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OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss Ae?OEA?NOAA

Ae?aee/ Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/

OAeE 681.62.067

INIIAE OAI??? ? I?IAEOOAAIIss

OAEUeOeTHAAEUeII-??CAEUeIEO OA I?EEEIAEUeII-AEA?AeIEO

I?ENO?I?A ?OEIIIEO Ae?OEA?NUeEEO IAOEI

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.05.01 – iaoeie ? i?ioeane

iie?a?ao?/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inuee?e aeaaeai?? ae?oea?noaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

– aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaeauaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieaenaiae?iae/,
Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aeaoaeae iaoei;

ae- aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Naiuee?anueeee Anaaieiae
Ieeieaeiae/, , OOe?a?inueea aeaeai?y ae?oea?noaa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
i?eeeaaeii? iaoaiaoeee;

n

– aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Neeaiei Iao?i Ieeieaeiae/,
Iineianueeee aea?aeaaiee – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Neeaiei
Iao?i Ieeieaeiae/, Iineianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ae?oeo
(?in?enueea oaaea?aoe?y), i?ioani? eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? ?
i?eeeaaeii? iaoai?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie
“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/iee
oaeoeueoao, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 06 ea?oiy ”
1999 ?. i 1400 aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ae35.101.01 a Oe?a?inuee?e aeaaeai?? ae?oea?noaa. 290020, i.
Euea?a-20, aoe. I?aeaieinei, 19.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
aeaaeai?? ae?oea?noaa. 290006, i.Euea?a-6, aoe.I?aeaaeueia, 17.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icn?neaiee 03 aa?aciy “ ”
1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ia??ei ?.A.

CCAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aei neeaaeo oaeueoethaaeueii-??caeueiiai oa
aea?aeiiai i?eno?i?a (O?AI) aoiaeeoue oi?ioaaeueia (OA),
oyaio/i-ia?oi?oaaeueia (OIA) ? oeee?iae?iaa (OeA) a?oie, a oaeiae
oaeueoethaaeueiee aiia?ao ae?oaiai iicaeiaaeiueiai caeio (OA2IC) oa
i?eeiaeueii-aea?aeiee i?eno??e (IAI). C ieo aeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaiith
? oi?ioaaeueia a?oia. Uiaei ?aooe /anoei O?AI iaiao?aeii aeacaoe ia
a?aenooi?noue ia eeoa aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aaiiao?e/ieo, e?iaiaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia ??cieo aoaiao
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano oaeueoethaaiiy ? aeaaaeaiiy cioeo?a.

Aaiethoe?y ?icaeoeo ?oeiiieo ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei (?AeI) neeaeany oae, ui
ae?oai?yaeiee c oaoiieia?/ieo i??eoaaiue O?AI iinooiiai
i?eaa?oa? ana a?eueoa oaaae ia eeoa i?iaeoaio?a, aea e
aenieoaoaoe?eiee?a. Oea iiynith?oueny iayai?noth a OA ia/eneaiieo aeey
?AeI oeeeeiaeo iaoai?ci?a, ye? e?i?oothoue i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?iaioe
iaoei. Aeey ?? i?aeaeuaiiy a iaoeiao, ui i?ecia/ai? aeey ?iaioe
ia oaeaeeinoyo ae?oeoaaiiy iiiaae 10 i/n, OA iathoue ca?eueoai?
aaaa?eoe, ?ieiee aiie ia iaio? a?ae ae?oea?nueeeo naeoe?e. Aeania oaea
noia?a/eeaa oaiaeaioe?y iaeneiae?caoe?? aaaa?eo?a OA ia aeaiiio aoai?
?icaeoeo ?AeI ? aeii?ioth/ith.

Ioe?ithth/e ?nioth/o a iaeano? ?ic?aooie?a ? i?iaeooaaiiy O?AI
neooaoe?th caaaeii cacia/eii, ui o a?aeiia?aeieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
onoaiiaao ? niaoe?aeueieo eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ath?i iie?a?ao?/iiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy eieeoiueiai N?N? ?iaeeeny nii?aaee/i?, iaeaea
aaconi?oi?,ni?iae noai?eoe iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooie?a eeoa aaiiao?e/ii? noaie
OeA. ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i a?aeiia?aei? iaoiaeeee o??i, ye?
niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia ae?iaieoeoa? ?AeI, ? cae?eoith. Oiio
?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia ? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oeeo nenoai ? aaeueie
aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iio?aaa o
ae??oaii? aeacaieo i?iaeai a Oe?a?i? aeieeea o ca`yceo c ??oaiiyi
a 1993 ?. Aea?aeeiiaeaeaaii Oe?a?ie i?i noai?aiiy i?iaeoo aaciai?
iiaeae? a?o/eciyii? ?oeiiii? ae?oea?nueei? iaoeie AeA?-62,
oaeueoethaaeueiee aia?ao yei?, ye ? ?yae ?ioeo aaaeeea?oeo /anoei,
aei?o/aii ?ic?iaeoe niaoe?ae?noai eaoaae?e iie?a?ao?/ieo
iaoei Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? ae?oea?noaa (oaia 199-93), aea iaeiie/aii
cia/iee aeina?ae oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iie?a?ao?/ieo iaoei, o oiio /ene? e oaeueoethaaeueieo aia?ao?a
?AeI. E??i oiai, i?i aaaeeea?noue aeine?aeaeaiue o aeacaiiio iai?yieo
na?ae/aoue aeiaiai?e Oe?a?inueeiai iie?a?ao?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i.?aaia
Oaaei?iaa (OI? ?i. ?a.Oaaei?iaa) 02-77 oa 161-84 c Ananithciei
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei ?inoeoooii iie?a?ao?/iiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy
(AIAe?iie?a?aoiao) oa 177-90 c ?ea?inueeei niaoe?aeueiei
eiino?oeoi?nueeei ath?i iie?a?ao?/iiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?ea?inueea NEA
II).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea oai??? oa
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo ? i?iaeooaaiiy O?AI ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?nioth/eo ooo i?iaeai. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe ?ica`cai? oae? caaea/?: ioe?iea ?nioth/iai noaio c
oai??? ?ic?aooieo ? i?aeoeee i?iaeooaaiiy O?AI; aecia/aiiy
ae?? nee ia iaia?iaa iieioii (II) ? cioeo i?ae /an ia?iaee ?o a O?AI;
aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiae aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e a O?AI; aeeiiaiiy
iioei?caoe?eiiai neioaco aaiiao?e/ii? noaie OeA; i?iaaaeaiiy
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ee oeeeeiaeo iaoai?ci?a a O?AI;
?ic?iaea oai??? ?ic?aooieo ? iaoiaeeee i?iaeooaaiiy an?o
a?oi O?AI; iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo O?AI.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a : ?ic?iaeaii iniiae oai??? aeey
?ic?aooie?a ? i?iaeooaaiiy aaiiao?e/ieo noai oeee?iae?iai? a?oie O?AI
oaea?iiai ? eeaiaiiiai oei?a; aia?oa aiae?oe/iei oeyoii ?ice?eoi
iaoai?ci ae?? nee ia iieioii, a?eoo oa cioeo, aeyaeaii aieiai? c ieo,
?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa caniae aeey noaa?e?caoe?? i?ioean?a ia?iaee
oa o?ainii?ooaaiiy oeeo iai?aoaa?eeao?a a O?AI, o oiio /ene? a OIA, OeA,
OA2IC ? IAI; aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy
e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a i?oaeea ia?aaeiueiai iiey a?eooa i?ae /an
iiia?a/iiai oaeueoethaaiiy a OeA, iieacaii oeyoe ciaioaiiy iaaei??ieo
i?enei?aiue ? ae?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c aeai?o iioeiaeueii?
aaiiao?e/ii? noaie a?oie; aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii ?
aiae?oe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ?ice?eoi caeiiii??iino? ? i?e/eie
?ioaineaiiai ciiooaaiiy iaciaeo eoea/e?a oeeeeiaeo iaoai?ci?a
OeA; ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii iia?
oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy, ?aae?caoe?y yeeo i?aeaeuo? i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ?
iie?auo? ye?noue cioeo?a (ca?eueoaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeaeeinoae,
onoiaiiy ioai??a a?ae aieie oiui).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeeeany ye i?e iiaea?i?caoe?? iiaiai
ae?iaethaaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy ? aenieoaoiaaiiai a ae?oea?iyo, oae ? i?ae
/an i?iaeooaaiiy iiaeo iaoei. Cie?aia: ia an?o ?oeiiieo ae?oea?nueeeo
iaoeiao ?ea?inueeiai caaiaeo iie?a?ao?/ieo iaoei (?in?y), ui iniauai? OA
noaeiai oi?iaoo, ii/eiath/e a?ae 1983 ?. anoaiiaeththoue
i?eno?i? iiia?a/iiai a?aen?eaiiy a?eoo?a a?ae iaia?iaiai iieioia, ye?
noai?ai? ca o/anoth aaoi?a ? caoeuai? AN N?N? N941216; a aaaaoueio
ae?oea?iyo aeei?enoiao?oueny ?ic?iaeaia ca o/anoth aaoi?a oaoiieia?y
?anoaa?oaaiiy ciioaieo iaciaeo eoea/e?a iaoai?cio i?eaiaeo
i?ieiethaaeueieo aieie; ?ic?iaeaiee ca o/anoth aaoi?a
i?eeiaeueii-aea?aeiee i?eno??e aeei?enoaii i?e i?iaeooaaii?
aaaaoioe?eueiaiai aaciaiai eiiieaeno IAE-168 a ?ea?inueeiio
NEA II; ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooie?a ? i?iaeooaaiiy O?IA
aoaeoeaii aeei?enoaia i?e noai?aii? iaoeie AeA?-62.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. ?iaioe, iia`ycai? c aeine?aeaeaiiyie OA
?AeI a ?aieao ainiaeiaia??ii? oaiaoeee ia?aaaaeii c AIAe?iie?a?aoiao
aeeiioaaeeny ia eaoaae?? iie?a?ao?/ieo iaoei OI? ?i.?a.Oaaei?iaa a
ia??iae a?ae 1977 ?. aei 1990 ?. Aei 1982 ? aaoi? i?aoethaaa
aeeiiaaoeai, a iiaeaeueoiio – ea??aieeii oai. A?ae 1990 ?. aiae?oe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ? iaoai?ee O?AI i?iaiaeeeeny a iaaeao
aea?aeathaeaeaoieo, ia ca aacia/aieo o?iainoaaiiyi, oai
aaoi?ii iaeiiin?aii. Iniaenoa o/anoue aaoi?a a aeine?aeaeaiiyo ca eiaeai
eaeaiaea?iee ??e a?aeia?aaeaia o aeaeyae? aeieueiaiai aianeo o
a?aeiia?aeieo ca?oao, ioae?eaoe?yo ? aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaao ia
aeiaoiaee. A ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ioae?eaoe?e ? aeiaoiae?a aaoi?ia?
iaeaaeeoue ?aeay, oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae oa oi?ioethaaiiy aeniiae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a
ia??iae 1980 – 1998 ??. aeiiia?aeaeeny aaoi?ii ui??/ii ia ca?oieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? ae?oea?noaa (OI? ?i.?a.Oaaei?iaa),
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae? iie?a?ao?/ieo iaoei aeaaeai?? oa IOOO EI?
(1998?.), iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao a?aeae?e?a ae?oea?nueeiai
onoaoeoaaiiy AIAe?iie?a?aoiao (1983 – 1990 ??.) oa ?oeiiieo
ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei ?ea?inueeiai NEA II (1990, 1991 ??.), a/ai?e ?aae?
Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo iie?a?ao?/ii?
i?iieneiaino? ?i.O.Oaa/aiea (1994 ?.), Ananithci?e ia?aae? c iaoiae?a
?ic?aooieo iie?a?ao?/ieo iaoei-aaoiiao?a (1987, 1991 ??.), i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? a IOOO EI? (1998 ?.), oaoiaiio oa iaoeiaiio nai?ia?ao a
OAAe (1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii iiiia?ao?th,
15 noaoae a iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao oa aeo?iaeao (c ieo 8 – iaeiiin?aii), 9
aeaiiiiaaii, aeiouaii aeaa ?aa?iiaeuei? ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
atheaoai? i?i aeina?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? noai?thaaio aoaeoeai?noue a?ae
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie, iioae?eiaaii 7 oac aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo
??cieo ??ai?a, ci?no yeeo ia ?ice?eoee a iiaeaeueoeo noaooyo. C?iaeaii
16 aeiaoiae?a, iia`ycaieo ?c oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee
ianya aeena?oaoe??: 383 noi?.,c ieo ?ethno?aoe?? – 83 noi?., aeiaeaoee –
18 noi?., nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae – 16 noi?. (170 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe “No/aniee noai oai??? ?ic?aooieo ? i?aeoeee
i?iaeooaaiiy oaeueoethaaeueii-??caeueieo oa i?eeiaeueii-aea?aeieo
i?eno?i?a ?oeiiieo ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei” c?iaeaii aiae?c iniiaieo
?nioth/eo noaie aoaeiae ? ?iaioe O?AI oa eiai aieiaieo
iaoai?ci?a ye a ?noi?e/iiio eiioaeno?, oae ? ia i?eeeaaeao no/anieo
eiino?oeoe?e aeine?aeaeoaaieo aoce?a no/anieo ?AeI.

Iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aeine?aeaeaiue O?AI ? iaoiae?a ?o
?ic?aooie?a. Cacia/aii, ui e?euee?noue oa aeeaeia iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a iaeano? oeeo i?eno?i?a ia a?aeiia?aeathoue
c?inoath/iio aieeao O?AI ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?iaioe ?AeI.

Iieacaii, ui aeeaeia aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaeiaeo /anoei O?AI ? ??ciith.
Cie?aia, ?nioth/a iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooie?a aaiiao?e/ii? noaie ?
eiino?oeoe?? aeaiaio?a oi?ioaaeueii? a?oi, noai?aia caaaeyee coneeeyi
I.I.Oth??ia oa A.?.Iaaei?iaa, o?eaaeee /an oni?oii
aeei?enoiao?oueny a i?aeoeoe? i?iaeooaaiiy oeueiai aocea. C oeeo i?e/ei
o aeai?e ?iaio? oi?ioaaeueia a?oia ia ?icaeyaea?oueny.

A?eueoi? oaaae ?icaeyaeaiei o ?iaio? ieoaiiyi i?eae?eaii a ia`?ii?e
iiiia?ao??-iin?aieeo A.O.Aoooiiaa, aeaeai?e iaeaea 40 ?ie?a oiio. I?ioa
/a?ac iaaeinoaoiuei aeeaieee i?aeo?ae ? cia/iee /aniaee i?ii?aeie
iaaaaeai? oai iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee ia ciaoiaeyoue
aeei?enoaiiy.

C-iina?aae ?ioeo no?oeoo?ieo /anoei O?AI: OIA, OeA, OA2IC oa IAI –
iaea?eueoo oaaao aeine?aeieee i?eae?eyee iaoai?ciia? a?aen?eaiiy a?eoo?a
a?ae iaia?iaiai iieioia (oeee?iae?iaa a?oia). Ooo a?aeiieie ? ?iaioe
?ea?inueeiai NEA II oa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? ae?oea?noaa. Cie?aia, a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? TH.I.?aea, c-iii?ae ?ioeo aaaeeeaeo ia?iaie, aoei
aia?oa anoaiiaeaii neeia? oaeoi?e, ye? noi?iaiaeaeooue i?ioean
a?aen?eaiiy a?eoo?a o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao ia aa?aaao? iiae. AAO.
?acoeueoaoe oeeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee ii-iiaiio
ioe?ieoe nooi?iue aieeao iaoai?cio a?aen?eaiiy ia noai aeeiai?ee O?A ?
?ic?iaeoe caoiaee uiaei eiai i?i?i?caoe??.

?ioa no?oeoo?ia /anoeia O?AI – i?eeiaeueii-aea?aeiee i?eno??e – noaa
ia`?eoii eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue o ?iaio? ?.?.?aaay, aeeiiai?e i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a. Iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue o
oeueiio iai?yieo aeeeooaaeany iio?aaith i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino?
aeeeaaeoaaiiy cioeo?a ia aea?aeiee o?ainii?oa? aeey caaacia/aiiy oiia
noi?nii? aen- ieoaoaoe?? ?AeI c o?ainii?oa?ii ?c iiooo/iei
o?ainii?ooaaiiyi aecaiiey??a. O oe?e ?iaio? aia?oa aeyaeaii ?nioaaiiy
ae?eyiie no?eaeiiiae?aiiai aaeueioaaiiy oaeaeeino? cioeo?a, ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaee ? caniae aeey ia?aoiaeo aei ieaaiiai ?ooo cioeo?a, a oaeiae
i?eioeeiiai iia? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy cania?a aeaaaeaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? ?c
?AeI.

?aooa /anoei O?AI – OIA oa OA2IC – iiee ui ia iio?aieyee a iiea ci?o
aeine?aeiee?a, oi/a ?o aieea ia o?ae oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano
aeaioiaeaiiy cioeo?a (iniaeeai ae?oaiai c ieo) ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeaeeinoae c?inoa?. Aeae? a ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui
ine?eueee aeeaeia i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaaeinoaoiueith aeey
?ic?iaee iaoiaeee ?ic?aooie?a neeaaeiaeo /anoei O?AI, oi iniiaiei
?ino?oiaioa???i i?e eiai i?iaeooaaii? ? iaoiae aiaeia?e. Ia aac?
aeeiiaiiai e?eoe/iiai aiae?co noaio eiino?oeoe?e, ?iaioe oa
aeine?aeaeaiue O?AI noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeiao i?iaeaio – iaiao?aei?noue
noai?aiiy oai??? eiai ?ic?aooie?a – ? ia ?? iniia? ?ic?iaeo iaoiaeeee
i?iaeooaaiiy O?AI. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe noi?ioeueiaaii eiie?aoi?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ee i?ioean?a
o?ainii?ooaaiiy iaia?iaiai iieioia a oyaio/i-ia?oi?oaaeuei?e
a?oi?” aena?oeaii ieoaiiy ?ic?aooie?a aaiiao??? aoaeiae,
e?iaiaoeee o?ainii?ooaaiiy oa, noi?iaiaeaeoaaieo aeeiioaai? a OIA
i?ioeane, neeiaeo oaeoi??a.

Aei neeaaeo OIA aoiaeyoue iaeia aai aea? ia?e oyaio/eo aaeee?a (OA),
i?eno?i? aeey iicaeiaaeiueiai oa iiia?a/iiai ia?oi?oaaiiy, a oaeiae
i?eno?i? aeey iicaeiaaeiueiai ?ic??coaaiiy ? a?aoaaiiy
II.

O y a i o / ? a a e e e e ? iniiaiei aeaiaioii OIA. ?c
oaoiiaie?/ieo i??eoaaiue ?oi?i iiaa?oiyi ne?ae iaaeaaaoe
e?i?eii? oaeaeeino?, aeaui a?eueoi? a?ae oaeaeeino? ae?oeoaaiiy Vae?

V oa = V ae? (1 + ) (1 + 1),
(1)

aea – eiao?oe??io, yeee a?aoiao? i?e?iuoaaiiy oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiiue OA
uiaei iaia?iaaaeo/iai oeee?iae?a, ?icoaoiaaiiai iaae oi?ioaa/ai; 1
-eiao?oe??io, ui a?aoiao? ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? iiaa?oi?
iaia?iaaaeo/iai oeee?iae?a uiaei oaeaeeino? ae?oeoaaiiy.

Eiaeia ia?a OA yaey? niaith “aei?noeee” oeee?iae? oa “aeanoe/iee” aeene
oe?eiith 15…20 ii. “AEi?noeei” aaeeeai caaaeaee iaaeathoue i?eioniaiai
?ooo. I?e iayaiino? a OIA aeaio ia? OA ?o aaiiao?e/i? oa e?iaiaoe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iathoue aooe ?aeaioe/ieie.

?aae?coaaoe oiiao (1) a iaoai?ci? c i?eioniaei i?eaiaeii “aeanoe/iiai”
OA iiaeia eeoa o aeiaaeeo, eiee ae?aiao? o?ea “aei?noeiai” OA
ia?aaeuoaaoeia ae?aiao? ae?eeeueiiai eiea coa/anoiai eieana i?eaiaea
oeueiai OA, oiaoi d ae > d aeae .Ine?eueee d aeae = d aea , oi a cii?
eiioaeoo OA iaieio/a aeieea? a?aeiinia eiacaiiy, yea noa? i?e/eiith
ciiooaaiiy aeanoe/ii? iiaa?oi?.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aaiiao??? oa e?iaiaoeee iaoai?cio OA c i?e ioniaei
i?eaiaeii “aeanoe/iiai” OA cai?iiiiiaaii ae?ace aeey aecia/aiiy ?oi?o
ae?aiao??a oa i?aeoeaio?iai? a?aenoai?:

d ae = d aeae (1 + 1) (1 + ) – t ii,
(2)

d a = d aeae (1 + ) + t ii ,
(3)

a w = d aeae (1 + ) + t ii – z m ,
(4)

aea t ii – oiaueia ia?iaethaaiiai II,

z m – iaeneiaeueia aeaoi?iaoe?y aeanoe/ii? iiaa?oi? a?aeiia?aeiiai OA o
cii? eiioaeoo.

*a?ac ?ioaineaia ciiooaaiiy aeanoe/ii? iiaa?oi? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii a OIA
iaoei, i?ecia/aieo aeey ia?iaee II ia`?iii aei 6-oe noi?., ia
i?eioniaiai i?eaiaeo. A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ae?aiao?a
daeae , iieacaii aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a
ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? o iaaeao = 0,04…0,1 % 0 ? 1 = 1,5…2,0 %.

I?iaaaeaii neeiaee aiae?c iaoai?cio OA. Iieacaii, ui iaea?eueoei
c-iina?aae coneeue, ye? aeieeathoue i?e eiai ?iaio?, ? oyaio/a coneeey,
iaiao?aeia aeey ye?niiai o?ainii?ooaaiiy II. E?ooi? iiiaioe ia aaeo
“aei?noeiai” OA a?ae iaoeneoaaiiy oaeueoey, aca?iiiai iaei/oaaiiy
aaeee?a, nee oa?oy oiui, ? aoi?eiieie uiaei iiiaioo, iaiao?aeiiai aeey
iaoyaoaaiiy II. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo neeiaiai aiae?co ? aecia/aiiy
iiooaeiino?, iaiao?aeii? aeey i?eaiaea OA. Iieacaii, ui oeae iaoai?ci ?
aieiaiei, c-iii?ae ?ioeo iaoai?ci?a O?AI, niiaeeaa/ai iiooaeiino?.

I?eioeei ?iaioe iaoai?cio iiia?a/iiai ia?oi?oaaiiy aaaaoi a /iio
ca?aa?oueny ?c iaea?eueo aeine?aeaeaiei iaoai?ciii iiia?a/iiai
a?aen?eaiiy a?eoo?a. Iieacaii, ui ine?eueee ia?caiiee oeee?iae? oeueiai
iaoai?cio ? i??eeii e?ieo iiia?a/ieo ia?oi?aoe?e, oi eiai ae?aiao?

d ioe = L a /2.
(5)

aea L a – aeiaaeeia a?aen?/aiiai a?eooa.

?io? aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e oeueiai iaoai?cio: ae?aiao? iiaeiaiai
oeee?iae?a, i?aeoeaio?iaa a?aenoaiue oa a?aenoaiue a?ae oeaio?a
iiaeiaiai oeee?iae?a aei i?oaeea ia?oi?oaaeueiiai iiaea:

d ioe = L a / – 2 ,
(6)

a w = 3L a /(4) ? li = L a /(2) + h ,
(7)

aea = 3 ii – aaee/eia u?eeie i?ae iiaa?oiyie ia?caiiiai ?
iiaeiaiaioeee?iae??a;

h = 2,5 ii – aeeaeia caoiaeaeaiiy eaca ia?oi?oaaeueiiai iiaea a ia?cai.

Ioe?ieo aaee/ei coneeue, ye? aeieeathoue i?e iiia?a/iiio ia?oi?oaaii?
II, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii i?iaiaeeoe /a?ac noia?ia coneeey ia?oi?oaaiiy

P noi = p noi b iik ii ,
(8)

aea p noi – iiaiiia coneeey a?aen?eaiiy, ? ooieoe??th e?eueeino?
ia?iaethaaieo iaia?iaeo no??/ie, aecia/a?oueny ?c a?aeiia?aeiiai,
caoaeiaaiiai ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie, a?ao?ea;

b ii – oe?eia II i?ney iicaeiaaeiueiai oaeueoethaaiiy;

k ii = 0,85…0,88 – eiao?oe??io aoaeoeaii? aeiaaeeie ia?oi?oaaeueiiai
iiaea.

Neea P noi ? iniiaiith aeey ?ic?aooie?a aeaoaeae iaoai?cio ia i?oei?noue
? aaee/eie niiaeeaaii? iiooaeiino?.

C-iii?ae i i c ae i a ae i ue i a i ? i c ? ? c o a a i i y , i a ? o
i ? o a a i i y o a a ? a o a a i i y II iaea?eueo aia?aii?noeith ?
a?aoaaiiy. Iieacaii, ui ine?eueee a?ao- aaeuei? ?ieeee anoaiiaeththoue
iii?ae aeaio ia? oyaio/eo aaeee?a, oi coneeey a?aoaaiiy noai?th?
iacia/ia aeiaeaoeiaa iaoyaoaaiiy II.

