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?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE ? INEOIEIA??

I?IOAN?EII? INA?OE AII OE?A?IE

AA?EEOA Eaoa?eia Oaaei??aia

OAeE 377.5

I?AAI?CAOe?ss I?IOAN?EIIAI IAA*AIIss AAEAEAA??A

O O?IAINIAI-AEIIII?*IEO EIEAAeAEAO

13.00.04 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio oeaio?? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee

? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Eiceinueea I?ia Aieaneaa?aia, euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
?aaia O?aiea, aeioeaio eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee, i. Euea?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Eicaeia A?oae?e Aiae??eiae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee
aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??,
i.Ee?a;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ua?aae Ieueaa ?aai?aia,

Ee?anueeee ?iaeono??aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iee eieaaeae, aee?aeoi?, i. Ee?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.Aiaothea,

eaoaae?a
iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?iii?eue.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “2” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.451.01 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254060, i.Ee?a,
aoe. I. Aa?eeinueeiai, 9, 5-e iiaa?o, cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie (254060, i.
Ee?a, aoe. I .Aa?eeinueeiai, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “30” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oeeaoeuenueea A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe OA AeIOe?EUeI?NOUe AeINE?AeAEAIIss. Ea?aeeiaeuei? ci?ie o
noni?eueiiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie – ?icaoaeiaa aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae,
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe aeiei??iii ci?iththoue neooaoe?th a
nenoai? ina?oe, coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue ?? aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo,
iai?yie yeiai aecia/aii a Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaai?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”), Caeii?
Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”. E?ecia? i?ioeane a aeiiii?oe? ?
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?e noa??, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iao?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ?
i?eaaoecaoe?y i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue
iiiaeaiiy ci?noo i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? niaoe?ae?no?a o aaeoc?
aeiiii?ee, i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii?
nenoaie.

Ana oea aeiaaa? ia?aaoaeiae ci?noo, oi?i oa iaoiae?a i?aeaioiaee
oao?aoe?a c iaoith caaacia/aiiy i?ioan?eii? naii?aae?caoe?? iniaenoino?,
oi?ioaaiiy ?? eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai ??aiy, noai?aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeoeaiiai,
ii?aeueii ? o?ce/ii caei?iaiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo,
yeee ia? iin?aeaoe aaaeeeaa i?noea o oaoiieia?/iiio iiiaeaii?
ae?iaieoeoaa, ai?iaaaeaeaii? o i?aeoeeo aeinyaiaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee.

Ina?oiuei-i?ioan?eia i?ia?aia i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee
ni?yiiaaia ia ?aae?caoe?th iaoe aeui? ina?oe – anaa?/iee ?icaeoie
ethaeeie ye iniaenoino? oa iaeaeui? oe?iiino? noni?euenoaa; caaaa/aiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo ia?iaeo; iaaeaiiy nooaeaioai iiaeeeaino?
a?eueiiai aeai?o ??aiy ? iai?yio ina?oe; iineeaiiy aeeaeie oa
ooiaeaiaioaeueiino? ciaiue; ?ioaa?aoe?? Oe?a?ie o na?oiao nenoaio
ina?oe.

Iei? ?ioaeaeo noa? aieiaiith i?iaeoeoeaiith neeith, iniiaith oai?/iai
?icaeoeo aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e noni?euenoaa ? oeea?e?caoe??. C?inoath/ee
aeeiai?ci aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a, oe?ieee iiieo ia
oai?/?noue, i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? eiaeiiai ?iaeea?aea,
coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue aeiei??iiiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe.
Iniiai? ooieoe?? ina?oe iaaoaathoue iiaiai ci?noo: ia ia?oee ieai
aeoiaeeoue iaieiae?iiy caeaoi?noth iino?eii a/eoeny ? naiino?eii
inienethaaoe iiaee aeina?ae.

C i?iaieioaiiyi iaoith aea?aeaaith iacaeaaeiino? oa c? ci?iith
i??i?eoao?a a aeiiii?oe? ??cei ci?ieeenue aeiiae aei ci?noo
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ye ?acoeueoao – i?aeaeueeenue aeiiae
aei i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c aeiiii?ee.

Iaeiei ?c iniiaieo caaaeaiue aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe, ye? cae?eniththoue
i?aeaioiaeo c aeiiii?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ?
aeoiaaiiy aeiiii?no?a iiai? aaia?aoe??, a?eueieo o nai?io
na?oini?eeiyoo? a?ae ?aeaieia?/ieo aeiai, ye? aeia?a ?icoi?thoue
iniaeeaino? no/aniiai ? iaeaooiueiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie,
aa/aoue oeyoe ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee iaoi? aea?aeaae a eiioaeno? na?oiaeo
?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

Iiooe iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy coiiaea aeieeiaiiy
e ?icaeoie iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio. Aaaeeeaith eaieith o
nenoai? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c aeiiii?ee oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aeueie
caeeaaeaie ina?oe ? i?aeaioiaea aaeaeaa??a o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieie
eieaaeaeaie.

Ui??/ii a Oe?a?i? oeeie caeeaaeaie aeionea?oueny a?eueoa i’yoenio
niaoe?ae?no?a ca i?ioan?eiei ni?yioaaiiyi “O?iaine” aeey ?iaioe a
o?iainiaeo i?aaiao, iiaeaoeiaeo aaei?i?no?aoe?yo, eacia/aenoaao,
eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eieo oi?aae?iiyo, athaeaeaoieo onoaiiaao, o?iainiaeo ?
aooaaeoa?nueeeo neoaeaao i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?.
Oeeaaeathoueny oaiaee ia i?aeaioiaeo niaoe?ae?no?a ?c caiiaieeaie
eaae??a, ui a na?aaeiueiio ca ??e neeaaea? iiiaae 50 % a?ae ieaio
i?eeiio.

??aaiue eaae?o?eaoe?? oao?aoe?a a oiiaao ?eieo noa? aaaeeeaei
aeiiii?/iei oaeoi?ii, yeee iaaoaa? ia o?eueee ainiiaea?nueeiai, aea e
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai cia/aiiy, a i?ioan?eia iaenoa?i?noue
niaoe?ae?no?a ? aaaeeeaei no?aoaa?/iei oiaa?ii aoaeue-yei? iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae.

Aea/aiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae iieacaei, ui i?ioan?eiiio
iaa/aiith aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao i?eae?eaii
iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae.

Caaaeuei? aniaeoe oe??? i?iaeaie, cie?aia iniaeeaino? i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a c aeuith ina?oith ?ice?eo? o i?aoeyo
N.?.A?oaiaaeuenueeiai, I.A.Aeociaia, A.I.Aaeoceinueeiai, A.A.Eicaeiaa,
?.ss.Ea?ia?a, N.TH.Ia?ei/ae oa ?ioeo.

?aea? aeeaieiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, oi?ioaaiiy eeth/iaeo
eaae?o?eaoe?e aeine?aeeee A.I.Eaeeoeueeee, Ae.Ia?oain.

Oe?e? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy, ye? ?aae?cothoueny a iaaeaaia?/iiio i?ioean?,
?icaeyaeathoueny ye oe?e?niee iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean o i?aoeyo
A.A.Aeaaeaeiaa, Ae.A.Aeueeii?ia, I.Ae.Eanueyiaiea. Aeiiii?noe
E.I.Iiiiia?ueia oa E.TH.Aiooaei ?icaeyaeathoue aeiiii?/io ina?oo ?
aeoiaaiiy ye iaeei ?c oaeoi??a ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

I.?.Aieaee??a, A.ss.Aia?ia aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy ? ina?oo ?icaeyaeathoue
ye naiino?eio neeaaeiao /anoeio aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?.

Ieoaiiyi oaoiieia?? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe noa?oeo i?aee?oe?a i?enay/ai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy I?ieiiaiea ?.O. ? Nia/oe I.I.

