy, ona ae oaee iiiioii iaiaaeaii o nai?e oi/iinoi i
ia aiaeia?aaeathoue inoeiieo aeanoeainoae c?acea. Oaea iai?aaeaiinoue
iao?ieiai? ia noeioeth? iiaeaeuaiiy oi/iinoi i?eeaae?a, i?eoiao?
aeanoeainoi aiicio?iii? a?aeaeaaieo nenoai ?, c?aooith, nooo?ai iaiaaeo?
iiaeeeainoi iaoiaeo aeiiniiao?i?. A iniiaiiio c oei?? i?e/eie aei
oeueiai /ano ia aoa noai?aiee aeey iao?ieiai/ieo iio?aa aeiiniiao?
caieueoaii? /ooeeainoi, yeee iaeii/anii iia ae aooe aeei?enoaiee ye aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue, oae i c oaoiieiai/iith iaoith.

O aeena?oaoei? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iiaeoiae aei iao?ieiai? aeiiniiao?i?
aiaeiiaiaeii aei yeiai ?iceeae aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue eooia ( oa (
ii aeii?thaaeueieo ciiao ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ia’?eoeaiee iao?ieiai/iee
e?eoa?ie, yeee aecia/a? oi/iinoue aeii?thaaiiy iiey?ecaoeieieo eooia i,
oaeei /eiii, oi/iinoue ciaoiaeaeaiiy oiceei-oiii/ieo ia?aiao?ia
i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia. Oeae iiaeoiae eaaeeoue a iniiai iaeiiciiii?
iaoiaeeee aeiiniiao?e/ieo aeii?thaaiue, yea ia?aaeaa/a? ciaioaiiy
?iceeaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue iiey?ecaoeieieo eooia ( oa ( ii
aeii?thaaeueieo ciiao aei oiai iiiiioio, yeee aeeeoo?oueny iaiaoiaeiith
oi/iinoth aeii?thaaiue.

Ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiao? oa, ui aoaeue-yeee a?aeaeaiee ia’?eo
yeith ii?ith ia? aiicio?iiith, iaoooaaiiy yeith iaieio/a i?ecaiaeeoue
aei cieaeaiiy oi/iinoi aecia/aiiy aeiiniiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?ia. Aeey
a?aooaaiiy aiicio?iii? a?aeaeaieo na?aaeiaeu iaiaoiaeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iaoiae ocaaaeueiaieo aeii?thaaeueieo cii, yeee ?aaeico? iaeiiciiio
iaoiaeeeo, aea aaea ca ocaaaeueiaiith noaiith.

?aaeicaoeiy iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee a ?aieao ?aeeii? aeiiniiao?e/ii?
oai?i?, yea ioiieth? ye icio?iiii, oae i aiicio?iiii a?aeaeoee nenoaie,
e?iaoeue e?ioeai aeicaieeoue i?iaiaeeoe aoanoaoeith aeiiniiao?ia
aoaeue-yeiai eeano oi/iinoi. O ca’yceo c oeei iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaa? ?ic?iaea oa noai?aiiy iao?ieiai/iiai aeiiniiao?a iiaeaeuaii?
oi/iinoi aeey aoanoaoei? aeiiniiao?ia oa iioe/ieo aeaiaioia aei ieo, yei
aeioneathoueny na?ieii.

Iaeiiciiia iaoiaeeea, oaeei /eiii, ? oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeey
noai?aiiy iaaeieiiai iao?ieiai/iiai caaacia/aiiy aeiiniiao?i? oa
eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ic?iaie iiaeo oeiia i?aoeecieieo i?eeaaeia.

Cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaeo ?c noai?aiiy ia iniiai iiai? iao?ieiai? c?aceiaiai
eaca?iiai aeiiniiao?a, i?ecia/aiiai aeey aoanoaoei? na?ieieo
aeiiniiao?ia oa iioe/ieo aeaiaioia aei ieo.