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeeaaeaieo o ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe,
neeaaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooie?a aaiiao?e/ii? noaie, e?iaiaoeee ?
aia?aineeiaeo ia?aiao??a OIA, yeo iiaeaii o aeiaeaoeao aei aeena?oaoe??.

O iaea?eueoiio ca ia`?iii .o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe i?ae iacaith
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ee i?ioean?a a oeee?iae?ia?e a?oi?
oaeueoethaaeueii-??caeueiiai aia?aoa” ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy, iia`ycai? ?c:
aaiiao???th oeee?iae?iai? a?oie (OeA); o?ainii?ooaaiiyi nii/aoeo a?eooa,
a iio?i ? cioeoa; i?ioeanaie oaeueoethaaiiy a?eoo?a a oaea?iiio ?
eeaiaiiiio aia?aoao; aeeiai?eith aeei?enoiaoaaieo a OeA oeeeeiaeo
iaoai?ci?a oiui.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea a ?iaio? iin?aea? noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ae ? a
i a o ? ? a oe e e ? i ae ? ? a Oe A. Aeey ae??oaiiy oe???
caaea/? nii/aoeo aoei i?iaaaeaii neeiaee aiae?c i?ioeano o?ainii?ooaaiiy
ia?aaeiueiai iiey II iiaeaaaeueiei oeee?iae?ii. Ca aeiiiiiaith
aenia?eiaioo aeyaeaii, ui i?ieiethaaeuei? aieee iani?iiiaei?, /a?ac
iaaeinoaoith i?oei?noue iaia?o, iaoyaoaaoe II ?c coneeeyi, noai?thaaiei
OA. Ia oe?e iniia? c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue iaaeaiiy ?iai/?e
iiaa?oi? iiaeaaaeueiiai oeee?iae?a (IOe) oaei? oaeaeeino?, yea a ia
ia?aaeuoaaea oaeaee?noue o?ainii?ooaaiiy II oyaio/eie aaeeeaie.

?c oeeo i??eoaaiue oai?aoe/iee ae?aiao? IOe anoaiiaeth?oueny /a?ac
aeiaaeeio ?icai?oee eiai ?iai/i? iiaa?oi?, a ?ic?aooieiaee ae?aiao?
aecia/a?oueny ?c a?aooaaiiyi aeiaaeeie a?aen?/aiiai a?eooa L a,
iii?iaeueii? oiaueie tii ia?iaethaaiiai II ? oiaueie iia?o?yiiai
i?ioa?eo i?ae ie?aieie no??/eaie

D ioe = L a b/ – (t ii + ) ,
(9)

aea b – e?euee?noue a?aen?/aieo a?eoo?a, ye? iiaeia ?icoaooaaoe ia
iiaa?oi? IOe.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ae?aiao?a IOe ia?aaeaa/a? o?ainii?ooaaiiy
iaeo?aeueiiai oa?o II iii?iaeueii? oiaueie ?c oaeaee?noth ae?oeoaaiiy.
Ca?eueoaiiy oiaueie (t ii+) i?ioe iii?iaeueii? aeeeeea? iacia/ia
c?inoaiiy eiai iaoyaoaaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ae?aiao?a a?aen?/iiai oeee?iae?a (AOe) aeioe?eueii
nei?enoaoeny ae?acii

D aoe = L a a/ – (t + 2) ,
(10)

aea a – e?euee?noue a?aen?/aieo a?eoo?a, ye? iiaeia ?ici?noeoe ia
?icai?ooe? oai?aoe/ii? iiaa?oi? AOe;

– u?eeia i?ae iiaa?oiyie AOe ? IOe, aaee/eia ?? ia ?aaeaiaioo?oueny.

Aaaeeeaeie o eiino?othaaii? aocea ? anoaiiaeaiiy ae?aiao?a eiea, yea
iieno? i?oaeie a?aen?/iiai iiaea, aaee/eia eiai ia?aaeuaiiy iaae o?eii
AOe, a oaeiae i?aeoeaio?iaa a?aenoaiue i?ae AOe ? IOe:

D ii = L a a/ + 2h + t ii ,
(11)

h i = h + t ii +,
(12)

L = 0,5 (L a (a + b)/ – 2t ii -) ,
(13)

aea h = 2,5 ii – aaee/eia caaeeaeaiiy i?oaeea a?aen?/iiai iiaea a
ia?cai, ?iai/a ieiueia yeiai ni?aiaaea? c iiaa?oiath IOe.

Ca iaaaaeaiith aeua iaoiaeeeith aaea iiaeia caoaeoaaoe oeee?iae?iao
a?oio oaea?iiai O?A. Aeey eeaiaiiiai O?A ae?aiao? oaeueoethaaeueiiai
oeee?iae?a (OOe)

D ooe = c (L a / + q) ,
(14)

aea c – e?euee?noue a?aen?/aieo a?eoo?a, ye? iiaeia ?ici?noeoe ia
oai?aoe/i?e iiaa?oi? OOe;

q = 1 ii – aii??e/ia aaee/eia, yea caaacia/o? i?e??no ?ioa?aaeo i?ae
cioeoii ? a?eooai a cii? IOe – OOe.

Aaee/eio u?eeie i?ae OOe ? IOe iiaeaii o oi?i?

= t cio + k ,
(15)

aea t cio = t ii – aeey iaeneiaeueii? oiaueie cioeoa O?A c i?aeai?ii,
aai t cio = t i – aeey O?A aac i?aeai?o;

k = 0,22 ii – aii??e/ia aaee/eia, aeayeee caian.

Ni?anoaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a ca oi?ioeaie (9)…(15) ?c oaeoe/ieie
?ici??aie aeaiaio?a OeA iaoei oeio IIE-84, IIE-75 oa IIA-168 aea?
ca?aei? ?acoeueoaoe.

A ?iaio? iaaaaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aca?iiiai ?icoaooaaiiy
oeee?iae??a, a oaeiae i?ea`ycee OeA aei OIA oa O?AI.

Cie?aia, iaea?aeaii caeaaeiino?, ye? aeicaieythoue o i?ino?e oi?i?
aecia/aoe e i i ? -ae e i a o e o a e ue oe th a a e ue i e o a
a e e e ? a , oe a i o ? a a ? ae n ? / i i a i oe e e ? i ae ?
a o a i e ae i ue i ? i a ? e o y a i o / e o a a e e e ?
a oaea?iiai O?A. Aeey oeueiai aoei ?ica`ycaii aeae?eueea neeaaeieo
aaiiao?e/ieo caaea/, a iniiao yeeo iieeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ? e?iaiaoeee i?ioeano oaeueoethaaiiy a
oeee?iae?iaiio oaea?iiio O?A. ?ic?iaeaia ca ?acoeueoaoaie oeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiaeeea aaiiao?e/iiai neioaco aia?aoa o c?o/i?e aeey
ei?enooaa/a oi?i? iiaea ia o aeiaeaoeia?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a o OeA ? a?aeiia?aeieo iaoai?ciao
iiaeaii o oaoiieia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino?. Cie?aia, cia/io oaaao a ?iaio?
i?eae?eaii iaoai?ciia? a ? ae n ? e a i i y a ? e o o ? a.
Aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiyo caaaeoaaii? ?iaioe TH.I.?aea noiniaii aei
iaoai?cio a?aen?eaiiy eeoa caoi?eioee eiei i?iaeai, ye? aeieeathoue i?e
aeeiiaii? oeueiai i?ioeano. Cie?aia, ?icaeyioo? oai iiia?a/i? oa
e?ooeeuei? eieeaaiiy ian AOe oa IOe ? iane?aeeii ?iioeuenii? ae??
eiiieaeno nee, i?ioa ia iiyniththoue i?e?iaee ?o aeieeiaiiy. A
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e /anoei? oe??? ?iaioe eeoa ca?a?no?iaaii oaeo
aeieeiaiiy coneeue, ye? cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue oaoiieia?/ii iaiao?aei?
aeey cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano a?aen?eaiiy.

C iaoith ?ice?eooy noo? i?ioeano iaie i?iaaaeaii aeiaeaoeiao ia?iaeo
/anoeie ?acoeueoao?a aeacaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue noiniaii
aei iaoai?cio a?aen?eaiiy c i?aei?oaeeiaieie i?eoeneieie ieaieaie,
c?iaeaii neeiaee aiae?c. Anoaiiaeaii ia?aaaaeaeueia cia/aiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo nee, ye? aecia/aeeny noiith

p noi = p a?aen + p i? = 0,806 n 1,2 ,
(16)

aea p a?aen – coneeey o.ca.”/enoiai” a?aen?eaiiy;

p i? – coneeey caoeneaiiy II, iaiao?aeia aeey ye?niiai a?aen?eaiiy;

n – e?euee?noue iaeii/anii ia?iaethaaieo iaia?iaeo no??/ie.

Iieacaii, ui noia?ia coneeey o iaoai?ci? a?aen?eaiiy i?e ia?iaoe?
iaeneiaeueiiai ia`?io II (aeey oiia aa?aaaoa iiae. AAO) 16 noi?. oa
oe?eiith b ii = 0,42 i neeaaea? P noi = p noi bii = 1,5 eI. Oaea
?ic?aooieiaa coneeey ? cia/ii iaioei a?ae ca?a?no?iaaiiai
aenia?eiaioaeueii. Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i
a?aenooi?noue o i?aaeeueii iaeaaiaeaeaiiio iaoai?ci? a?aen?eaiiy
aeaea?ae aeieeiaiiyiaaei??ieo iaaaioaaeaiue. Oae? iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeooue
aooe iane?aeeii oaea?o iaoi/ii aeaioiaeaieo ? iai?ei?aoeueiaaieo
aeaoaeae iaoai?cio, cie?aia, i?eoeneieo ieaiie, ia?caia oiui.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oaeiio aeniiaeia? neoaothoue aenia?eiaioe c
aeei?enoaiiyi o iaoai?ci? a?aen?eaiiy i?iiiie?o?aoaiiaeo i?eoeneieo
ieaiie: oi/a oaoiieia?/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae aeania a?aen?eaiiy ooo
caeeoathoueny noaeeie, i?ioa noia?ia neea a iaoai?ci? ?noioii
ciaioo?oueny. E??i oiai, ia iniia? aeeeaaeaiiai uiaei aocea a?aen?eaiiy,
c?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiee aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoiaeo a?ae
nenoaie ?c ieoo?aei a?aen?eaiiyi a?eoo?a ? i?eoaiaieo eiio
no?eaeiiiae?aieo oaoiieia?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue aei nenoai ?c ?icoyaiaiei o
/an? i?ioeanii.

?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? e?iaiaoeee ? neeiaeo oaeoi??a i e a i a o a ? i
i a i i a- o a i ? c i o i ? e a i ae a o a e ue oe th a a e
ue i i a i i i ae a (OI). I?oaeie OI o oaeeo iaoai?ciao ?ooa?oueny
ca o?a?eoi???th o?eiaethnoeiai? a?iioeeeei?aee.

Neeiaee aiae?c ae?? i?oaeea OI ia ia?iaethaaiee a?eoo iieacaa, ui
??aiiae?eia nee, ui noai?ai? iiaeai i?ae /an iiaea/? a?eooa iii?ae
oaeueoethaaeuei? aaeeee (OA), ni?yiiaaia ia o iio??aiiio iai?yieo, a ia
OA, yeee ?icoaoiaaiee c aieo iiaea/? a?eooa.

E??i oiai, aaiiao?e/iee oa e?iaiaoe/iee aiae?ce i?ioeano iieacaee, ui
oainoiaa /anoeia oaeueoeueiaaiiai a?eooa aei ii/aoeo eiai noiieaiiy
oaeueoethaaeueieie aaeeeaie ?ooa?oueny ?c a?eueoith oaeaee?noth, i?ae
o?ainii?oiaaia iiaeai /anoeia. Aiane?aeie oeueiai oainoiaa /anoeia, yea
ia?aaoaa? iii?ae iiaa?oiath IOe oa iaiaaeoaaeueieie iai?yiieie, cacia?
iicaeiaaeiuei? aeaoi?iaoe?? o aeaeyae? aio?oaaiiy.

Oea, a oaeiae iayai?noue a?aeiiniiai eiacaiiy eaca OI uiaei a?eooa i?ae
/an eiai aeoiaeo ca iaae? IOe, aea? i?aenoaae aeey iinoaiiaee ieoaiiy
i?i iaiao?aei?noue ei?aeooaaiiy o?a?eoi??? ?ooo i?oaeea iiaea. Aaoi?ii
c?iaeaii aeae?eueea aeiaoiae?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii?
iaoe.

