IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IA I?AAAO ?OEIIENO

IIAEUe*AIEI ?AAI EEEIIAE*

OAeE: 634.11:631.5:633:581.5

INIIAE NOAI?AIIss ? I?IAeOEOEAIIAI AEEI?ENOAIIss ?IOAINEAIEO OEI?A
IANAAeAEAIUe ssAEOI? A E?NINOAIO OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 06.01.07 — ieiae?aieoeoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? naae?aieoeoaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??

aa?a?ieo iaoe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eenaithe A?eoi? A?eai?iae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a naae?aieoeoaa

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aoeueei ?aai Iao?iae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ieiaeiiai/?aieoeoaa

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?aniiooai Aiaoie?e Ieaen?eiae/,

Oiainueea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeaaeai?y,

i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo c?iooaaiiai naae?aieoeoaa OAAI

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “22” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

i “ 9 ” aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?aeueii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.04 a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, Ee?a-41,
aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 15, ei?ion ? 3, aoaeeoi??y ? 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252041, Ee?a-41, aoe.Aa?i?a
iai?iie, 11, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aaeaaaeei A.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ssaeoiy ? iniiaiith ieiaeiaith eoeueoo?ith ye
caaaeii a Oe?a?i?, oae ? a E?ninoaio cie?aia. Ieiua yaeoiaaeo
ianaaeaeaiue o oe?e cii? noaiiaeoue aeecueei 190 oen. aa, c ieo
ieiaeiiinieo — 84%.

Ia caaaeath/e ia aenieo oa?/iao, ae??oe/io oa e?eoaaeueio oe?ii?noue
ieiae?a yaeoi?, ??aaiue ?o ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ua iaaeoi iecueeee.
Iaei??th c i?e/ei oeueiai ? iecueea i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue, yea a
E?ninoaio ca inoaii? ?iee ia ia?aaeuo? 30-40 oe/aa, oi/ a ie?aieo
ainiiaea?noaao aiia noaiiaeoue 120-200 oe/aa ? a?eueoa.

Iecueea i?iaeoeoeai?noue naae?a yaeoi? a E?ninoaio aeeeeeaia ?yaeii
/eiiee?a ?, ianaiia?aae, oea noino?oueny i?i?aooie?a o aeai?? ae?eyiie ?
a?oio?a i?ae ianaaeaeaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy iecueeia?iaeaeieo ni?o?a oa
i?aeuai, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?oaeii?noeeo oaoiieia?e, iacaaeainiaai?noth
oe?i ia ieiaee e i?iaeoeoe ?o ia?a?iaee, iani?eyoeeaeie iiaiaeieie
oiiaaie oiui. Oiio a iaeaeeae/? ?iee iniiaiei iai?yieii i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ? anaa?/ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?y ?o
ae?iuoaaiiy ?, ia?aaeon?i, /a?ac ?ioaineai? nenoaie aaaeaiiy
naae?aieoeoaa, iniiaiith eaieith yeeo ? oei naaeo, iniiaieie
eiiiiiaioaie yei? ? i?aeuaia, ni?o, noaia naae?iiy, oi?ia e?iie.

Iaae ie?aieie ieoaiiyie oeueiai aniaeoo i?aoethaaei iaiaei a/aieo.
Cia/iee aeeaae o aea/aiiy oeeo ieoaiue aianee a/ai? Oe?a?ie: Aanthoa
A.I., Aoeueei ?.I., Aouei I.TH., Ea?iai/oe A.E., Eei/ei I.A., Iaeaeaao?a
A.?., Iiiiae/ I.Ae., N?i?i A.?., Nieiaeiaa I.I., Oa?anaiei I.I.,
Oaoa??iia A.I., Oa?aiao ?.I., Oanoiiaeue I.I. oa ?i. Iaeiae
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei noai?aiiy oe?e?nieo ? aeiiii?/ii
aoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy yaeoi? ia ??cieo i?aeuaiao aei
inoaiiueiai /ano a E?ninoaio ia i?iaiaeeee, i?i ui na?ae/eoue iaaaaeaiee
o iao?e ?iaio? iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. Inoaii?e aeaa iiaeeea?noue
eeoa ie?aneeoe iniiai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue eiiieaeno ieoaiue
noai?aiiy oa i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioaineaieo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue
yaeoi?.

Cae?eniai? iaie aeniaaeeoe?ei? ianoaaeaiiy ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? aeyaeee,
ui ?yae aaaeeeaeo aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?? noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
?ioaineaieo oei?a naae?a o E?ninoaio ia a?aeiia?aeathoue
a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/iei oiiaai ? iio?aaothoue aeiei??iiiai ia?aaeyaeo.

Iaeiiai?oa aeei?enoaiiy eoeueoo?e yaeoi? iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiia
aaeaioiaaiiai ?? aaaeaiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ii?aeiaiiy ye iaeneiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy a?ieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo ni?o?a oa i?aeuai, oae ?
aeieia?/ieo oiia ae?iuoaaiiy. Oiio aaaeeeaee ni?oiaee i?aeo?ae aei
oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oa?i?/iiai oaeoi?o, ye iieacieea ?o
oaieicaaacia/aiino? ia o?eueee i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe??, a e aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
ii?icino?eeino? oa ceiino?eeino?. ? oea iieeaaeaii a iniiao aeey
aecia/aiiy i?ai?/ieo iaae oa ?aeii?a ?ioaineaii? eoeueoo?e a?aeiia?aeieo
ni?o?a.

Eoeueoo?a yaeoi? ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao ia ae?noaea cia/iiai iioe?aiiy a
E?ninoaio /a?ac neaaeo ii?icino?ee?noue i?aeuai oei?a I ? II. Oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy a?aae??io?a oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei
aeia?caiiy ei?aiaai? nenoaie i?aeuai, aeae?eaiiy ? iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy
iiaeo aeniei?ioaineaieo ii?icino?eeeo i?aeuai ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
noai?aiiy ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? oa aecia/aiiy i?ai?/ieo iaae
?o iioe?aiiy.

Oeie ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? c ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith e?iiith oa ??cieie
oeiaie iaeueiao /a?ac aenieo eai?oaei- ? o?oaeii?noe?noue noai?aiiy oa
iiaeaeueoiai aeiaeyaeo ia caaacia/eee aeinyaiaiiy i?iaeoieo iieaciee?a.
Iinoaei ieoaiiy oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue
yaeoi? ia ian?ii?aeo, na?aaeiuei?ineeo, iai?aea?eeeiaeo ? ea?eeeiaeo
i?aeuaiao, a oaeiae ia ian?ii?aeo ?c anoaaeith neaai?ineeo c oi?ioaaiiyi
iiaeo ie?oaeeo iaeiaaaa?eoieo ? aa?aoaiiiiae?aieo oei?a e?ii. Aiie
coiiaeththoue iie?ioaiiy aaia?aoeaii? ooieoe?? oa caaacia/othoue
neaai?ine?noue, nei?iie?aei?noue, noaeo a?iaeaei?noue aenieiye?nieo
ieiae?a c i?i?iaeueieie cao?aoaie i?aoe? ia ?o noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
oa a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy aeieia?/ieo,
aia?aaoe/ieo, o?oaeiaeo ? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo ?ano?n?a. Oe?
iieiaeaiiy aecia/athoue aeooaeuei?noue iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui iniaeeai
aaaeeeai a oiiaao aeniain?? ca?oa?aeieo oaoiieia?e ? i?iaeoeoe??
naae?aieoeoaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eio
?iaioo aeeiiaii a ieai? aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie “Oaeineiiaeeoe ?nioth/? ?
?ic?iaeoe iia? ?ano?nicaa??aath/? oa aeieia?/ii aacia/i? oaoiieia??
ae?iaieoeoaa ieiae?a ca?iyoeiaeo eoeueoo? aenieeo oiaa?ieo oa nai?oa?ii-
a?a??i?/ieo yeinoae, a oiio /ene? aeey icaei?ia/iai, ae??oe/iiai ?
aeeoy/iai oa?/oaaiiy”. ?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? 0194U005642. I?ae
ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a a 1980-1998 ??. o iaoeia?e ia?aae? ?inoeoooo
naae?aieoeoaa OAAI ?ic?iaeaii iia? oa aaeineiiaeaii ?nioth/? oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy ?ioaineaieo yaeoiaaeo naae?a ia ian?ii?aeo ? eeiiiaeo
i?aeuaiao o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiaia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaaea a
iaa?oiooaaii? i?eaeaoiino? ?aeii?a aeey ?ici?uaiiy eoeueoo?e yaeoi?,
aecia/aii? eeiiiaeo i?aeuai i?eaeaoieo aeey noai?aiiy nei?iie?aeieo
?ioaineaieo naae?a ? ?ic?iaoe? iaeaeioe?euei?oeo c a?ieia?/ii? oa
aoaeoeaieo c aeiiii?/ii? ? aia?aaoe/ii? oi/ie ci?o iiaeo oei?a
?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? aeey oiia E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
?aoe?iiaeueieo nenoai ?ici?uaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy ? ia??coaaiiy aea?aa oa ?o
i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue caiaeeeiny aei:

aea/aiiy aieeao aeieia?/ieo oiia ia ??no ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue
yaeoi?;

ioe?iee i?eaeaoiino? eeiiiaeo i?aeuai aeey noai?aiiy nei?iie?aeieo
?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi?;

aecia/aiiy ii?icino?eeino? ei?aiaai? nenoaie oa iaa?oiooaaiiy
?aeii?a eoeueoo?e yaeoi? ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao;

?ic?iaee oa ioe?iee iiaeo, aoaeoeaieo oei?a ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue
yaeoi? ia ian?ii?aeo ? ??cieo ca neeith ?inoo eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee iia? oeie ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi?; iniiai?
o?aaeeoe?ei?, iia? a?o/eciyi? oa ?io?iaeoeiaai? ni?oe yaeoi? (iiiaae
60); ian?ii?a? oa eeiiia? i?aeuaie (iiiaae 50).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Aia?oa oai?aoe/ii anoaiiaeai? aeey iiaeo
a?o/eciyieo oa ?io?iaeoeiaaieo ni?o?a yaeoi? i?i?ioie noie aeoeaieo
oaiia?aoo? aeua 10( N oa e?euee?noue aei?a ?c na?aaeiueiaeiaiaith
oaiia?aoo?ith aeua 15( N, ye? caaacia/othoue ?o ii?iaeueiee ??no, aenieo
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? oni?oio ia?acei?aeth, oa aecia/ai? ?aeiie ?
anoaiiaeai? i?ai?/i? iaae? aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo ni?o?a yaeoi? ca ?o
caaacia/ai?noth oa?i?/ieie ?ano?naie.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? oa aecia/ai? a?aae??ioe oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeia?caiiy ei?aiaai? nenoaie ian?ii?aeo ? eeiiiaeo
i?aeuai yaeoi? a iieueiaeo oiiaao, aeae?eai? e iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
aeniei?ioaineai? ii?icino?ee? i?aeuaie oa anoaiiaeai? i?ai?/i? iaae? ?o
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ca nooiaiai ii?icino?eeino? ei?aiaai? nenoaie.

Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? ii?icino?eeino? ni?o?a yaeoi? caeaaeii a?ae
a?oioiai-aeieia?/ieo oiia ae?iuoaaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii iaoai?ci iiceoeaiiai aieeao aenieiu?eueieo
ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ia a?ieia?/i? i?ioeane a a?oio? oa i?ioenoiyiiy eiai
caa?oaeiaiith ??ciiiai?oieie niieoeaie, aecia/aii ?ieue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a
ia i?aeo?eieo a iueiio aiiainoaco.

?ic?iaeaia nenoaia oi?ioaaiiy ? ia??coaaiiy ie?oaei? iaeiaaaa?eoii? oa
aa?aoaiiiiae?aii? e?ii, ye? iaei?eaeaoi?o? aeey cae?aiiy ieiae?a a?o/io
oa ia??coaaiiy aea?aa iiaeo a?o/eciyieo oa ?io?iaeoeiaaieo ni?o?a yaeoi?
c o?aooaaiiyi ?o a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae.

?ic?iaeai? e iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? iia? oeie ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue
yaeoi? ia ian?ii?aeo, na?aaeiuei?ineeo, iai?aea?eeeiaeo ? ea?eeeiaeo
eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao, a oaeiae ia ian?ii?aeo ?c anoaaeaie neaai?ineeo c
oi?ioaaiiyi ie?oaeeo e?ii — iaeiaaaa?eoii? i?ecaieoaaoi? oa
aa?aoaiiiiae?aii?, ye? i?enei?ththoue aaia?aoeaio ooieoe?th oa
cao?eiothoue aaaaoaoeaio. A oeeo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue iioei?ciaaii ia’?i
e?ii oa e?euee?noue aea?aa ia iaeeieoe? ieiu?, ye? caaacia/othoue
neaai?ine?noue, nei?iie?aei?noue, noaeo a?iaeaei?noue aenieiye?nieo
ieiae?a c i?i?iaeueieie cao?aoaie i?aoe? ia ?o ae?iuoaaiiy.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy e?eoe/ii iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? a?oioo, ui
i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeia?caiiy ei?aiaai? nenoaie i?aeuai yaeoi?, ye?
aeicaieeee ni?inoeoe ? i?enei?eoe ?aeiioaaiiy eeiiiaeo i?aeuai yaeoi? ca
ioe?ieith aaniethoiiai i?i?ioio oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo oa ii?icino?eeino? ?o
ei?aiaai? nenoaie.

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue,
ocaaaeueiaiiy a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo ?ic?iaeaii
oaoiieia?? noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ?ioaineaieo
oei?a ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? a E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. Oe? oaoiieia??
aeei?enoiaothoueny Aea?aeaaiei ?inoeoooii i?iaeooaaiiy naae?a ?
ya?aeiee?a, ??cieie oeiaie ainiiaea?noa ciie.

?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii iaoeia? iniiae oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?ici?uaiiy ni?o?a
yaeoi? oa eeiiiaeo i?aeuai caaacia/othoue aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy
iniiaiiai caniao ae?iaieoeoaa — caie?.

?acoeueoaoe aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a uiaei ioe?iee eeiiiaeo
i?aeuai o naaeo, noai?aiiy oa i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo oei?a
ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi?, iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ai?iaaaeaeothoueny a ainiiaea?noaao ia iniia? iaoeiai- i?aeoe/ieo
aeaeaiue: “?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ae?iuoaaiith aenieeo o?iaea?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a eieainiao ? ?aaeainiao Euea?aueie”
(1968), “Caeeaaeaiiy iieiaeeo naae?a” (1969), “Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ii inai?iith noee?a i?ae ieiaeia? ianaaeaeaiiy” (1980), “?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ii ae?iuoaaiith naae?a ia noeeao a O?N?”, “Iniiae a?oioicaoenii?
oaoiieia??” (1982), “?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ae?iuoaaiith ieiaeiaeo
naaeaeaioe?a a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N?” (1983), “?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii caeeaaeaiith
? ae?iuoaaiith ?ioaineaieo naae?a a O?N?” (1987), “Noai?aiiy ?
i?iaeoeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi?” (1997),
“Iaoiaeeea aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee oei?a ianaaeaeaiue, ni?o?a ieiaeiaeo oa
ya?aeieo eoeueoo? ? ?acoeueoao?a oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o
naae?aieoeoa?” (1992), a oaeiae iiiia?ao?y oa eieae aaoi?a (1993, 1995,
1999).

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeany a ainiiaea?noaao
Ee?anueei?, *a?eanueei?, A?iieoeueei?, ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?,
Oiaeueieoeueei?, Oa?e?anueei?, Euea?anueei? iaeanoae a 1968-1997 ??. ia
iniia? ?ic?iaie ? ca iaoiaee/iith aeiiiiiaith aaoi?a. A E?ninoaio
noai?ai? oa i?iaeoeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoue iia? oeie ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi?
c ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith, aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith ? nieiuaiith
iaeiaaaa?eoiith e?iiaie oa iioeiaeueiith u?euei?noth aea?aa ia
ian?ii?aeo ? ??cieo ca neeith ?inoo eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao ia ieiu? 3800 aa;
naaee c ieiueiieie e?iiaie oa u?eueiei ?ici?uaiiyi aea?aa- 2900 aa.
Ae?iaie/a ia?aa??ea iiaeo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue o aeaa’yoe ainiiaea?noaao
ciie iieacaea aenieo ?o aoaeoeai?noue. Ui??/ia a?iaeaei?noue noaiiaeea,
oe/aa: a aeine?aeieo ainiiaea?noaao ?inoeoooo naae?aieoeoaa OAAI, eiai
Euea?anueeiio o?e?ae?, ia E?aniieoonuee?e AeN ?N OAAI, ENI “?ineaae/?”
oa “E?ooeiea” Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? — 250-300, ENI
“30-??//y Ia?aiiae” ssaioeinueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? oa “Ineaiiai” ?
“Eiioia?” Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanoae — 180-220, “Ia?oa o?aaiy”
?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeano? — 130-140.

Iia? oeie ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaioith,
ii??aiyii c ?nioth/eie, eai?oaei- ? o?oaeii?noe?noth, aenieith
aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth oa aia?aaoe/iith oe?ii?noth i?iaeoeoe??, ui
ni?eyei iioe?aiith ?o o ainiiaea?noaao ciie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeaea?aeaaieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo ? ciiaeueieo
iaoeiai- ae?iaie/eo eiioa?aioe?yo o Iinea? (1981), Iaeue/eeo (1987),
I?/o??inueeo (1990, 1991), Aa?oaa? (1994), I?inueeo (1992, 1993),
Eueaia? (1971, 1972), ?aaii- O?aie?anueeo (1974, 1976), Iae?oiiie?
(1985), A?iieoe? (1992), Ee?a? (1972- 1997), ia iaoeiaiio neiiic?oi? a
I?inueeo (1997), ia ?anioae?eainueeeo ae?iaie/eo ia?aaeao (1973-1997),
ia eii?aeeiaoe?eieo ? iaoiaee/ieo ia?aaeao aaeocaaiai iaoeiaiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie, a/aieo ?aaeao ?inoeoooo naae?aieoeoaa OAAI
(1971-1997). Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeaiiino?oaaeeny ia AAeIA (Ee?a, 1988;
Iineaa, 1989).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??
?ic?iaeaia ? iaa?oioiaaia i?ia?aia aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeaie ? aeeiiai?
oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy: anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue ?inoo ? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
yaeoi? a?ae oaieicaaacia/aiino? oa?eoi??? oa aieiaicaaacia/aiino?
a?oioo; aecia/aii caeiiii??iino? ii?icino?eeino? aea?aa iniiaieo ni?o?a
yaeoi? a?ae oiia ae?iuoaaiiy, ii?icino?eeino? ei?aiaai? nenoaie 54 oi?i
eeiiiaeo i?aeuai, aieeao inoaii?o ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue yaeoiaaeo
ianaaeaeaiue. I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaai? ia ?ic?iaeo oa
ioe?ieo iiaeo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ia ian?ii?aeo, na?aaeiuei?ineeo,
iai?aea?eeeiaeo ? ea?eeeiaeo eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao, a oaeiae ia ian?ii?aeo
?c anoaaeaie noaaea neaai?ineeo. Iaa?oioiaaii iaeaeioe?euei?o? c
a?ieia?/ii? oa aoaeoeai? c aeiiii?/ii? ? aia?aaoe/ii? oi/ie ci?o
eiino?oeoe?? naae?a, ?aoe?iiaeuei? nenoaie ?ici?uaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy oa
ia??coaaiiy aea?aa ? ?o i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy a E?ninoaio.