?noi?e/i? oa oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo iniia
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a, a oaeiae ia?aaeoiiae ?o aeieeiaiiy
aena?oeaii o i?aoeyo N.?.A?oaiaaeuenueeiai, A.E.?eiaiiai?,
I.I.Eaueinueeiai, ?.A. Ia?oeeieianueeiai, E.?.Iiaaaeii?.

Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a aena?oeaii a i?aoeyo
A.A.Aa?aa?eae, A.E.Aoeueoniia, N.A.Aieiaea, I.I.Eaueinueeiai,
A.A.Eeniai?, C.I.Iaeueeiai?, I.Ae.I?eaiae?iaa, A.A.Ia?a?ea,
I.?.Ieaei?eiaa, I.A.Oaaei?iai?, E.Ae.O?e?iiai?, A.A.*ooea?aoa?e?.

Aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey iaoiai iaoeiaiai iiooeo iathoue i?aoe? uiaei
iaoiaeieia?? ? iaoiae?a iaaeaaia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy I.E.Aiio?ia,
N.ss.Aaoeoaaa, A.I.Aaniaeueea, A.N.Aii/a?aiea, A.N.?eue?ia,
O.A.?eue?ii?, I.A.Eocuei?ii?, A.I.Iao?oeiaa, A.I.Nioi?a, A.?.Uoe?ii?.

I?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueiiai iaa/aiiy
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo A.I.Aeaenthea, TH.E.Aaeaoiaa,
?.I.Aiaaeaiiai?, I.I.Aeaaeooeii?, A.?.?eue/aiei, A.?.E?aa/aiea,
I.I.Eoeaiae?ia, A.I.Iaiea’thea, I.A.I?ieace. ?ieue aeeeaaea/a o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? aeui? oeiee ? ??ciiiai?oi? i?aeoiaee aei
iiaeaethaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? iniaenoino? aeeeaaea/a
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo ?.I.Aiaaeaiiai?, N.A.?eeaiiaa,
O.E.?na?aae, ?.A.Cycthia, I.Ae.Eanueyiaiea, E.A. Eiiae?aoiai?,
A.A.E?a?anueeiai, I.A.Eocuei?ii?, E.E.Ieaoiiiaa, I.E.?icaiaa?aa,
A.A.Neanoueii?ia.

Aea/aiiy iieacaei, ui a iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo ia ciaeoee aeinoaoiueiai
aena?oeaiiy iniaeeaino? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee o
aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe, cie?aia o eieaaeaeao.

I?ioan?eia iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao ?
iaei??th ?c iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaieo i?iaeai a iaaeaaia?/i?e oai???.
Aiia iio?aao? niaoe?aeueiiai oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co, ?ic?iaee iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai
iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee. Ia i?aeoeoe? iathoue i?noea iaaeie?ee a
i?ioan?ei?e i?aeaioiaoe? aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee. Iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy. Aiane?aeie
oeeo oa ?ioeo i?e/ei ye?noue i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a o eieaaeaeao,
??aaiue ?o i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? a?aenoa? a?ae aeiia noni?euenoaa,
ui iino?eii c?inoathoue. Aiae?c ?iaioe nooaeaio?a-i?aeoeeaio?a ?
aeioneiee?a o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeae?a na?ae/eoue, ui aiie, iath/e
ciaiiy c aeiiii?/ii? oai???, o?iainiaiai oa iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa,
iaaeinoaoiuei i?aeaioiaeai? aei naiino?eii? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ioaea, aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny
iiaeie oaiaeaioe?yie o ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, o?iainiai? nenoaie,
i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ie? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeae?a o i?ioan?ei?e
i?aeaioiaoe? aaeaeaa??a aeey cae?eniaiiy iiai? o?iainiai? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae, a oaeiae iaiao?aei?noth ?ic?iaee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? ?o i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy a iiaeo
aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao. Ana oea ? coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
“I?aai?caoe?y i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeaeao”. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiioaaeanue a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaai?aoi??? nooiaiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
Euea?anueeiai iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai oeaio?o ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaie
“Iaaeaaia?/ia caaacia/aiiy ci?noo i?io?eueieo aeenoeeie?i o nenoai?
nooiaiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe” (?E ? 0198E000138).

IA’?EO AeINE?AeAEAIIss: i?ioean i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee o
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao.

I?AAeIAO AeINE?AeAEAIIss: i?aai?caoe?y i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a
o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao.

IAOA AeINE?AeAEAIIss iieyaa? a aeeaeaeoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?, ?ic?iaoe?
oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe? i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy
aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao.

A?IIOACA AeINE?AeAEAIIss iieyaa? a oiio, ui ye?noue i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao cia/iith
i??ith c?inoa? ca oaeeo oiia:

– iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai
iaa/aiiy oa caaacia/aiiy ?o iioeiaeueiiai ca’yceo o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio
i?ioean? o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe ?-?? ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??;

– ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy (iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiai?
nenoaie, ae?eiaeo ?ai?) c iaoith ia?aoiaeo aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
iaa/aiiy ia iniia? oaeineiiaeaiiy naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a;
?ic?iaee iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee ?
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ica’ycoaaeiny ?yae CAAAeAIUe:

1.I?iaiae?coaaoe noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a iaaeaaia?/i?e oai???.

2.Aeine?aeeoe na?oia? ? a?o/eciyi? oaiaeaioe?? aaeaeaa?nueei?
i?aeaioiaee o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe.

3.I?iaiae?coaaoe noai i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a eieaaeaeo aei i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao.

4.Aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao oa ?ic?iaeoe eiai aeeaeaeoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy.

5.?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aeeeaaea/?a c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a eieaaeaeo.

IAOIAeIEIA?*IA INIIAA AeINE?AeAEAIIss a?oioo?oueny ia o?einionueeeo
iieiaeaiiyo i?i aca?iiaieea ? aca?iicaeaaei?noue yaeu ia’?eoeaii?
ae?eniino?; o?einio?? aoiai?cio, a?aeiia?aeii aei yei? ethaeeia ?
iaeaeuith oe?ii?noth noni?euenoaa; i?eioeeiao ?noi?ecio, nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo ? aeaiaioao nenoaiiiai aiae?co, aacia?a?aiino? ina?oe.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo eiioeaioe?e
a?o/eciyii? ? ca?oa?aeii? ina?oe, oai??e ?icaeaaeueiiai ? i?iaeaiiiai
iaa/aiiy, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaiiai i?aeoiae?a aei
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe.

?ic?iaeyth/e i?ia?aio ? iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie a?aoiaoaaee
oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, iieiaeaiiy i?i
ina?oiuei-eaae?o?eaoe?ei? ??ai? (nooiaiaao ina?oo), ina?oiuei-i?ioan?eio
i?ia?aio i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy Oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie “I?i iniiai? iai?yie ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aeui? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?”. Iniaeeaa oaaaa aoea i?eae?eaia iaa?oiooaaiith
aeiia uiaei caaacia/aiiy ianooiiino? ? aca?iica’yceo caaaeueii?,
i?ioan?eii? ? aeui? ina?oe, ia?aoiaeo aei aio/ei?, aeeiai?/ii?
aaaaoi??aiaai? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a ia iniia? i?eioeei?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cii??aiaai? ina?oe (ianooiiino? a?aeai?o ci?noo
iaa/aiiy, ?ioaa?aoeaiiai oa aeia?aaeaeoaaeueiiai i?aeoiae?a,
nenoaiiino?, oe?e?niino? oa ?ioaa?aoeaiino?).