Oai?aoe/iei e?noyeii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
aecia/aiiy i?enei?aiue ia?aaeiueiai iiey a?aen?/aiiai a?eooa o i?ioean?
iiia?a/iiai oaeueoethaaiiy noiniaii aei OA oaea?iiai ? eeaiaiiiai oei?a,
yea aaco?oueny ia i a o a i a o e / i i i o i i ae a e th a a i i ?
oeueiai i?ioeano. sse?ac i?enei?aiiy aeeeeeathoue iiyao iai?oaeaiue a
a?eoo? ? aiie noathoue ?oei?aieie aeey iaia?o i?e cia/aiiyo i?enei?aiue
iiiaae 1000 i/nae2.

Ine?eueee i?enei?aiiy a?eooa ? ooieoe??th ci?ie oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy oa
?aae?ona oeee?iae?a, yeei o?ainii?oo?oueny oeae a?eoo, oi
i?iaeooaaeueieee, iaiaaath/enue aeinyaoe iaea?eueoi? i?iaeoeoeaiino?,
aeey i?i?i?oeaoe?? i?enei?aiue ?aeooue oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy ae?aiao??a
oeee?iae??a oaeueoethaaeueiiai aia?aoa. Cie?aia, yeui aeiiaaeaaia
aeei?enoiaoaaee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ae?aiao??a AOe, IOe oa OOe ye 1:2:1,
2:3:2 oiui, oi a no/anieo iaoeiao ?o ca?eueoothoue aei 2:5:5 ? iaa?oue
aei 4:5:7. Aeania oaeith ? oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeoeo OA ia no/aniiio aoai?.

A iniiao iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeano oaeueoethaaiiy iieeaaeaii
anoaiiaeaiiy aaiiao?e/ii? ci?ie iieiaeaiiy i?oaeea ia?aaeiueiai iiey
a?eooa a?ae eooa iiaa?oaiiy iaeiiai ?c oeee?iae??a OA ia ae?eyieao
eiia??ieo iaeneioi?a i?enei?aiue. E?iaiaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano
iaea?aeai? oeyoii aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiyi a?aeo/eo cia/aiue iaea?aeaieo
eooiaeo ia?ai?uaiue ia?aaeiueiai iiey a?eooa uiaei iiaa?oi? IOe ca eooii
iiaa?oaiiy inoaiiueiai.

Noiniaii aei OeA o ae a ? i i a i O A aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaiaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee i?iaiaeeee ia aeaio oacao o?ainii?ooaaiiy a?eooa:
oaeueoethaaeueiei iiaeai ? oaeueoethaaeueieie aaeeeaie.

A?aeo/? cia/aiiy ?iaa??aio?a oaeaeeinoae ? i?enei?aiue ia?aaeiueiai
i?oaeea a?eooa noiniaii aei oiia aeei?enoiaoaaii? a aaaaoueio aacaoieo
iaoeiao ? aa?aaaoao aeiaaeeie a?aen?eaiiy L a = 0,594 i iieacai? o oi?i?
a?ao?e?a ia ?en.1. Aeo?ae i?oaeea iiaea ca iaae? IOe a?aeaoaa?ouenyia
eoo? = 333,7 o. Ia a?ao?eo iaianai? oaeiae i?eionoei? cia/aiiy
?iaa??aio?a oaiaaioe?aeueiiai i?enei?aiiy [ ].

Iniaeeao oaaao i?eaa?oathoue oe? i?enei?aiiy ia ii/aoeo oaeueoethaaiiy,
eiee ?iaa??aio , a oea na?ae/eoue i?i iaaecae/aeii iani?eyoeea?, aeey
i?oeiino? a?eooa, oiiae oaeueoethaaiiy. E??i oiai, ye aeaeii c a?ao?e?a,
?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ?iaa??aio?a oaiaaioe?aeueieo i?enei?aiue a?eooa
eeoa a iaaeao = 341,5 o …349,5 o ? ??aieie aai iaioe ie a?ae ?oi?o
i?eionoeieo cia/aiue, ia ?aooo ae?eyieao aiie ? a?eueoeie a?ae
i?eionoeieo.

Ia oe?e iniia? c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaaeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy
?nioth/eo noai aoaeiae oaea?ieo O?A a no/anieo oaeaee?nieo ?AeI.
Iaeanoth ?o aeei?enoaiiy iiaeooue aooe, /a?ac a?aei?aoeueiaai?noue
eiino?oeoe?? ? oiia aenieoaoaoe??, aacaoi? iaoeie ?c oaeaee?noth ?iaioe
aei 25 000 ia/aiae.

C oi/ee ci?o iinoaaeaii? caaea/? yaeua, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoue iiia?a/ia
oaeueoethaaiiy o e e a i a i i i i o a i a ? a o ?, oiiaii iiaeia
?icae?eeoe ia aeaa aoaie: aeania i?ioean oaeueoethaaiiy oa ia?ao?ae
ia?aaeiuei? /anoeie a?eooa c iiaeaaaeueiiai oeee?iae?a ia
oaeueoethaaeueiee. Ia?oee aoai ioiieth? ia??iae /ano, ia i?ioyc? yeiai
oaeueoethaaeueiee i?ae iiaeaaaeueiiai oeee?iae?a i?iooiaoo?
oaeueoeueiaaiee a?eoo iii?ae eeaiaiaie oaeueoethaaeueiiai oeee?iae?a ?
aeae?, aeeth/ii c ?oi?i cae?eaaiiyi, noiiethaaiiyi ? iaoeneoaaiiyi
oaeueoey. Ia ae?oaiio aoai? a?aeaoaa?oueny ?aaa?noaaiiy ia?aaeiueiai
iiey a?eooa, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny eiai i?enei?aiiyi. Ieae/a
iine?aeiaii ?icaeyiooa aaiiao??y ? e?iaiaoeea aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a oa
oa?aeoa?ieo ae?eyiie a?eooa aeey aeaio aoai?a.

O i?ioean? iiia?a/iiai oaeueoethaaiiy a?eooa A ( ?en.2) i?oaeie eiai
ia?aaeiueiai iiey (oi/ea N ) nii/aoeo o?ainii?oo?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
i?ieiethaaeueieo aieie, anoaiiaeaieo, c iiaeeea?noth ?ooaoeny, ia IOe, a
i?ney oaeueoethaaiiy iiaeaie ? eeaiaiaie, anoaiiaeaieie ia
oaeueoethaaeueiiio oeee?iae?ia? OOe, i?ieiethaaeuei? aieee
caio?ththoueny o IOe ? aaaeo/eie uiaei a?eooa noathoue eeaiaie. I?e
oeueiio oi/ea N a?eooa ?ooa?oueny nii/aoeo a iai?yieo ca aiaeeiieeiaith
no??eeith uiaei oeaio?a I 1, iio?i i?ae ae??th eeaiai?a eiaca? ii
iiaa?oi? IOe , a aeae? caeia? a?aeiinii oeaio?a I1 iaaia iieiaeaiiy c
eii?aeeiaoaie, ye? aecia/athoueny: aei?noe?noth iaia?o, oaeaee?noth
?iaioe, ia`?iii cioeoa, eiio?ao?aoe??th iaiaaeoaaeueieo i?eno?i?a ? o.?.

Ooo c?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy i?i iino?ei?noue ia?aaoaaiiy oi/ee C ia iiaa?oi?
IOe aei iiiaioo, aeiee a?aenoaiue i?ae oi/eith D oa iiaa?oiath IOe ia
noaia a?eueoith aeiaaeeie iieiaeie a?aen?eaiiy a?eooa L a. Oea
i?eiouaiiy ia? i?ae niaith iaai? iniiae, ine?eueee, iai?eeeaae, ii??
iia?o?y ia?ai?uaiith oaeueoeueiaaiiai a?eooa iiaea ni?eyoe ?ici?uaiith
ia?aaeiuei? /anoeie a?eooa o aeaeyae? ye i?yii? e?i?? , oae ? e?eai?. O
iaaaaeaiiio ieae/a aeine?aeaeaii? e?iaiaoeee i?ioeano oaeueoethaaiiy
i?eeiyoi ia?oee aa??aio. Ia a?aoiaaii oaeiae, /a?ac iacia/iee aieea ia
e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao, aaee/eie noiiethaaiiy oaeueoey eeaiaiaie.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue aoei anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o ci?ie oa aaee/ei
i?enei?aiue, ye? aeieeathoue i?e ?aaa?noaaii? oi/ee C ( ?en.2), yea ia
eaaeeoue ae?eyioe? ia?aaeiueiai iiey a?eooa Aeey oeueiai anoaiiaeaii
ci?io eooa , yeee ? iiey?iith eii?aeeiaoith oi/ee N uiaei in? O 1, a?ae
eooa iiaa?oaiiy oaeueoethaaeueiiai oeee?iae?a OOe , oiaoi = f( ) 0. Eoo
iiae ia ae?aceoe coiith = + + , aea – eoo, yeee aecia/a? iieiaeaiiy
iiia?a/iiai oaeueoey ia OOe noiniaii aei oeaio?a IOe ; – eoo, yeee
eaaeeoue iai?ioe iaeei?iooi? a?aenoai? i?ae oi/eaie D ? B aeey aeaiiai
eooa , aei oiai ae eoo