Aea/aii i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo ? a?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a o
/i?iicai? ii?aecieaiiio a ??cieo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? o ni?ai?aoe?
c aeieoi?ii a?ieia?/ieo iaoe A.I.Iaaeaiei.

O ni?eueieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee oa aena?oeai?
iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue. O eieaao “sse oi?ioaaoe ? ia??coaaoe
ieiaeia? aea?aaa” (1995, 1999 ??.) aaoi?ii iaienai? aeaae 1, 2 ? 3.

I?e aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaoeia? eiinoeueoaoe?? iaaeaaaee
aeieoi?e n.- a. iaoe i?ioani?e A.?.Iaeaeaao?a, A.N.Ia?eianueeee oa
aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe i?ioani? I.I. Oanoiiaeue.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii: a
iiiia?ao?? “Eoeueoo?a yaeoi? a Oe?a?i?” (E., O?iaeae, 1993, 18,3
ae.a.), eieaao “sse oi?ioaaoe ? ia??coaaoe ieiaeia? aea?aaa” (E.,
O?iaeae, 1995, 9 ae.a.), «sse oi?ioaaoe ? ia??coaaoe ieiaeia? aea?aaa»
(aeiiiaiaia aeaeaiiy, E., O?iaeae, 1999, 9,8 ae.a.) oa 43 iaoeiaeo
noaooyo (25,4 ae.a.), c ieo 22 ioae?eaoe?? o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao,
caoaa?aeaeaieo AAE Oe?a?ie, a 8 ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo ? iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaeao
(17 ae.a.) oa ?ioeo ?iaioao. Iniiai? ioae?eaoe?? iaaaaeaii a
aaoi?aoa?ao?.

Aaoi? ye aeeiiaaaoeue ? ea??aiee a?aa o/anoue o aeeiiaii? athaeaeaoieo,
ainiaeiaia??ieo iaoeiai- aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, ui ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
caeeth/ieo iaoeiaeo ca?oao, ianya yeeo noaiiaeoue 45 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia
373 noi??ieao oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, aeia?aeie i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, i?noeoue 91 oaaeeoeth, 16 ?enoie?a. O
aeiaeaoeo iae?/o?oueny 28 oaaeeoeue, 5 ?enoie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 343 i?aoe?, o oiio /ene? 92 ca?oa?aeieo
aaoi??a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

IAOEIA? INIIAE NOAI?AIIss ? I?IAeOEOEAIIAI AEEI?ENOAIIss ?IOAINEAIEO
OEI?A IANAAeAEAIUe

O ?icae?e? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noai ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ae?iuoaaiiy naae?a ?
iaa?oioiaai? oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae iiaeaeueoiai ?? ?icaeoeo. ?ic?iaeai?
oeie ianaaeaeaiue /a?ac aenieo o?oaeii?noe?noue ia caaacia/eee
i/?eoaaiiai aoaeoo. A ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae noai?aiiy oaeeo ianaaeaeaiue,
yeei ae i?eaaaeeaei ia caeaaaany, aacia?a/ii ia iiaeia ia?aiineoe a
i?aeoeeo iaoiai naae?aieoeoaa aac aeinoaoiueiai aea/aiiy.

OIIAE, IA’?EOE ? IAOIAeEEA I?IAAAeAIIss AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiai? i?ioyaii 1962-1998 ??. a ?inoeooo?
naae?aieoeoaa OAAI o a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/i?e cii? E?ninoai, yea aeeth/a?
ciie ieiae?aieoeoaa Cao?aeiee E?ninoai c i?aeciiaie I?aaiaa?aaeia ?
Cao?aeia oa No?aeiee E?ninoai.

Ee?iao E?ninoaio iii??ii eiioeiaioaeueiee. Cao?aeia /anoeia eiai
aieia?oa, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i’yeith ceiith ? i?ioieiaeiei e?oii, a
e?aeiy no?aeia ? i?aaeaiii-no?aeia iaaoaa? a?eueoi? ena?ioa?i?/iino? —
ooo aea?e?oa e?oi, oieiaei?oa ceia. Oaieiaee ?aaeei oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
na?aaeiueith ??/iith oaiia?aoo?ith 5-5,8(; na?aaeiueith oaiia?aoo?ith
n?/iy i?ion 6…-7,5(N, na?aaeiueith oaiia?aoo?ith eeiiy 17,5-20 (N.
Aaniethoiee i?i?ioi ia noiae? aeinyaa? i?ion 41(N, ia caoiae? — 36(N.
Na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue aacii?iciiai ia??iaeo aeecueei 160-175 aei?a.
Na?aaeiy ??/ia noia iiaae?a eieeaa?oueny a?ae 500-525 ii ia noiae? aei
525-660 ii ia caoiae?.

A?oioiaee iie?ea ciie i?aaenoaaeaiee aeecueei 160 a?oioiaeie
??ciiaeaeiinoyie, aea iaeiioe?ai?oith ? a?oia /i?iicai?a — aeeaieeo,
iaaeeaieeo ? ?aa?aaeiaaieo oa ii?aecieaieo a?oio?a — ynii-n??eo, n??eo,
oaiii-n??eo ii?aecieaieo ? /i?iicai?a ii?aecieaieo (Iiiiae/ I.Ae.,
1981).

A?oioe ia aeine?aeieo ae?eyieao o ENI “?ineaae/?” Ee?anueei? iaeano? —
/i?iicaie ii?aecieai? i?uaii-na?aaeiueinoaeeieia? c ??ciei nooiaiai
cieoino?. Ai?no aoiono a i?iiio oa?? noaiiaeoue 1,46-2,03 %, ?I nieaaa —
6,6-7,2. Noia iai?iieo iniia — 21,4-22 ia.aea. ia 100 a a?oioo, ia’?iia
iana — 1,35-1,40 a/ni3. Caaacia/ai?noue a?oioo ?ooiiei oinoi?ii —
6,9-8,3, iai?iiei eae??i — 5,4-7,6 ia ia 100 a iia?o?yii nooi? iane.

A?oioe ia aeine?aeieo ae?eyieao AeA “Iiain?eee” ?N OAAI — oaiii-n???
ii?aecieai? na?aaeiueinoaeeieia? c ??ciei nooiaiai iaea?iino? . Ai?no
aoiono a i?iiio oa?? noaiiaeoue 1,35-1,46%, ?I aiaeia — 5,53-5,61, ?I
nieaaa — 4,44-4,80, noia iai?iieo iniia — 7,3-9,7 ia. aea. ia 100 a
a?oioo, ia’?iia iana — 1,42-1,59 a/ni3. Caaania/ai?noue a?oioo ?ooiiei
oinoi?ii 6,8-9,8 ? iai?iiei eae??i — 7,9-9,2 ia ia 100 a iia?o?yii nooi?
iane.

Ca ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue noia aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? aeua 10(
noaiiaeea 2229-2954(N, e?euee?noue aei?a ?c na?aaeiueiaeiaiaith
oaiia?aoo?ith aeua 15(N — 76-126. Iniaeeai iani?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
ia?acei?ae? yaeoiue neeaaeaeeny aceieo 1986-1987 ??., eiee oaiia?aoo?a
iia?o?y a n?/i? 1987 ?. cieceeany aei i?ion 35, -36(N. E?euee?noue
iiaae?a ca aaaaoaoe?th ia?aaeuoaaea na?aaeith aaaaoi??/io (412 ii) ia
50-92 ii. Aeiu? aeiaaeaee i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo a?aeiinii
??aiii??ii, caaacia/oaaee iii??ia caieiaeaiiy a?oioo, a a 1978, 1980,
1983, 1986, 1988, 1993 ??. a ie?ai? ia??iaee iaa?oue iaaei??ia.

Iaoiaee/iith iniiaith ?iaioe aoee aeniaaeeoe?ei? ianoaaeaiiy, iieueiaee,
eaai?aoi?ii-iieueiaee ? ae?iaie/ee aenia?eiaio, yeee ii?aeioaaany c
aa?io?i?/ieie, o?c?ieia?/ieie, a?io?i?/ieie oa aeiiii?/ieie iaoiaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aieea aeieia?/ieo oiia ia iioe?aiiy, ??no ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue yaeoi?
aea/aee iaoiaeii aeniaaeeoe?eiiai ianoaaeaiiy ianaaeaeaiue (Oeoo I.A.,
1968), a iaa?oiooaaiiy oa?i?/ieo ?ano?n?a aeey eoeueoo?e ni?o?a ca
iaoiaeaie A.O.Naeyieiiaa (1930) ? A.I.Iiiiaa (1937).

Ioe?ieo eeiiiaeo i?aeuai yaeoi? c ??cieo oeaio??a iioiaeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeee a naaeao o o?ueio noaoe?iia?ieo aeine?aeao. Aa??aioe
aeeth/aee ia iaioa 24 iae?eiaeo aea?aa eiaeiiai ni?oo ia i?aeuai?, ye?
?ici?uaee nenoaiiei iaoiaeii.

Aea/aiiy ii?icino?eeino? ei?aiaai? nenoaie 54 ian?ii?aeo ? eeiiiaeo
i?aeuai yaeoi? i?iaiaeeee a aeaa’yoe iieueiaeo ? eaai?aoi?ii-iieueiaeo
aeine?aeao oeyoii cieaeaiiy a?aae??io?a oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo aei
e?eoe/iiai ??aiy oa ca iaoiaeeeith I.I.Nieiaeiai? (1967).

?ic?iaeo ? ioe?ieo iiaeo ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? i?iaiaeeee a
iaeeiaaeoeyoe noaoe?iia?ieo aeine?aeao, aea aea/aee ie?oae?
iaeiaaaa?eoi? i?ecaieoaao?, ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oni?, aa?aoaiiiiae?ai?,
nieiuai? e?iie ? a?eueii?inoo/o iaeueiaoo o aca?iica’yceo c aea/aiiyi
ieiu aeeaeaiiy. Caeaaeii a?ae neee ?inoo aea?aa ??cieo ni?o?a o aa??aioe
aeeth/aee ia ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao oe?eio i?ae?yaeue 7, 6, 5, 4 i,
a?aenoaiue o ?yaeo 5, 4, 3, 2 i; ia na?aaeiuei?ineeo, iai?aea?eeeiaeo ?
ian?ii?aeo ?c anoaaeaie neaai?ineeo — a?aeiia?aeii 6, 5, 4 ? 5, 4, 3, 2
i ? ia neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao — 5, 4, 3, 2,5 ? 3; 2,5; 2 ? 1 i. Aeine?aee
caeeaaeai? iaoiaeaie ?aiaeii?ciaaieo ? nenoaiieo iiaoi?aiue c
?ici?uaiiyi inoaii?o o aeaa y?one. E?euee?noue iae?eiaeo aea?aa o
aa??aio? ia iaioa 26. Iiaoi?iino? /ioe?e?acia?.

O naaeo aea/aee neeo ?inoo aea?aa, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ? u?euei?noue
ieiaeiaeo ooai?aiue, ieiuo eenoe?a, o?iaeaei?noue, oa?aeoa? ?ici?uaiiy
ei?aiaai? nenoaie, ina?oeai?noue, oioineioac oa ceiino?ee?noue aea?aa.
I?iaiaeeeenue iae?ee iaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia, oaiieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy,
o?i?/iee neeaae ieiae?a, eaaee?noue, oiaa?i? yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? oa ?i.

Aeei?enoiaoaaee caaaeueiii?eeiyo? iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy iieueiaeo ?
eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue “I?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/i?
aeac?aee ii aa?ioaoi?/ieo aeine?aeao c ieiaeiaeie ? ya?aeieie
eoeueoo?aie” (I?/o??inuee, 1956), “Iieueia? aeine?aee c ieiaeiaeie
eoeueoo?aie” (I??n N.I., 1969), “Iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee ii ia?aeiiiio
aea/aiith eeiiiaeo i?aeuai yaeoi? a naaeo” (E., 1985) oiui.

Noia?io niiy/io ?aae?aoe?th a ??cieo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue aea/aee ca
aeiiiiiaith nenoaie i??aiiiao??a ssi?oaanueeiai, /enoo i?iaeoeoeai?noue
oioineioaco — ca A.N.Ianyii?eiaei (1980).

A?aea?? a?oioiaeo c?ace?a ? ?o eaai?aoi?iee aiae?c i?iaiaeeee ca
iaoiaeeeith a?oioiai-aa?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (“Aa?ioeie/aneea
iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey ii/a”, I., “Iaoea”, 1975).

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?iaiaeeee ca
A.A.Aeiniaoiaei (1985) ?c canoinoaaiiyi ia?niiaeueiiai eiii’thoa?a IBM
PC-486 ca a?aeiia?aeieie i?ia?aiaie I.I.Aoaeeea (1991). Aeiiii?/io oa
aia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo ni?o?a, i?aeuai ? ??cieo oei?a ?ioaineaieo
ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? aecia/aee ca iaoiaeeeaie, ?ic?iaeaieie
I.I.Oanoiiaeueii (1994), I.E. Iaaeaaaeianueeei ? I.?. ?aaiaieii (1988).

Aeey noai?aiiy aeniei?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ie ?ic?iaeee
ie?oaeo iaeiaaaa?eoio (i?ecaieoaaoo) ? aa?aoaiiiiae?aio e?iie.

A ie?oae?e iaeiaaaa?eoi?e e?ii?, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ic??aeaeaii-y?onii?,
o neeueii- ? na?aaeiuei?ineeo aea?aa ca?eueoaii e?euee?noue a?eie o
y?onao (o ia?oiio — aei 4-5, o ae?oaiio — aei 3). O neaai?ineeo aea?aa
caeeaaea?oueny o?e y?one: ieaei?e c 5, ae?oaee c 3 ? o?ao?e c 1-2 a?eie.
O e?ii? neaeaoi? a?eee ieaeiueiai y?ono caa??aathoue aeii?ioth/a
iieiaeaiiy i?ioyaii aeeooy aea?aaa, ui caaacia/o? ?i neaai?ine?noue ?
nei?iie?aei?noue. Aenioa aea?aa ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao — 2,5-3 i.

Aa?aoaiiiiae?aia e?iia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo oei, ui i?e ??
oi?ioaaii? a?/i? a?eee ia a?aeaeiathoue i?ae eooii 60-70(, a
ni?yiiaothoue ia??coaaiiyi ia ieae/a ?ici?uaio a?eeo. O e?ii?
caeeoathoue ia iaioa 10-12 a?/ieo a?eie ia?oiai ii?yaeeo, c ieo 4-5
?ici?uothoue o ia?oiio y?on?, a ?aooo — aac’y?onii ii ni??ae? ia
a?aenoai? 30-40 ni iaeia a?ae iaeii?. Iaaiie, ui ae?inee ca aaaaoaoe?th,
ii an?e aeiaaeei? noiaao?a ? c a?/ieo a?oiueie ia aei?i/othoue, ca
aeiyoeii ni?o?a ?c neaaith iaaiiiooai?thaaeueiith ni?iiiaei?noth. O oeeo
ni?o?a oae? a?eee caeeoathoue aeiaaeeiith 50-60 ni. Aenioo aea?aa ia
eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao i?aeo?eiothoue ia ??ai? 2,5-3 i.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

AIEEA AEIEIA?*IEO OIIA IA ??NO ? I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe

IANAAeAEAIUe ssAEOI?

?aoe?iiaeueia ?ici?uaiiy ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ? iaeiei ?c caoiae?a
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. A?aei?iiino? ?aeii?a ciie
a ?aeue?o?, oa?i?/ieo ?ano?nao, aieiaicaaacia/aiino?, a?oioiaeo oa ?ioeo
oiia ae?iuoaaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia caaaeueiee ?icaeoie ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ni?o?a aeuaiacaaii? eoeueoo?e ? oiaa?i? yeino? ieiae?a.
Nooi?iue a?aeiia?aeiino? iaaiiai eiiieaeno aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a
a?ieia?/iei aeiiaai ni?o?a yaeoi? aeey ?aae?caoe?? ?o iioaioe?eii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? iniiaith aeey ?aoe?iiaeueiiai oa?eoi??aeueiiai
?ici?uaiiy ianaaeaeaiue.

Aiae?c aaaaoi??/ieo aeaieo noiniaii ?icaeoeo ? a?iaeaeiino? ni?o?a o
??cieo ?aeiiao E?ninoaio iieacaa, ui noie aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? aeua 50N
ia caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy aa?iee?iaoe/ieo iieaciee?a, ye? iiaeia
aoei a i?eeiyoe ca a?ieia?/io eiinoaioo oaieicaaacia/aiino? ni?o?a.

O?eaae?noue ia??iaeo a?ae cae?i/aiiy oea?o?iiy aei ianoaiiy ci?iaeueii?
noeaeino? ieiae?a o eiie?aoieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy ? iino?eiei iieacieeii
? noaiiaeoue aeey e?oi?o ni?o?a 68-75, in?ii?o — 85-105 ? ceiiaeo —
105-135 aei?a.