OAI?AOE*IITH AACITH AeINE?AeAEAIIss ? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee uiaei:

– oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? oa ?? ?icaeoeo a i?ioean? ae?yeueiino?
(E.N.Aeaionueeee, I.ss.Aaeueia??i, I.I.Eaiioue?a, N.E.?oa?iooaei,
I.O.Oaeec?ia);

– ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee (A.I.Aeaenthe,
N.?.A?oaiaaeuenueeee, A.I.Aaniaeueei);

– ??cii??aiaai? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a (A.I.Aaniaeueei, ?.ss.Ea?ia?,
A.O.Iaeaia?/oe);

– oiia iiaeoeueiiai iaa/aiiy (A.I.Aeaenthe, TH.E.Aaaainueeee,
A.?.Aiiaea?, A.A.Oo?iai).

Oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ciaeoee ii?iaoeai?
aeieoiaioe: Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”, iieiaeaiiy Aea?aeaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”), iieiaeaiiy
“I?i aea?aeaaiee aeuee caeeaae ina?oe”, Iieiaeaiiy “I?i
ina?oiuei-eaae?o?eaoe?ei? ??ai? (nooiaiaao ina?oo)”.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaany oaeee
IAOIAeE*IEE ?INO?OIAIOA??E: oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae
(o?einionueeeo, nioe?ieia?/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, iaaeaaia?/ieo,
ineoieia?/ieo); iciaeiieaiiy c io?oe?eieie aeieoiaioaie c
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie; aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy a?o/eciyiiai oa
ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo c ieoaiue aaeaeaa?nueei? i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a o eieaaeaeao; aii??e/i? iaoiaee: aieaooaaiiy, iieooaaiiy,
aan?aee; niinoa?aaeaiiy, oanooaaiiy, ?aeoeia, ?aiaeoaaiiy; aiae?c
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio.

AENIA?EIAIOAEUeIA AACA AeINE?AeAEAIIss: Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny o
Euea?anueeiio, Iaeanueeiio ? Oa?e?anueeiio o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeaeao. Aenia?eiaioii aoei ioiieaii 2167 nooaeaio?a oa 126
aeeeaaea/?a (c ieo o an?o aoaiao aenia?eiaioo a?aee o/anoue 600
nooaeaio?a oa 39 aeeeaaea/?a).

I?AAI?CAOe?ss OA AOAIE AeINE?AeAEAIIss: Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny a
o?e aoaie i?ioyaii 1990-1998 ??.

IA IA?OIIO AOAI? (1990-1992 ??.) aea/aeany iaaeaaia?/ia, ineoieia?/ia,
aeiiii?/ia, o?einionueea, nioe?ieia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a; cae?enithaaany
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a o
aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe; iaa?oioiaoaaeeny aeo?aei? oai?aoe/i? iiceoe??,
aecia/aeeny ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aoei
noi?ioethaaii ?iai/o a?iioaco, ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe.

IA Ae?OAIIO AOAI? (1993-1995 ??.) eiie?aoeciaaii iaoiaeeeo
aeine?aeaeaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a.
I?iaaaeaii eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio oa ocaaaeueiaii eiai ?acoeueoaoe.
Io?eiai? aeai? a?aoiaaii i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee.

IA O?AOUeIIO AOAI? (1995-1998 ??.) i?iaiaeeany oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio, o
oiae? yeiai cae?enithaaeanue ia?aa??ea ?ic?iaeaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.
I?ii?aei? oa e?ioeaa? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai?
aeniiaee oa ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue o i?aeoeeo
?iaioe o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeae?a.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaany ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c
aaaaoi??/ii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aeena?oaioa a yeino? aeeeaaea/a
oa aeaeaia oaeoeueoaoo o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai eieaaeaeo.

AeAEA?AEICIAA*O AACO AeINE?AeAEAIIss neeaee ca??ieee ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a, iaa/aeuei? ieaie ? i?ia?aie aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe,
ina?oiuei-i?ioan?ei? i?ia?aie, a?aeii/a oa caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia
noaoenoe/ia ca?oi?noue; i?ae?o/ieee, iin?aieee, aeia?aeieee;
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia, aeiiii?/ia ? iaaeaaia?/ia i?ana aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo; no/ania a?o/eciyia ? ca?oa?aeia o?einionueea, iaaeaaia?/ia
e?oa?aoo?a oiui.

IAOEIAA IIAECIA iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa aeyaeaii niaoeeo?eo
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao,
aeine?aeaeaii ?noi?e/i? oaiaeaioe?? noaiiaeaiiy oa oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee, iaa?oioiaaii eiai ci?no ?
no?oeoo?o, iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaaoee iieiaeaiiy uiaei oi?i
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy.

OAI?AOE*IA CIA*AIIss iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? aeeaeaeoe/ieo iniia
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeaeao.

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?: iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey aeeeaaea/?a c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeaeao; eo?no eaeoe?e c i?aaeiaoa “Noaoenoeea”; iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaioaie; ?iai/i?
i?ia?aie c eo?no “Noaoenoeea” a oiiaao iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy
oa eiio?ieth ciaiue, iiaeae? “Ae?eiai? a?e o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?”.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii o i?aeoeeo ?iaioe
Euea?anueeiai, Iaeanueeiai, Oa?e?anueeiai o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeae?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii o i?aeoeeo ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a Euea?anueeiai, Iaeanueeiai, Oa?e?anueeiai
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeae?a. (Aeia?aeea Oa?e?anueeiai
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai eieaaeaeo, ? 1-181 a?ae 2
eenoiiaaea 1998?).

INIAENOEE AIANIE aeena?oaioa iieyaa? a ii?aoethaaii? iniiaieo ?aeae ?
iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie; a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ?iai/i? i?ia?aie a oiiaao iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiai? nenoaie
iaa/aiiy, eo?no eaeoe?e c “Noaoenoeee” (aaoi?nuee?: oaia 1.9 “?yaee
aeeiai?ee”, oaia1.11 “Aea??eiaa niinoa?aaeaiiy”, ?icae?e ?? “Noaoenoeea
o?iain?a”).

A??IA?AeI?NOUe iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/aia canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiae?cii cia/iiai ianyao oai?aoe/iiai oa aii??e/iiai
iaoa??aeo, ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe.

IA CAOENO AEIINssOUeNss:

1.Aeeaeaeoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy
aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao.

2.Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy
aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao.

AI?IAAOe?ss ?IAIOE cae?enithaaeany a aeiiia?aeyo oa aenooiao ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (Ethae?i, 1996),
anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (Euea?a, 1995;
*a?i?aoe?, 1996; Euea?a, 1996; Ee?a, 1997; Iaeana, 1997; Euea?a, 1998).

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeaii o 12 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo,
c ieo 6 iaienaii aac ni?aaaoi??a, o oiio /ene?: 1 iin?aiee, 5 noaoae o
i?ia?aeieo iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 1 noaooy o ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue Iieueu?, 4 noaoo? o ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a eiioa?aioe?e, 1
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

NO?OEOO?A AeENA?OAOe??: Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a aei ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo 240
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, c ieo 4 — ?iicaiiith iiaith, 12 aeiaeaoe?a ia
70 noi??ieao. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 196 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ?
i?noeoue 22 oaaeeoe? ia 14 noi??ieao, 13 ?enoie?a ia 9 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue, aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao, oi?ioeth?oueny ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa,
a?iioaca oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiie?aoecothoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia,
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
oi?ioeththoueny iieiaeaiiy, aeianai? ia caoeno, a oaeiae iiaeathoueny
a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaii?
?iaioe.