Aeineiaeiee c?acie iaoeiai — iao?ieia?/iiai aeiiniiao?a aoaea
noai?thaaoeny ia aaci aeiiniiao?a EAO-3I-1. O oeueiio i?eeaaei
aoaeooue aeei?enoaii iioe/ii aeaiaioe, yei caaeiaieueiythoue aeineoue
aei?noe? aeiiae, oa aeniei/ooeeaee oioiaeaoaeoi?. Nooo?aie ia?a?iaoei
iiaeeyaaoeia aocie eiiiainaoi?a, ui aeanoue ciiao aei?noei
eiio?iethaaoe i?inoi?iaa iieiaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?a. Nai eiiiainaoi? aoaea
oa?iinoieeei. Aoaeooue aaeineiiaeaii oaeiae i eiiae iioe/ieo aeaiaioia.

Eiio?ieue i?inoi?iaiai iieiaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?a ae?ae iaiaoiaeiee. Oaeee
eiio?ieue aeanoue ciiao i?iaiaeeoe aoanoaoeith oaciaeo eiiiainaoi?ia
i?ecia/aieo aeey aeiiniiao?ia, yei aeioneathoueny na?ieii.

Iaii/aii noaio i?iaaaeaiiy iao?ieiai/ieo ?iaio. Aeey ?ica(ycaiiy nooi
iao?ieiai/ii? caaea/i iaiaoiaeii iaoe aeineoue iiaiee iaai? yeinieo
c?aceia, yei aiaeiiaiaeieie ?i cia/aiiyie eooia ( oa ( ioiiethaaee a
onth aeaeieaio /anoeio eii?aeeiaoii? ieiueie ((, (). Nii/aoeo ia
iao?ieiai/iiio aeiiniiao?i ca oaeeie c?aceaie i?iaiaeyoueny aeii?thaaiiy
a on?o ciiao oa anoaiiaeth?oueny nooiiiue ?aaeicaoei? iaeiiciiii?
iaoiaeeee. Iioii oaei ae aeii?thaaiiy cae?eniththoueny ia na?ieiiio
i?eeaaei, i ca nooiaiai ?aae?caoe?? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie i?i ?aaeueio oi/iinoue na?ieiiai i?eeaaeo. O ?ac? iaiaoiaeiinoi
i?iaiaeyoueny ?iaioe uiaei iiaeaeueoi? aeiaiaeee aeaiiai i?eeaaeo.

Oaea i?ioeaaeo?a iio?aao? c?aceia iaeaeui? yeinoi, i?e/iio ?o yeinoue
aecia/a?oueny nooiaiai ?aaeicaoei? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee ia
iao?ieiai/iiio aeiiniiao?i. I oiaei c’yaey?oueny iiaeeeainoue
ioeiithaaoe yeinoue ?aaeueieo c?aceia, yei aeii?ththoueny ia na?ieiiio
i?eeaaei. O oeueiio ?aci iiai?oaiiy ia aeaiiio i?eeaaei nooiaiy
?aaeicaoei? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee (ii?iaiyii c aeii?thaaiiyie ia yeinieo
c?aceao) iiaea aooe aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiei c iaiaeii??aeiinoth
c?aceia ca iiaa?oiath, oi?noeinoth iaae ?icaeieo oiui.

*aoaa?oee ?icaeie i?enay/aiee ?icaeoeo iaoiaeia iioa?i?aoaoei?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeiiniiao?e/ieo ?acoeueoaoia. ?aaeicaoeiy a?aie/ieo
iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeo aeiiniiao?i? caaacia/o?oueny ia eeoa iiaeaeuaiiyi
oi/iinoi aeii?thaaiue iiey?ecaoeieieo eooia ( oa (, aea e nooo?ai
caeaaeeoue aiae iaaeieiinoi iaoiaeia iioa?i?aoaoei? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
?acoeueoaoia. Iiaa iaea ia?aaeon?i i?i iaoiaee ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioii?
caaea/i aeiiniiao?i?. Oea aeoaea aaaeea i?iaeaia. Iniaeea? o?oaeiiui
aeieeathoue i?e aeineiaeaeaiii iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia.