Iaenoaa?euei?oei iieacieeii aeey aecia/aiiy iio?aae ni?o?a o oaie? ca
ia??iae a?ae cae?i/aiiy oea?o?iiy aei ianoaiiy ci?iaeueii? noeaeino?
ieiae?a ? noia aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? aeua 10 0N. Aiia ? aaaeeeaith aeey
caaaeueii? ioe?iee ?icaeoeo ni?o?a yaeoi? i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo. Ia??iae ?ioaineaii? aaaaoaoe?? ca o?eaae?noth ia??iaeo c
na?aaeiueiaeiaiaith oaiia?aoo?ith aeua 15 0N ? aaaeeeaei iieacieeii ia
o?eueee oaieicaaacia/aiino? ni?o?a i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, aea
e aeey aecia/aiiy ceiino?eeino? ?o o noai?? ceie.

Aaaaoi??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaee iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe i?i?ioie noie
aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? aeua 10 0N oa e?euee?noue aei?a ?c
na?aaeiueiaeiaiaith oaiia?aoo?ith aeua 15 0N, ye? caaacia/othoue
i?ioiaeaeaiiy iniiaieo oaiioac ?icaeoeo, ii?iaeueiee ??no aea?aa, aenieo
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? oni?oio ia?acei?aeth. Aeey e?oi?o ni?o?a oe?
iieacieee noaiiaeyoue — a?aeiia?aeii 1800-2000 0 ? 70-80 aei?a, in?ii?o
— 2000-2300 0N ? 80-90 aei?a ? aeey ceiiaeo — 2300-2700 0 ? 90-120
aei?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui caiane oaiea a cii? oe?eeiaeoi caaacia/othoue
ae?iuoaaiiy aenieiye?nieo ieiae?a e?oi?o oa in?ii?o ni?o?a yaeoi?.
Ie?ai? oaieiethai? ceiia? ni?oe ooo iathoue i?ai?/io iaaeo i?iieneiai?
eoeueoo?e, yea anoaiiaeth?oueny ca 90 %-iith caaacia/ai?noth oaieii. O
ni?o?a E?aa?o?, Iiain?ee?anueea ceiiaa, Ia?eeia ee?anueea, I?enoe?eea ?
Aneieueaea aiia ca?aa?oueny c iieiaeaiiyi ?cioa?ie c noiith aeoeaieo
oaiia?aoo? aeua 10 0N 2450 0 ? e?euee?noth aei?a ?c na?aaeiueiaeiaiaith
oaiia?aoo?ith aeua 15 0N 90-95, ?oa?iiaa Aeoee, Nia?oai ? Oei??ia —
a?aeiia?aeii 2500 0 ? 95-100 aei?a, Ao?ae?y, ?inaaea ? Oiainueea ceiiaa
— 2600 0 ? 105-110 aei?a, o Aieaeai aeae?oan ? ?aiao Neie?aiea — 2750 0
? 120-125 aei?a.

O ?aeiiao, aea oa?i?/i? ?ano?ne iaaeinoaoi? aeey oi?ioaaiiy ieiae?a a
ie?aieo ceiiaeo ni?o?a, ia i?iyaey?oueny aeanoeaa ?i i?iaeoeoeai?noue, a
ieiaee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iecueeith ye?noth ? ao?a/athoue
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue. Cieaeaiiy noie aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? aeua 10 0N
ia 100 0 ieae/a anoaiiaeaiiai i?i?ioio ciaioo? o ieiaeao oaieiethaieo
ceiiaeo ni?o?a yaeoi? iano ia 10-15% , nooeo ?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei ?
caaaeueio e?euee?noue oeoe??a — ia 0,7-1,2 %.

Aiae?c oiia caieiaeaiiy a E?ninoaio iieacaa, ui ca aaaaoaoe?eiee
ia??iae c 1 aa ieiaeiiiniiai naaeo aeo?a/a?oueny ia aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy
aeecueei 3500-5000 i3 aiaee, a e?euee?noue aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a ca oeae
ia??iae noaiiaeoue, ii: a Cao?aeiiio E?ninoaio — 400-450, No?aeiiio —
300-325, aai 3000-4500 i3/aa. Iaaio e?euee?noue aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a
eiiiainothoue ceiia? caiane, ye? a iao?iaiio oa?? a?oioo aei ii/aoeo
aaaaoaoe?? o Cao?aeiiio E?ninoaio noaiiaeyoue 175-200, No?aeiiio —
150-175 ii caaaeueii? aieiae. Caiane aieiae a a?oio? a ianaaeaeaiiyo
yaeoi? a i?aaeaiieo ?aeiiao ciie aeioe?eueii eiiiainoaaoe c?ioaiiyi.

O naaeao ?c c?ioaiiyi, iniaeeai ia ea?eeeiaeo i?aeuaiao,
i?aeaeuothoueny a?iaeaei?noue ? ceiino?ee?noue aea?aa yaeoi?. Ia
ae?eyieao c aieia?noth a?oioo 80 % IA o?iaeaei?noue ni?o?a ia i?aeuai? I
9 i?e ?ici?uaii? aea?aa 4 o 3,5 i aoea a iaaeao 288-321, 4 o 1,5 i —
316-458 ? 4 o 0,5 i — 400-600 oe/aa, aai ia 38,8-104,5 % aeua, i?ae o
ianaaeaeaiiyo c i?e?iaeiei caieiaeaiiyi.

Aeey eoeueoo?e yaeoi? a cii? aeei?enoiao?oueny aeineoue oe?ieee
ae?aiacii i?ia?ao?/ieo i?noeaiieiaeaiue ? a?oio?a. Iaeiae aeaeaei ia an?
aiie iaeiaeiaith i??ith caaacia/othoue ii?iaeuei? oiiae aeey ?inoo ?
ieiaeiiioaiiy yaeoi?.Oa?eoi??y aiaeiae?e?a oa aacno?/i? ??aieii?
ae?eyiee aac iiaa?oiaaiai aai aioo??oiueia?oioiaiai noieo iai?eaeaoi?
i?ae ianaaeaeaiiy yaeoi?, ui iaie cao?eniaaii a aaaaoueio ainiiaea?noaao
oe??? ciie.

Iaeni?eyoeea?o? oiiae aeey ?inoo ? ieiaeiiioaiiy yaeoi? a E?ninoaio
neeaaeathoueny ia ocaeooyo, aeia?a ae?aiiaaieo ? caieiaeaieo ??aieiieo
ae?eyieao.

I?ae naaee iiaeia oni?oii aeei?enoiaoaaoe noeee ??cii? aeniiceoe??
e?oo?noth aei 15-16 0, aea iniiaia ?ieue ?o aeniei? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
iaeaaeeoue oaiei- ? aieiaicaaacia/aiino? oa a?oioiaei oiiaai.

Ca oiia aeniei? caaacia/aiino? oaieii ? aieiaith a I?aaiaa?aaei?e
i?aecii? aieea aeniiceoe?e iaio ae?aaeaiee. ssaeoiy ia noeeao an?o
iai?yie?a aeia?a ?inoa ? ieiaeiiineoue. O 17-??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue
Eaeuea?ey ni?aiaiai, ?ici?uaieo ia noeeao cao?aeii? oa i?ai?/ii?
aeniiceoe?? e?oo?noth 14-160, ie?oaei?noue ooaiaa noaiiaeea 72-76 ni, a
o?iaeaei?noue — 208-385 oe/aa, ui ia 12- 18 % aoea aeuith, i?ae o naaeao
ia i?aaeaiieo noeeao.

O cao?aeieo ? i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao oe??? ciie, aea aieiae aeinoaoiuei, a
oaiei ciaoiaeeoueny a i?i?ioi?, iaeni?eyoeea?o? oiiae aeey ?inoo ?
ieiaeiiioaiiy ceiiaeo ni?o?a yaeoi? neeaaeathoueny ia i?aaeaiieo ?
cao?aeieo noeeao e?oo?noth aei 15-16 0, ye? e?aua caaacia/ai? oaieii. Ia
iaio caaacia/aieo iei no?aeieo ? i?ai?/ieo noeeao o?iaeaei?noue aoea ia
41,7-47,1 % ieae/ith, i?ae ia ??aiei?.

O No?aeiiio E?ninoaio, aea aieiaa a?oioo i?i?iaeueia, a oaiei
iioeiaeueia, e?au? iieacieee ?inoo ? i?iaeoeoeaiino? a?aecia/aii a
aea?aa ia noeeao e?oo?noth 12-150 i?ai?/iiai, i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai oa
cao?aeiiai iai?yie?a oa ia ??aiei?. Ia oeeo i?noeaiieiaeaiiyo
o?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue ceiiaeo ni?o?a noaiiaeea 152,6-213 oe/aa, aai
ia 25,1-74,6 % aeua, i?ae ia i?aaeaiiiio noee?. Ia i?aaeaiieo ?
i?aaeaiii-no?aeieo noeeao a?aecia/aii iaea?eueoa iioeiaeaeaiiy aea?aa
niiy/ieie ii?eaie (41,2-48,5 %).

??aaiue ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo i?ae ianaaeaeaiiy yaeoi? aecia/a?oueny
oiaueiith ei?aiaai?niiai oa?o (150-180 ni), ?aaeoe??th a?oioiaiai
?ic/eio (?I 4,5-6,5), ia’?iiith ianith (1,30-1,55 a/ni3), ai?noii aoiono
(1,5-4,5 %), a iaiaaeo?oueny aeeaeiith caeyaaiiy iai?iieeieo aeey
ei?ai?a u?eueieo ii??ae (1,2-1,5 i), ai?noii ea?aiiao?a (iiiaae 8 %),
??aiai i?aea?oioiaeo aiae (1,0-1,5 i), ??aiai aa?aoe?? (iaioa 6-9 %)
oiui.

Iaeaeuo i?iaeoeoeai?noue iniiaieo ni?o?a yaeoi? a?aecia/aii a naaeao,
?ici?uaieo ia oaiii-n??eo ii?aecieaieo ? n??eo e?niaeo a?oioao,
/i?iicaiao ii?aecieaieo, aeeoaoaaieo ? oeiiaeo na?aaeiueiai oa eaaeiai
a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo. Na?aaeiy a?iaeaei?noue ca 6 ?ie?a
ieiaeiiioaiiy ia oeeo a?oioao a 20-22-??/ieo ianaaeaeaiiyo noaiiaeea,
oe/aa: Eaeuea?ey ni?aiaiai — 413,3-573,4, Aeaeiiaoaia — 286,7-332,0.
Iaea?eueoo ie?oaei?noue ooaiaa a?aecia/aii a aea?aa ni?o?a Eaeuea?eue
ni?aiaee ? Aeaeiiaoai, ?ici?uaieo ia oaiii-n??eo ii?aecieaieo a?oioao ?
/i?iicaiao ii?aecieaieo, aeeoaoaaieo ? oeiiaeo.

Iniiaia iana ei?ai?a (aeecueei 90 % iane ? 70 % ?o aeiaaeeie) ia
/i?iicaiao ii?aecieaieo, oaiii-n??eo ? n??eo ii?aecieaieo a?oioao
??aiii??ii inaith? aa?oi? oa?e a?oioo a oa?? 0-80 ni, ynii-n??eo — aei
0-100 ni. Aeiaaeeia ei?ai?a iinooiiai ciaioo?oueny o oeeo a?oioao aei
aeeaeie 140-150 ni.

Aea?aaa yaeoi? ia /i?iicaiao ii?aecieaieo aeathaaoeo, n??eo
ii?aecieaieo aeathaaoeo na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaeo ? ia oaiii-n??eo
ii?aecieaieo na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaeo ia aetha?? aaiiye?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny
neaaeei ?inoii ? iecueeith a?iaeaei?noth.

*i?iicaie ea?aiiaoi? i?e iayaiino? a iao?iaiio oa?? ea?aiiao?a iiiaae 8
% ia caaacia/othoue i?iaeoii? a?iaeaeiino? ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? (100-140
oe/aa).

Oaeei /eiii, eoaiai-/i?iicaii?, a oaeiae neaaii?aecieeno? a?oioe
noaeeieiaiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo c /?oeeie iciaeaie iaea?iiy a
iaaeao i?aoi?aiao?iaiai oa?o aac aeiei??iii? iae?i?aoe?? ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue caaaeaiiyi ?ioaineaiiai naae?aieoeoaa.

Ioaea, ??cia aaeaioiaaia aeanoea?noue ni?o?a aecia/a? ?o iioe?aiiy,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? ceiino?ee?noue a cii?.

AIEEA I?AeUAI IA ??NO ? I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe ssAEOI?

??no aea?aa. I?ney cae?i/aiiy oi?ioaaiiy e?iie aenioa aea?aa ia
neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao noaiiaeea 2,4-2,7 i, iai?aea?eeeiaeo ?
na?aaeiuei?ineeo- 2,6-3,2 ? ia n?yioeyo Aioii?aee — 2,8-3,5 i.

E?iie aea?aa inaiththoue a?aeaaaeaio ieiuo aeeaeaiiy o 7-??/iiio a?oe?,
%: ia ea?eeeiaeo i?aeuaiao — ia 53-60, iai?aea?eeeiaeo — 46-59,
na?aaeiuei?ineeo — ia 35-39,2, o 10-??/iiio — a?aeiia?aeii ia 62-73,
51-70 ? 45-55.

Ia’?i i?iaeoeoeaii? e?iie ia 1 aa o aea?aa ia ea?eeeiaeo i?aeuaiao oa c
anoaaeith neaai?ineeo ca?eueoo?oueny ia 23,3-27,5 % ii??aiyii ?c
ianaaeaeaiiyie ia ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai?.

O aea?aa ??ciiai a?eo ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co ooaiaa ia neaai?ineeo
i?aeuaiao noaiiaeea 41-69 %, ia na?aaeiuei?ineeo — 52,5-86,9 % a?ae
aea?aa ia ian?ii?a?e.

Ieiua eenoe?a ia 9-10-??/iiio aea?aa? noaiiaeea, i2: ia ea?eeeiaeo
i?aeuaiao — 22-24, iai?aea?eeeiaeo — 24-34, na?aaeiuei?ineeo — 32-39 ?
neeueii?ineeo — 34-41, a ia 1 aa ieiu? naaeo — a?aeiia?aeii 27,3; 18,2 ?
ia n?yioeyo Aioii?aee — 17,2 oen.i2.

Iaeaeuo /enoo i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco a?aecia/aii o aea?aa ia
ea?eeeiaeo i?aeuaiao c ie?oaeith e?iiith. O aea?aa ia I 9 oeae iieaciee
ca?eueoeany ia 76,6 % ii??aiyii c aea?aaaie ia n?yioeyo Aioii?aee.

?ici?uaiiy ei?aiaai? nenoaie. A aea?aa ia i?aeuaiao 62-396 ? II 106
caaaeueia aeiaaeeia ei?ai?a aoea ia 11,2 ? 14,8 % a?eueoith, i?ae
a?aeiia?aeii ia I 9 ? 54-118. Iniiaia iana ei??iiy aea?aa ia I 9
neiioeaio?iaaia a oa?? aeeaeiith 0-50, ia 62-396 — 0-70, ia 54-118 ? II
106 — 0-80 ni, a a ai?e-ciioaeueiiio iai?yieo a ?aae?on? — a?aeiia?aeii
1,0, 1,2 ? 1,5 i. Iae??aiii??i?oa ?ici?uothoueny ei?ai? aea?aa ia
i?aeuaiao 62-396, 54-118 ? II 106.

O?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue. Aea?aaa iniiaieo ni?o?a anooiaee o
ieiaeiiioaiiy ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao ia 2-4 ?iee ?ai?oa, i?ae ia
ian?ii?aeo. Iaeaeuo a?iaeaei?noue ca ia?o? 8-11 ?ie?a ieiaeiiioaiiy a
I?aaiaa?aaeiiio E?ninoaio a?aecia/aii a ianaaeaeaiiyo ia i?aeuaiao I 9,
ia?aaeecoe? iieoaanuee?e ? 1, 62-396, 57-476, I 3, II 102 ? II 106
(oaae.1). Ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue o?iaeaei?noue ni?o?a ?oa?iiaa Aeoee,
Ceiiaa eeiiiia, Aioi?, Eaeuea?eue ni?aiaee ia i?aeuaiao 54-118, 57-545,
57-490 aoea aeuith ia 41,6-88,7 %, a ia I 9, 57-257, 57-476, 62-396, I
3, II 102, II 106 oa n?yioeyo Aioii?aee c i?ii?aeieie anoaaeaie
neaai?ineeo i?aeuai (ia?aaeecea Aoaeaaianueeiai, 57-491, 3-3-35,
2-46-146) a?eueoith a 1,3-2,6 ?aca ii??aiyii c ianaaeaeaiiyie ia
n?yioeyo Aioii?aee.

O i?aaeaiieo ?aeiiao Cao?aeiiai E?ninoaio aenieith aoea a?iaeaei?noue
ni?o?a Aeaea?aae, Aeinoa? ? Aeaeiiaaieae ia i?aeuai? I 9 (356-460
oe/aa), Iaiooainueea ia 62-396 (346), ssne?aaa ? ?oa?iiaa Aeoee ia II
106 (306-311 oe/aa). A cao?aeieo ?aeiiao oe??? ciie o aea?aa ia
i?aeuaiao I 4, I 26 oa ?c anoaaeith I 9 aiia aoea a iaaeao 143,6-191,3
oe/aa.

O No?aeiiio E?ninoaio ca a?iaeaei?noth aeae?eeeeny ni?oe Neaaa
ia?aiiaeoeyi ? Iae?ioio ia 62-396 (196-242 oe/aa) , Nia?oai, Eiai,
Oa?e?anueea ia 54-118 oa ?c anoaaeaie 58-146, 58-238 (299-486 oe/aa).

I?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? aea?aa ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao coiiaeaii oei, ui
o ieo u?euei?noue ieiaeiaeo ooai?aiue aoea ia 40,2-69,4 % a?eueoith,
i?ae ia ian?ii?aeo.