O IA?OIIO ?ICAe?E? – “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy no/aniiai
oao?aoey o aaeoc? o?iain?a” – aena?oeaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?
iieiaeaiiy, iieeaaeai? a iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icaeyioo?
eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoey ia no/aniiio
aoai?, aecia/aii i??i?eoaoi?noue ina?oe, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
aeia?aaeaeoaaeueiee oa?aeoa? ?? ?icaeoeo, iiaa noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa
aei ina?oe, ?ioaeaeoo ciaiue; a?aee?eo?noue nenoaie ina?oe,
aacia?a?ai?noue ina?oe; ia?icae?euei?noue iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy,
aaaaoioeeaaei?noue oa aa??aoeai?noue ina?oe, ui iieyaa? o noai?aii?
iiaeeeaino? aeai?o oi?i ina?oe, iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, noai?aii? ia?aae?
aeueoa?iaoeaieo caeeaae?a ina?oe.

Aea/aiiy iieacaei, ui ci?no i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a o
no/anieo aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe ?-?? ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe?? ia
a?aeiia?aea? eaae?o?eaoe?eiei aeiiaai, ia iiaiith i??ith a?aoiao? iia?
aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie. Iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaieie ? caniae ? iaoiaee
?aae?caoe?? oeueiai ci?noo a oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy.

C iaoith iiaeieaiiy noia?a/iinoae i?ae c?inoath/eie aeiiaaie
noni?euenoaa aei iaa/aiiy oao?aoe?a ? ?aaeueiith iaaeaaia?/iith
i?aeoeeith a yeino? aaciaeo oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo
i???ioe??a o aeine?aeieoeuee?e ?iaio? ie aeei?enoaee oae? ?aea? no/anii?
o?einio?? ina?oe: iiaaaa aei iniaenoino? nooaeaioa, oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? ia eeoa ciath/i? aea e i?aeaioiaeaii? aei aeeooy, aei
i?aoe?; aoiai?caoe?y ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy, iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae
iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaeinoaoith ?ic?iaeai?noue a oai??? ? ia i?aeoeoe?,
i?iaeaia aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe aaeaeaa??a ia?a?inoa? ?aiee /enoi
iaaeaaia?/ii? ? iaaoaa? aaaeeeaiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai cia/aiiy.
Nioe?aeueia caiiaeaiiy, iaea?aeaia eieaaeaeai uiaei i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee ?? aeioneiee?a, iiaeiii aooe iaaeaaia?/ii ?ioa?i?aoiaaia:
iaa?oioiaaii iaoo, caaaeaiiy oa aecia/aii caniae ? iaoiaee, c
aeiiiiiaith yeeo ?o iiaeia aoaeoeaii ?aae?coaaoe.

O eiioaeno? oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ooi/iaii
aeiiae uiaei aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe, ine?eueee iniiaia ?? caaaeaiiy –
oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy o nooaeaio?a a oiiaao ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei.

I?iaeaiai i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy o aeu?e oeie? i?enay/aii ?yae iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, i?ioa o ieo ia ciaeoee iaeaaeiiai aena?oeaiiy iniaeeaino?
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee o eieaaeaeao. Oea
iiynith?oueny oei, ui a Oe?a?i? aei 1991 ?ieo oaeeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a ia aoei.

Ia iniia? aea/aieo aeaea?ae anoaiiaeaii ui, caaaey/oth/e aaeaeaa?nuee?e
i?aeaioiaoe? o ??cieo e?a?iao (Aiae??, O?aioe??, NOA, ssiii?? oa
?ioeo), ??aaiue eaae?o?eiaaii? i?aoe? noaiiaeoeia a iaeaooiueiio
i?eaeeecii 50%, oiae? ye no/aniee ??aaiue – 30%, a ??aaiue
iaeaae?o?eiaaii? i?aoe? niaaea aei 18-20% (no/aniee ??aaiue – 35%).

O ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy aeina?aeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i
(Aiae??, NOA, O?aioe?? oa ?ioeo) c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy eiai i?ia?aneaieo
?aeae i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a.

Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo o oaoia?e i?aeaioiaoe?, eiie?aoeciaaii
oae? eaoaai??? iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia??: ina?oa, aeua ina?oa, i?ioan?eia
ina?oa, aeiiii?/ia ina?oa, iaa/aiiy, i?ioean iaa/aiiy, iaa/aeueia
ae?yeuei?noue, o?aaeeoe?eia iaa/aiiy, ?iiiaaoe?eia iaa/aiiy,
i?ia?aiiaaia, i?iaeaiia iaa/aiiy, iiaeoeueia iaa/aiiy oa ?io?. O
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao Oe?a?ie ua ia iaaoee iaeaaeiiai
canoinoaaiiy no/ani? i?ia?aneai? oaoiieia?? oa iaoiaee iaa/aiiy, cie?aia
i?iaeaiia iaa/aiiy, ae?eia? ?a?e, iiaeoeueia iaa/aiiy, ?aeoeiaiaa
ioe?ithaaiiy ciaiue, i?aai?caoe?y naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a.
Iieacaii, ui ia?aaaaa iaaea?oueny iao?aaeeoe?eiiio iaa/aiith – iaa/aiith
c aa?aioiaaiei aeinyaiaiiyi caieaiiaaiiai ?acoeueoaoo iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano.

Aiae?c i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeaeao Oe?a?ie iieacaa, ui iaa/aeuei? ieaie oa i?ia?aie c
aeenoeeie?i i?ioan?eii i???ioiaaiiai oa niaoe?aeueiiai oeeeeo ia
ia?aaeaa/athoue aeinoaoiuei? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo oao?aoe?a aeey ?iaioe a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Iniiaia nioe?aeueia ooieoe?y eieaaeaeo ye aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe
ae?oaiai ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe?? – i?aeaioiaea aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo
oao?aoe?a o aaeoc? o?iain?a aeey ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie,
aaeaioiaaieo aei oiia ?eieo i?aoe? oa ?eieiaeo aca?iia?aeiinei a
aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie. Aeoiaey/e c iniaeeainoae ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ca yeeo
niaoe?aeuei? ciaiiy ? oi?iiy oaeaeei “noa??thoue”, iaiao?aei?
oi?aa?naeuei? eaae?o?eaoe??, ye? a canoiniaoaaeenue o ??cieo aeaeao
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iacaai? “eeth/iaeie”.

Aaeaeaa? c aeiiii?ee caeiaoaa? aaciao aeuo ina?oo, ui aea? eiio ciiao
i?aoethaaoe aeiiii?noii c ieaioaaiiy, aeiiii?noii c i?aoe?, aeiiii?noii
c o?iainiai? ?iaioe, aooaaeoa?ii, aooaaeoa?ii-?aa?ci?ii oa ?i. I?ioa
eiaeiee nooi?iue ia? i?ioan?eio caaa?oai?noue, ui na?ae/eoue aio/e?noue
nenoaie ina?oe o eieaaeae?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui 12% nooaeaio?a ia?aee oeae
iaa/aeueiee caeeaae a ?acoeueoao? i?ioi???ioaoe?eii? ?iaioe o oeie?, 6%
– i?ney iaa/aiiy o oeie? c aeiiii?/iei ni?yioaaiiyi, 35% – ca
?aeiiaiaeaoe??th nai?o aaouee?a, ?c yeeo 24% aai iaa/aeenue o
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiio eieaaeae?, aai i?aoeththoue a i?aaiao o?iainiai?
nenoaie.

Cae?eniaia iaie ii??aiyiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy nooaeaio?a
ina?oiuei-eaae?o?eaoe?eieo ??ai?a “iieiaeoee niaoe?ae?no” ? “aaeaeaa?”
(eiioeiaaio nooaeaio?a a?aeiia?aeii 818 /ie. ? 1348 /ie.) na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui nooo?a? a?aei?iiino? iathoue i?noea o e?eueeino? aoaeeoi?ieo
caiyoue oa aiaeei ia naiino?eia ii?aoethaaiiy i?aaeiao?a. sseui aeey
iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a ia aoaeeoi?i? caiyooy a?aeaaaeaii 77,8% onueiai
/ano, oi aeey aaeaeaa??a – 64,6%, oiaoi nooaeaioe, ye? iaa/athoueny
i?ney cae?i/aiiy iiaii? na?aaeiuei? oeiee iiaeii? aooe a?eueo
i?aeaioiaeai? aeey naiino?eii? ?iaioe iaae iaa/aeueiei iaoa??aeii. E??i
oiai o a?oiao iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a, aea i?ioyaii ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai
naiano??a i?iaiaeyoueny o?eueee aoaeeoi?i? caiyooy, ?niothoue
?icoiaeaeaiiy oaeiae a i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaie/i? i?aeoeee. A?aoiaoth/e
aeua aeeeaaeaia, iaiao?aeii ci?ithaaoe oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy,
iineethaaoe aeiiae aei aeeeaaea/?a, ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iia? oaoiieia??
iaa/aiiy.