O aeena?oaoei? aea/aii oa?aeoa? iaoaiaoe/ii? iaei?aeoiinoi cai?ioii?
caaea/i aeiiniiao?i? aeey iaaeoiieeo (iaioa 10 iaiiiao?ia) i?ici?iaeo
iiaa?oiaaeo ieiaie ia iaeii?iaeiie iiaeeeaaeoei. Iieacaii, ui
iaoaiaoe/ia iaei?aeoiinoue o oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaoiiaeaia ia oieueee
aenia?eiaioaeueieie iiieeeaie o aeii?thaaiii iiey?ecaoeieieo eooia, a
oaeiae i iaaaeaeaaoiei aeai?ii iiaeaei a?aeaeaaiiai na?aaeiaeua, yeee
aeyaey?oueny o iaoi/iiio caaaeaiii ia?aiao?ia iiaeeeaaeee, yei a
aaaaeathoueny aiaeiieie, i o ciaoooaaiii iaaioue aeoaea oiieei
(ii?yaeeo 0,1 iaiiiao?a) ia?aoiaeiei oa?ii ia iaaei iiae ieiaeith oa
iiaeeeaaeeith. Oei aeniiaee iinyoue ia eeoa yeiniee oa?aeoa?, aiie
iiaeoaa?aeaeothoueny i /enaeueiei aenia?eiaioii, yeee i?iaaaeaii ca
aeiiiiiaith niaoeiaeueii? iaoaiaoe/ii? i?ia?aie.

Oai?aoe/iee aiaeic iaoaiaoe/ii? iaei?aeoiinoi cai?ioii? caaea/i aeey
iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo ieiaie ciaeoia oaeiae yne?aaa iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiy
i?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeineiaeaeaiii iaaeoiieeo ieiaie aeaiieeno
e?aiiith ia e?aiii?. Aoee aeineiaeaeaii aeai a?oie e?aiii?aeo c?aceia c
iaaeoiieeie ieiaeaie SiO2. Aeey c?aceia ia?oi? a?oie iieaciee
caeiiethaaiiy ieiaee n( 1, a ?? oiaueia d aeinyaa? cia/aiue 30-35
iaiiiao?ia. Iniaeeai ?icei oea aeyaey?oueny aeey iaaeoiieeo ieiaie c
?aaeueieie oiaueiaie 1,6-3 ii. Ci caieueoaiiyi oiaueie aoaeo oeueiai
?iaeo ciaioo?oueny, caa?iaath/enue aei ?aaeueieo oiauei (15 ii. Uiaei
iaaeoiieeo ieiaie SiO2 ia c?aceao ae?oai? a?oie, oi ?acoeueoaoe ooo
oaeiae ia?aaeueii, oi/a e aeaui iioiai oa?aeoa?o. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo
aeey eiaeiiai eooa iaaeiiiy n( 3, a oiaueia d ciiith?oueny aiaeiinii
iaei. Oeae aoaeo oaeiae iniaeeai /ioei aeyaey?oueny aeey iaaeoiieeo
ieiaie, caa?iaath/enue aei oiauei (15 ii.

Aeineiaeaeoth/e ?aaeueii c?acee c iaaeoiieeie ieiaeaie, ia iiaeia
caaoaaoe i?i aieea /enoi aenia?eiaioaeueieo iiieeie o aecia/aiii
iiey?ecaoeieieo eooia ( oa (. Aeey iaaeoiieeo ieiaie oeae aieea,
cae/aeii, aeoaea nooo?aee. O oie aea /an nenoaiaoe/iinoue eeaeeia o
cia/aiiyo ia?aiao?ia ieiaee, yea niinoa?iaa?oueny ye aeey c?aceia
ia?oi?, oae i aeey c?aceia ae?oai? a?oie, iiaea aooe iiyniaia ia?aaeon?i
noia?iei aieeaii iaa?aoiaaiiai ia?aoiaeiiai oa?o i iiieeie o caaaeaiii
iioe/ieo noaeeo iiaeeeaaeeiie.