? ??!??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? `A(???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?(???????&??MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????z???^TH ???u?? ???????"????-????fTH???o%???-?????o-???L‹??? L‹???LA???…???a???z±???^a???-????fa ???o)???-?????o1???L Ia?oa iio?aeia a?ae ae?aco (17) ca eooii ? ?iaa??aioii eooiai? oaeaeeino? ?ooo oi/ee C uiaei iiaa?oi? IOe , a ae?oaa - eooiaiai i?enei?aiiy: wmetafile8? ??A??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? A?7???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA6??y?????&??MathType?? ???u?????????"????-?????•???cAE ???u?? ???????"????-????kAE???y???-?????y???Qs???Q s???Qu???m???????t???—Y???-?????Y ???Si???-?????So???QR???QR???Q0 ???????P ????‚)???—?)???-??????)???Su)???-?????S*??? Q`*???Q`*???Qy5???A!???™5???u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??J??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? a/???&??yyyy?????Ayyyyyy /??I?????&??MathType??0 ???u?????????"????-?????oi ???* ???u?? ???????"????-????ss???“f???-?????“n???‘I???‘I ???‘a???C_???C???-© ???U ???-????U ???I!!???-?????I)!???E‡!???E‡!???E“-???Cx??? Cq.???u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??$??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? aA3???&??yyyy?????Ayyyyyy?3?? wmetafile8? ??$??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????????????a  ???&??yyyy?????Ayyyyyy`?? - 15 o1.0 1sin 7f 1 cos 7f7 1(2 77 1I 77 1sin 7f 1 - sin2 7f 1) 7g 1" = - ------------------ - ------------------------ - 0 7| 1 7 | 7? 12 77 1I 77 1D 7 1+ 7 1i 52 1- sin 52 7f 1 2 77? 1(2 77 1I 77 1D 7 1+ 7 1i 52 1- 7 1sin 52 7f 1) 53 1I 77 1sin2 7f 1- ------------------------------- + 7| 1(2 77 1I 77 1D + i 52 1) 77? 12 77 1I 77 1D 7 1+ i 52 1- sin 52 7f 12 77 1I 52 77 1sin 53 7f 1+ ------------------------------- + 7| 1(2 77 1I 77 1D + i 52 1) 52 77? 12 77 1I 77 1D + i 52 1- 7 1sin 52 7f 1I 77 1(2 77 1I 77 1sin 7f 1 - sin2 7f 1) 77 1sin 52 7f 1 I 77 1i 77 1cos 7f 1+ ---------------------------------- + ------------------ 7| 1 7 | 12(2 77 1I 77 1D+i 52 1) 77? 1(2 77 1I 77 1D + 0 1i 52 1- 7 1sin 52 7f 1) 53 1 (2 77 1I 77 1D+i 52 1) 77? 12 77 1I 77 1D 12i 77 1(I 77 1sin 7f 1) 52 1 i 77 1(I 77 1sin 7f 1) 52 1- --------------------- - ---------------------- 7| 1 7 0 7 | 1(2 77 1I 77 1D 7 1+ 7 1i 52 1) 52 77? 12 77 1I 77 1D (2 77 1I 77 1D 7 1+ i 52 1) 77? 1(2 77 1I 77 1D) 53 1I 77 1cos 7f 1 (I 77 1sin 7f 1) 52 1- -------- + -------------- . 0 1 ( 018) 7| 1 7 | o0 1i 77? 12 77 1I 77 1D i 77? 1(2 77 1i 52 77 1I 77 1D) 53 Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ia?aiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ooieoe?e = f(i, f ), ` = f(i, ) oa " = f(i, ) caoaeiaaii na??th a?ao?e?a, o yeeo ia?aiao?e b ? c (i?e/iio i = b/c) ye oe?e? /enea ci?ithaaee o ae?aiacii? b = 2...7 ? c = 2...7 . *anoeia c ieo iieacaia ia ?en.3. Ooo aeey aeayeeo o?eniaaieo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a b ? c iieacaii oa?aeoa? ci?ie iio?aeii? " , yea ? ?iaa??aioii i?enei?aiiy oi/ee N (aeea.?en .2). Ine?eueee e?eoa???i oaeaee?nieo iiaeeeainoae iaoeie i?eeiyoi iaeneioie i?enei?aiue oaeueoeueiaaiiai a?eooa, oi ca aeiiiiiaith iaaaaeaiiai ia ?en.4 a?ao?ea ooieoe?? " max = f(b,c) aeey ei?enooaa/a c?o/ii ciaeoe oae? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i = b/c , i?e yeeo ?iaa??aioi? cia/aiiy i?enei?aiue aoaeooue ciaoiaeeoeny a i?eeiyoeeaeo iaaeao. C a?aooaaiiyi aaaaeaieo iicia/aiue ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy i?enei?aiue ia?aaeiueiai iiey oaeueoeueiaaiiai a?eooa iiaeia aecia/eoe c ae?aco o1 12 7p7 1V 4ae? 52 1 7 1 2 7p7 1V 4ae? 52 1W 4i? 1 = 7g 5" 77 1-------- = 7g 5" 77 1-------- . 0 wmetafile8? ??w??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyy`??d?????&??MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-??????”???? ????a????T???u?th?????? o0 1b 77 1L 4a 1 i 77 1c 77 1L 4a Anoaiiaeaii aaee/eie i?enei?aiue ??cieo ae?eyiie a?eooa ca ia??iae eiai ia?aaoaaiiy a oeee?iae?ia?e a?oi?, aeyaeaii c-iii?ae ieo iaeneiaeuei? ? ?ic?iaeaii oeyoe ?o i?i?i?caoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo? i?enei?aiiy aeieeathoue ia ae?eyioe? ia?aaeiueiai iiey ? aiie ia iaio i?ae o aeaa ?ace ia?aaeuothoue aeioeaio?ia? i?enei?aiiy. Iieacaii, ui ciaioeoe i?enei?aiiy ia?aaeiueiai iiey iiaeia ye ca?eueoaiiyi ae?aiao?a IOe, oae ? oe?eani?yiiaaiei i?aeai?ii ni?aa?aeiioaiue b ? c . Iia?/iei aeieacii aeieeiaiiy o aeacai?e cii? cia/ieo i?enei?aiue ? ii?iaeaeaieo ieie iai?oaeaiue a ia?iaethaaiiio a?eoo? ? iaeiie/aiiy iaia?iaiai ieeo ia ?icoaoiaaieo iaaa?/ ia?ooiieo aeaoaeyo eeaiaiiiai oaeueoethaaeueiiai aia?aoa. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ae e i a i ? e e e o e a / e i a e o i a o a i ? c i ? a ? anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o oa aaee/ei iaaaioaaeaiue, ye? aeieeathoue o oeeo iaoai?ciao, iaiao?aeieo aeey aeyaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o aeeiai?ee i?eno?i?a, a oaeiae ioe?iea aieeao oeeo iaaaioaaeaiue ia ye?noue ooieoe?thaaiiy aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a. Iio?aaa a ciaiiyo iniaeeainoae aeeiai?ee oeeeeiaeo iaoai?ci?a aeeeoo?oueny ia eeoa iacaaeia?eueieie aenieoaoaoe?eieie iieacieeaie iaeieo (c iaciaei eoea/eii), aea e iaiaaaiiyi ni?iaiicoaaoe eieeaiee i?ioean a ?ioeo iaoai?ciao (i?eno?i? c aeaiioa?aie) ia aoai? ?oiueiai i?iaeooaaiiy. Neeiaee aiae?c iaoai?cio c ia?ooiiei iaciaei eoea/eii i?ieiethaaeueieo aieie noiniaii aei oiia aa?aaaoa iiae. AAO aeyaea, ui ia?aaaaeaeueiith ? neea ?ia?oe??. Oey ianoaaeia aoea a?aoiaaia i?e aeine?aeaeaii? e i e e a i i a i i ? i oe a n o a i a o a i ? c i ?. Iaiao?aeia aeey oeueiai aeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue iaoai?cio c ia?ooiiei iaciaei eoea/eii iieacaia ia ?en.5. I?ney ia?aoiaeo a?ae eieeaiiai ?ooo aei, a?eueo c?o/iiai, iinooiaeueiiai (?en.6) neeaaeai? oa ?ica`ycai? a?aeiia?aei? aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ??aiyiiy ia ??cieo oacao ia?ai?uaiue. Cie?aia anoaiiaeaii, ui eieeaaiiy i?ioiaeyoue ia aeani?e /anoio? nenoaie, a caoaeieeii eieeaaiue ? ciaeici?iia ?ia?oe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy, oa?aeoa? ? aaee/eia yeiai a?aeiia?aea? i?eeiyoiio caeiiia? ia??iaee/iiai ?ooo ia eoea/eo. I?ney cae?i/aiiy eiioaeoo, iai?eeeaae, c aeeaei?i i?io?eai ?ieee ianith m i?ae ae??th nee ?ia?oe?? P ?i , aeae?ath/e caci?, ia?aoiaeeoue aei eiioaeoo ?c aeaeuei?i i?io?eai. Ine?eueee aaee/e ia caci?o a ? a?aeiinii iaaaeeeith, a oaeaee?noue ?ooo ?ieeea i?ae /an ia?aoiaeo ? iaeneiaeueiith, oi eiai o?eaae?noue iiaeia aecia/eoe, aaaaea th/e ?oo ??aiii??iei, /a?ac t cac = a/V aai - 18 o1.0 1a 77f 4a 1t 4cac 1 = ----------- 0, 7 0 wmetafile8? ??E??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? `????&[email protected]???????&??MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-?????#???#????u?th?????? o0 1B 77w 41 77g 4noi 77 1b aea B - eiinoaioa i?ea oaeaeeinoae caeiio ?ooo; b -aeiaaeeia ei?iienea. Aeey aeaii? nenoaie t cac = 2,05 x 10 -5 n , a oea na?ae/eoue i?i aeieeiaiiy oaea?o. Oaeei /eiii, i?ney eiioaeoo ?ieeea c aeaeuei?i i?io?eai ia ae?eyioe? aea?ao oace a?aeaeaeaiiy ia ?ieee ae?? neea ?ia?oe??, yea i?eoenea? ?ieee aei oeueiai i?io?eth, ? oaea?ia ?aaeoe?y c aieo aeaeueiueiai i?io?eth eoea/ea, yea ni?yiiaaia o i?ioeeaaeiee a?e. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oeeo nee ? aecia/a? i?noea eiioaeoo ?ieeea ?c a?aeiia?aeiei i?io?eai. Aeeoa?aioe?aeueia ??aiyiiy ?ooo ia oe?e oac? wmetafile8? ??5??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? ? ???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy`??F?????&??MathType??°? ???u?????????"????-?????#@????#a???#@???#? ???#n???#7???u?th?????? 1dx 7 1 P 4?i.max 7 1 M 77 1p 1---- + p 52 77 1x = ------- 77 1cos 7w 1t - ---- sinpt 0, 7 0 (21) o0 1dt 7 1 m 7 1 m caaaeueiee ?ica`ycie yeiai o1.0 1P 4?i.max 7 0 7( b 0 7 11 7 ) 1 0 1P 4?i.max 1x = --------- 772 4--- 1+ 4 --- 727 1cospt - --------- 77 1cos 7w 1t. 0wmetafile8? ??o??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????????????A  ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy` ??h?????&??MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????c????c???cA???c™ ???cD???cO???co???cue???u?th?????? o0 1m 0 79 1 p 52 0 5 7w 52 70 0 1 m 77w 52 I?e ?iaio? iaoeie a onoaeaiiio ?aaeei? a i?noeyo oaea?yiue ?ieeea aei i?io?e?a eoea/e?a ia inoaii?o ne?ae i/?eoaaoe ciiooaaiiy. I?e oeueiio e?ie e?i?e oeaio?a ?ieeea t ? (aeea.?en.5) aecia/a?oueny ia??iaeii aeanieo eieeaaiue nenoaie ? oaeaee?noth ?ooo ?ieeea: t ? = V T ae , aea V 1 l. E?ie i?ae i?noeyie eiioaeoo ia iaeiieiaiieo i?io?eyo T ? i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaee ? neeaaea? T ? = 2t ? . I?e ?iaio? ia ??cieo ?aaeeiao oa?aeoa? ciiooaaiiy eoea/ea iiaea aooe ia oii?yaeeiaaiei. Iai?eeeaae, i?e ?iaio? aa?aaaoa iiae. AAO caeaa?eueoiai ia oaeaeeino? 18 000 ia/aiae e?ie T ? = 30 ii . ?icaeyiooi i a a ? o i a e e ? o o ? i e e e a a iacia? eoea/ea. Iieacaii, ui aiane?aeie oaea?ii-eieeaiiai noaio a ia oai?ci? oeae ?oo oaeiae ia? ciaeici?iiee oa?aeoa?. I?e/iio, ine?eueee ii?iaeuei? uiaei eoea/ea neee ia ei?iiene?, iaiao?aei? aeey i?eoeneaiiy ?ieeea aei eoea/ea, a?aenooi?, oi c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i ?nioaaiiy ia?aaeoiia aeey eiacaiiy ?ieeea uiaei iiaa?oiiue eoea/e?a, a oea i?eaiaeeoue, i?e iayaiino? o cii? eiioaeo iaia?iaiai ieeo, aei ?ioaineaiiai noe?aiiy oeeo iiaa?oiiue. C?iaeaii aiae?c aieeao a`yceii?oaeieo ae a i i o a ? ? a o aea yeeo e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?ao eoea/eiaeo iaoai?ci?a OeA ia aeoeai?noue eieeaieo i?ioean?a. Iieacaii, ui oeae aieea ? iacia/iei. O ?icae?e? iiaeaii iien iecee c?iaeaieo, o ni?aaaoi?noa? aai naiino?eii, aeiaoiae?a, ye? noinothoueny aoaeiae ? ?iaioe oeee?iae?iai? a?oie, oeeeeiaeo iaoai?ci?a, iieacai? iiaeeeaino? ? aoaeoeai?noue a?ae ?