O oiae? iaoeiaiai iiooeo iaie aeyaeaii iaea?eueo ?noioi? iniaeeaino? a
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy o eieaaeaeao, iia’ycai? c
niaoeeo?eith aaeoc? aeiiii?ee oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, iaeaooiuei?
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, i?ioiaeaeaiiy
iaa/aeueii? oa ae?iaie/i? i?aeoeee, ye?noth aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo,
eiioeiaaioii nooaeaio?a.

Iiooe oeyo?a aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano i?ioiaeeoue o
aeae?eueeio iai?yiao: ?ic?iaeo iiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e
(A.I.Aeaenthe, A.?.Aiiaea?, O.A.?eue?ia). O ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii, ui
iaei??th c iaea?eueo i?ia?aneaieo, ia iaoo aeoieo, ?
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaa oaoiieia?y iaa/aiiy oa eiio?ieth ciaiue; ??aaiue
ocaaaeueiaiiy oa nooiai? aano?aaoaaiiy ciaiue.

O Ae?OAIIO ?ICAe?E? – “Iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai
iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee ? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa” – eiie?aoeciaaii
iiiyooy iia’ycai? c ci?noii ? oi?iaie i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a
ia aea?aeaaiiio, iaoeiaiio ? i?aeoe/iiio ??aiyo.

Ca?aeii c iieiaeaiiyi i?i ina?oiuei-eaae?o?eaoe?ei? ??ai? (nooiaiaao
ina?oo), caoaa?aeaeaiiai iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 20
n?/iy 1998?. ?65, aaeaeaa? – oea ina?oiuei-eaae?o?eaoe?eiee ??aaiue
oao?aoey, eio?ee ia iniia? iiaii? caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe caeiaoa
iiaeeaeaio caaaeueiieoeueoo?io i?aeaioiaeo, ooiaeaiaioaeuei? oa
i?ioan?eii i???ioiaai? ciaiiy ? oi?iiy uiaei ocaaaeueiaiiai ia’?eoa
i?aoe?, caeaoiee ae??ooaaoe oeiia? i?ioan?ei? caaaeaiiy, ia?aaeaa/ai?
aeey a?aeiia?aeieo iinaae, o iaai?e aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Eiie?aoecaoe?y iiiyoue uiaei ci?noo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i i?ioan?eiiai
iaa/aiiy ia aea?aeaaiiio oa iaoeiaiio ? i?aeoe/iiio ??aiyo aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy
aaeaeaa??a ? aaaeeeaeie ? ia?niaeoeaieie o aeu?e oeie? Oe?a?ie.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oeiiaeo i?ia?ai oeeeeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?
i?ioan?eii i???ioiaaieo aeenoeeie?i aeey i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a c
aeiiii?ee o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiio eieaaeae? oa eieaaeaeao NOA iieacaa,
ui i?ae iaaieie eaoaai??yie iiaeia iinoaaeoe ciae ??aiino?. C
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o iao?e e?a?i? aeey iaaeeaeaiiy
no?oeoo?e oe?a?inueei? iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie aaeaeaa?a c aeiiii?ee a
aaeoc? o?iain?a aei cao?aeieo aiaeia?a iiaeia c?iaeoe oae? e?iee:
ciaioeoe e?euee?noue aeenoeeie?i o iaa/aeueiiio ieai? oeyoii iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aaeiao?a; ciaioeoe caaaeueio e?euee?noue aiaeei, ye?
ia?aaeaa/aii ia aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ? ca ?aooiie oeueiai
iiaeeaeoe aea/aiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeenoeeie?i. Oii?yaeeoaaiiy
aeeaeaeoe/ieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai,
iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy ie?aieo aeenoeeie?i, canoinoaaiiy iiaeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e oi?io? oe?eani?yiiaaiee ?icaeoie ?icoiiaeo
cae?aiinoae nooaeaio?a, iineeth? o ieo ?ioa?an aei ?iaioe, naiino?eiino?
oa oai?/ino?, ui ni?ey? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o
eieaaeae?. C iaeyaeo ia oea, aeey aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee aoei
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii?
?iaioe nooaeaio?a, ?iai/o i?ia?aio c “Noaoenoeee” a oiiaao
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiai? nenoaie iaa/aiiy oa eiio?ieth ??aiy ciaiue.

Ia oeueiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii noaio “Ca’ycie i?ae
eaae?o?eaoe?eieie aeiiaaie ? aeenoeeie?iaie”, iiaeaeue “Ci?noo
i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee ? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ca i?ioan?eiei
ni?yioaaiiyi “O?iaine” oa iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee “I?aai?caoe?y naiino?eii?
?iaioe nooaeaio?a oa caaaeaiiy c eo?no “Noaoenoeea” aeey nooaeaio?a
ia?oiai eo?no”.

O O?AOUeIIO ?ICAe?E? – “Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeaeao” – aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e
iaa/aiiy – iiaeoeueiiai, i?iaeaiii-iiaeoeueiiai, aeoeaiiai iaa/aiiy,
ae?eiaeo ?ai? oa ?ioeo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ciiaeaeueiaaia oa iaaeaaia?/ii
i?aai?ciaaia iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueia, iaoeiai-aeine?aeia,
i?ioan?eii-ae?iaie/a ae?yeuei?noue ? aoaeoeaiith oi?iith i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a ? caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai oa i?ioan?eiiai
aeina?aeo.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee, a iniia? yeeo eaaeaoue aeanoeaino?
“cieioiai ia?aoeio”, oa nenoaiio aio?ii?th ca oi?ioeith Oaiiiia, ie
i?iaaee ia?aooiee aeey anoaiiaeaiiy yeino? iaa/aeueieo ieai?a oaoi?eoio
oa ae?th/iai iaa/aeueiiai ieaio eieaaeaeo ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
ianyaii aoaeeoi?ii? oa naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a. Aecia/aii o?e
e?eoa??? ioe?iee i?e iaaiiio ciaeaeaiiio cia/aii? aio?ii??: aa?iii?eii
neeaaeaii no?oeoo?o iaa/aeueiiai ieaio; aeecaa?iii?eii neeaaeaii
no?oeoo?o iaa/aeueiiai ieaio; niinoa??aa?oueny aaeaeoae?noue no?oeoo?e
iaa/aeueiiai ieaio.

O ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee, ye? na?ae/aoue, ui ca anoaiiaeaieie
e?eoa??yie niinoa??aa?oueny aaeaeoae?noue iaa/aeueiiai ieaio oaoi?eoio
oa ia? i?noea aa?iii?ei?noue no?oeoo?e iaa/aeueiiai ieaio eieaaeaeo.
Ioaea, canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai iaa/aeueiiai ieaio o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? eieaaeaeo ? ia’?eoeaii iaa?oioiaaiei. Oaeei aea iaoiaeii
aecia/aii i?iii?oe?? i?ae aoaeeoi?ieie aiaeeiaie oa naiino?eiith
?iaioith nooaeaio?a, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue ca?eueoaiiy
aiaeei ia naiino?eio ?iaioo nooaeaio?a.