Oaeei /eiii, aeyaeaii ia?aaeueii i iaaioue aano?aeii ?acoeueoaoe ye
/enaeueiiai, oae i ?aaeueiiai aenia?eiaioia aiai?youe i?i iaoaiaoe/io
iaei?aeoiinoue caaea/i c aecia/aiiy ia?aiao?ia iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo
ieiaie.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiaoiaeiinoue aiaeiiae aiae eeane/iiai iiaeoiaeo
aei ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/i aeey iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo ieiaie i
aeioeieueiinoi caeo/aiiy aeey oeueiai aeiaaeeo iaoiaeia ?ica(ycaiiy
iaei?aeoieo iaoaiaoe/ieo caaea/. I ia?aaeon?i iieacaii, ui iaeaieueo
?iciianthaeaeaiee i i/aaeaeiee e?eoa?ie coieiee (i?e aeai?i iioeiaeueii?
oi/ee)

S0 ( (2 ,
(4)

aea S0 — ooieoeiiiae iaa’ycee, a ( — na?aaeiy iiieeea o aeii?thaaiii (
oa (, aeey iaaeoiieeo ieiaie i?aeoe/ii iai?eaeaoiee. Iaiaoiaeii iioi
e?eoa?i? coieiee.

Aeey ?ica(ycaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii iaei?aeoii? cai?ioii? caaea/i aeiiniiao?i?
aeey iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo ieiaie ia?aii noaoenoe/iee iiaeoiae, yeee
aeei?enoiao? iniiaia iieiaeaiiy oai?i? ?aaoey?ecaoei? i?i inioaaiiy
iioeiaeueii? oi/ee. I?e oeueiio aieiaia oaaaa i?eaeiey?oueny
ia??oiooaaiith oa aeei?enoaiith iiaeo e?eoa?i?a coieiee iiaeeco
iioeiaeueii? oi/ee.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iiai e?eoa?i? aeai?o iioeiaeueii? oi/ee, iia’ycaii c
iioiaeieie aiae ooieoeiiiaeo iaa’ycee S0 oa na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai
?iceeaeo G ia?aiao?ia ieiaee d oa n ii ia?aiiuaiith acaeiaae o?a?eoi???
nioneo oa ii neeaaeiaeo caaaeueiiai ia?aiiuaiiy.

O ?acoeueoaoi iieacaii, ui iiaee iiaeoiae aei ?ica(ycaiiy iaei?aeoii?
cai?ioii? caaea/i aeiiniiao?i? aeey iaaeoiieeo i?ici?iaeo iiaa?oiaaeo
ieiaie, yeee i?iiiio? iiai e?eoa?i? aeai?o iioeiaeueii? oi/ee,
i?eaiaeeoue aei noaeeo ?acoeueoaoia i aeicaiey? oni?oii aeineiaeaeoaaoe
iiaa?oiaai ieiaee oiaueiith aiae 2 aei 10 iaiiiao?ia.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i aaeeei ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoiaeia ?ica(ycaiiy iaei?aeoieo iaoaiaoe/ieo caaea/ a aeiiniiao?i?.
Aaaeeeai aiaecia/eoe, ui i oiae?, eiee caaea/a ia ? inoeiii
iaei?aeoiith, aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeia ?ica(ycaiiy iaei?aeoieo iaoaiaoe/ieo
caaea/ i?eaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai iie?ioaiiy ?acoeueoaoia.

O i’yoiio ?icaeiei iaaaaeaii ocaaaeueiaiee aiaeic aeena?oaoeieii?
?iaioe. Aeaeieaii o?e aieiaii iai?yiee, ca yeeie ae??oo?oueny i?iaeaia
?aaeicaoei? a?aie/ieo iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeo aeiiniiao?i?. Aea?oueny
ei?ioea oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaieo ?acoeueoaoia.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE

Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe, yei aiaeiiaiaeathoue o?ueii aieiaiei
iai?yieai aeineiaeaeaiue, iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe ianooiiei /eiii.

1. ?ic?iaeaii niiniae iiaeieaiiy iniiaieo o?oaeiiuia ia oeyoo
i?aeoe/ii? ?aaeicaoei? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee aeiiniiao?e/ieo
aeii?thaaiue:

aeey onoiaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? ianoieeinoi ?acoeueoaoia cai?iiiiiaaii
eiiiainaoi?, yeee yaey? niaith ieanoeio iaeiiinueiaiai e?enoaea c
iioe/iith a?nnth, ?icoaoiaaiith iiae ii?iaiyii iaaaeeeei eooii ( aei
ii?iaei ieanoeie. Ia??oioiaaii cia/ii ia?aaaae aeaiiai oa?iinoieeiai
eiiiainaoi?a ii?iaiyii c inioth/eie;