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? "Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo oeeeeiaeo iaoai?ci?a oeee?iae?iai? a?oie" aeeeaaeaii o noene?e oi?i? iaoiaeeeo ? ?acoeueoaoe oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue noiniaii aei iaoai?ci?a a?aen?eaiiy a?eoo?a oa i?ieiethaaeueieo aieie. Iaiao?aei?noue iinoaiiaee oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeooaaeany nooi ae?iaie/eie iio?aaaie, aaeaea aen ieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee oeeo iaoai?ci?a o oaeaee?nieo aacaoieo aa?aaaoao a?aecia/aeeny iecueeei ??aiai. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei iecueeeo iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? aocea i i i a ? a / i i a i a ? ae n ? e a i i y a?eoo?a aoei ?ic?iaeaii aeaa noaiaee, ia yeeo nii/aoeo a noaoe/ieo, a iio?i o aeeiai?/ieo oiiaao i?iaiaeeany a?aea?? ? aei?iaoaaiiy oaeeo iaoai?ci?a, ye? a caaacia/eee ia eeoa onoiaiiy aeacaieo iaaeie?e?a, aea e noai?aiiy i?i?iaeueieo coneeue a?aen?eaiiy a?eoo?a oa cieaeaiiy ??aiy ooio a ?aeii? O?A. A?ae?a?ai? ca ?acoeueoaoaie noaiaeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoai?cie a?aen?eaiiy caiaeii aei?iaiaoaaeeny o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao ia aa?aaao? AAO. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei ?ic?iaeaii iaoai?ci a?aen?eaiiy a?eoo?a, yeee caaacia/o? ye?nia a?aen?eaiiy II o anueiio ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeoaaieo oiauei, aei oiai ae oeeee?/ia aeo?eaae?noue eiai neeaaea? ia iaioa 187...280 iei. oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiue, a oea, i?e oaeaeeino? ?iaioe 18 oen.ia/aiae, caaacia/o? iaae?eio ?iaioo ia i?ioyc? 2...3 ?ie?a. Ia?aeaeueii c oeei niinoa??aa?oueny iie?auaiiy neeiaeo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano, a oaeiae cieaeaiiy caaaeueiiai ??aiy ooio a ?aeii? OA. Iaae?ei?noue oa aeiaaia?/i?noue ie?aieo aeaoaeae ? i a o a i ? c i o i ? i e i e th a a e ue i e o a i e i e a oe?eiio aacaoieo iaoei ? aa?aaao?a oei?a AAO, IAA-84, IIA-90 oa ?ioeo c i?eaiaeiei iaciaei eoea/eii ? iaaenieeie. Oea i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac iieiiee ie?aieo aeaoaeae iaoai?cio, ii?ooaiiy oiaeo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano, aeiooai? coieiee ? c?ea oa?i?io ae?oeoaaiiy oe?aaeo. Oiio caaaeaiiyi oe??? /anoeie ?iaioe aoei aeyaeaiiy i?e/ei i?enei?aiiiai ciiooaaiiy iaoai?cio i?ieiethaaeueieo aieie c iaoith ?ic?iaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy. ?ic?iaeaii oaeaee?niee aaaaoiiiceoe?eiee noaiae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio i?ieiethaaeueieo aieie, o yeiio, /a?ac iaaio e?euee?noue oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?iaiaeeany eiio?ieue aeeiai?/iiai noaio iaoai?cio oeyoii oaiciiao?oaaiiy e?ooieo iiiaio?a ia eiai aaeo. I?e oeueiio noai ciioaieo iiaa?oiiue eoea/e?a eiio?iethaaany ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueiiai aei??thaaeueiiai i?eno?ith. Iaea?aeoaaia ?ioi?iaoe?y ?a?no?oaaeany, a?aeiia?aeii, ia oioi- oa ae?aa?aiiiio iaia?? inoeeeia?aoa oa naiiienoey. Oeiia? inoeeeia?aie caieno aeacaieo iiiaio?a aeey ??cieo oaeaeeinoae ?iaioe (a ia/aiae) iieacai? ia ?en.7. Ia iaei?e c ieo ioieoe?iith e?i??th iieacaia oai?aoe/ia ci?ia iiiaioo a?ae nee ?ia?oe?? ian iaoai?cio. Ia?iaea inoeeeia?ai oa i?io?eia?ai aeicaieeea c?iaeoe iaai? oca aaeueiaiiy: 1. i?e iacia/iiio ciiooaaiith ia?ao?ae ?ieeea a?ae iaeiiai i?io?ey eoea/ea aei ?ioiai a?aeaoaa?oueny eeoa ia eooao iaaeeaeaiiy oa a?aeaeaeaiiy i?ae ae??th nee ?ia?oe??; 2. i?ney (0,8...2,0)x) 7& 010 56 0 oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?io?eyo eoea/ea ia ae?eyioe? ci?ie ciaeo ?ia?oe?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ooai?th?oueny yiea, eio?a ? iane?aeeii oaea?o ?ieeea aei i?io?eth eoea/ea i?ney eiai a?ae?eao a?ae i?ioeeaaeiiai i?io?eth; 3. i?ney (3,0...4,0) 7& x010 56 0 oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ciai?oiueiio ? aioo??oiueiio i?io?eyo ooai?th?oueny ?yae yiie , aeeaeia yeeo niaaea? o iai?yieo ?ooo ?ieeea c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae oeaio?o ca?iaeaeaiiy; 4. a ii aeaeueoiio ciiooaaiiy ?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue eoea/ea iioe?th?oueny ye a ?aae?aeueiiio iai?yieo, oeyoii caaeeaeaiiy yiie, oae ? a oaiaaioe?aeue iiio, oiaoi ooai?aiiyi /a?aiaeo yiie nii/aoeo ia oaciaiio eoo? a?aeaeaeaiiy, a caiaeii ? ia eoo? aa?oiueiai aenoithaaiiy. Ia oe?e iniia? aoei c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaaeioe?euei?noue aeei ?enoaiiy a oaeaee?nieo iaoai?ciao O?A iaciaeo eoea/e?a. I`yoee ?icae?e ia? iacao "Aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ee i?ioean?a o oaeueoethaaeueiiio aia?ao? ae?oaiai iicaeiaaeiueiai caeio". Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue o oeueiio ?icae?e? ? ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia i?iaeooaaiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a oaeeo i?eno?i?a: o?ainii?oa?a cioeo?a, ia oai?ci?a oaeueoethaaeueiiai iiaea ? oaeueoethaaeueieo aaeee?a. C?iaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aaiiao??? oa e?iaiaoeee iaoai?c i?a OI c e?eaioeiii-iiacoiiei, ieaiaoa?iei ? e?eaioeiii-ei?iienei aei i?eaiaeaie. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue caoaeiaai? ae?aa?aie ci?ie oaeaeeinoae 1 0oa i?enei?aiue i?oaeea iiaea, aiae?c yeeo iieaco?, ui iaeiani?eyoeea?o? oiiae oaeueoethaaiiy ? a OA2IC ?c ieaiaoa?iei ia oai?ciii. Cia/ii iaio? i?enei?aiiy i?eoaiaii? aeaii ?ioei ia oai?ciai. Aia?oa neeaaeaii oaoiieiaia?aio i?ioeano oaeueoethaaiiy a OA2IC, aeine?aeaeaiiy yei? aeaee i?aenoaae aeey anoaiiaeaiiy aaee/ei oaciaeo eoo?a ?iai/iai oiaeo OI. Ia ?? iniia? c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i ia iao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoeo, a?eueo aeeaieeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoai?ee i?ioean?a OA2IC. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aiae?co ?nioth/eo eiino?oeoe?e ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aaiiao?e/iiai neioaco OA2IC, yea ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeea?noue aecia/aiiy an?o ia?aiao??a iaoai?cio i?eaiaea OI, eii?aee iao oeaio??a e?eaioeiiiai aaea ? oaeueoethaaeueieo aaeee?a uiaei ieiueie ?iai/iai noiea, a oaeiae ?oiueiai ae?aiao?a. Noiniaii aei iaoai?cio c ieaiaoa?iei i?eaiaeii OI aeo?aeieie aea ieie o oeeo ?ic?aooieao ? aeiaaeeia a?aen?/aiiai a?eooa oa anoaiiaeaia ?c oaoiieiaia?aie cia/aiiy oaciaiai eooa eiai ?iai/iai oiaeo, iai ?eeeaae wmetafile8? [email protected]??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? `????&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyyA???????&??MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-?????#C???#???u?th??????o1.0 10,09 77 1L 4a 1 + h 42 1r 4a.min 1 = -------------- 0, (23) o0 12(1 - 7 1cos 7f 4?o 1) aea 1 r 4a.min 0 - i?i?iaeueiee ?aae?on aiaeeea; 1h 42 0 - noia?ia oiaueia iaia?o ? oanueii ia noie? OA2IC; 7f 4?o 7 1= 2 7p7 1t 4A 1/T 4oe 0 - anoaiiaeaiee ?c oaoiieiaia?aie eoo iiaa?oaiiy aaea aiaeeea iaoai?cio i?ae /an ?iai/iai oiaeo OI; 1t 4A 0 - a?aeiinia o?eaae?noue oace ?iai/iai oiaeo; 1T 4oe 1 = L 4a 1/V 4ae? 0 - o?eaae?noue oeeeeo. Ca a?aeiiei ?aae?onii 1 r 4a 1 0aecia/athoueny ?io? ia?aiao?e OA2IC. Ae?aiao?e OA cai?iiiiiaaii aecia/aoe ye 1d 4oa 1 = L 4a 1/c 4on 0, aea 1 c 4on 1 = 15,5...6,0 0 - eiao?oe??io 1. Aeey iaoai?ci?a c e?eaioeiii-iiacoiiei i?eaiaeii cai?iiiiiaaii ?c ae?aa?aie ciaoiaeeoe a?aeiinio aeiaaeeio oaooia 7 l 0 ? a?aeiia?aeiee ?e ?iaa??aio 1S 4ia.?o.i 0, ?c oaoiieiaia?aie - eoo 7 f 4?o 0, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o1 7f 4?o wmetafile8? ??y??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????????????` !???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya ???????&??MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-?????,a ???,Z???u?th?????? o0 7l a iio?i ? ?aae?on e?eaioeia 1 r 4e? 0 oa ?aooo ia?aiao??a iaoai?cio. Aeiaaaeaii, ui /anoioa iaa?oaiiy OA iiaeiia aooe o aeaa ?ace a? eueoith a?ae /anoioe iaa?oaiiy e?eaioeiiiai aaea. Iieacaii, ui a?aeiinio o?eaae?noue oace aeaaaeaiiy cioeoa ?c noiea OA2IC iiaeia iiaeaoe ye wmetafile8? ??Ue??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? `???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy ??A?????&??MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????Eae???? ???u?? ???????"????-????·???m^???-?????mf???f?Ae??? f?Ae???f?U???A3/4???A???u?th?????? 7| 7? 1L 4a 1/c 4on 1 + 1,6 + 0,5 77 1B - L 4a 1/c 4on 1 - 9,3 1k 4a 0` 1 = ------------------------------------- 0 , (25) o0 1u 77p7 1L 4a 1/c 4on aea 1u = 7w 4oa 1/ 7w 41 0 - ia?aaeaoi/ia a?aeiioaiiy coa/anoiai ca`yceo i?ae i?ea?aeiei aaeii OI ? OA. Aeey i?iaeooaaeueieea iaaaaeaii a?ao?e ooieoe?? 1k 4a 0` 1 = f(L 4a 1,B,u) 0, yeei iiaeia nei?enoaoeny aeey ou?eueiaiiy oaoiieiaia?aie nei?i/aiiyi o?eaaeino? oace 1t 4a 0`. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii iaaaaeaio o aeiaeaoeia? aei aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeeeo neioaco OA2IC. O caeeth/iiio, 1 oinoiio ?icae?e? 0, "Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ee i?ioean?a aeaaaeaiiy cioeo?a" iieacaii, ui ca /an ia?aaoaaiiy cioeo?a a i?ee iaeueii-aea?aeiiio i?eno?i? (IAI) ?oiy oaeaee?noue iaeei, aai aeae?eueea ?ac?a no?eaeiiiae?aii ciaioo?oueny a?ae oaeaeeino? ae?oeoaaiiy 1V 4ae? 0 aei oaeaeeino? ?ooo ia aea?aeiiio o?ainii?oa?? 1V 4o? 0 (?en.8). I?e oeueiio ei ao?oe??io ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? cioeoa 1 k 4oa 1 = V 4ae? 1/V 4o? 1 0iiaea aooe o oe?i eiio ae?aiacii?: 1k 4oa 1 = 7,5...20 0, 10 0, i?e/iio /anoi oae? ia?aiaaee oaeae einoae cono??/athoueny a iaoeiao, i?ecia/aieo aeey iaeiiai aeaeo i?i aeoeoe?? (iai?eeeaae, aacao). Caaaeueio ia`?eoeaio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaio? IAI iiaeia i?aaenoaae oe /a?ac iieacieee oi/iino? aeeeaaeoaaiiy cioeo?a ia aea?aeiee o?ain ii?oa?: e?ie 1 0, ia?ae?n 1 0? aieiaa ci?uaiiy. Eiie?aoi? i?eionoei? cia /aiiy eiaeiiai c ieo i?ecia/athoue, aeoiaey/e ?c iaiao?aeiino? caaacia /aiiy noi?nii? aenieoaoaoe?? ?AeI ?c i?eno?iyie aeey iiaeaeueoi? ia?iaee cioeo?a (aacaoi? o?ainii?oa?e c eaneaaeiei o?ainii?ooaaiiyi aecaii ey??a, o?ainii?oa?e c iiooo/iith iiaea/ith cioeo?a, e?