Aenia?eiaioii aoei ioiieaii 600 nooaeaio?a.

O aeine?aeaeaii?, ia iniia? iieiaeaiue eiioeaioe?? A.I.Aaciaeueea oa
a?aooaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy ca
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaith nenoaiith aecia/aii /ioe?e ??ai? canai?iiy
ciaiue: ia?oee ??aaiue – ii/aoeia? ciaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
caaaeaiiyi oeeeeo aoiai?oa?ieo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i;
ae?oaee ??aaiue – i?i?iaeueii? eiiiaoaioiino?, ia yeiio i?iaeiaaeo?oueny
aea/aiiy iiia?aaeiueiai oeeeeo oa ai?iaaaeaeothoueny aeenoeeie?ie oeeeeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo; o?ao?e ??aaiue – iaae?aeueii? eiiiaoaioiino?, ui
a?aeiia?aea? caaaeaiiyi i?ioan?eii i???ioiaaieo aeenoeeie?i; /aoaa?oee
??aaiue – iiaii? eiiiaoaioiino? – a?aeiia?aea? ?aae?caoe?? niaoe?aeueieo
aeenoeeie?i. Aeoiaey/e ia e?eoa??? ?icoiiaiai ?icaeoeo, ca
E.N.Aeaionueeei, ia?oee ??aaiue iaceaa?oueny ??aiai aeooaeueiiai
?icaeoeo (?A?) – oea caian noi?iiaaieo ciaiue, oi?iue, iaae/ie ia iiiaio
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Inoaii?e ??aaiue iaceaa?oueny ciiith iaeaeeae/iai
?icaeoeo (CI?) – caeaoi?noue nooaeaioa aei iaieiae?iiy iiaeie ciaiiyie,
oi?iiyie, iaae/eaie.

C o?aooaaiiyi aeeeaaeaieo aeua iieiaeaiue, ie cae?enieee aenia?eiaio a
yeiio a?aee o/anoue aea? a?oie nooaeaio?a – eiio?ieueia ?
aenia?eiaioaeueia – i?ioyaii iiaiiai eo?no iaa/aiiy o eieaaeae? (ia?oee
– /aoaa?oee eo?ne). O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? iaa/aiiy a?aeaoaaeinue ca
o?aaeeoe?eiith nenoaiith, a a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e – ca
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaith.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe aeai?, io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioo, iiaeaii
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ??aaiue ciaiue c?inoa? a?aeiia?aeii aei ??aiy
eiiiaoaioiino?. Iaea?eueoee ??aaiue ciaiue a?aeiia?aea? iiai?e
eiiiaoaioiino?. Ca iaoeie aeaieie, oaea c?inoaiiy noaiiaeoue 22 %
(?aeaaeueiee aeiaaeie – 25%) ?, a?aeiinii iiia?aaeiueiai ??aiy – ia 4%
a?eueoa, ae?oaiai – ia 6 %, ??aiy ii/aoeiaeo ciaiue – ia 8%.
I?aeoaa?aeeany aeniiaie i?i aoaeoeai?noue canoiniaaiiai iiaeoeueii
?aeoeiaiaiai iaoiaeo iaa/aiiy a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi?.

Aeey iai/iiai cia?aaeaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iiaoaeo?ii iie?aiie
?iciiae?eo nooaeaio?a ca /ioe?ia aecia/aieie ??aiyie ciaiue(?en.1,2).

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00000000?en.1. Iie?aii ?iciiae?eo nooaeaio?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie

ca e?euee?noth iaea?aeaieo aae?a

Ia ianooiiiio aoai? ie aaaaeaee ca iaiao?aeia i?inoaaeeoe ca’ycie i?ae
??aiai iiaii? eiiiaoaioiino? oa ??aiai iiia?aaei?i – ??aiai iaae?aeueieo
ciaiue, aeei?enoiaoth/e noaoenoe/iee iaoiae ioe?iee u?eueiino? ca’yceo
i?ae iciaeaie ii?yaeeiai? ?aiaiai? oeaee, oiaoi iaoiae ?aiaeoaaiiy
(?ici?uaiiy iciaee ca ?aiaii a?ae i?i?iaeueii? aei iaeneiaeueii? iciaee)
oa aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo ei?aeyoe?? ca oi?ioeith Ni??iaia.

Ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aecia/aii cia/aiiy
??aiy iao/oaaiino?, oiaoi ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeoe/ii canai?ieo ciaiue aei
caaaeueiiai ianyao oeeo ciaiue, oi?iue. Ca E.N.Aeaionueeei, aieiaiei
e?eoa???i iao/oaaiino? ? ciia iaeaeeae/iai ?icaeoeo, oiaoi inoaii?e
??aaiue canai?iiy ciaiue, yeee ae?aaea?oueny o eiao?oe??io?
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo (E?I) – iieacieeo iao/oaaiino?. Aecia/aiee
eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae E?I ? na?aaei?i aaeii oni?oiino? (ca
?aeoeiaii) aei??aith? 0,68. Aecia/aiiy oeeo iieaciee?a aea? ciiao
i?iaiicoaaoe, oiaoi aeyaeoe nooaeaio?a c iaiiai?noth ?aae?ciaaieie
cae?aiinoyie, c aenieei ? iecueeei iioaioe?aeii.

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2d01010004000000f0010200030000000000

?en.2. Iie?aii ?iciiae?eo nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie

ca e?euee?noth iaea?aeaieo aae?a

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co i?iaeaie, aenia?eiaioaeueii?
?iaioe, ui i?iaiaeeeanue o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao,
i?aeoaa?aeeee iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aenoiooi? a?iioace, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aeeiiaiiy iniiaieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue.

AENIIAEE

I?iaeaia i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao ia? eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? ? oi?ea?oueny
aaaaoueio aniaeo?a nioe?aeueiiai ? aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa.

I?aai?caoe?y i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeaeao ? aaaeeeaith eaieith nenoaie aeui? ina?oe. ?? i??i?eoaoi?noue
ia?aaeaa/a? aeia?aaeaeoaaeueiee oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo ina?oe, a?aee?eo?noue,
aacia?a?ai?noue, iiaeeea?noue aeai?o oi?i iaa/aiiy, noai?aiiy ia?aae?
aeueoa?iaoeaieo caeeaae?a ina?oe. O?oaeiiu? o ?ica’ycaii? oe???
i?iaeaie, ii?yae c ?ioeie i?e/eiaie coiiaeai? ai?ciaee/i?noth oa
aacnenoaii?noth ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaai? iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui eieaaeae? iieeeeai?
a?ae?iaeeoe ? ci?oeieoe ?ioaeaeooaeueiee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie. A oeaio??
oaaae oeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ia? aooe oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino?
oao?aoe?a. Ca oeeo oiia iaaoaa? iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? aecia/aiiy
oeyo?a ?? oi?ioaaiiy. Oeae i?ioean a?oioo?oueny ia ?ioaa?aoe?? ci?noo,
?icaeaaeueiiio oa i?iaeaiiiio iaa/aii?, naii?icaeoeo, naiii?ciaii?, ui
a?aeia?aaeathoueny o iaai?e nenoai? i?eioeei?a, oiia i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aiiy, oi?i ? iaoiae?a ia iniia? iiiaeaiiai ci?noo ina?oe.

Iaie eiie?aoeciaaii ?yae eaoaai??e, iia’ycaieo c iaaeaaia?/ieie
oaoiieia?yie, cie?aia: ina?oa, aeua ina?oa, i?ioan?eia ina?oa,
aeiiii?/ia ina?oa, iaa/aiiy, i?ioean iaa/aiiy, iaa/aeueia ae?yeuei?noue,
o?aaeeoe?eia iaa/aiiy, ?iiiaaoe?eia iaa/aiiy, i?ia?aiiaaia, i?iaeaiia,
iiaeoeueia iaa/aiiy oa ?io?.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy ?noi?e/ieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eii- iaaeaaia?/ieo aniaeo?a i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a
c aeiiii?ee iaie noi?ioeueiaaii oae? aeniiaee:

Noai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? eieaaeae?a – ia’?eoeaii coiiaeaia ?aaeuei?noue. Oe?
caeeaaee noaee aaaeeeaith eaieith a nenoai? ina?oe, aieiaia iaoa yei?
iieyaa? o cae?eniaii? ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoeiai?, caaaeueiieoeueoo?ii?,
i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a.