i?iaiaeiciaaii iniaeeainoi iioe/iiai thnooaaiiy aeiiniiao?a c iioe/ii
aeoeaiei eiiiainaoi?ii. Iaaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? uiaei aeai?o iiceoeaiiai
iai?yieo iaa?oaiiy iioe/ieo aeaiaioia, aaaeeeainoue yeeo aecia/a?oueny
inioaaiiyi aiaeiiiieo aiae ioey iaaeiaaiiaeueieo aeaiaioia iao?eoei
Aeaeiina eiiiainaoi?a (ia?aiao?ia (1 oa (2 );

aia?oa iieacaii, ui noiiuaiiy thnooaaeueiiai ia?aiao?a K0 c iieacii
eiiaa K1, yeee aecia/a? iieiaeaiiy iiiiioio «oaeaeei?» ini iiaeeco
ieiueie iaaeiiiy (a iioe/iie nenoaii ?EA) i?eaiaeeoue aei anoaiiaeaiiy
iaoaiaoe/iiai ca’yceo (3) iiae ia?aiao?aie eiiiainaoi?a (, (1 oa (2 , ui
nooo?ai ciiith? i ni?iuo? neooaoeith;

aea/aii i?iaeaio aeineoue oi/iiai aecia/aiiy ia?aiao?ia eiiiainaoi?a (,
(1 oa (2 . C?iaeaiee aiaeic iieacaa, ui aeey ?ica(ycaiiy oei?? i?iaeaie
iaaeinoaoiuei aeei?enoaiiy iiaa?iaioia aeiiniiao?i? icio?iiieo
na?aaeiaeu, iaiaoiaeii caeo/aoe iiaa?iaioii niiaaiaeiioaiiy
aeiiniiao?i? aiicio?iiieo na?aaeiaeu aeey o?aooaaiiy iiaa?oiaai?
aiicio?iii? a?aeaeaaieo nenoai;

aia?oa i?e aecia/aiii ia?aiao?ia eiiiainaoi?a (, (1 oa (2 aeei?enoaii
iaoaiaoe/io oiiao (3), yeo caaeiaieueiythoue oei ia?aiao?e i?e noiiuaiii
K0 oa E1. THnooaaeueiee ia?aiao? K0, ye i?aaeei, caaaeaee noi?ua?oueny c
iieacii eiiaa K1, aea iacaaia oiiaa i?e oeueiio aei oaaae ia a?aeany.
O?aooaaiiy oiiae (3) i?eaiaeeoue aei nooo?ai iioeo ?acoeueoaoia
ii?iaiyii c neooaoei?th, eiee oey oiiaa ia a?aoiao?oueny;

ia i?eeeaaei c?aceia e?aiiie-aeaiieen e?aiiith ia?aai?aii nooiiiue
?aaeicaoei? iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee aeiiniiao?e/ieo aeii?thaaiue. Io?eiaii
?acoeueoaoe, caaaeyee aeeiiaiith on?o ?ic?iaeaieo o aeena?oaoei?
?aeiiaiaeaoeie oa aeiia, yaeythoue niaith iiiioiee e?ie oia?aae a
oeueiio iai?yieo.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iiao iao?ieiaith aeiiniiao?i?:

cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iiaeoiae aei iao?ieiai? aeiiniiao?i?, aiaeiiaiaeii
aei yeiai ?iceeae aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue eooia ( oa ( ii
aeii?thaaeueieo ciiao ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ia’?eoeaiee iao?ieiai/iee
e?eoa?ie, yeee aecia/a? oi/iinoue aeii?thaaiiy iiey?ecaoeieieo eooia oa,
ye iane?aeie, oi/iinoue ciaoiaeaeaiiy oiceei-oiii/ieo ia?aiao?ia
i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia;

cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaeo ?c noai?aiiy ia iniiai iiai? iao?ieiai? c?aceiaiai
eaca?iiai aeiiniiao?a, i?ecia/aiiai aeey aoanoaoei? na?ieieo
aeiiniiao?ia oa iioe/ieo aeaiaioia aei ieo. Iniaeeao oaaao a c?aceiaiio
aeiiniiao?i, ye i a na?ieieo aeiiniiao?ao, aoaea i?eaeieaii eiio?ieth
i?inoi?iaiai iieiaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?a aiaeiinii ini naioeiaiai io/ea;

aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? noiniaii aoanoaoei? oaciaeo eiiiainaoi?ia ia
c?aceiaiio aeiiniiao?i. Iaii/aii noaio i?iaaaeaiiy iao?ieiai/ieo ?iaio,
yea aeicaieeoue ia eeoa aoanooaaoe na?ieii aeiiniiao?e, a e ioeiithaaoe
c aieueoith oi/iinoth yeinoue ?aaeueieo c?aceia, yei aeii?ththoueny ia
na?ieiiio i?eeaaei.

3. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee ?ica(caiiy cai?ioii? caaea/i aeiiniiao?i?:

oai?aoe/ii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui cai?ioia caaea/a
aeiiniiao?i? aeey iaaeoiieeo (iaioa 10 ii) iiaa?oiaaeo ieiaie iaeaaeeoue
aei eeano iaoaiaoe/ii iaei?aeoieo;

aeey ?ica(caiiy iaoaiaoe/ii iaei?aeoii? cai?ioii? caaea/i aeiiniiao?i?
aeey iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo ieiaie cai?iiiiiaaii noaoenoe/iee iiaeoiae,
yeee aeei?enoiao? iniiaia iieiaeaiiy oai?i? ?aaoey?ecaoei? i?i inioaaiiy
iioeiaeueii? oi/ee. I?e oeueiio aieiaio oaaao i?eaeieaii ia??oiooaaiith
oa aeei?enoaiith iiaeo e?eoa?i?a coieiee iiaeeco iioeiaeueii? oi/ee;

cai?iiiiiaaii iiai e?eoa?i? aeai?o iioeiaeueii? oi/ee, iia’ycaii c
iioiaeieie aiae ooieoeiiiaeo iaa’ycee S0 oa na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai
?iceeaeo G ia?aiao?ia ieiaee d oa n ii ia?aiiuaiith acaeiaae o?a?eoi?i?
nioneo oa ii neeaaeiaeo caaaeueiiai ia?aiiuaiiy;

iieacaii, ui iiaee iiaeoiae aei ?ica(ycaiiy iaei?aeoii? cai?ioii?
caaea/i aeiiniiao?i? aeey iaaeoiieeo i?ici?eo iiaa?oiaaeo ieiaie, yeee
i?iiiio? iiai e?eoa?i? aeai?o iioeiaeueii? oi/ee, i?eaiaeeoue aei noaeeo
?acoeueoaoia oa aeicaiey? oni?oii aeineiaeaeoaaoe iiaa?oiaai ieiaee
oiaueiith aiae 2 aei 10 iaiiiao?ia.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Naiaiaiei A. E., Aia?i A. A. I iao?ieiae/aneii iaania/aiee
yeeeiniiao?ee (iauee iiaeoiae) // Aaoiiao?ey.- 1997.- ? 1.- N.43-49.

2. Naiaiaiei A. E., Aia?i A. A., Ia?aeaaeia A. N. I iaeioi?uo e?eoa?eyo
auai?a iioeiaeueiie oi/ee i?e ?aoaiee iaei??aeoiie ia?aoiie caaea/e
yeeeiniiao?ee // Aaoiiao?ey.- 1998.- ? 1.- N.56-60.

3. Aia?i A.A., Naiaiaiei A.E. Ia iniaaiiinoyo iioe/aneie thnoe?iaee
oaciaiai eiiiainaoi?a yeeeiniiao?a // A?niee Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1999.- ? 2(13).- N.32-35.

4. A.n. 1355869 NNN?, IEE G 01 B 21/08. Ono?ienoai aeey ecia?aiey
oieueiu oiieie ieaiee ia i?ic?a/iie iiaeeiaeea / Aeoa?ueaa I.I., Aia?i
A.A., Aycaieei A.E., Ei/eei A.Ae., Ooiei A.A. (NNN?).- ? 4055531/24-28;
Cayaeaii 15.04.86; Iioae.30.11.87, Athe. ?44.- 7n.

5. Semenenko A. I., Bobro V. V., Mardezhov A. S., Semenenko E. M. A new
metrological criterion in ellipsometry // Proc. SPIE.- 1998.- V. 3485.-
P.336-342.