Ia noai?aiiy 1 aa ianaaeaeaiue ia iai?aea?eeeiaeo (57-545) ? ea?eeeiaeo
(57-476) i?aeuaiao oa ia ian?ii?aeo ?c anoaaeith neaai?ineeo (ia?aaeecea
Aoaeaaianueeiai) eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy aoee a?eueoeie ia 9,4-28,3 %,
aeo?aoe i?aoe? — ia 28,9-86,1 % ii??aiyii ?c naaeaie ia n?yioeyo
Aioii?aee. A oaeeo ianaaeaeaiiyo i?aeaeuo?oueny a?iaeaei?noue ia
56,0-223,1 %, ca?eueoo?oueny i?eaooie c 1 aa a 2,2-3,6 ?aca,
cieaeothoueny aeo?aoe i?aoe? ia 1 oe ieiae?a ia 8,3-10,0 % oa
nei?i/o?oueny no?ie ieoiiino? eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue.

sse?noue oa o?i?/iee neeaae ieiae?a. *anoea ieiae?a aeuiai ? ia?oiai
oiaa?iiai ni?oo a ni?o?a yaeoi? ia neaai- ? na?aaeiuei?ineeo i?aeuaiao o
ia??iae

Oaaeeoey 1. O?iaeaei?noue yaeoi? ni?oo ?oa?iiaa Aeoee ia eeiiiaeo
i?aeuaiao.

Naae?iiy 1980 ?., ENI “?ineaae/?”

Noaia O?iaeaei?noue ca ?ieaie, oe/aa

I?aeuaia naae?i-iy,

i na?aaeiy ca 1983-1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993 na?aaeiy ca 1986-1993

N?yioe? Aioii?aee

(eiio?ieue)

5 o 4

42,8

185,0

38,0

129,5

288,0

77,4

0

120,0

286,7

140,6

A 2 4 o 3 80,3 309,4 51,6 479,0 314,0 241,0 0 166,6 331,1 236,6

I 3 4 o 3 76,6 234,1 95,8 432,3 360,2 252,6 89,1 171,6 373,2 251,1

Aeonai Ia?aie?ia 4 o 3 101,6 264,1 101,0 464,0 364,6 272,7 100,0 160,7
298,7 253,2

I 7 4 o 3 89,2 152,5 74,1 319,0 240,8 212,8 65,0 129,1 321,7 189,4

II 102 4 o 3 86,3 196,6 104,1 417,3 380,7 294,8 81,6 164,1 385,6 253,1

II 104 4 o 3 75,6 325,7 61,6 484,8 324,5 194,9 50,8 174,9 339,6 244,6

II 106 4 o 3 75,2 280,0 91,6 544,8 285,7 192,1 94,1 192,4 365,6 255,8

NE 2 4 o 3 127,5 107,5 50,6 511,3 325,2 144,9 81,6 158,2 324,9 213,0

I 9 4 o 2 128,6 297,5 92,5 462,5 406,5 274,6 140,0 230,0 347,5 281,4

Ia?aaeecea iieoaanueea ? 1

4 o 2

112,9

485,6

80,8

435,0

340,5

200,7

125,0

206,3

375,0

281,1

E 1 4 o 2 71,3 158,0 32,5 206,2 275,6 253,7 112,5 182,0 350,0 196,3

I??05

25,7 14,9 30,9 31,0 20,4 23,5 17,4 19,2

anooio a ieiaeiiioaiiy noaiiaeea 89-93,2, o ia??iae iaeneiaeueiiai
ieiaeiiioaiiy — 83,1-85,6 %. Aenie? oiaa?i? yeino? ieiae?a aoee o aea?aa
ia i?aeuaiao II 106, 57-490, I 3, II 102 (ieiaee aeuiai ? ia?oiai
oiaa?ieo aaooie?a — 85,6-91 %).

Ai?no nooeo ?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei caeaaeii a?ae i?aeuaie noaiiaea 12,7-15,8
%, caaaeueia e?euee?noue oeoe??a — 9,49-14,8 %, a?oai?io N — 3,15-5,51
ia% ia 100 a na?aei? iane, eeneioi?noue — 0,45-0,75 %. Iaea?eueoa
e?euee?noue nooeo ?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei o ieiaeao aoea a aea?aa ia i?aeuaiao
I 9, 57-476, 57-545 oa n?yioeyo Aioii?aee ?c anoaaeith ia?aaeecea
Aoaeaaianueeiai, a caaaeueia e?euee?noue oeoe??a — ia I 9, 57-545 oa ia
n?yioeyo ?c anoaaeith ia?aaeecea Aoaeaaianueeiai.

Ii?icino?ee?noue ei?aiaai? nenoaie. Caeaaeii a?ae oiia ae?iuoaaiiy, a
yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny i?aeaioiaea aea?aa aei ceie, ei?ai? n?yioe?a
Aioii?aee, aaaaoaoeaieo i?aeuai ia?aaeecea Aoaeaaianueeiai, 62-396,
57-476, ia?aaeecea iieoaanueea ? 1, 57-491, 57-490, 54-118, 57-545,
57-233, 58-146, 58-238, 3-3-35, 272, 282, ?N-2-7, Ae 487, Ae 1071, A
2, II 109 aeo?eiothoue aac iioeiaeaeaiiy aai c iacia/iei iioeiaeaeaiiyi
cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo aei i?ion 120…-13 0N, Aioii?aea Cieioee
iiiao, I 3, I 10, I 11, I 26, Ae 471, Ae 1102, Ae 1046, Ae
1161, AeII-70-456 aei i?ion 11i…-12(N,I 2, I 4, aeonai Ia?aie?ia, I
5, I 7, II 102, II 103, II 104, II 105, II 106, ? 1, ? 2, ? 22, ? 59,
? 60, A 19, A 56, A 63, AeII 70-49, NE 2 — aei i?ion 10 0…-11(N, a I
8 ? I 9 aei -9 0…-10 0N. Anoaiiaeaia i?ai?/ia iaaea i?iieneiai?
eoeueoo?e yaeoi? a E?ninoaio ia i?aeuai? I 9, yea ca?aa?oueny c
iieiaeaiiyi ?cie?i?? oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo ia aeeaei? 20 ni i?ion 9-10 0N,
ia i?aeuaiao 62-396 ? 54-118 -12-13 0N ? ia II 106 -10-11 0N.

?IC?IAEA OA IOe?IEA IIAEO OEI?A ?IOAINEAIEO IANAAeAEAIUe ssAEOI? IA
IAN?II?AEO ? EEIIIAEO I?AeUAIAO

A ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee oa ioe?iee iiaeo oei?a
ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ia ian?ii?aeo, na?aaeiuei?ineeo, iai?aea?eeeiaeo,
neaai?ineeo eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao, ia ian?ii?aeo ?c anoaaeaie neaai?ineeo c
ie?oaeeie, nieiuaieie ? ieineeie e?iiaie o aca?iica’yceo c aea/aiiyi
ieiu aeeaeaiiy.

Aiaeiee ? iiaeeaiee ?aaeeie oa aeoeai?noue i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o
a?oio?. Aiaeiee ?aaeei a?oioo ca 1976-1990 ??. oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ye
iioeiaeueiee. O aa??aioao ?c u?eueiei ?ici?uaiiyi aea?aa (5 o 3-4 i)
aieiae ? i?o?aoiiai acioo a iao?iaiio oa?? a?oioo aoei — a?aeiia?aeii ia
1,5-4,2 ? 11,1-23,5 % iaioa, i?ae o ianaaeaeaiiyo c ??aeoith noaiith
naae?iiy (7 o 5 i), ui ia aieeaaei iaaaoeaii ia ?o ??no ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue. Caaacia/ai?noue a?oioo ?ooiiei oinoi?ii ca oeae
ia??iae noaiiaeea a?ae 6,2 aei 17,9, iai?iiei eae??i — a?ae 6,2 aei 12,2
ia ia 100 a iia?o?yii nooi? iane. O aa??aioao ?c u?eueiei ?ici?uaiiyi
aea?aa oe? iieacieee aoee aeaui iaioeie.

A?ieia?/i? i?ioeane a /i?iicai? ii?aecieaiiio a?aeaoaathoueny aeoeai?oa
a ianaaeaeaiiyo ?c u?eueiei naae?iiyi aea?aa ia ian?ii?aeo ? eeiiiaeo
i?aeuaiao. Caaaeueia a?iaaii?noue oa?o a?oioo 0-60 ni o ianaaeaeaiiyo ia
eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,6-3,2 ?aca ii??aiyii c naaeaie ia
ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai?. O aa??aioao ?c u?eueiei ?ici?uaiiyi aea?aa o a?oio?
noeioeth?oueny ?icaeoie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye? cae?eniththoue i?ioeane
o?ainoi?iaoe?? niieoe oinoi?o oa caaaa/othoue eiai a?ieia?/iei acioii.
Aeae?eaiiy ?c a?oioo NI2, yea a naaeao ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao a 1,7 ?aca
aoei aeuei ii??aiyii c ianaaeaeaiiyie ia ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai?, aieeaa? ia
iaeaaaeeea?oee ?ioaa?aeueiee iieaciee ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo — o?iaeae.
Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae oeeie iieacieeaie noaiiaeoue 0,87 + 0,11.

??no aea?aa. O iiaeo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? c ie?oaeith
iaeiaaaa?eoiith oa aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith ??no aea?aa o aenioo aoa
no?eiai?oei ia 15-20% ii??aiyii c ianaaeaeaiiyie c ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith
e?iiith oa a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith. Aei e?ioey oinoi?-ainueii?
aaaaoaoe?? aea?aaa c oeeie e?iiaie inai?ee a?aeaaaeaio ieiuo aeeaeaiiy
ia 60,3-68 %, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ieie caie?.

Iaiaaeaiiy aenioe aea?aa aei i?e?iaeiiai aai ooo/iiai ?ice?eooy ?o e?ii
i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?eueo aa?oeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiiy iaaii?a iiaeiaaeaiiy a
ia??caieo neaeaoieo ? iai?aneaeaoieo a?eeao, ye? i?iaeoeothoue
aa?oeeaeuei? a?aeiiaethth/? iaaiie a ieiuei? iaiaaeaiiy, a i?e
cai?ciaii? — aei aeaeaeaiiy oianoeo a?eie, a?ey c??c?a yeeo
ooai?ththoueny neeueii?ine? iaaiie, ui oiia?eueith? ??no neaeaoieo a?eie
ieaeiueiai y?ono.

Aei anooio aea?aa o ieiaeiiioaiiy noia?ia oa na?aaeiy aeiaaeeia iaaii?a
ia caeaaeaea a?ae noai ?ici?uaiiy, a coiiaethaaeany nooiaiai ia??coaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo e?ii. O aea?aa c ie?oaeeie ? aa?aoaiiiiae?aieie e?iiaie
noia?ia aeiaaeeia iaaii?a aoea a?eueoith ia 14,5-26,4% ii??aiyii c
aea?aaaie noi?iiaaieie ca a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith. I?e u?eueiiio
?ici?uaii? aiia o ieiaeiiinieo aea?aa an?o oei?a ianaaeaeaiue
ciaioo?oueny ia 12,6-26,4% ii??aiyii c aea?aaaie, ?ici?uaieie c ??aeoeie
noaiaie naae?iiy. Aeiaaeeia iaaii?a o ia??iae ieiaeiiioaiiy aea?aa
ciaiooaaeany iaiieiaeio, ii??aiyii c ia??iaeii oi?ioaaiiy ?o e?ii. O
ia??iae iiaiiai ieiaeiiioaiiy oeae iieaciee coiiaethaaany nooiaiai
ia??coaaiiy oa a?iaeaei?noth.

Aieea eiino?oeoe?? naaeo ia ieiuo iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co ooaiaa
i?iyaey?oueny a iniiaiiio /a?ac ieiuo aeeaeaiiy, ?c ciaioaiiyi yei?
cieaeo?oueny aeaiee iieaciee. Ca 21-??/iee ia??iae ??cieoey a
ie?oaeiino? ooaiaa a aea?aa ia i?aeuai? I 3 i?ae noaiaie naae?iiy 5 o 5
i ? 5 o 3 i caeaaeii a?ae oeio e?iie noaiiaeea 10,1-14 %. I?e iaei?e ?
o?e aea ieiu? aeeaeaiiy aaee/eia ooaiaa iaei caeaaeaea a?ae oi?ie e?iie.

Ieiua eenoe?a o aea?aa c ie?oaeeie iaeiaaaa?eoieie e?iiaie aeaui
ca?eueoo?oueny ii??aiyii c ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith, a c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith
ii a?aeiioaiith aei a?eueii?inoo/i? iaeueiaoe. A u?eueieo ianaaeaeaiiyo
iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o eiino?oeoe?? ieiua eenoe?a ia 1 aa ca?eueooaaeany ia
44,1-66,8% ii??aiyii c ??aeoeie noaiaie naae?iiy aea?aa.

Ina?oeai?noue oa ?aae?aoe?eiee ?aaeei e?ii. Nooi?iue ina?oeaiino? e?ii
o ??cieo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue eieeaaeany a?ae 50-60% ?c ?ici?uaiiyi
aea?aa 7 o 5, 6 o 4-3 i aei 40-50% a?ae iiaiiai i?e naae?ii?
-5-4o3-2,5 i, ui caaacia/oaaei ?ioaineai?oa caaa?aeaiiy ieiae?a.
Aea?aai ii?ii?ith?oueny i?yiith niiy/iith ?aae?aoe??th, ?icn?yiith
?aae?aoe??th, yeo a?aeaeca?eaeththoue i?aenoeeath/a iiaa?oiy i?ae
e?iiith, non?aei? aea?aaa oiui.

O ianaaeaeaiiyo c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith e?euee?noue oioineioaoe/ii?
aeoeaii? ?aae?aoe??, oa?a?aii? e?iiith, aoea ia 25,6% a?eueoith
ii??aiyii c a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith. Eiao?oe??io iiaeeiaiiy
?aae?aoe??, ao?aeii? o e?iio, iaea?eueoee a?aecia/aii o ieaei?e, a
iaeiaioee — o aa?oi?e /anoei? e?iie.

*enoa i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco a ia?eoa??ei?e cii? e?iie a aeaa
?ace aoea aeuith, i?ae o na?aaei?o ?? ae?eyieao. *IO o aea?aa c
?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith ? ie?oaeith e?iiaie noaiiaeoue: eenoe?a, iaaii?a —
a?aeiia?aeii 19,7 ? 20,7, e?eue/aoie — 5,6 ? 9,0, a?eueii?inoo/a
iaeueiaoa — 20,5 ? 14,6, aa?aoaiiiiae?aia e?iia 16,7 ? 8,7 a/i2 ca
aeiao.

O?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue ia ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao c
?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith e?iiith oa a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith ia
aeinyaea caaeaieo ia?aiao??a. O iiaeo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue c ie?oaeith
e?iiith ? noaiith naae?iiy 6 o 3 i a?iaeae-i?noue iniiaieo ni?o?a yaeoi?
aoea a?eueoith ia 81,5-84,9% ii??aiyii c ianaaeaeaiiyi aea?aa c
?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith, a c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith ? nieiuaiith e?iiaie (5 o
3 i) — ia 13,6-14,5 ? 15,7-20,0 % ii??aiyii c a?eueii?inoo/ith
iaeueiaoith (oaae.2).

O naaeao na?aaeiuei?ineeo ni?o?a ia ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai? iaeaeuo
a?iaeaei?noue ca 11 ?ie?a ieiaeiiioaiiy iaea?aeaii o aa??aioao c
ie?oaeith e?iiith ? noaiith ?ici?uaiiy 6 o 3 i (227,8-240,9 oe/aa) oa
c ie?oaeith ? aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith ?c noaiith naae?iiy 5 o 3 i
(247,7-284,1 oe/aa).

O ianaaeaeaiiyo ia na?aaeiuei?ine?e i?aeuai? I 3 c ie?oaeith e?iiith ?
noaiith naae?iiy 5 o 3 i a?iaeaei?noue ca 10 inoaii?o ?ie?a
ieiaeiiioaiiy noaiiaeea 327,6 oe/aa, aai ia 20,0-22,3 % aoea aeuith i?ae
o ianaaeaeaiiyo c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith aea?aa oa a?eueii?inoo/ith
iaeueiaoith. Iaeaeuo a?iaeaei?noue ni?oo Aeaeiiaoai ia oe?e i?aeuai?
iaea?aeaii oaeiae o oeueiio aa??aio? (oaae.3). Aeniea a?iaeaei?noue
cao?eniaaia a ianaaeaeaiiyo ia i?aeuaiao II 106 ? 57-545 ?c noaiith
?ici?uaiiy 5 o 3 i, ia 57-490 (6 o 3 i) ? ia ian?ii?aeo ?c anoaaeith
ia?aaeecee Aoaeaaianueeiai (4 o 3-2,5 i) c oi?ioaaiiyi ie?oaei? ?
aa?aoaiiiiae?aii? e?iie.

Oaaeeoey 2. O?iaeaei?noue yaeoi? ni?oo Oiainueea ceiiaa ia n?yioeyo
Aioii?aee caeaaeii a?ae oeio ianaaeaeaiue.

Naae?iiy 1980 ?., ENI «?ineaae/?»

O?iaeaei?noue ca ?ieaie, oe/aa

Oei naaeo na?aaeiy ca 1983-1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996 na?aaeiy ca 1986-1996

C ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith e?iiith, noaia naae?iiy 7o5 i (eiio?ieue)

12,3

150,3

23,4

136,7

316,9

210,0

114,0

123,0

200,2

146,4

220,4

187,7

166,3

C ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith e?iiith, 7 o 5 i

17,8

182,8

32,8

148,5

360,1

256,7

122,0

145,0

207,0

160,8

236,6

195,1

186,1

Oa ae naia, 6 o 4 i 25,5 263,7 47,4 202,2 434,5 355,7 172,0 200,0 303,7
201,7 270,1 248,9 245,5

Oa ae naia, 6 o 3 i 31,9 335,2 62,2 249,8 511,8 458,4 218,0 259,0 371,0
250,3 310,4 294,6 301,9

?c nieiuaiith iaeiaaaa?eoiith e?iiith, 5 o 4 i

28,2

337,5

46,5

222,0

389,1

355,1

215,0

209,0

342,7

193,4

289,3

280,2

261,8

Oa ae naia, 5 o 3 i 36,8 429,5 60,0 285,0 472,9 429,9 278,0 267,0 419,2
245,6 325,6 346,7 323,6

C aa?aoaii-iiae?a-iith e?iiith, 5o4 i

32,5

374,0

52,0

258,5

402,5

371,1

218,0

213,0

358,2

216,9

369,8

320,1

286,7

Oa ae naia, 5 o 3 i 38,9 417,5 60,6 289,0 492,7 424,1 294,0 283,0 448,2
269,1 402,5 370,6 341,0

A?eueii?inoo/a iaeueiaoa, 5 o 4 i

18,7

213,4

30,0

164,4

292,0

254,3

168,0

156,0

256,4

180,7

267,7

250,8

203,1

Oa ae naia, 5 o 3 i 29,1 333,0 49,9 200,5 368,3 388,8 253,0 279,0 388,7
230,1 314,1 324,1 284,5

I??05 — 25,3 4,7 24,9 41,1 30,6 19,7 18,2 22,5
19,7 20,4 24,6 —

Oaaeeoey 3. O?iaeaei?noue yaeoi? ni?oo Aeaeiiaoai ia i?aeuai? I 3
caeaaeii a?ae oeio naaeo.