Ia?aaaaa iao?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy ye iaa/aiiy c aa?aioiaaiei
aeinyaiaiiyi caieaiiaaiiai ?acoeueoaoo iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co oeiiaeo i?ia?ai oeeeeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ? i?ioan?eii i???ioiaaieo aeenoeeie?i aeey i?aeaioiaee
aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee o Euea?anueeiio o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiio eieaaeae?
oa eieaaeaeao NOA c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i aeioe?euei?noue ciaioaiiy
e?eueeino?aeenoeeie?i o iaa/aeueiiio ieai? aeey i?aeaoiaee aaeaeaa??a
oeyoii ?ioaa?oaaiiy ?o ci?noo, a oaeiae ciaioaiiy caaaeueii? oeaeiaai?
e?eueeino? aoaeeoi?ieo aiaeei (aei 24-26 aiae.).Ii?yae c oeei
aeooae?co?oueny iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy oaaae aei naiino?eii? ?iaioe
nooaeaio?a.

Oai?/a aeeiiaiiyaea?aeaaiiai caiiaeaiiy I?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a Oe?a?ie oa
Iieiaeaiiy “I?i i?aai?caoe?th iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao”, caeiiiaeaa/eo, ?ino?oeoeaieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith yeino? i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea
?ic?iaeaii? iaie “O?aeiiai? iiaeae? ci?noo i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy
aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee ? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa” aeiaaea ?? aoaeoeai?noue.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e – iiaeoeueiiai, i?iaeaiii-iiaeoeueiiai
iaa/aiiy, ae?eiaeo ?ai? oa ?ioeo ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ciiaeaeueiaaia oa
iaaeaaia?/ii i?aai?ciaaia iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueia, iaoeiai-aeine?aeia,
i?ioan?eii-ae?iaie/a ae?yeuei?noue, ni?yiiaaia ia oi?ioaaiiy ?o
nioe?aeueiiai oa i?ioan?eiiai aeina?aeo. Aeei?enoaiiy ae?eiaeo ?ai? o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino?
iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa, iaeneiaieueii iaaeeaea? iaa/aiiy aei
?aaeueieo ae?iaie/eo oiia, ni?ey? iaea?aeaiith a?eueo aeeaieeo
oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue.A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii iiaeaeue “Ae?eiai? a?a o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai eieaaeaeo”.

Canoinoaaiiy iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy oa eiio?ieth ciaiue
nooaeaio?a aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe iaa/aeueiee eo?n ia 30% , ia ciaiooth/e
eiaiianyao, aac ao?ao iiaiioe aeeeaaeaii ? aeeaeie canai?iiy iaoa??aeo.
A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaoaeiaaii iao?eoeth-aeai?eoi aeeeaaeo
i?ioan?eieo ciaiue nooaeaioai o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai eieaaeaeo. Aeeeaae
i?ioan?eieo ciaiue a?aeaoaa?oueny o iao?e/i?e oi?i?. I?aenenoaio ??ai?a
ciaiue a?aeia?aaea? iaeei aa?oeeaeueiee ieano iao?eoe?, yeee ioiieth?
an? aecia/ai? ??ai? eiiiaoaioiino? (ciaiiy, oi?iiy, iaae/ee). Eiaeiee
aeaiaio aeie-iao?eoe? yaey? niaith eiiieaen caaaeaiue iaa/aiiy.
?ic?iaeaii ?iai/o i?ia?aio c eo?no “Noaoenoeea” a oiiaao iiaeoeueii?
nenoaie oa e?eoa??? ioe?ithaaiiy ciaiue o aaeao (ca ?aeoeiaii).

C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano iaie cae?eniaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeoeiao aeeeaaea/?a eieaaeaeo na?aae aeioneiee?a,
?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi aecia/aiiy ?aeoeiao iiioey?iino? oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?aeoeiao aeeeaaea/?a. C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai
noi?ioeueiaaii aeniiaie uiaei ??aiy oai?aoe/ii? ? iaoiaee/ii?
i?aeaioiaee eiaeiiai aeeeaaea/a oa eiai aieeao ia iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee
i?ioean.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai, iaoiaeee aeeeaaeaiiy ie?aieo
aeenoeeie?i ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o
eieaaeae?, aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ?icaeoeo ?icoiiaeo
cae?aiinoae nooaeaio?a, ?icaeoeo o ieo ?ioa?ano aei iaeaooiuei?
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeaeao.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaei ciiao noi?ioithaaoe ?yae iinoaiiai/ieo
ieoaiue ? i?iiiceoe?e uiaei iaiao?aeiino? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? ?ic?iaee
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace ae?yeueiino? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai eieaaeaeo
ye caeeaaeo ina?oe iiaiai oeio; iineeaiiy oaaae aei yeino? i?ioan?eiiai
iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a; iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiia aei i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaenoa?iino? aeeeaaea/?a eieaaeaeo.

Cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?aoaiaeo? ia ae/a?iia ?ica’ycaiiy
aaaaoianiaeoii? i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a
o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao. Iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy caneoaiaothoue
oae? i?iaeaie: oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? e i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i?
canaaee i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
oiiaao, iia? oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee oa o?iainiai? nenoaie,
aea?aeaaiiai noaiaea?oo aeui? ina?oe oa eiai neeaaeiaeo.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1.Aa?eeoa E.O., Aae A.E. Noaoenoeea :Eo?n eaeoe?e. – Ee?a. :OIE I?io?io
Oe?a?ie.– 1996. – 183 n.(aaoi?nuee? – 83-97, 110-182).

2.Aa?eeoa E.O. Iaoai?ci canai?iiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue – neeaaeiaa /anoeia
iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia?? i?aeaioiaee aeioneiee?a o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeae?a // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. –1998. – ? 2.
– N.68-72.

3.Aa?eeoa E.O. No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? a i?aeaioiaoe? aaeaeaa??a o
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe. – 1998. – ?2. – N.100-104.

4.Aa?eeoa E.O. Aaciaa aeua ina?oa ye aieiaia neeaaeiaa oaoiai?
i?aeaioiaee iieiae? // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. – 1998. – ?3. –
N.139-143.

5. Aa?eeoa E.O., Eiceinueea I.A. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia oa i?ioan?eia
aaeaioaoe?y nooaeaio?a //Ieoaiiy iaaeaaia?ee na?aaeiuei? ? aeui? oeiee:
A?niee Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – Na??y Iaaeaaia?/ia. – 1996. –
Aeione 13. – N.42-46.

6.Aa?eeoa E.O., Eiiaea? N.E. Oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy aca?iia?aeiia?aeiino?
ci?noo aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe aaeaeaa?a c aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i? ? ca ?oaaaeai
//Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. – 1997. – ?3. –N 237-243.

7. Berkita K., Lozinska N. Humanistyczne aspekty zawodowej adaptacji
mlodziezy we wspotczesnych warunkach //Edukacja mlodego pokolenia
polakow I ukraincow w kontekscie integracji europejskiej.– Lublin:
Wydawnictwo UMCS. – 1988. – S.391-394.

8.Aa?eeoa E.O. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai
iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao: Iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??. – Ee?a :OIE I?io?io Oe?a?ie, 1997. –28n.