6. Bobro V. V., Mardezhov A. S., Semenenko A. I. On the solution of
incorrect inverse ellipsometric problem // Proc. SPIE.- 1998.- V. 3485.-
P.354-358.

7. Aia?i A.A. Ono?ienoai aeey aooanoaoeee oo?eoiauo ia? // Nai?iee
“Iiaia aeaeeoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea e oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu aeey
ecaioiaeaiey i?aoeeceiiiuo iioe/aneeo yeaiaioia”.- Iineaa: OeIEE
eioi?iaoeee, 1980.- N.40-41.

8. Aia?i A.A. Oioiyeaeo?e/aneia ono?ienoai aeey aaoiiaoe/aneie
aooanoaoeee oo?eoiauo ia? // Nai?iee “N?aaenoaa eiio?iey iioe/aneeo
aeaoaeae e oceia”.- Iineaa: OeIEE eioi?iaoeee, 1980.- N.61-62.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aia?i A. A. Iniiaii oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy a?aie/ieo iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeo
aeiiniiao?i?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca oaoii 01.04.01 — oiceea i?eeaaeia, aeaiaioia
oa nenoai. — Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao, Noie, 1999.

Aeena?oaoeiy i?enay/aia ia??oiooaaiith oa ?ic?iaoei iniiaieo oeyoia
aeinyaiaiiy a?aie/ieo iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeo aeiiniiao?i?. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeany ca o?ueia aieiaieie iai?yieaie. ?ic?iaeaii niiniae
iiaeieaiiy iniiaieo o?oaeiiuia ia oeyoo i?aeoe/ii? ?aaeicaoei?
iaeiiciiii? iaoiaeeee aeiiniiao?e/ieo aeii?thaaiue oa iiao
iaoeiaiiaa?oioiaaio iao?ieiaith a aeiiniiao?i?, a iniiai yei? eaaeeoue
iaeiiciiia iaoiaeeea. Iaii/aia noaia i?iaaaeaiiy iao?ieiai/ieo ?iaio.
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/i aeiiniiao?i?. Iieacaii,
ui noaoenoe/iee iiaeoiae aei ?ica(ycaiiy iaei?aeoii? caaea/i
aeiiniiao?i? aeey iaaeoiieeo iiaa?oiaaeo ieiaie, yeee i?iiiio? iiai
e?eoa?i? aeai?o iioeiaeueii? oi/ee, i?eaiaeeoue aei noaeeo ?acoeueoaoia
i aeicaiey? oni?oii aeineiaeaeoaaoe iiaa?oiaai ieiaee oiaueiith aiae 2
aei 10 iaiiiao?ia.

Eeth/iai neiaa: aeiiniiao?iy, aeii?thaaeueii ciie, iiaa?iaioe
aeiiniiao?i?, iaeiiciiia iaoiaeeea, iao?ieiaiy, iioe/ia thnooaaiiy,
cai?ioia caaea/a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aia?i A. A. Iniiaiua iooe aeinoeaeaiey i?aaeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae
iaoiaea yeeeiniiao?ee.( ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.01 ( oeceea
i?eai?ia, yeaiaioia e nenoai.( Noineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao,
Noiu, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia iainiiaaieth e ?ac?aaioea iniiaiuo iooae
aeinoeaeaiey i?aaeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae iaoiaea yeeeiniiao?ee. ?aaioa
aaeanue a o?ao aeaaiuo iai?aaeaieyo.

Ia?aia iai?aaeaiea naycaii n i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeeae iaeiiciiiie
iaoiaeeee yeeeiniiao?e/aneeo ecia?aiee. A oeaeyo i?aiaeieaiey iniiaiuo
o?oaeiinoae ia yoii iooe inouanoaeaiu neaaeothuea ?ac?aaioee.
I?aaeeiaeai iiaue oei oa?iionoie/eaiai eiiiainaoi?a, iaeaaeathuee
cia/eoaeueiuie i?aeiouanoaaie ii n?aaiaieth n nouanoaothueie. Eco/aia
i?iaeaia, naycaiiay n iniaaiiinoyie a iioe/aneie thnoe?iaea
oaciaiai