/eeueii-eiiieae ooaaeuei? oa i?eeiaeueii-aea?aei? i?eno?i? oiui). Oi/ia aeeeaaeoaaiiy cioeo?a ? ia?aaeoiiaith ca?eueoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaeiai eiiieaeno. Ine?eueee cacia/ai? iieacieee ? ?ioaa?aeueiith ioe?ieith yeino? ?i aioe IAI, oi ne?ae i/?eoaaoe, ui eiaeia ?c aeacaieo a?aeoeeaiue ia? aeaea?aei aeieeiaiiy. Oiio i?e aeyaeaii? i?e/ei iaoi/iiai aeeeaaeoaai iy i?iaeoeoe?? i?ioean i?iaaaeaiiy cioeo?a a IAI aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii ia ie?ai?, eia?/ii ie?aneai? ae?eyiee ? ia eiaei?e ?c ieo aeine?aeaeaii ia oai?eo i?ioeano. Ei?enooth/enue ae?aa?aiaie ci?ie oaeaeeino? ?ooo cioeoa ( 1V = f(t) 0, aeea.?en.8), iiaeia oiiaii aeae?eeoe oae? ae?eyiee: a?ae ii /aoeo aeoiaeo cioeoa ?c OA aei aoiaeo o aeeeaaeoaa/ - ae?eyiea o?ainii? ooaaiiy; o?ainii?ooaaiiy cioeo?a aeeeaaeoaa/ai; aeeeaaeoaaiiy cioeo?a ia aea?aeiee o?ainii?oa?; ia?ai?uaiiy cioeo?a, neeaaeaieo o eaneaaeiee iio?e, aea?aeiei o?ainii?oa?ii. E??i icia/aiiai, a oeueiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii iaoiaeeeo ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oi/iino? aeeeaaeoaaiiy aacao a ae?th/eo aacaoieo aa?aaaoao, o oiio /ene? ? ?c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo ca o/anoth aaoi?a i?en oinoaaiiyie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aeeeaaeoaaiiy aacao. Iienaii oa eiae iaoiaeeeo ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue IAI ca aeiiiiiaith oaeaee?nii? e?iiceiiee. Aiae?c i?ioeano i i ae a / ? c i o e o ? a a ? ae o a e ue oe th a a e ue i i a i i ? e n o ? i th ae i a e e e a ae o a a / a i?iaaaeaii aeey IAI c aaeueiii ? aac iueiai. Iieacaii, ui ia oe?e ae?eyioe? a i?eno?iyo aac aaeueia a?aenooi? cao?aiiy, ni?iiiaei? ci?ieoe o?a?eoi??th ?ooo cioeoa /e eiai iieiaeaiiy a i?inoi??. I?ioa c?oeiai iy cioeoa, yeee ?ooa?oueny ia oaeaeeino? ae?oeoaaiiy, c aeeeaaeoaa/ai, oaeaee?noue ?ooo yeiai cia/ii iaioa, iiaea ni?e/eieoe oae? aeaoi?iaoe?? cioeoa, ye? a iiaeaeueoiio aaaeei i?aeaeathoueny onoiaiith. ?c oeeo i??eoaaiue aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aaeuei?ai? i?eno?i?. Iieacaii, ui a ?nioth/eo i?eno?iyo i?ioean aaeueioaaiiy ia? no?eaei iiae?aiee oa?aeoa?, a oea iiaea ni?e/eiyoe, i?e iaaeineoue ?aoaeueiiio iaeaaiaeaeoaaii?, ia?ae?ne cioeo?a. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii aeae?eueea aeue oa?iaoeaieo aea?aeieo i?eno?i?a. Aeine?aeaeaii i a o a i ? e o o ? a i n i i ? o o a a i i y c i o e o ? a a e e e a ae o a a / a i. Neeiaee aiae?c i?ioeano ia aeyaea aeanoaa?e?coth/eo, uiaei ?ooo cioeo?a, oaeoi??a. C?iaeaii e?iaiaoe/iee aiae?c i?ioeano c?ooiaooaaiiy cioeo?a o aeeeaaeoaa/ao ?c ??ciith eiio?ao?aoe??th ia? oa c?ooiaooaaeueieo oii??a. Cie?aia, ?icaeyiooa e?iaiaoeea aeeeaaeoaaiiy cioeo?a o i?eno?iyo c ia?aie, ie?aneaieie aeoaaie iaeiiai aai aeaio ?aae?on?a, ia?aie c i?y iie?i?eieie ae?eyieaie oiui. Aeaaaeaii aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey aec ia/aiiy oaeaeeino? c?ooiaooaaiiy cioeoa aei iiaa?oi? i?yii- ? e?e aie?i?eiiai ia?ooiieo oii??a, iaa?oiaiai aeaaeaiueeiai ? coa/anoiai oii??a. Iieacaii, ui o IAI an?o a?aeiieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ia ae?eyioe? c?ooiaooaaiiy cioeo?a ia aea?aeiee o?ainii?oa? ?oiy oaeaee?noue ci?ith?oueny no?eaeiiiae?aii. Aeey onoiaiiy oeueiai iaaeie?eo iaie ?ic?iaeaii i?eno??e c e?e aie?i?eiei ia?ooiiei c?ooiaooaa/ai, yeee o ia?? c aeoaiiiae?aieie ia ?aie, iienaii? ?aae?nii iaaii? aaee/eie, caaacia/o? ieaaiee ia?ao?ae cioeo?a ia aea?aeiee o?ainii?oa?. Cie?aia, oaeaee?noue oaeueoey cioeoa o oaeiio i?eno?i? iiaeaii o oi?i? 1V 4oe 1 = VV 4o? 1 + b 4e 77w 4a 77 1I 0, (26) aea 1 b 4e 0 - iiceoe?eiee ?iaa??aio iiae?aiino? oaeaeeinoae; 1I 0 - noaea aaee/eia, ui ia? ?ici??i?noue aeiaaeeie. Ine?eueee i?e 1V 4oe 1 = V 4o.max 1 = V 4a 1 0?iaa??aio 1b 4e 1 = B 0, oi o1.0 1V 4a 1 - V 4o? 1 R 4i 1 - R 4o? 77 1i I=wmetafile8? ??›??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? `@???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy????????&??MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-?????#@????#„???#.???#ue???u? th?????? o0 1B 77w 4a 1 B aea 1 i = 7w 4o? 1/ 7w 4a 0 - ia?aaeaoi/ia a?aeiioaiiy e?iaiaoe/iiai ca`yceo i?ae aaeaie aeeeaaeoaa/a ? aea?aeiiai o?ainii?oa?a; 1R 4o? 0 - ?aae?on i?ea?aeiiai oe?aa aea?aeiiai (oanueiiaiai) o?ainii?oa?a. Oa?aeoa? ci?ie oaeaeeinoae, aecia/aiee ca (26), iieacaiee ia ia ae?eyieao aeeeaaeoaaiiy (?en.8) ioieoe?ieie e?i?yie. ?ic?iaeaii iaoi aeeeo ?ic?aooieo e?eaie?i?eiiai oii?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei eiai anoaiiaeaiiy. Noi?ioeueiaaii aiae?oe/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei ?iciiae?eo caaaeueiiai ei ao?oe??ioa ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? cioeoa ia ??cieo ae?eyieao IAI. ?ice ?eoi iiaeeeaino? neioacoaaiiy ie?aieo i?eno?i?a: aaeuei?aiiai, aeeea aeoaa/a ? c?ooiaooaaeueiiai oii?a - ca aecia/aieie cia/aiiyie neeaaei aeo /anoei aeacaiiai eiao?oe??ioa aaeueioaaiiy. Caaaeueiee eiao?oe??io ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? cioeo?a, yeee aecia /a?oueny, iai?eeeaae, a?aeiioaiiyi e?ieo cioeo?a ia OOe (eeaiaiiee OA) aai IOe (oaea?iee OA) aei e?ieo cioeo?a ia aea?aeiiio o?ainii?oa??, ii aea aooe iiaeaiei o aeaeyae? aeiaooeo 1k 4oa 1= 4 1k 41 77 1k 42 77 1k 43 0, (28) aea 1k 41 0, 1k 42 0 ? 1k 43 0 - eiao?oe??ioe ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? cioeoa, a?aeiia?aeii: 1k 41 1 = t 4o 1/t 4aaeuei 0 (aeea.?en.8) - aaeuei?aiei i?eno?i?i; 1k 42 1 = t 4aaeuei 1/t 4a 0- aeeeaaeoaa/ai; 1k 43 1 = t 4a 1/t 4o? 0 - i?e aeeeaaeoaaii?. . Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei neioacoaaiiy IAI ? i?eioeeiiai iiaei. Cie?aia, aia?oa neeaaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy e ? e ue e i n o ? i a ? a e e e a ae o a a / a, yea aaco?oueny, ie??i caaaeaiiai eiao?oe??ioa aaeueioaaiiy cioeo?a, ia aeayeeo ocaaaeueiaieo eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao ?ao i?eno?ith. Iiaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o ?aooe aaaeeeaeo aai iao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a aeeeaaeoaa/a. O i?ae?icae?e? "Aeine?aeaeaiiy oi/iino? aeeeaaeoaaiiy cioeo?a" iaa ?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue iinoaiiaee oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iienaii i?eno ?i?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo i?iaiaeeee aei??thaaiiy, iaaaaeaii iaoiaeeeo noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee iaea?aeaieo cai???a oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oi/iino? aeeeaaeoaaiiy aacao a aa?aaaoao iiae. AAO, Ro-170 oa IIA-168. Cie?aia, oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaaeee ca iaoo ioe?ieoe iiae eea?noue noi?nii? ?iaioe aacaoieo aa?aaao?a ia?ae?/aieo iiaeaeae ?c o?ainii?oa?ii c iiooo/iei o?ainii?ooaaiiyi aecaiiey??a IOA-40. Aeaii ia`?eoeaio ioe?ieo oaei? iiaeeeaino?, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii i?eno?i? aeey noaa?e?caoe?? iieiaeaiiy aecaiiey??a ia aea?aeiiio o?ain ii?oa?? aa?aaaoa IIA-168. Iienaii aoaeiao oa ?iaioo i?eno?i?a aeey noaa?e?caoe?? e?ieo oaeueoe?a aacao ? i?i?i?caoe?? ?o ia?ae?n?a, a oa eiae aieiaiai ae??aithaaiiy cioeo?a i?ae /an ?o aeeeaaeoaaiiy ia aea?aeiee o?ainii?oa?, oiaoi aei ii/aoeo ooai?aiiy eaneaaeiiai iioieo. Aeei?enoaiiy aeacaieo i?eno?i?a caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue ye?niiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?ainii?oa?a IOA-40 ?c aa?aaaoii IIA-168. O ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iaeyae noai a o ae i a e i ? e n o ? i ? a ae e y n o a a ? e ? c a oe ? ? ? i a i o e I A I. Iiaeaii ei ?ioeee iien iiaeo i?eno?i?a, ia ye? aaoi?ia? iniaenoi /e o ni?aaa oi?noa? aeaeai? aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa. *anoeia oeeo oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue i?ecia/aia aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo IAI, a aeaa i?eno?i? ia?aaeaa /athoue ia?ao?ae aei aeaaaeaiiy cioeo?a aaciina?aaeiuei ?c eeoaiue aeeeaaeo aa/a, oiaoi aeeeth/athoue iio?aao o aeeeaaeoaaii?. AENIIAEE 1. A oaeueoethaaeueii-??caeueieo oa aea?aeieo i?eno?iyo cina?aaeaeaii a?eueo?noue oeeeeiaeo iaoai?ci?a ?oeiiii? ae?oea?nueei? iaoeie. Ooo a?aeaoaa?oueny neeaaeaiiy iaia?iaeo no??/ie, a?aen?eaiiy a?ae ieo a? eoo?a, aeaioiaeaiiy cioeo?a, ?o ?ioaineaia aaeueioaaiiy ? aeeeaaeoaaiiy o eaneaaeiee iio?e. *a?ac iaaeinoaoith aeine?aeaeai?noue ia?ae?/aieo i?ioean?a oa yaeu, ye? ?o noi?iaiaeaeothoue, ? a?aenooi?noue a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiaeee, i?iaeooaaiiy O?AI aaaeaoueny aeiyoeiai iaoiaeaie aiaeia?e. ?c oeeo i?e/ei O?AI ? aaeueiii ia oeyoo iiaeaeueoiai i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoea iino? ?AeI. O ca`yceo c oeei o aeai?e ?iaio? iieacaii oeyoe ?ica`ycaiiy cia/ii? i?eeeaaeii? i?iaeaie - noai?aiiy oai??? ?ic?aooieo ? ?ic?ia ea, ia ?? iniia?, iaoiaeeee i?iaeooaaiiy iniiaieo iaoai?ci?a O?AI. 2. E?eoe/iee iaeyae ?nioth/eo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a iaeano? O?AI, ?o eiino?oeoe?e, iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e, ii?iaoeaii? aeieoiai oaoe??, aiae?c iniaeeainoae aenieoaoaoe?? i?aeoaa?aeeee ?nioaaiiy aea caii? i?iaeaie. 3. Ia iniia? aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoai?ee i?ioean?a o?ain ii?ooaaiiy, iiia?a/iiai oa iicaeiaaeiueiai ia?oi?oaaiue, a oaeiae iic aeiaaeiueiai a?aoaaiiy II a OIA anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aia?aii?noee ie ia eeoa a oe?e a?oi?, aea e o anueiio O?AI ? iaoai?ci oyaio/eo aa eee?a. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee aaiiao?e/iiai neioaco, ioe?iee coneeue oa ?ic?aooieo iaiao?aeii? aeey i?eaiaeo iiooaeiino? iaoai?ci?a oe??? a?oie. Aiia i?eaeaoia aeey neioacoaaiiy e ?ioeo aeaiaio?a iaia?ii?ia?aeii? nenoaie iaoeie. 4. Eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ee ip?iioeano a?aen?eaiiy a?eoo?a aeicaieeee aeyaeoe iaaeie?ee ?nioth/eo iaoai?ci?a ? ?ic?iaeoe eiin o?oeoe?th iioei?ciaaiiai. ?ic?iaeaia ca o/anoth aaoi?a oaoi?