Naae?iiy 1972 ?., AeA «Iiain?eee»

O?iaeaei?noue ca ?ieaie, oe/aa

Oei naaeo na?aaeiy ca

na?aaeiy

1976-1980 1981-1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996 ca 1986-1996

C ie?oaeith e?iiith, noaia naae?iiy 5 o 5 i /eiio?ieue/

101

257

250,0

202,8

285,6

74,2

402,0

304,1

245,0

123,5

235,2

185,6

230,8

Oa ae naia, 5 o 4 i 117 321 298,0 232,0 314,5 81,1 587,0 314,7 262,5
134,1 259,0 197,3 268,0

Oa ae naia, 5 o 3 i 144 360 388,3 245,7 409,5 124,5 752,6 405,2 312,5
153,8 267,8 216,4 327,6

Oa ae naia, 5 o 2 i 157 556 190,0 446,0 391,0 123,0 399,0 363,0 301,3
145,1 253,2 188,3 280,0

A?eueii?inoo/a iaeueiaoa, 5 o 5 i 101 248 260,8 240,0 226,4 101,2 323,5
287,6 232,5 115,3 205,6 168,5 216,1

Oa ae naia, 5 o 4 i 131 257 298,0 233,5 250,0 113,0 375,5 336,6 245,0
123,9 220,4 173,5 236,9

Oa ae naia, 5 o 3 i 153 312 388,0 277,8 289,0 131,2 467,5 341,8 273,7
138,4 239,5 189,7 273,7

C aa?aoaiiiiae?a-iith e?iiith, 5o5 i

99

248

257,6

236,0

230,0

92,4

320,0

208,4

240,3

119,5

221,6

174,4

210,0

Oa ae naia, 5 o 4 i 114 302 341,5 263,5 258,5 112,5 380,5 230,6 247,7
129,8 240,5 186,8 239,2

Oa ae naia, 5 o 3 i 151 366 473,5 235,8 272,4 149,2 434,9 220,1 288,3
142,5 252,1 209,5 267,8

I??05 — — 29,3 18,2 25,1 13,4 42,9 22,1 31,6
12,8 27,8 22,0 —

Oaaeeoey 4. O?iaeaei?noue yaeoi? ia ea?eeeia?e i?aeuai? 57-476 caeaaeii
a?ae oeio naaeo.

Naae?iiy 1983 ?., ENI “?ineaae/?”

O?iaeaei?noue ca ?ieaie, oe/aa

Oei naaeo na?aaeiy ca1986-1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996 na?aaeiy ca 1990-1996

?oa?iiaa Aeoee

C a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueia-oith, noaia naae?iiy 4 o 2,5 i (eiio?ieue)

189,9

301,4

93,5

124,6

281,6

130,0

336,1

204,1

210,2

Oa ae naia, 4 o 2 i 212,5 356,3 107,5 145,0 351,0 146,3 368,3 236,5
244,4

C ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa-?eoiith e?iiith, 4 o 2,5 i

210,8

343,6

105,4

138,0

345,1

140,3

390,7

218,6

240,2

Oa ae naia, 4 o 2 i 242,5 383,5 118,8 160,4 405,3 160,6 440,1 244,7
273,3

C aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith, 4 o 2,5 i

220,1

361,5

120,1

154,5

366,1

150,1

402,0

231,6

255,1

Oa ae naia, 4 o 2 i 266,3 406,5 135,0 187,5 420,1 176,1 446,5 253,7
289,3

I??05

20,2 10,2 18,7 28,8 19,1 26,5 20,8 —

Ceiiaa eeiiiia

C a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueia-oith, noaia naae?iiy 4 o 2,5 i (eiio?ieue)

215,9

279,4

191,4

230,6

294,8

122,0

326,1

216,5

237,3

Oa ae naia, 4 o 2 i 246,3 321,2 228,8 266,3 346,4 148,5 348,5 231,6
270,2

C ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa-?eoiith e?iiith, 4 o 2,5 i

245,1

328,3

205,6

250,6

330,6

138,4

390,8

239,3

269,1

Oa ae naia, 4 o 2 i 281,3 371,3 253,4 308,4 410,1 165,6 429,3 253,4
313,1

C aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith, 4 o 2,5 i

269,4

333,5

250,6

274,8

359,4

143,2

434,7

248,4

292,1

Oa ae naia, 4 o 2 i 301,3 393,5 312,5 323,7 425,1 180,3 460,5 276,3
338,8

I??05

25,0 27,3 22,0 27,2 22,9 24,6 19,6 —

O ianaaeaeaiiyo ia neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao 57-257 ? 57-476 a?iaeaei?noue
aoea aeuith a 2,5-2,7 ?aca ii??aiyii ?c naaeaie ia ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai?.
O?iaeaei?noue ia 57-476 c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith ? noaiith naae?iiy
4 o 2 i aoea ia 18,4-25,4 % a?eueoith ii??aiyii c a?eueii?inoo/ith
iaeueiaoith (oaae.4). Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aea?aa ia neaai?ine?e
i?aeuai? 62-396 c 1250 aei 4000 a ia?o? /ioe?e ?iee ieiaeiiioaiiy i?e
oi?ioaaii? noaiaea?oiiai aa?aoaia i?aeaeuo? a?iaeaei?noue o 2,5-3,4
?aca.

Oaeei /eiii, eiino?oeoe?y ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ? aecia/aeueiei /eiieeii
o i?aeaeuaii? ?o o?iaeaeiino? ? aoaeoeaiiio aeei?enoaii? caie?.

sse?noue i?iaeoeoe??. Iacaeaaeii a?ae eiino?oeoe?? naae?a na?aaeiy iana
ieiae?a o ia??iae iaeneiaeueiiai ieiaeiiioaiiy ciaioo?oueny ia 3-9,5%
ii??aiyii c iieiaeeie ianaaeaeaiiyie. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? aea?aa
ia 1 aa a on?o oeiao naae?a oeae iieaciee cieaeoaaany ia 4,4-7,6%.
Na?aaeiy iana ieiae?a oaeiae aeaui ciaioo?oueny a ieiaeiiinieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith ? ie?oaeith e?iiaie ii??aiyii c
a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith.

O ia??iae ?inoo ? ieiaeiiioaiiy /anoea ieiae?a aeuiai ? ia?oiai
oiaa?iiai ni?oo iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?ie e?iie ? noaie ?ici?uaiiy noaiiaeea
83,5-95,1%, a ia??iae iiaiiai ieiaeiiioaiiy — 72,4-92,0, a ia I 3 —
73,2-84,0, 57-476 — 86,4-89,6% caaaeueiiai a?iaeath.

AEIIII?*IA AOAEOEAI?NOUe ? AIA?AAOE*IA IOe?IEA NOAI?AIIss OA
I?IAeOEOEAIIAI AEEI?ENOAIIss ??CIEO OEI?A IANAAeAEAIUe ssAEOI?

A ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ianya ieoiieo eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue oa aeo?aoe
i?aoe? ia noai?aiiy ??cieo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ia ian?ii?aeo,
na?aaeiuei?ineeo, iai?aea?eeeiaeo ? neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao ? ian?ii?aeo
?c anoaaeith neaai?ineeo i?aeuai oa ?o ioe?iea ca aeiiii?/ieie ?
aia?aaoe/ieie iieacieeaie.

Eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy ? aeo?aoe i?aoe? ia noai?aiiy ianaaeaeaiue
caeaaeaoue a?ae oeio naaeo ? c?inoathoue o aa??aioao c a?eueii?inoo/ith
iaeueiaoith ? noaiaie naae?iiy 5 o 5; 5 o 4; 5 o 3 ? 4 o 3 i —
a?aeiia?aeii ia 59,3-172 ? 85,6-225,5% ii??aiyii c ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith
e?iiith, ye? noaiiaeyoue — a?aeiia?aeii 2051 e?a. ? 569 ethae.-a. Ia
noai?aiiy 1 aa ianaaeaeaiue ia ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai? c ie?oaeith e?iiith ?
noaiith naae?iiy 6 o 4 i eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy noaiiaeee 2395 e?a.,
aeo?aoe i?aoe? 623 ethae.-a., ui a?aeiia?aeii ia 16,8 ? 9,5% a?eueoa ,
i?ae ia noai?aiiy ianaaeaeaiue c ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith (7 o 5 i). O
aa??aio? c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith ? noaiith naae?iiy 5 o 3 i oe?
iieacieee noaiiaeee 3935 e?a. ? 1380 ethae.-a., ui ia 6,5 ? 4,9% iaioa,
i?ae c a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith (5 o 4 i, oaae.5).

Ia noai?aiiy 1 aa naaeo ia neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao aac c?ioaiiy c
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith oa ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith e?iiaie
eai?oaeii?noe?noue aoea iaioith ia 15-39, a o?oaeii?noe?noue ia 14-33%
ii??aiyii c a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith (oaae.6).

Oaaeeoey 5. Aeiiii?/ia oa aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea ??cieo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue

yaeoi? ia n?yioeyo Aioii?aee, na?aaei? ii ni?oao

?oa?iiaa Aeoee, Oiainueea ceiiaa ? Nia?oai ca 1986-1993 ??. *)

Naae?iiy 1980 ?., ENI “?ineaae/?”

Oei naaeo, noaia naae?iiy, i

Iieacieee c ?ic??ae-aeaii- c ie?oa-

eith ia- c a?eueii-

?inoo- c aa?aoaiiiiae?a-iith e?iiith

y?oniith e?iiith,

7 o 5 i (eiio?ieue) eiaaaa-?eoiith e?iiith, 6 o 4 /ith

iaeueia-oith,

5 o 4

5 o 4

5 o 3

Ca aeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie

Eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy ia noai?aiiy 1 aa ianaaeaeaiue, e?a.

2051

2395

4191

3604

3935

Cao?aoe i?aoe? ia noai?ai-iy 1 aa ianaaeaeaiue, ethae.-a.

569

623

1447

1202

1380

O?iaeaei?noue, oe/aa 117,6 189,5 191,7 209,8 256,1

Ae?iaie/? aeo?aoe ia 1 aa, e?a.

1917

2350

3020

2938

3355

Nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe ieiae?a, e?a.: ae?iaie/a

16,3

12,4

15,8

14,0

13,1

iiaia 20,3 16,9 20,3 18,5 17,6

I?eaooie c 1 aa, e?a. 2905 5321 4266 5665 7144

Cao?aoe i?aoe? ia 1 oe iei-ae?a, ethae.-a.

4,0

3,5

3,6

3,5

3,4

??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, %

118,8

169,3

124,1

146,0

158,5

Ca aia?aaoe/ieie aeo?aoaie

Aeo?aoe oaoiiaaiii? aia?a??, AAeae: ia 1 aa

114,2

132,6

134,2

123,8

140,8

ia 1 oe 1,0 0,7 0,7 0,6 0,5

Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea i?i-aeoeoe?? c 1 aa, AAeae

59

94,8

95,9

104,9

128,1

Eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?

0,52

0,71

0,71

0,85

0,91

*) Aa?o?noi? iieacieee a oaae. 5 ? a 6 iiaeai? a oe?iao 1991 ?ieo.

Eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy ia noai?aiiy 1 aa aenieiu?eueieo ianaaeaeaiue ia
neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao ?c ieiuath aeeaeaiiy 4 o 2 i aac c?ioaiiy
noaiiaeyoue 12 oen. a?i., a ?c noaiith 3 o 1 ? 2,5 o 1 i c?inoathoue a
1,7-2 ?aca.

Oaaeeoey 6. Aeiiii?/ia oa aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea ??cieo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue

yaeoi? ia neaai?ine?e i?aeuai? (57-476), na?aaei? ii ni?oao

?oa?iiaa Aeoee ? Ceiiaa eeiiiia ca 1986-1996 ??.

Naae?iiy 1983 ?., ENI “?ineaae/?”

Oei naaeo, noaia naae?iiy, i

Iieacieee c a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith c ie?oaeith ia-eiaaaa?eoiith
e?iiith c aa?aoaii-iiae?aiith e?iiith

4 o 2,5 (eiio?ieue) 4 o 2 4 o 2,5 4 o 2 4 o 2,5 4 o 2

Ca aeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie

Eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy ia noai?aiiy 1 aa ianaaeaeaiue, e?a.

5072

7338

3757

5283

4414

6312

Cao?aoe i?aoe? ia noai?aiiy 1 aa ianaaeaeaiue, ethae.-a.

1148

1414

710

1061

1005

1238

O?iaeaei?noue, oe/aa 216,2 247,2 244,9 282,0 263,1 303,1

Ae?iaie/? aeo?aoe ia 1 aa, e?a.

4050

4285

4156

4414

4232

4544

Nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe ieiae?a, e?a.:

ae?iaie/a 14,13 15,1 14,7 13,8 14,3 13,3

iiaia 18,8 18,6 18,6 18,0 18,4 17,8

I?eaooie c 1 aa, e?a. 5773 6650 6588 7755 7180 8396

Cao?aoe i?aoe? ia 1 oe ieiae?a, ethae.-a.

4,7

4,6

4,6

4,3

4,5

4,2

??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, %

142

145

145

153

147

156

Ca aia?aaoe/ieie aeo?aoaie

Aeo?aoe oaoiiaaiii? aia?a??, AAeae:

ia 1 aa 163 193 177 206 178 207

ia 1 oe 0,76 0,78 0,72 0,73 0,68 0,68

Iaea?aeaii i?iaeoeoe??, oe/aa 216,2 247,2 244,9 282,0 263,1 303,1

Aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea i?i-aeoeoe??, AAeae

108,1

123,6

122,5

141,0

131,6

151,6

Eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?

0,66

0,64

0,73

0,69

0,73

0,73

Aeiiii?/ia ? aia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea. A naaeao c ie?oaeeie oi?iaie e?ii
(iaeiaaaa?eoia ? aa?aoaiiiiae?aia), ui aea/aeeny a noaoe?iia?ieo
aeine?aeao, anoaiiaeaii i?yio caeaaei?noue i?ae c?inoaiiyi a?iaeaeiino?
oa cieaeaiiyi nia?aa?oino? ieiae?a. Ii a?aeiioaiith aei ianaaeaeaiue ia
ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao c ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith e?iiith a naaeao c
ie?oaeith e?iiith (6 o 4 i) a?iaeaei?noue ? nia?aa?o?noue ieiae?a
noaiiaeyoue 161 ? 82,3 %, a c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith (5 o 3 i) — 217,8 ?
84,6%. Oae? ae caeiiii??iino? ?inoo a?iaeaeiino? ? cieaeaiiy
nia?aa?oino? ieiae?a a?aecia/aii a ianaaeaeaiiyo c oeeie e?iiaie ia
eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao. Anoaiiaeaii ??no o?iaeaeiino? oa cieaeaiiy
nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe?? o ianaaeaeaiiyo ia neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao c
iiaeie oeiaie e?ii (aeea. oaae. 5 ? 6).

O iiaeo oeiao naae?a ia ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao c ie?oaeith
iaeiaaaa?eoiith ? aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiaie i?eaooie c 1 aa aoa
a?eueoei ia 88,2-145,8%, ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ia 50,5-39,7%,
nia?aa?o?noue ieiae?a ieae/ith ia 23,1-18,2 % ii??aiyii c naaeaie ?c
?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith e?iiith.

No?oeoo?a aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai ieiae?a caeaaeeoue ye a?ae
oeio naaeo, oae ? a?ae e?eueeino? aea?aa ia 1 aa . A no?oeoo??
aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?ao o ianaaeaeaiiyo ia na?aaeiuei?ine?e i?aeuai? I 3 c
ie?oaeith e?iiith ca noaiith naae?iiy 5 o 5 i aiie noaiiaeyoue:
iaoai?cie — 31,7, iaeueia — 24,1, aeeaa i?aoey — 17,3%, a ca noaiith 5 o
3 i — a?aeiia?aeii 26,9; 30,9; 20,6 ? 20,0%. Aiaeia?/i? aeai?
iaea?aeaee o aa??aioao c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith oa a?eueii?inoo/ith
iaeueiaoith.

A on?o oeiao naae?a c ie?oaeith ? aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiaie aeo?aoe
oaoiiaaiii? aia?a?? ia 1 aa i?aeaeuothoueny, a ia 1 oe i?iaeoeoe?? ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi u?eueiino? aea?aa ciaioothoueny. Aia?aaoe/ia oe?ii?noue
iaea?aeaii? i?iaeoeoe?? c 1 aa ca?eueoo?oueny a ianaaeaeaiiyo c
ie?oaeith ? aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiaie ?c u?eueiei ?ici?uaiiyi aea?aa.
Ia ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai? c ie?oaeith e?iiith (6 o 4 i) aiia noaiiaeoue
94,8 AAeae, c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith (5 o 3 i) — 128,1, ia I 3 c
ie?oaeith (5o3 i)-114 ? ia 57-476 (4o2 i), c ie?oaeith-141,0, c
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith-151,6 AAeae.

Oaeei /eiii, iaeaeuee eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aoa o iiaeo
oeiao ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ia ian?ii?aeo ? eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao ?c u?eueiei
naae?iiyi aea?aa c oi?ioaaiiyi ie?oaeeo iaeiaaaa?eoieo ?
aa?aoaiiiiae?aieo e?ii.

AENIIAEE

Ia i?aenoaa? aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c iniia noai?aiiy ?
i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? a E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie, e?eoe/iiai iaeyaeo /eneaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ae?iaie/iai aeina?aeo iaaiaeeii oae? aeniiaee.

1. ssaeoiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith aaeaioeai?noth aei i?e?iaeieo oiia
ciie E?ninoaio, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny e?auei ?? ?inoii, ?icaeoeii,
ceiino?ee?noth ? i?iaeoeoeai?noth, a oaeiae o?eaae?oei ia??iaeii
niiaeeaaiiy na?aeeo ieiae?a ii??aiyii c ?ioeie ieiaeiaeie ii?iaeaie. A
cao?aeieo ? i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao Cao?aeiiai E?ninoaio ianaaeaeaiiy yaeoi?
i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo a iniiaiiio caaacia/ai? aieiaith, aea
aeey oaieiethaieo ceiiaeo ni?o?a a ie?aieo i?noeaiieiaeaiiyo ia aenoa/a?
oaiea, ui cieaeo? oiaa?i? yeino? ieiae?a ? ii?icino?ee?noue aea?aa.
Oeaio?aeuei? oa i?aaeaii? ?aeiie ciie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ni?eyoeeaei
ii?aeiaiiyi aeieia?/ieo oiia, ui caaacia/o? oni?oia ae?iuoaaiiy ooo
oe?iieo ceiiaeo ni?o?a.

No?aeiee E?ninoai ca eiiieaenii aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ? iaio ni?eyoeeaee
aeey eoeueoo?e yaeoi?, iniaeeai ceiiaeo ni?o?a, ui coiiaeaii a?eueoith
eiioeiaioaeuei?noth ee?iaoo ? cia/iei aeao?oeeoii aieiae a
ei?aiaai?niiio oa?? a?oioo. A oe?e cii? aea?aaa a?eueoino? ni?o?a
/ano?oa iioeiaeaeothoueny aceieo iecueeeie oaiia?aoo?aie, iniaeeai a
ianaaeaeaiiyo aac c?ioaiiy, a o?eaae?noue i?iaeoeoeaiiai ?o ia??iaeo
nei?i/o?oueny a 1,5 ?aca ii??aiyii c Cao?aeiei E?ninoaiii.

O naaeao c iaaeinoaoi?i ae?aioaaiiyi iia?o?y, ia??aiii??iei
caieiaeaiiyi a?oioo, cia/iei ia?aaaioaaeaiiyi ianaaeaeaiue o?iaea?i ?
cai?ciaiiyi ?c ci?iaiiyi ieiae?a ia 20-25 aei?a a?ae iioeiaeueieo
no?ie?a o ia??iae aaaaoaoe??, yeee ia?aaeoaaa noai??e cei?,
a??ia?aei?noue iioeiaeaeaiiy aea?aa ii?icaie c?inoa? aei 30-60 % ?ie?a.

O ianaaeaeaiiyo ?c aieiai?ie?noth a?oioo 80 % IA a?iaeaei?noue ni?o?a
ia i?aeuai? I 9 ia?aaeuo? ianaaeaeaiiy ae?eyiie c i?e?iaeiei
caieiaeaiiyi ia 39-104 %.

Iniiai? oace ?icaeoeo, nai?/ania cae?i/aiiy ?inoiaeo i?ioean?a oa
i?aeaioiaea aei oni?oii? ia?acei?ae? aea?aa yaeoi? a E?ninoaio
i?ioiaeyoue i?e i?i?iaeuei?e noi? aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? aeua 10(N oa
e?eueeino? aei?a ?c na?aaeiueiaeiaiaith oaiia?aoo?ith aeua 15(N ca
ia??iae aaaaoaoe?? aeey e?oi?o ni?o?a 1800-2000( ? i?ioyaii 70-80 aei?a,
in?ii?o — 2000-2300( ? 80-90 aei?a, ceiiaeo — a?aeiia?aeii 2300-2700( ?
90-130 aei?a.

I?ai?/ia iaaea i?iieneiai? eoeueoo?e ceiiaeo ni?o?a yaeoi? E?aa?o?,
Iiain?ee?anueea ceiiaa, Ia?eeia ee?anueea, Aneieueaea ca?aa?oueny c
iieiaeaiiyi ?cioa?ie c noiith aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? aeua 10 0N 24500 ?
e?euee?noth aei?a ?c na?aaeiueiaeiaiaith oaiia?aoo?ith aeua 15 0N 90-95,
?oa?iiaa Aeoee, Nia?oai ? Oei??ia — a?aeiia?aeii 2500 0 ? 95-100 aei?a;
Ao?ae?y, ?inaaea, Oiainueea ceiiaa — 2600 ? 105-110, Aieaeai aeae?oan ?
?aiao Neie?aiea — 2750 ? 120-125.

2. Iaee?au? iieacieee ?inoo ? iaeaeuo i?iaeoeoeai?noue yaeoi?
a?aecia/aii a naaeao, ?ici?uaieo ia oaiii-n??eo ii?aecieaieo, n??eo
e?niaeo a?oioao, /i?iicaiao ii?aecieaieo, oeiiaeo ? aeeoaoaaieo
na?aaeiueiai ? eaaeiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo. O?iaeaei?noue iniiaieo
ni?o?a ia oeeo a?oioao noaiiaeea 286-573 oe/aa. A ianaaeaeaiiyo ia n??eo
e?niaeo na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaeo aeathaaoeo a?oioao ? /i?iicaiao
ii?aecieaieo na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaeo aeathaaoeo oeae iieaciee noaiiaea
141-285 oe/aa.

*i?iicaie ea?aiiaoi? aeeaie? oa iaaeeaie?, iaei- ? na?aaeiueiaoioni?, a
oaeiae /i?iicaie nieiioethaao?, eoaiai-/i?iicaii?, /i?iicaie ii?aecieai?
aea?a?, c iciaeaie iaea?iiy a iaaeao i?aoi?aiao?iaiai oa?o aac
aeiei??iii? iae?i?aoe?? ia caaacia/othoue i?iieneiaiai o?iaeath
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeieo ieiae?a yaeoi?.

Iaeni?eyoeea?o? oiiae aeey ?inoo ? ieiaeiiioaiiy yaeoi? a E?ninoaio
noai?ththoueny ia ocaeooyo, aeia?a ae?aiiaaieo ? caieiaeaieo ??aieiieo
ae?eyieao. I?ae ianaaeaeaiiy ooo i?eaeaoi? noeee ??cii? aeniiceoe?? oa
e?oo?noth aei 15-160. A Cao?aeiiio E?ninoaio iaeni?eyoeea?o? oiiae aeey
yaeoi? a?aei?/ai? ia i?aaeaiieo ? cao?aeieo noeeao, ye iaea?eueo
caaacia/aieo oaieii, a o No?aeiiio — ia i?ai?/ieo, i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo ?
cao?aeieo iai?yie?a, ye iaea?eueo caaacia/aieo aieiaith. O
I?aaiaa?aaei?e i?aecii? aieea aeniiceoe?? ae?aaeaiee o iaio?e i???, aea
iaio ni?eyoeea? aeey oe??? eoeueoo?e ae?eyiee i?aaeaiieo ?
i?aaeaiii-no?aeieo noee?a, aea iieacieee ?inoo ? a?iaeaeiino? aoee ia
12-18 % ieae/?, i?ae ia noeeao ?ioeo iai?yie?a.

3. Ei?aiaaa nenoaia aaaaoaoeaieo i?aeuai ia?aaeecea Aoaeaaianueeiai,
62-396, 57-476, ia?aaeecea iieoaanueea ?1, ?N-5-34, ?N 2-7, 57-491,
57-490, 54-118, Ae 1071, 57-545, I 3, 58-238, Ae 1161, A 2, II 109
aeo?eio? aac iioeiaeaeaiiy cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo aei i?ion
12…13(N, I 3, I 26, Ae 471, Ae 1102, Ae 1161, AeII-70-456
-11…12 0N, I 2, I 4, aeonai Ia?aie?ia, II 102, II 106, ? 2, ? 22, ?
59, ? 60, A 19, A 56, A 63, NE 2, AeII-70-49 -10…11 0N, a I 8 ? I 9 —
aei i?ion 9…10 0N.

I?ai?/ia iaaea i?iieneiai? eoeueoo?e aaaaoaoeaii ?iciiiaeoaaieo i?aeuai
ca ii?icino?ee?noth ?o ei?aiaai? nenoaie oa oa?aeoa?ii ?iciiae?eo
aaniethoiiai i?i?ioio oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo ia aeeaei? 20 ni o E?ninoaio ia
I 9 i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac Aea?’?aeo — Aeiiaoeuee — *aieeii — Eii?na??aeo —
*eae?ei — A?eo Oea?eao — Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeee — Eiaaeue — Naeoycue;
62-396 — Eoaainuee — Eiiniiieuenueea — Eaaaaeei — *a?i?a?a; 54-118 —
Eene/ainuee — Oa?e?a — Eaaaaeei — A?eii?eey; ia II 106 — Aea?’?aeo —
Aoeyeiiea — Caii??aeaey — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — Eiaaeyee — Cieioiiioo —
Inoa? — Ia?o/ — Na?ie — Iaiaae/? — Ethaao?ai.

4. Iniiaia iana iaea?eueo ae?yeueii? ei?aiaai? nenoaie aea?aa yaeoi?
ei?aeth? c neeith ?inoo i?aeuaie e ni?oo ? ?ici?uo?oueny ia i?aeuai? I 9
o oa?? a?oioo aeeaeiith 0-50 ni, 62-396 — 0-70, ia 54-118 ? II 106 —
0-80 ni, a ai?eciioaeueiiio iai?yieo — a ?aae?on? a?aeiia?aeii aei
i?aeuai 1,0; 1,2 ? 1,5 i. Iae??aiii??i?oa ?ici?uothoueny ei?ai? a aea?aa
ia i?aeuaiao 62-396, 54-118 ? II 106.

5. Eeiiia? i?aeuaie ?iaeoeothoue neaai?ine?noue uaieaieo aea?aa, aenioa
yeeo i?ney cae?i/aiiy oi?ioaaiiy e?iie aeinyaa? ia ea?eeeiaeo i?aeuaiao
60-70, ia na?aaeiuei?ineeo — 74-90 % a?ae aea?aa ia n?yioeyo Aioii?aee.
E?iie aea?aa ca oeae ia??iae inaiththoue a?aeaaaeaio ieiuo aeeaeaiiy ia
ea?eeeiaeo i?aeuaiao ia 53-60, iai?aea?eeeiaeo — 46-55, na?aaeiuei?ineeo
— 35-39%, o 10-??/iiio a?oe? — a?aeiia?aeii ia 62-73; 51-70 ? 45-55%.

Ia’?i e?ii aea?aa ia ea?eeeiaeo i?aeuaiao aeinyaa? 45,5-50,3,
iai?aea?eeeiaeo ? c anoaaeaie neaai?ineeo — 55-57, a ia na?aaeiuei?ineeo
— 87-90% a?ae ia’?io aea?aa ia n?yioeyo Aioii?aee. Iaea?eueoee ia’?i
i?iaeoeoeaii? e?iie ia 1 aa a?aecia/aiee o aea?aa ia neaai?ineeo
i?aeuaiao. Ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co ooaiaa aea?aa ia ea?eeeiaeo
i?aeuaiao noaiiaeoue 41-60, na?aaeiuei?ineeo — 53-87% a?ae aea?aa ia
ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao. Ieiua eenoe?a ia ea?eeeiaeo aea?aaao ii??aiyii c
aea?aaaie ia n?yioeyo Aioii?aee a 1,5-1,7 ?aca iaioa, a o ia?a?aooieo ia
1 aa e?euee?noue ?o c?inoa? a 1,5-1,7 ?aca.

6. Aea?aaa ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao ia 2-4 ?iee ?ai?oa anooiathoue o ii?o
oiaa?iiai ieiaeiiioaiiy, a?aecia/athoueny aeuith a?iaeaei?noth ? oaiiaie
?? ia?iuoaaiiy ii??aiyii c aea?aaaie ia ian?ii?aeo. O?iaeaei?noue
iniiaieo ni?o?a o na?aaeiueiio ca 8-11 ?ie?a ieiaeiiioaiiy ia ea?eeeiaeo
i?aeuaiao 57-257 ? 57-476 noaiiaeea 266,3-338,8, ia I 9 ? 62-396 —
204,4-237,8 , ia na?aaeiuei?ineeo I 3, II 102 ? II 106 — 203,5-206,5
oe/aa. O?iaeaei?noue ni?oo ?oa?iiaa Aeoee, Ceiiaa eeiiiia, Aioi?,
Eaeuea?eue ni?aiaee ia i?aeuaiao 54-118, 57-545, 57-490 c?inoaea ia
41,6-88,7, ia I 9, 57-257, 57-476, 62-396, I 3, II 102, II 106 oa ia
n?yioeyo Aioii?aee c i?ii?aeieie anoaaeaie neaai?ineeo i?aeuai
(ia?aaeecea Aoaeaaianueeiai, 57-491, 3-3-35, 2-46-146) aoea aeuith a
1,3-2,7 ?aca ii??aiyii c ianaaeaeaiiyie ia n?yioeyo Aioii?aee.

Na?aae iniiaieo i?aeuai na??? I ? II o i?aaeaiieo i?aaiaa?aaeieo
?aeiiao Cao?aeiiai E?ninoaio iaeaeuith a?iaeaei?noth (306-460 oe/aa) i?e
aenie?e yeino? ieiae?a a?aecia/athoueny iniiai? ni?oe a ianaaeaeaiiyo
yaeoi? ia I 9, I 4 ? II 106. A cao?aeieo ?aeiiao Cao?aeiiai
E?ninoaio iaei?iaeoeoeai?oeie aeyaeeeny ni?oe Aeaea?aae ? Aeaeiiaoai ia
i?aeuaiao I 4, 54-118 ? I 26, Neaaa ia?aiiaeoeyi ia I 4 ? Nia?oai ia I 9
? I 26.

O No?aeiiio E?ninoaio iaei?iaeoeoeai?oeie aoee ianaaeaeaiiy ni?o?a
Neaaa ia?aiiaeoeyi ? Iae?ioio ia i?aeuai? 62-396, Nia?oai, Eiai, Ceiiaa
eeiiiia, Oa?e?anueea ia 54-118 oa ?c anoaaeaie 58-146 ? 58-238. C iiaeo
oi?i eeiiiaeo i?aeuai ca a?iaeaei?noth aea?aa, uaieaieo ia ieo,
aeae?eeeeny ea?eeeia? — EO 6, 69-6-27, iai?aea?eeeia? — AeII 70-49,
EAeO, EAe 2 oa ?i. O ianaaeaeaiiyo aea?aaa ia i?aeuai? 54-118
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueoith nei?iie?aei?noth, aeuith i?iaeoeoeai?noth
oa ii?icino?ee?noth, i?ae ia II 106. O i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?aeiiao ciie
o?iaeaei?noue ? ii?icino?ee?noue yaeoi? ia iiaeo eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao Ae
1161, Ae 1102, Ae 1046, Ae 1071, Ae 471 aoea aeuith, i?ae ia I 9 ? II
106.

7. Iioe?ai? ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oni? e?iie oa ??ci? oeie iaeueiao
iaaeineiiae? ca nai?ie eiino?oeoeaieie iniaeeainoyie oa niiniaaie
oi?ioaaiiy. Ia?niaeoeaieie ? ?ioaineai? oeie ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? c
oi?ioaaiiyi ie?oaeeo iaeiaaaa?eoieo i?ecaieoaaoeo e?ii ?c ciiith
ia?aaaaeath/iai ieiaeiiioaiiy a ieaeiueiio y?on? oa aa?aoaiiiiae?aieo
aac a?aeaeiaiiy a?eie. Oi?ioaaiiy oaeeo e?ii caaacia/o? neaai?ine?noue,
nei?iie?aei?noue, noaeo a?iaeaei?noue, cieaeo? cao?aoe ia aeiaeyae oa
cae?aiiy a?iaeath, i?aeaeuo? aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue naae?a. I?e
oi?ioaaii? aa?aoaiiiiae?aieo e?ii a?/i? a?eee ia a?aeaeiathoue i?ae
eooii 60-70 0 a?ae noiaao?a, a ni?yiiaothoue ia??coaaiiyi ia ieae/a
?ici?uaio a?/io a?eeo.

A?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue neeueii- ? na?aaeiuei?ineeo ni?o?a yaeoi? ia
ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai? c ie?oaeith e?iiith oa iioeiaeueiith u?euei?noth
aea?aa i?e ?ici?uaii? 6 o 4 ? 6 o 3 i noaiiaeea 200-302 oe/aa, c
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith oa ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith (5 o 3 i) — 324-341
oe/aa, ui ia 14-25 ? 26-48 % aoea aeuith, i?ae a?aeiia?aeii c
?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith ? a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith.

Aea/aiiy ?inoo, ?icaeoeo, noaio aea?aa, o?iaea?a ? yeino? ieiae?a
iieacaei, ui a E?ninoaio oni?oia i?iieneiaa eoeueoo?a yaeoi? iiaeeeaa ia
na?aaeiuei?ineeo, iai?aea?eeeiaeo ? neaai?ineeo eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao.
Aea?aaa ia oeeo i?aeuaiao c ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith ?
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiaie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaioei ?ici??ii, a?eueo
?aii?i anooiii o ieiaeiiioaiiy oa aeuei o?iaea?i.

Ca i?iaeoeoeai?noth a?aecia/eeeny oeie ianaaeaeaiue ia na?aaeiuei?ineeo
(I 3, II 106, 57-490) ? iai?aea?eeeiaeo (54-118, 57-545) i?aeuaiao c
oi?ioaaiiyi ie?oaeeo iaeiaaaa?eoieo ? aa?aoaiiiiae?aieo e?ii i?e
?ici?uaii? aea?aa 5o3 i. A?iaeaei?noue iniiaieo ni?o?a yaeoi? a
ianaaeaeaiiyo oaeiai oeio noaiiaeea 237-327,6 oe/aa, ui ia 38,0-41,9 ?
9,3-18,0 % aeua, i?ae a?aeiia?aeii c ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith e?iiith oa
a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith.

Aiaeia?/i? caeiiii??iino? a?aecia/aii a naaeao ia n?yioeyo Aioii?aee ?c
anoaaeith neaai?inei? i?aeuaie I 9. Iaeiae /a?ac iaaeinoaoith
ii?icino?ee?noue noaaea anoaaee I 9 oae? ianaaeaeaiiy ia caaacia/othoue
aenieo a?iaeaei?noue. O iiaeo oeiao naae?a ia ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao ?c
anoaaeith ia?aaeecea Aoaeaaianueeiai c ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith e?iiith
oa noaiith ?ici?uaiiy 4o2,5 i o?iaeaei?noue noaiiaeea 225-265 oe/aa, ui
a 1,8-2,3 ?aca aeua, i?ae aac anoaaee.