eiiiainaoi?a, i?e yoii aia?aua iieo/aii iaoaiaoe/aneia niioiioaiea,
eioi?iio i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo oaeiaeaoai?ytho ia?aiao?u
eiiiainaoi?a. Iieacaii, /oi aeaiiia niioiioaiea nouanoaaiii eciaiyao e
oi?iuaao i?ioeaaeo?o ii ii?aaeaeaieth ia?aiao?ia eiiiainaoi?a. Eco/aia
i?iaeaia aeinoaoi/ii oi/iiai ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia eiiiainaoi?a (, (1
e (2. Naeaeaiiue aiaeec iieacae, /oi aeey ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu
eniieueciaaiea eiaa?eaioia yeeeiniiao?ee ecio?iiiuo n?aae ieacuaaaony
iaaeinoaoi/iui, iaiaoiaeeii i?eaeaeaoue eiaa?eaioiua niioiioaiey
yeeeiniiao?ee aiecio?iiiuo n?aae, /oiau o/anoue iiaa?oiinoioth
aiecio?iieth io?aaeathueo nenoai. I?e yoii i?aiaa?aaeaiea eee oiaeaiea
?iee ia?aiao?a (2 iaaeiionoeii.

Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea iinayuaii ?ac?aaioea iiaie iao/ii iainiiaaiiie
iao?ieiaee a yeeeiniiao?ee, a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeeo iaeiiciiiay
iaoiaeeea yeeeiniiao?e/aneeo ecia?aiee. Aeaiiay iao?ieiaey iicaieyao
nouanoaaiii iiauneoue oi/iinoue ecia?aiey iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo oaeia e
?ac?aaioaoue ia yoie iniiaa iiaua i?eai?u, iaeaaeathuea ai?acaei
aieueoeie aiciiaeiinoyie ii n?aaiaieth n nouanoaothueie. I?aaeeiaeai
i?iaeo ii nicaeaieth ia iniiaa iiaie iao?ieiaee ia?acoeiaiai eaca?iiai
yeeeiniiao?a, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey aooanoaoeee na?eeiuo yeeeiniiao?ia
e iioe/aneeo yeaiaioia e iei. Iaia/aia noaia i?iaaaeaiey iao?ieiae/aneeo
?aaio.

O?aouea iai?aaeaiea naycaii n ?acaeoeai iaoiaeia eioa?i?aoaoeee
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Iieacaii, /oi noaoenoe/aneee iiaeoiae e
?aoaieth iaei??aeoiie ia?aoiie caaea/e yeeeiniiao?ee aeey naa?ooiieeo
i?ic?a/iuo iiaa?oiinoiuo ieaiie, i?aaeeaaathuee iiaua e?eoa?ee auai?a
iioeiaeueiie oi/ee, i?eaiaeeo e onoie/eaui ?acoeueoaoai e iicaieyao
oniaoii enneaaeiaaoue iiaa?oiinoiua ieaiee oieueiie io 2 aei 10
iaiiiao?ia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeeeiniiao?ey, ecia?eoaeueiua ciiu, eiaa?eaiou
yeeeiniiao?ee, iaeiiciiiay iaoiaeeea, iao?ieiaey, iioe/aneay
thnoe?iaea, ia?aoiay caaea/a.

ABSTRACT

Bobro V. V. Main ways of achieving maximum capabilities of the
ellipsometry method. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the degree of the candidate of sciences in physics and
mathematics. Speciality 01.04.01 — physics of instruments structural
elements and systems. Sumy State University, Sumy, 1999.

The thesis outlines and develops new ways of achiving the
maximum

capabilities of the ellipsometry method. The investigations follow three
principal directions. It is shown how to overcome problems encountered
in the implementation of the one-zone procedure in ellipsometry
measurements. New well-grounded ellipsometry metrology is presented
based on the one-zone procedure. A scheme is described for the metrology
operations. The techniques are proposed for the solution of the inverse
problem in ellipsometry. The statistical approach to the solution of the
ellipsometry incorrect inverse problem for ultrathin films which
includes new criteria for the choice of the optium point is shown to
provide reliable data permitting surface films of thickness ranging
from 2 to 10 nm to be examined.

Key words: ellipsometry, measurement zones, ellipsometry invariants,
one-zone procedure, metrology, optical adjustment, inverse problem.

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