/ia aeieo iaioaoe?y ia eiino?oeoe?th iaoai?cio aeei?enoaia caaiaeii-aeaioiaethaa /ai aeey iniauaiiy oeei aoceii iiaeo ?AeI, a oaeiae aeey iiaea?i?caoe?? aenieoaoiaaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy. Aenieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee noai?aiiai aocea a aeae?eueea aeanyoe?a ?ac?a aeu? a?ae ?nioth/eo. 5. Ia iniia? ooi/iaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy iaoai?cio i?ieiethaaeueieo aieie noai?aii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ae?aiao??a iiaea aaeueiiai, a?aen?/iiai ? oaeueoethaaeueiiai oeee?iae??a. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee eo i?iaeooaaiiy aaiiao?e/ii? noaie O?A. 6. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioeano ia?ai?uaiiy ia ?aaeiueiai iiey oaeueoeueiaaiiai a?eooa a oaea?iiio ? eeaiaiiiio O?A aeic aieeee aeyaeoe ?nioaaiiy oac cia/ieo iaeneioi?a i?enei?aiue oe??? ae?eyiee a?eooa. Ia oe?e iniia? c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaaeioe?euei?noue i?iaeooaaiiy aenieioaeaee?nieo iaoei c oaea?iei O?A. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeneioi i?enei?aiue a eeaiaiiiio O?A aeieea? aiane?aeie ?aaa?no ia?aaeiueiai iiey a?eooa, aei oiai ae aiie cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue an? ?io? i?enei?aiiy, o o./. aeioeaio?ia?. Caaaeyee oeueiio iieacaii iiaeeea?noue i?i?i?coaaoe aaaa?eoe oaeiai O?A ii oei?caoe??th ni?aa?aeiioaiue ae?aiao??a iiaeaaaeueiiai ? oaeueoethaaeueiiai oeee?iae??a. Ia oe?e iniia? a?aee?eoi iia? oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeinoae ?AeI. 7. Oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee ia oai?cio i?ieiethaaeueieo aieie c i?ea?aeiei iaciaei eoea/eii iieacaee iaieio/?noue aeieeiaiiy o iueiio oaea?ii-eieeaiiai noaio, aei oiai ae caoaeieeii eieeaaiue ? ?iaoe?ei? neee iane iaoai?cio. Iieacaii ia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo iaoai?ci?a a no/anieo ?AeI. 8. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aaiiao??? ? e?iaiaoeee ia oai?ci?a OA2IC ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?iaeaia?iiai neioaco iniiaieo ia oai?ci?a oeueiai aia?aoa, a oaeiae iieacaii iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoeo ii ooe?a oeyo?a iioei?caoe?? oaoiieiai- ? oeeeeia?ai i?ioeano oaeueoethaaiiy. 9. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ee o?ainii?ooaaiiy cioeo?a o IAI ? ?o aeeeaaeoaaiiy ia aea?aeiee o?ainii?oa? aeyaeee cia/ia no?eaeiiiae?aia ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? cioeo?a a IAI. C?iaeaii aeniiaee i?i iaaaoeaiee aieea oaeiai ?ooo ia oi/i?noue aeeeaaeoaaiiy cioeo?a ia aea?aeiee o?ainii?oa?. Noi?ioeueiaaii e?eoa??? ioe?iee yeino? ?iaioe IAI. ?ic?iaeaii i?eno?i? aeey eiio?ieth oi/iino? aeeeaaeoaaiiy cioeo?a a eaneaaeiee iio?e ia aea?aeiee o?ainii?oa?. I?eaaaeaii iaoiaeeeo ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? oi/iino? ia ae?th/eo aacaoieo aa?aaaoao ia i?aaeiao iiaeeeaino? ?oiuei? aaeaioaoe?? ?c o?ainii?oa?aie c iiooo/iei noiieth aaiiyi cioeo?a. 10. ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th iioeiaeueii? e?iaiaoeee ?ooo cioeo?a a IAI, noai?aii i?eno?i? aeey ?? ?aae?caoe??, i?e/iio /anoeia c ieo i?ieoea oni?oi? ae?iaie/? aei?iaoaaiiy (aeae-ai "I?aaaea" Iineaa). 11. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii iaaaaeai? a aeiaeaoeao iaoiaeeee ?iaeaia?iiai neioaco iaoai?ci?a ? i?eno?i?a oyaio/i-ia?oi ?oaaeueii? oa oeee?iae?iai? a?oi, oaeueoethaaeueiiai aia?aoa ae?oaiai iic aeiaaeiueiai caeio oa i?eeiaeueii-aea?aeiiai i?eno?ith. Oe? iaoiaeeee aeei ?enoai? i?e i?iaeooaaii? O?AI iaoeie AeA?-62 (1993 - 1997 ??.). 12. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii iiiia ?ao?th, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny ? ye iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. Aaoi?ia? ini aenoi ? o ni?aaaoi?noa? iaeaaeeoue iecea aeiaoiae?a, aeaye? c ieo ai?i aaaeaeai?, a ?io? iiaeooue aeaoe iiaee ?iioeuen ?icaeoeia? O?AI. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Ae?aee/ A.I. Oeee?iae?iaa a?oia ? oeeeeia? iaoai?cie oaeueoeaia ?ao?a ?oeiiieo ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei: Iiiia?ao?y. -Euea?a: OAAe, 1997. -126 c. 2. Aeeaeu/ A.I. I?e/eiu eciina iaoaiecia a?aoaae a oaeueoeaiia?aoa aacaoiiai aa?aaaoa//Iieea?aoey. 1984. -N9. -C. 1 031-32. 3. Ae?aee/ A.I. ssaeua, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoue iiia?a/ia oaeueoethaaiiy eeno?a a ?oeiii?e ae?oea?nuee?e iaoei?//Iie?a?ao?y ? aeaeaaie/a ni?a aa. N28. -Euea?a, 1993. -C. 1 035-40. 4. Ae?aee/ A.I. Iiaeeea? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo eeaiaiieo oaeueoeaia ?ao?a//Iie?a?ao?y ? aeaeaaie/a ni?aaa. N29.- Euea?a, 1994. -C. 1 09-13. 5. Ae?aee/ A.I. Iaoiaeeea aaiiao?e/iiai ?ic?aooieo aacoeee?iae?iai ai oaea?iiai oaeueoeaia?aoa c ieaiaoa?iei i?eaiaeii iiaea// Iie?a?ao?y ? aeaeaaie/a ni?aaa. N30. -Euea?a, 1995. -C. 1 09-14. 6. Ae?aee/ A.I. Iniaeeaino? i?iaeooaaiiy oeee?iae?iai? a?oie oaeue oethaaeueiiai aia?aoa eeaiaiiiai oeio//Ca.i?aoeue i?aeia?. iaoe. -i?aeo. eiio. "I?ia?an.oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia. iaoeiiaoae.,i?eeaaeiaoae. ? caa?tha. ae?-aa", o.3. Iaoe.oaoi.oi-o Oe?a?ie "EI?/".-E.: 1998. -N. 406 -410. 7. Ae?aee/ A.I. Aecia/aiiy i?enei?aiue ia?aaeiueiai iiey cioeoa a oeee?iae?ia?e a?oi? eeaiaiiiai oaeueoethaaeueiiai aia?aoa ?oeiiii? ae?o ea?nueei? iaoeie //Iie?a?ao?y ? aeaeaaie/a ni?aaa. N34. -Euea?a:1998. C.94 - 100. 8. Ae?aee/ A.I. I?iaeooaaiiy oeee?iae?iai? a?oie eeaiaiieo oaeue oea?aea? ?aea?ia?ao?a ?oeiiieo ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei//Iie?a?ao?y ? aeaeaa ie/a ni?aaa. N34. -Euea?a:1998. C.101 - 107. 9. Aeeaeu/ A.I. Iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa ono?ienoa aeey o?ainii?oe?iaaiey aoiaaeiiai iieioia a oaeueoeaaaeueiii aiia?aoa ?oeiiiie ia/aoiie iaoe iu //Iieea?aoe/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. N5. -I: IEOe "Eioi?iia/aoue", 1998. - N. 11 - 20. 10. Aeeaeu/ A.I., 1 0?ae TH.I., 1 0?aaae E.E. 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Aeaye? iniaeeaino? i?iaeooaaiiy oeee?iae?iai? a?oie eeaiaiieo oaeueoeaia?ao?a ?oeiiieo ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei.-A ei.:Oace aeiiia?aeae iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe??. -Euea?a: OAAe, 1995.-C.5. AIIOAOe?ss Ae?aee/ A.I. Iniiae oai??? ? i?iaeooaaiiy oaeueoethaaeueii-??caeueieo oa i?eeiaeueii-aea?aeieo i?eno?i?a ?oeiiieo ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei. - ?o eiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo ia oe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.05.01 - iaoeie ? i?ioeane iie?a?ao?/iiai ae ?iaieoeoaa. - Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y ae?oea?noaa. Euea?a, 1998. Aeena?oaoe?th i?ena`y/aii i?iaeai? noai?aiiy oai??? ?ic?aooieo oaeueoethaaeueii-??caeueieo oa i?eeiaeueii-aea?aeieo i?eno?i?a (O?AI) ?o eiiieo ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei (?AeI) ? ?ic?iaoe?, ia oe?e iniia?, iaoiaeee i?iaeooaaiiy iaoai?ci?a oa aoce?a O?AI. 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Iniiau oai?ee e i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaeueoeaaaeueii-?acaeue iuo e i?eaiii-auaiaeiuo ono?ienoa ?oeiiiuo ia/aoiuo iaoei. - ?oei ienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.05.01 - iaoeiu e i?ioeannu iieea?aoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. - Oe?aeineay aeaaeaiey ia/aoe. Eueaea, 1998. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia nicaeaiey oai?ee ?an/aoa oaeueoea aaeueii-?acaeueiuo e i?eaiii-auaiaeiuo ono?ienoa (O?AO) ?oeiiiuo ia /aoiuo iaoei (?II) e ?ac?aaioea, ia yoie iniiaa, iaoiaeee i?iaeoe?i aaiey iaoaieciia e oceia O?AO. Auaaaeaiu iaiaoiaeeiua aiaeeoe/aneea e yiie?e/aneea caaeneiinoe aeey iniiaiuo oceia oyioua-ia?oi?e?othuae e oeeeeiae?iaie a?oii, oaeueoeaaaeueiiai aiia?aoa aoi?iai i?iaeieueiiai ncae aa e i?eaiii-auaiaeiiai ono?ienoaa. Ioeaiea o?iaiy iai?yaeaiee a iaoa ?eaeao ia?aaaouaaaiuo iieooaa?eeaoia auiieiaia ii cia/aieyi iaene iaeueiuo onei?aiee iaeaieaa iaa?oaeaiuo o/anoeia eenoia e oao?aaeae e niiinoaeaieth eo n e?eoe/aneeie. Auyaeaiu iiaua iooe ieieiecaoeee yoeo onei?aiee a oeeeeiae?iaie a?oiia O?AO eeaiaiiiai oeia. ?ac?aai oaiu iiaua ono?ienoaa aeey noaaeeecaoeee aueeaaeuaaiey oao?aaeae ia au aiaeiie o?ainii?oa? e auaiaea eo ec ?II. Ii ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeea ni?iaeoe?iaaii O?AO. *anoue i?iiaaeooi/iuo ?acoeueoaoia iaoee i?iiuo eaiiia i?eiaiaiea a iiauo e yenieoaoe?oaiuo iaoeiao. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aoiaaeiay eaioa, oaeueoeaaaiea, onei?aiea, ean eaaeiue iioie, oi?iiaeaiea, iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea, oeeeeiae?iaay a?oiia, nei?inoue ia/aoaiey. Didych W.P. Theory of Calculations and Devising Practice for t he Folding-Cutting and Inlet-Outlet Devices of Roll Printing Machi nes. - Manuscript. The thesis for obtaining a degree of Doctor of Technical Scie ces, specialization 05.05.01 - machines and processes of printing production - Ukrainian Akademy of Printing. Lviv, 1998. The thesis is devoted to the prolem of creating the theory of calculations of folding-cutting and ihlet-outlet devices (FCOD) of roll printing machines (RPM), and to the development of methods of mechanism and FCDO knots devising on this basis. Necessary analyhc and empiric relativihes for the main knots of pulting-perforating and cylinder groups, folding device of the second lengthwise fold and inlet-ontlet devices, weredrawn. The estimation of the level of stresses in the materials of the processed semi-finished products has been concluded on the basis of the data on maximum acceleration of the mostloaded parts of paper and notebooks, compared with the admitted data. New ways of minimizing these accelerations in the cylinder group of FCOD, valve type, were revealed. New devises were developed to stabilire the notebook layont onto the outlet trans porter and their outlet from RPM. FCOD has been devised on the ba sis of the developed methods. Part intermediale results found its industrial application in new and exploitated machines. Key words: paper tape, folding, acceleration, cascade glow, retardation, mathematic modelling, cylinder group, printing speed.

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