Ia neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao 57-257 ? 57-476 iia? oeie ianaaeaeaiue c
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith oa noaiith naae?iiy 4 o 2 i aeinyaathoue
o?iaeaeiino? caeaaeii a?ae ni?oo a?ae 289,3 aei 338,5 oe/aa, ui ia
18,4-25,5 % aeua, i?ae o a?eueii?inoo/i? iaeueiaoe.

Naaee ia neaai?ine?e i?aeuai? 62-396 ?c u?euei?noth 3333 ? 4000 aea?aa
ia 1 aa noi?iiaai? ca oeiii noaiaea?oia aa?aoaii a ia?o? /ioe?e ?iee
ieiaeiiioaiiy caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? a 2,3-3,4 ?aca
ii??aiyii c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiei eouai ? u?euei?noth 1250 aea?aa/aa.

8. A?ieia?/i? i?ioeane a /i?iicai? ii?aecieaiiio a?aeaoaathoueny
aeoeai?oa a ianaaeaeaiiyo c u?eueiei naae?iiyi aea?aa ia ian?ii?aeo ?
eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao. Caaaeueia a?iaaii?noue oa?o a?oioo 0-60 ni o
ianaaeaeaiiyo c ie?oaeith e?iiith ia neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao
ca?eueooaaeany a 2,6-3,2, a ia iai?aea?eeeiaeo ? na?aaeiuei?ineeo a
1,6-1,7 ?aca ii??aiyii c naaeaie ia ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai?. A a?oio?
ianaaeaeaiue oaeiai oeio noeioeth?oueny ?icaeoie a?oi i?e?ii?aai?ci?a,
ye? cae?eniththoue i?ioeane o?ainoi?iaoe?? oinoi?o oa caaaa/othoue eiai
a?ieia?/iei acioii ? aeoeaieie niieoeaie, ui iiaeeiathoueny ?ineeiaie,
noeioeththoue ?o ??no ? ?icaeoie ? ia caa?oaeiththoue iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua.

9. O iiaeo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? c ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith oa
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiaie u?eueia ?ici?uaiiy aea?aa ni?ey?
?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith caie?, nai?/aniiio cae?i/aiith ieie
?inoiaeo i?ioean?a aei ianoaiiy oieiae?a, e?au?e i?aeaioiaoe? aei ceie,
i?aeaeuaiith ceiino?eeino?, no?eio? ??no aea?aa ia 15-22, ca?eueoo?
i?iaeoe?th oa ia’?i e?iie — a?aeiia?aeii ia 7,1-14 ? 18,6-36,4,
na?aaeith aeiaaeeio iaaii?a ia 14,5-18,5, ieiuo eenoeiai? iiaa?oi? — ia
8,9-31,9, e?euee?noue ieiaeiaeo ooai?aiue — ia 13,9-69,5% ii??aiyii c
aea?aaaie c ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith e?iiith oa noi?iiaaieie ca oeiii
a?eueii?inoo/a iaeueiaoa. Cia/ia iane/aiiy e?ii neaeaoieie ?
ia?inoath/eie a?eeaie oa i?i?iaeueia ia??coaaiiy aac oei?i/aiiy
ia?inoath/eo a?eie caaacia/o? ca?eueoaiiy iaei?iaeoeoeai?oeo eaiie,
ieiu? eenoe?a a ia’?i? e?iie, ui coiiaethaaei aei iie?ioaiiy
aaia?aoeaii? ooieoe?? o iaaeao ie?aieo a?eie. ?aoe?iiaeueia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ?inoii ? ieiaeiiioaiiyi a ia’?i? an??? e?iie
i?aeo?eio?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith aeoea?caoe?? ?inoiaeo i?ioean?a o i?noeyo
i?iaaaeaiiy ia??coaaiiy.

10. O ianaaeaeaiiyo c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith e?euee?noue iiaeeiooi?
?aae?aoe?? ca?eueoo?oueny ia 25,6% ii??aiyii c a?eueii?inoo/ith
iaeueiaoith. Eiao?oe??io iiaeeiaiiy ?? iaea?eueoee o ieaei?e
(0,35-0,51), a iaeiaioee — o aa?oi?e /anoei? e?iie (0,33-0,40). A
e?iiao, iacaeaaeii a?ae noai ?ici?uaiiy, a ia?eoa??ei?e cii? /enoa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco aea?aa aoea a 2 ?aca a?eueoith, i?ae o
na?aaeei? e?iie. O aea?aa c ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith e?iiith oa c
oi?ioaaiiyi a?eueii?inoo/i? iaeueiaoe aiia aoea i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaith, a
i?e ca?eueoaii? u?eueiino? aea?aa ia 1 aa ciaiooaaeany ia 25-44 %.

11. Ia noai?aiiy 1 aa ianaaeaeaiue ia ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao c ie?oaeith
e?iiith ?c ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? aea?aa a?ae 286 aei 476 eai?oaeuei?
aeeaaeaiiy c?inoaee ia 16,8, aeo?aoe i?aoe? — ia 9,5%, a ia
na?aaeiuei?ine?e eeiiia?e i?aeuai? I 3 ?c u?euei?noth 666 aea?./aa aiie
— a?aeiia?aeii ca?eueooaaeeny ia 14,7 ? 43,2% ii??aiyii c naaeaie c 400
aea?./aa. A iiaeo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue ia ian?ii?a?e i?aeuai? c
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith ? noaiith naae?iiy 5 o 3 i eai?oaeuei?
aeeaaeaiiy aoee a?eueoeie a 1,9, a aeo?aoe i?aoe? — a 2,4 ?aca ii??aiyii
c naaeaie c ie?oaeith e?iiith (7 o 5 i). Ia noai?aiiy 1 aa ianaaeaeaiue
ia neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao (aac c?ioaiiy) c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith oa
ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith e?iiaie ?c noaiaie naae?iiy 4 o 2,5 ? 4 o 2 i
eai?oaei?ie?noue ciaioo?oueny ia 14,9-39,8, a o?oaeii?noe?noue — ia
14-40 % ii??aiyii c a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith.

Eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy ia noai?aiiy 1 aa aenieiu?eueieo ianaaeaeaiue ia
neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao ?c ieiuath aeeaeaiiy 4 o 2 i aac c?ioaiiy
noaiiaeee 12 oen.a?i. I?e noai? naae?iiy 3 o 1 i aiie ca?eueoothoueny a
1,7 ?aca, a i?e ?ici?uaii? 2,5 o 1,0 i — a 2 ?ace.

Eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy ia noai?aiiy naae?a iniiaieo ni?o?a yaeoi? ia
eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao a?aeoeiaeiaothoueny ia o?ao?e-/aoaa?oee, a ia
ian?ii?aeo — ia i’yoee-nueiiee ??e a?ae caeeaaeaiiy.

12. O iiaeo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue ia ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao c ie?oaeith
iaeiaaaa?eoiith oa aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiaie (noaie 6o4 ? 5o3 i)
ca?eueoo?oueny i?eaooie c 1 aa ia 83,2-145,9, ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa — ia 50,5-39,7, a nia?aa?o?noue ieiae?a aoea ieae/ith ia
23,1-18,2% ii??aiyii c ?ic??aeaeaii-y?oniith e?iiith (7 o 5 i). O naaeao
ia na?aaeiuei?ine?e i?aeuai? I 3 c ie?oaeith e?iiith oa noaiith naae?iiy
5 o 3 i i?eaooie c 1 aa c?inoa? ia 41, ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa ia 23,4, a nia?aa?o?noue cieaeo?oueny ia 8,9 % ii??aiyii c?
noaiith 5o5 i. O iiaeo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue ia neaai?ine?e i?aeuai? c
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith (noaia naae?iiy 4o2 i), i?eaooie c 1 aa
noaiiaeoue 8396 e?a., aai ca?eueoo?oueny ia 26,3 %, ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iaieoeoaa — ia 11,0, a nia?aa?o?noue ieiae?a aoea
ieae/ith ia 5,0 % ii??aiyii ?c a?eueii?inoo/ith iaeueiaoith.

13. Aeo?aoe oaoiiaaiii? aia?a?? ia 1 aa a iiaeo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue
yaeoi? i?aeaeuothoueny, a ia 1 oe i?iaeoeoe?? ciaioothoueny ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi u?eueiino? aea?aa. Aia?aaoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaii?
i?iaeoeoe?? c 1 aa i?aeaeuo?oueny o aenieiu?eueieo ianaaeaeaiiyo.
Iaeaeuee eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aeinyaa?oueny a iiaeo
oeiao naae?a yaeoi? ia ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao c ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith
e?iiith ? ?ici?uaiiyi aea?aa 6 o 4 ? 6 o 3 i, c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith oa
nieiuaiith iaeiaaaa?eoiith (5 o 3 i); ia na?aaeiuei?ineeo eeiiiaeo (5 o
3 i); ia ian?ii?aeo ?c anoaaeaie neaai?ineeo (4 o 3-2,5 i) oa ia
ea?eeeiaeo i?e naae?ii? 4 o 2 i i?e oi?ioaaii? ie?oaei? iaeiaaaa?eoii?
oa aa?aoaiiiiae?aii? e?ii.

14. Ca eiiieaenii aeiiii?/ieo, aia?aaoe/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo iieaciee?a
eeiiiaeo i?aeuai aeey caeeaaeaiiy ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? ne?ae
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe a Cao?aeiiio E?ninoaio oae? i?aeuaie: neaai?ine? —
62-396 ? I 9, ia?niaeoeai? — 57-476; anoaaee neaai?ineeo — ia?aaeecea
Aoaeaaianueeiai, 62-396, ia?niaeoeai? — 57-491, 2-46-146; iai?aea?eeeia?
— 54-118, I 26, ia?niaeoeai? — 57-545; na?aaeiuei?ine? — II 106,
57-490; o No?aeiiio E?ninoaio: neaai?inea — 62-396; anoaaee
neaai?ineeo — 58-146, 58-238; iai?aea?eeeiaa — 54-118; na?aaeiuei?inea —
57-490. I?aeuaie I 9 ? II 106 iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey noai?aiiy
naae?a ia aeia?a caoeuaieo ae?eyieao a iniiaiiio o i?aaeaiieo ?aeiiao
Cao?aeiiai E?ninoaio.

15. O E?ninoaio ?aeiiaiaeothoueny oae? iia? oeie ?ioaineaieo
ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi?: ia ian?ii?aeo i?aeuaiao — oe?iei?yaei? c ie?oaeith
iaeiaaaa?eoiith e?iiith i?e ?ici?uaii? aea?aa neeueii?ineeo ni?o?a 6 o 4
i, na?aaeiuei?ineeo — 6 o 3 i c aenioith aea?aa aei 3,0-3,5 i;
aocueei?yaei? c aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiith ? noaiith naae?iiy 5 o 3-4 i
oa aenioith aea?aa aei 3,0 i; ia na?aaeiuei?ineeo eeiiiaeo (I 3, II 106,
57-490) oa ia iai?aea?eeeiaeo — (54-118, 57-545, I 26) c ie?oaeith
iaeiaaaa?eoiith e?iiith c iiaeaeueoei nieiuaiiyi aai aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith
e?iiith i?e ?ici?uaii? aea?aa 5 o 3-4 i, a ia ian?ii?aeo ?c anoaaeaie
neaai?ineeo (ia?aaeecea Aoaeaaianueeiai, 62-396, 57-391) — 4 o 3-2,5 i.
Aenioa aea?aa iaiaaeo?oueny aei 3 i.

Ia neaai?ineeo i?aeuaiao (62-396, I 9, 57-476, 57-257)
?aeiiaiaeothoueny ianaaeaeaiiy c ie?oaeith iaeiaaaa?eoiith oa
aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith e?iiaie i?e ?ici?uaii? aea?aa ca noaiith 4 o 2 i.
Aenioa ?o iaiaaeo?oueny aei 2,5 i. A oaeeo naaeao iaia’yceiaa
anoaiiaeaiiy iii?e oa oiaea?e aeey i?aea’ycoaaiiy aea?aa.

Oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue o
ae?iaieoeoai caaacia/eoue cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa yaeoe, aenieo
?o ye?noue ? i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? oa aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
i?iieneiaiai naae?aieoeoaa.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Iiiia?ao??, eieae

1. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Eoeueoo?a yaeoi? a Oe?a?i? // Iiiia?ao?y.- E.:
O?iaeae, 1993 — 264 n.

2. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E., O?aoye E.Ae. sse oi?ioaaoe ? ia??coaaoe ieiaeia?
aea?aaa// Ei. -E.: O?iaeae, 1995.- 160 n. (aeaae 1, 2, 3).

3. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E., O?aoye E.Ae. sse oi?ioaaoe ? ia??coaaoe ieiaeia?
aea?aaa //Ei.- E.: O?iaeae, 1999.- 172 n. (aeiiiaiaia aeaeaiiy, aeaae 1,
2 ? 3).

?aeiiaiaeaoe??

4. Noai?aiiy ? i?iaeoeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi?
// Iaoeiaee oeaio? Aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe “Ieiae?aieoeoai”
(Eiiae?aoaiei I.A., *eae A.Ae., Iiaeue/aiei ?.E., Oanoiiaeue I.I. oa
?i.), E., ?inoeooo naae?aieoeoaa OAAI, 1997. — 24 n. (?icae?e
«Oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy ieiae?a yaeoi? c ie?oaeith ? nieiuaiith e?iiaie
aea?aa ia ian?iiaaeo ? na?aaeiuei?ineeo eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao»).

5. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii caeeaaeea eioaineaiuo naaeia a eieoicao e niaoicao
Oe?aeineie NN? (Aiae?eaiei I.A., Iaeaeaao?a A.E., Iiaeue/aiei E.E. e
ae?.) — E.: Oe?.IEE naaeiaiaenoaa, 1987.- 55 n. (iiae?acaeaeu «Iiaeaie,
noaiu iinaaeee aea?aaueaa, oeiu ieiaeiauo ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie n ie?oaeie
e oieiu?iiie e?iiaie e eo ia?acea a ?aciua aic?anoiua ia?eiaeu»).

6. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii au?aueaaieth ieiaeiauo naaeaioeaa a Oe?aeineie NN?
(Iaeaeaao?a A.E., Iiiiae/ I.Ae., Iiaeue/aiei E.E. e ae?.), E.: Oe?. IEE
naaeiaiaenoaa, 1983. — 57 n. (?acaeae «?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aeiie?iaaieth
iiaeaiaa yaeiie a ciiao Eaninoaie e Iieanuey»).

7. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii inaiaieth neeiiia iiae ieiaeiaua
ianaaeaeaiey (iniiau ii/aicaueoiie oaoiieiaee) (Iiiiae/ I.Ae.,
Iiaeue/aiei E.E., Aeaeaiaeue A.A., Ea?iai/oe A.E. e ae?., iiae iauae
?aae. Iiiiae/a I.Ae.). E., Oiainueeee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee
?inoeooo, 1980.- 48 n. (iiae?acaeaeu «Eaniiaeei?aoeaiua e
aeae?ioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey, iiaeaie e ni?oa, e eo ?aciauaiea, ooiae
ca naaeii a ciiao Caiaaeiie Eaninoaie e I?aaeea?iaouea»).

8. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii au?aueaaieth naaeia ia neeiiao a ONN?: Iniiau
ii/aicaueoiie oaoiieiaee // Iiiiae/ I.Ae., Iiaeue/aiei E.E., *eeaei I.A.
e ae?./. — E., Oe?. IEE naaeiaiaenoaa, 1982.- 45 n. (iiae?acaeaeu
«Ii?iaeu e ni?oa, eo ?aciauaiea, iinaaeea aea?aaueaa, ooiae ca naaeii a
ciiao Caiaaeiie Eaninoaie e I?aaeea?iaouea»).

9. Iaoiaeeea aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee oei?a ianaaeaeaiue, ni?o?a ieiaeiaeo ?
ya?aeieo eoeueoo? ? ?acoeueoao?a oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o
naae?aieoeoa? ( Ca ?aae. I.I.Oanoiiaey). — E., ?inoeooo
naae?aieoeoaa OAAI, 1992.- 50n. (i?ae?icae?e «Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea oei?a
ieiaeiaeo ianaaeaeaiue»).

10. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ae?iuoaaiith aenieeo a?iaea?a n.-a. eoeueoo? o
eieainiao ? ?aaeainiao Euea?aueie (Aieuenueeee A.A., Eaeaoiee A.I.,
Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. oa ?i.) Euea?a: Eaiaiy?. — 1968.- 158 n. (?icae?e
«Naae?aieoeoai»).

11. Caeeaaeaiiy naae?a ia noeeao Ea?iao. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E., ?aueinueea
A.?., Oanoiiaeue I.I., Oo?oaa A.A. Euea?a: Eaiaiy?.- 1964.-28 n.
(i?ae?icae?ee «I?aai?caoe?y oa?eoi??? naaeo, ?ici?uaiiy ii??ae ? ni?o?a,
aonoioa naae?iiy oa aeiaeyae ca naaeii a ciiao Cao?aeiiai E?ninoaio ?
Ia?aaeea?iaoo?»).

Noaoo? o aeo?iaeao, ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa ?ioeo aeaeaiiyo

12. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. ??no ? a?iaeaei?noue ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? caeaaeii
a?ae aonoioe naae?iiy ? niinia?a oi?ioaaiiy aea?aa ia ian?ii?a?e
i?aeuai? // A?niee n.-a. iaoee. — 1983.- ? 2.- N.25-28.

13. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Eoeueoo?a yaeoi? ia i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio iae?inoee?
Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao // A?niee n.-a. iaoee .- 1975.- ? 8.- N. 79-82.

14. Aiae???iei I.A., Iiaeue/aiei ?.E., Eiiae?aoaiei O.?.
Iioeiaeaeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? a ceio 1986-87 ??. a oiiaao Iie?nny
? E?ninoaio Oe?a?inueei? ?N? // A?niee n.-a. iaoee. — 1988.- ? 7.- N.
69-76. (iaoiaeeea ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a cii? E?ninoaio).

15. Eicae I.A., Eicae I.?., Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. I?o?aoe a ieiaeao yaeoi? //
A?niee n.-a. iaoee.- 1988.- ? 6 .- N. 75-76. (aeine?aeaeaiiy c ??cieie
ni?oaie yaeoi? ia eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao).

16. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Noi?ni?noue ni?o?a c i?aeuaiaie // Ae?i, naae,
ai?iae.-1990.- ? 9.-N.6.

17. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Ia??cea ianaaeaeaiue ca?iyoeiaeo ii??ae // Naae,
aeiia?aae ? aeii Oe?a?ie., 1998.- ? 2-3 (4-5).- N. 14-17.

18. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Eieaeoeaiee naae // Iaoea ? noni?euenoai.-1980.- ?
5.-N. 36-37.

19. Iiaeue/aiei E.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea oieiuaiiie aa?aoaiiaeaeiie e?iiu
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20. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E.Ia??coaaiiy ieiaeiaeo aea?aa // Naae.- 1994.- ? 1.-
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21. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E., Nooieeoeee I.Ae. Iieuenueeee naae // Naae. — 1995.
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22. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E., AEoe A.I. Ioe?iea eeiiiaeo i?aeuai yaeoi? a
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?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy).

23. Aiae???iei I.A., Iaaeaiei A.I., Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Ae?iuoaaiiy yaeoi?
ia aaaaoaoeaii ?iciiiaeoaaieo i?aeuaiao — oeyo aei iie?ioaiiy
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24. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Eiee iieiaeoathoue yaeoi? oa a?oo? // Naae.- 1996.-
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25. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E., Aeoa?ianueeee A.? Ia??coaaiiy ieiaeiaeo aea?aa //
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aac a?aeaeiaiiy a?eie oa nenoaia ia??coaaiiy aea?aa).

26. Iiaeue/aiei E.E., Aiae?eaiei I.A., Eiiae?aoaiei O.A.
Ii?icionoie/eainoue yaeiie a ceio 1986-87 aa. a oneiaeyo Iieanuey e
Eaninoaie Oe?aeineie NN? // Naaeiaiaenoai e aeiia?aaea?noai.- 1988.- ?
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27. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Ia?niaeoeai? oeie ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi?
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28. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. I?iaeoeoeai?noue ??cieo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi?
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29. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Eiino?oeoe?? ?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? a
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30. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Iaoeia? iniiae i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
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31. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E., Eiieoeinueeee I.A. Oi?ioaaiiy e?ii yaeoi? a
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aa?aoaiiiiae?aii? e?iie oa nenoaia ia??coaaiiy aea?aa).

32. Aouei I.TH., Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Oa?eoi??aeueia ?ici?uaiiy yaeoi?
caeaaeii a?ae oaieicaaacia/aiino? a Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iaoao //
Naae?aieoeoai. E.: O?iaeae, 1975.- Aei. 23.- N. 3-14 (iaoiaeeea oa
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a ciiao Cao?aeiiai E?ninoaio ? I?eea?iaooy)

33. Iiaeue/aiei E.E. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie ia eeiiiauo
iiaeaiyo // Naaeiaiaenoai.- E.: O?iaeae, 1983.- Aei. 31.- N.12-20
(iniaenoee aianie — i?ia?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a ciiao Cao?aeiiai E?ninoaio ?
Ia?aaeea?iaooy).

34. Iaaeaiei A.I., Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Aieea ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e yaeoi? ia
aeoeai?noue i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo ? a?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a o /i?iicai?
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(aeine?aeaeaiiy a ??cieo oeiao ianaaeaeaiue).

35. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Aa?iaeieia?/iee aiae?c ceiiaeo iioeiaeaeaiue yaeoi?
a Ia?aaeea?iaoo? ? Cao?aeiiio E?ninoaio // Naae?aieoeoai.- E.: O?iaeae,
1977.- Aei.25.- N.10-20.

36. Eiiae?aoaiei I.A., Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Eeiiia? i?aeuaie aeey noai?aiiy
?ioaineaieo ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? a Oe?a?i? // Naae?aieoeoai .- E.:
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aeine?aeaeaiue a cii? E?ninoaio).

37. Iiaeue/aiei E.E. Ii?icionoie/eainoue ei?iaauo nenoai
aaaaoaoeaii-?aciiiaeaaiuo iiaeaiaa yaeiie e a?ooe // Naaeiaiaenoai. —
1982.- ? 6. — N.28-30.

38. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Ii?icino?ee?noue ei?aiaaeo nenoai aaaaoaoeaii
?iciiiaeoaaieo i?aeuai yaeoi? ? a?oo? // Naae?aieoeoai. — E.: O?iaeae,
1984.- Aei. 32.- N.21-32.

39. Iiaeue/aiei E.E., Ao?eianeee A.A. Ii?icionoie/eainoue eeiiiauo
iiaeaiaa yaeiie // Naaeiaiaenoai. E.: O?iaeae, 1987.- Aei. 35. — N.
47-52 (iaoiaeeea e ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey ca 1977-1979 aa.).

40. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Iniaeeaino? anooio a ii?o ieiaeiiioaiiy ni?o?a
yaeoi? a ia?aaea??ieo ?aeiiao Ea?iao // Ia?aaea??ia ? a??nueea
caiea?ianoai ? oaa?eiieoeoai.- E.: O?iaeae, 1969, ? 5.- N.139-144.

41. Aouei I.TH., Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. ?ici?uaiiy naae?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaieicaaacia/aiino? a I?eea?iaoo? ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? /anoeie Ea?iao //
Ia?aaea??ia ? a??nueea caiea?ianoai ? oaa?eiieoeoai.- E.: O?iaeae, 1973.
— Aei. 15. — N. 65-74 (iaoiaeeea oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a ciiao
Cao?aeiiai E?ninoaio ? I?eea?iaooy).

42. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Iniaeeaino? noai?aiiy naaeicaoenieo ianaaeaeaiue
aeey naae?a ia?aaea??ieo ? a??nueeeo ?aeii?a Ea?iao // Ia?aaea??ia ?
a??nueea caiea?ianoai ? oaa?eiieoeoai.- E.: O?iaeae, 1976. — Aei. 21.-
N. 74-83.

43. Iiaeue/aiei E.E. Iiaeaee eioaineaiuo ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie a Oe?aeia
// Iinaaei/iue iaoa?eae aeey eioaineaiuo naaeia. O?. Aa?oaa. NOA.-
Aa?oaaa., 1994.- N.52-56.

44. Iiaeue/aiei E.E. Oeiu eioaineaiuo yaeiiaauo naaeia a Eaninoaie
Oe?aeiu // Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue neiiiceoi “Yeieiae/aneay ioeaiea oeiia
aunieiieioiuo ianaaeaeaiee ia eeiiiauo iiaeaiyo”. Ieine, 1997.- O?.
Aaei?. IEEI.- N.60-62.

45. Iiaeue/aiei E.E., Ao?eianeee A.A., Aeaca/aaa E.I. Ioeaiea e iiaeai?
ni?oi-iiaeaieiuo eiiaeiaoeee yaeiie a naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe Oe?aeiu //
Iooe onei?aiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna a naaeiaiaenoaa.- Iineaa —
Iaeue/ee. 1987. — N. 26-32 (iaoiaeeea e ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee a ciia
Eaninoaie)

46. Iiaeue/aiei E.E. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue yaeiie ia eeiiiauo iiaeaiyo // Na.
O?. Ieiaeiiaiuiiai einoeoooa ei.E.A.Ie/o?eia.- Ie/o?eine, 1989.-
N.16-22.

47. Iiaeue/aiei E.E., AEoe A.I. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue yaeiie ia eeiiiauo
iiaeaiyo a oneiaeyo naaa?iie Eaninoaie Oe?aeineie NN? // I?iaeaiu
eioaineoeeaoeee naaeiaiaenoaa. Ecae-ai IEE naaeiaiaenoaa ei.
E.A.Ie/o?eia. — 1990.- N.107-109 (iaoiaeeea e ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee
ia iniiaiuo iiaeaiyo).

48. Iiaeue/aiei E.E. Eeiiiaua iiaeaie yaeiie a eioaineaiii naaeiaiaenoaa
// Ceiinoieeea neaai?ineua eeiiiaua iiaeaie yaeiie.- Ie/o?eine. Ecae-ai
IEE naaeiaiaenoaa ei. E.A.Ie/o?eia. — 1990. — N. 141-146.

49. Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Caeeaaeea iieiaeeo naae?a//Oea?noe naaeai
Ia?aaeea?iaooy.- Oaeai?iae: Ea?iaoe. — 1969. — N.17-23.

Iiaeue/aiei ?.E. Iniiae noai?aiiy ? i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
?ioaineaieo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? a E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.07 —
ieiae?aieoeoai. Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aena?oeaii ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeieia?/ieo
oiia ? eeiiiaeo i?aeuai ia ??no ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue naae?a. Aeaii ioe?ieo
aoaeoeaiino? ianaaeaeaiue ia ian?ii?aeo, na?aaeiuei- oa neaai?ineeo
eeiiiaeo i?aeuaiao, a oaeiae ia ian?ii?aeo ?c anoaaeaie neaai?ineeo.
?ic?iaeaii iia? i?aeoiaee o aecia/aii? ?aeii?a ? i?ai?/ieo iaae
aeniei?ioaineaii? eoeueoo?e yaeoi? ia iniia? a?aeiia?aeiino? oa?i?/ieo
?ano?n?a a?ieia?/iei aeiiaai ni?o?a ? i?aeuai, noai?aii? iiaeo
neaai?ineeo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue, ye? caaacia/othoue nei?iie?aei?noue oa
noaeo a?iaeaei?noue ? aenieo ye?noue ieiae?a. Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa ceiino?eeino? ni?o?a yaeoi? a?ae oaiei- oa
aieiaicaaacia/aiino? aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, a?aae??io?a iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo? a?oioo aceieo, niinia?a oi?ioaaiiy aea?aa oa u?eueiino? ?o
naae?iiy. Aecia/aii aeiiii?/io oa aia?aaoe/io aoaeoeai?noue iiaeo
?ioaineaieo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ciaeoee
i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy o noai?aii? oa i?iaeoeoeaiiio aeei?enoaii?
?ioaineaieo oei?a ianaaeaeaiue yaeoi? a E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aeuaia, ni?o, aeieia?y, aaeaioaoe?y, oei
ianaaeaeaiue, oi?ioaaiiy, ia??coaaiiy, ii?icino?ee?noue, a?iaeaei?noue,
aoaeoeai?noue.

Iiaeue/aiei E.E. Iniiau nicaeaiey e i?iaeoeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey
eioaineaiuo oeiia ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie a Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeena?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.07-ieiaeiaiaenoai. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue
oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Iainiiaaia aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaiu nicaeaiey e i?iaeoeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie, ane?uou i?e/eiu eo ieceie
o?iaeaeiinoe e i?aaeeiaeaiu iooe aa iiauoaiey a ciia Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu.

A ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a aii?inu aeeyiey yeieiae/aneeo
oneiaee ia ?ino e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aea?aaueaa, a oaeaea ioeaiee eeiiiauo
iiaeaiaa e nia?aiaiiuo oeiia eioaineaiuo ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie inaauaiu
iaaeinoaoi/ii. ?ac?aaioaiiua ?aiaa oeiu naaeia ia iaania/eaatho aunieoth
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, yaeythony aanueia o?oaeiaieeie. Iainiiaaiu iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie /a?ac
eioaineaiua nenoaiu aaaeaiey naaeiaiaenoaa, iniiaiui caaiii eioi?ie
yaeyaony oei naaea, iauaaeeiythuee oaeea eiiiiiaiou, eae ni?o, iiaeaie,
noaia iinaaeee, oi?ia e?iiu.

A ?acaeaea “Oneiaey, iauaeou e iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee”
i?eaaaeaiu oa?aeoa?enoeea ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee ciiu Eaninoaie
e iiuoiuo o/anoeia, oneiaey, iauaeou e iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiey
enneaaeiaaiee aeeyiey yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee ia ?ino e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
yaeiie, ioeaiea eeiiiauo iiaeaiaa a naaeo. I?aaenoaaeaiu ?ac?aaioea e
ioeaiea iiauo oeiia ianaaeaeaiee n ?acee/iuie oi?iaie e?iiu e noaiaie
iinaaeee aea?aaueaa ia naiaiiuo e eeiiiauo iiaeaiyo, a oaeaea ia
naiaiiuo ni anoaaeie neaai?ineuo. Eceiaeaiu niiniau oi?ie?iaaiey e
ia?acee aea?aaueaa n ie?oaeie iaeiaaaa?eoiie e aa?aoaiiaeaeiie e?ii,
?ac?aaioaiiua aaoi?ii.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo iiiaieaoieo enneaaeiaaiee, iaiauaiiuo a 4
?acaeaeao aeenna?oaoeee, onoaiiaeaia caaeneiinoue ?inoa, i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
e ceiinoieeinoe aea?aaueaa yaeiie io yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee au?aueaaiey.
Oa?aeoa? iia?aaeaeaiey e ii?icinoieeinoue aea?aaueaa yaeiie caaeneo io
ianoiiieiaeaiey o/anoeia, oaieiiaania/aiiinoe, ii/aaiiuo e
aa?ioaoie/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Iaeaieaa aeoeaiue ?ino, aunieay
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue e ii?icionoie/eainoue ni?oia ioia/aiu i?e oaeaaeiaiee
ei?iaiaeoaaiiai neiy ii/au 75-80 % IA. Ii?aaeaeaiu ieieiaeueiua noiiu
aeoeaiuo oaiia?aoo? auoa 10 0N e eiee/anoai aeiae ni n?aaeianooi/iie
oaiia?aoo?ie auoa 15 0N, iaania/eaathueo ii?iaeueiue ?ino, aunieoth
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ni?oia yaeiie e iiaeaioiaeo ?anoaiee e oniaoiie
ia?aceiiaea.

?ac?aaioaiu iiaua iiaeoiaeu a ii?aaeaeaiee ?aeiiia e naaa?iuo a?aieoe
aunieieioaineaiie eoeueoo?u ni?oia yaeiie ia naiaiiuo e eeiiiauo
iiaeaiyo ia iniiaa niioaaonoaey oa?ie/aneeo ?ano?nia ?aeiiia au?aueaaiey
aeieiae/aneei o?aaiaaieyi ni?oia.

Ia iniiaaiee ioeaiee iiaeaiaa a iaoi/ieeao e naaeao onoaiiaeaiu
a?aaeeaiou oaiia?aoo?u ii/au, aucuaathuea aeaaeue ei?iaaie nenoaiu
naiaiiuo e eeiiiauo iiaeaiaa ceiie, auaeaeaiu e iao/ii iainiiaaiu
ii?icinoieeea iiaeaie aeey nicaeaiey eioaineaiuo ianaaeaeaiee a
Eaninoaie, ii?aaeaeaiu ?aeiiu e naaa?iua a?aieoeu 90 %-iie
iaania/aiiinoe i?iiuoeaiiie eoeueoo?u yaeiie ia iiaeaiyo 62-396, I 9,
54-118, II 106 e ae?. O?iaeaeiinoue ia neaai?ineuo iiaeaiyo 57-257 e
57-476 ninoaaeyea 287,3 — 363,7, ia I 9 e 63-396 — 204,4-239,8 , a ia
n?aaeia?ineuo — I 3, II 102 e II106 — 203,5 — 206,5 oe/aa. A
ianaaeaeaieyo ia iiaeaiyo 54-118, 57-545, 57-490 e nayioeao Aioiiiaee ni
anoaaeie neaai?ineuo (ia?aaeecea Aoaeaaianeiai, 57-491, 3-3-35,
2-46-146) yoio iieacaoaeue aue a 1,3-2,7 ?aca auoa, /ai a naaeao ia
naiaiiii iiaeaia.

?ac?aaioaia e i?iaaaeaia a 11 noaoeeiia?iuo iiuoao ioeaiea iiauo oeiia
ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie ia naiaiiuo, n?aaeia- e neaai?ineuo eeiiiauo
iiaeaiyo, a oaeaea ia naiaiiuo iiaeaiyo ni anoaaeaie neaai?ineuo n
ie?oaeuie, oieiuaiiuie e ieineeie e?iiaie i?e ?acee/iuo noaiao iinaaeee.

Iiaua oeiu naaeia ia naiaiiuo e eeiiiauo iiaeaiyo n ie?oaeie
iaeiaaaa?eoiie e aa?aoaiiaeaeiie e?iiaie e iioeiaeueiuie noaiaie
iinaaeee iaania/eee o?iaeaeiinoue io 194 aei 387,6 oe/aa. Onoaiiaeaia
caaeneiinoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ianaaeaeaiee io ieioiinoe iinaaeee
aea?aaueaa e niiniaia eo oi?ie?iaaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaia yeiiiie/aneay e yia?aaoe/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue iiauo
eioaineaiuo oeiia naaeia yaeiie.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea a nicaeaiee e
i?iaeoeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee eioaineaiuo oeiia ianaaeaeaiee yaeiie a
Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiaeaie, ni?o, yeieiaey, aaeaioaoeey, oeiu
ianaaeaeaiee, oi?ie?iaaiea, ii?icinoieeinoue, o?iaeaeiinoue,
yooaeoeaiinoue.

Omel’chenko I.K. The basis of the creation and productive utilization
of the apple intensive orchards in the Ukrainian Forest-steppe. —
Manuscript.

The thesis for the degree of the doctor agricultural sciences, the
speciality 06.01.07-fruit growing.- National Agrarian University, Kyiv,
1998.

The paper presents the results of the complex investigation of the
ecological conditions and clonal root-stocks influence on the orchards
growth and productivity. The effectiency of the orchards on the seedling
and also average and weakly-growing clonal root-stocks as well as on the
seedling ones with the insertions of the weaky-growing stoks is
evaluated. New methods of defining regions and northern borders of the
apple high-intensive cultivation are worked out. These methods are based
on the thermoresources correspondence to the cultivars and root-stocks
biological demands, on creating new weakly-growing orchards ensuring
early — ripening, stable productivity and the fruits high quality. The
author has detected the dependence of the apple cultivars productivity
and winter-hardiness on the warm- and moisture ensurance during the
vegetative period, on the soil thermal gradients in winter, ways of
training trees and density of planting them. The new intensive orchards
economic and energetic efficiency is determined.

The main results of the investigations are practically applied while
creating and exploiting productively the apple intensive orchards in the
Ukrainian Forest-steppe.

Key words: root-stock, cultivar, ecology, adaptation, orchard type,
training, trimming, frost-resistance, productivity, efficiency.

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