9.Aa?eeoa E.O. Iia? i?aeoiaee aei i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a c aeiiii?ee oa
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa //Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Aeaiie?aoe/i? oe?iiino? oe?a?inueeiai aeoiaaiiy”. – Euea?a. – 1997.–N .
18-25.

10.Aa?eeoa E.O., Eiceinueea I.A. Aoiai?noe/i? aniaeoe i?iaeaie
aaeaioaoe?? iieiaeeo oao?aoe?a ia ae?iaieoeoa? a no/anieo oiiaao //
Iaoa??aee ?anioae?eainueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Eoeueoo?a
Oe?a?ie, o?einio?y oa aoiai?oa?ia i?iaeaiaoeea a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? o
aeu?e oa na?aaei?e oaoi?/i?e oeie?”. -Euea?a. – 1995. – N.61.

11. Aa?eeoa E.O. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.
?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e // Oace aenooi?a iaeaniiai iaoiaee/iiai
ia’?aeiaiiy aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe ?-?? ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe??. – Aeoiyie:
?aaeaini-oaoi?eoi. – 1997. –N.15.

12. Aa?eeoa E.O., Eiiaea? N.E. Iaa/aeueia i?ia?aia aeey aecia/aiiy
noaoenoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? a aeiiiiao?e/ieo caaea/ao
// Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Aeei?enoaiiy ia?niiaeueieo AII o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aeueo oa
na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a”. — Euea?a: Euea?anueeee oi?aa?neoao. –
1996. – N.72.

Aa?eeoa E.O. I?aai?caoe?y i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo eieaaeaeao. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.04 – oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe. – ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny oaeno aeena?oaoe??, iniiaiee ci?no yei? aeeeaaeaii o 12
iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo. ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeaie
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a o o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
eieaaeaeao.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeeaeaeoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii i?aai?caoe?th i?ioan?eiiai
iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa?a, ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio ? iaoiaeeeo i?aai?caoe??
naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a a oiiaao iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaiai iaa/aiiy,
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy aaeaeaa??a, aeiaaaeaii iaeaeioe?euei?o? aa??aioe
?o ?aae?caoe?? ia i?aeoeoe?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaeaeaa? c aeiiii?ee, eieaaeae, aaciaa aeua ina?oa, aeua
aeiiii?/ia ina?oa, eeth/ia? i?ioan??, i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea.

Aa?eeoa A.O. I?aaiecaoeey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey aaeaeaa?ia a
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneeo eieeaaeaeao. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.04 – oai?ey e iaoiaeeea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey. – Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee e ineoieiaee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Caueuaaony oaeno aeena?oaoeee, iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea eioi?ie eceiaeaii a
12-oe ioaeeeaoeeyo.

?aaioa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeaiu i?aaiecaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
iao/aiey aaeaeaa?ia a oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneeo eieeaaeaeao.

Aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey iaoneiaeaia iiauie oaiaeaioeeyie a
?acaeoee yeiiiieee, oeiainiaie nenoaiu, iiauoaieai ?iee
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneeo eieeaaeaeae a i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaea
aaeaeaa?ia aeey inouanoaeaiey iiaie oeiainiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa.

A aeenna?oaoeee inaauaiu oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea iieiaeaiey
?aoi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu aunoaai ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua ninoiyo a oneeaiee
o?aaiaaiee e iaania/aieth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e acaeiinayce iauaai,
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai e aunoaai ia?aciaaiey, ia?aoiaeo e aeaeie,
aeeiaie/iie iiiaio?iaiaaie nenoaia iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia.
Iainiiaaiiua iaie eiioeaiooaeueiua iieiaeaiey iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu
i?e oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
?aciio?iaiaaiai ia?aciaaiey: iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e ioai?a niaea?aeaiey
iao/aiey, eioaa?aoeaiiai e iia?aaeathuaai iiaeoiaeia, nenoaiiinoe,
oeaeiniinoe e eioaa?aoeaiinoe.

A ?aaioa i?iaaaeai aiaeec oai?aoe/aneeo iniia iiaeaioiaee aaeaeaa?ia,
eco/ai ca?oaaaeiue iiuo e ioa/anoaaiiua oaiaeaioeee iiaeaioiaee
aaeaeaa?ia yeiiiieee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe aunoeie
o/aaiuie caaaaeaieyie.

Eco/aii ninoiyiea iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia eieeaaeaea a nia?aiaiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo.

Auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey a
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneeo eieeaaeaeao, eioi?ua iaoneiaeaiu niaoeeoeeie
io?anee yeiiiieee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea
aic?anoathueie o?aaiaaieyie e ?aaioieeai oeiainiaie nenoaiu.

Oai?/aneia auiieiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeaca Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia
Oe?aeiu, caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo, eino?oeoeaiuo e iaoiaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia
niinianoaotho iiauoaieth ea/anoaa iiaeaioiaee aaeaeaa?ia.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?iaa?ea ?ac?aaioaiiie iaie “O?aeiiaie iiaeaee
niaea?aeaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey aaeaeaa?ia yeiiiieee e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa” aeieacaea aa yooaeoeaiinoue.

Aiaae?aiea iiauo oaoiieiaee – iiaeoeueiiai, i?iaeaiii-iiaeoeueiiai
iao/aiey, aeaeiauo ea?, ?anniao?eaaaony iaie eae niiaeaee?iaaiiay e
iaaeaaiae/anee i?aaieciaaiiay o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiay,
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay, i?ioanneiiaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia oi?ie?iaaiea nioeeaeueiiai e
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iiuoa.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeeaeaeoe/anee iainiiaaia i?aaiecaoeey
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey aaeaeaa?ia, ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiio iaania/aieth i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
iao/aiey aaeaeaa?ia, i?ia?aiia ii i?aaeiaoo “Noaoenoeea” a oneiaeyo
iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaie nenoaiu iao/aiey, iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ii i?aaiecaoeee naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou nooaeaioia, aeieacaia
oeaeaniia?aciinoue e aa?eaoeaiinoue eo ?aaeecaoeee ia i?aeoeea.

Aeey enneaaeiaaiey yooaeoeaiinoe o/aaiiai i?ioeanna i?e aiaae?aiee iiauo
iaaeaaiae/aneeo oaoiieiaee iao/aiey ( iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiaie nenoaiu
iao/aiey e eiio?iey ciaiee, i?iaaaeaiey caiyoee-aeaeiauo ea?) auee
eniieueciaaiu iaoiaeu oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca, eco/aiea ioeoeeaeueiuo
aeieoiaioia ii aii?inai enneaaeoaiie i?iaeaiu, eco/aiea e iaiauaiea
ioa/anoaaiiiai e ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa ii aii?inai aaeaeaa?neie
iiaeaioiaee; iaoiaeu iaaethaeaiey: aieaoe?iaaiea, aanaaeu, oanoe?iaaiea,
?aeoeia, ?aiaee?iaaiea, aiaeec o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaeaeaa? yeiiiieee, eieeaaeae, aaciaia aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea, aunoaa yeiiiie/aneia ia?aciaaiea, eeth/aaua i?ioannee,
i?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea.

Berkyta K.F. The scheme of the organization of Professional Education of
Bachelors in colleges of Economics and Finance. – Manuscript.

The dessertation on gainig the Candidate of Science (Pedagogy) Degree
13.00.04 – Theory and Methody of Professional Education. – Institute
of Pedagogy and Psychology of Professional Education of the Academy of
Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The main idea of the thesis is introduced in 12 scientific articles. The
work is devoted to the veseavching of the problem connected with the
organization of professional education of Bachelors in colleges of
Economics and Finance.

The organization of professional education of Bachelors is pointed out
the dessertation. The programs and methods of organization of
independent student`s work under module-rating technology is worked out
here too.

Key words: Bachelor of scienee in economics, college, Higher Education,
Higher education in Economies, key professions, professional training.

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