2

?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE ? INEOIEIA?? I?IOAN?EII? INA?OE

AEAAeAI?? IAAeAAIA?*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

AOAA?EI Aioii Aioiiiae/

OAeE 377. 1

I?AAI?CAOe?ss IAA*AEUeII-AE?IAIE*IAI I?IOeANO

O AEUIIO I?IOAN?EIIIO O*EEEU?-AA?IO??I?

13.00.04 – oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee /eai

ea??aiee: AII Oe?a?ie Ie/eaei Iaeey A?eai??aia, I?aceae?y AII Oe?a?ie,
aeaaeai?e-nae?aoa? A?aeae?eaiiy iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe.

Io?oe?ei? aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeueii?i Aiaoie?e
iiiiaioe ?aaiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani?;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Eaieoi Aiae??e Aieiaeeie?iae/,
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia o/eeeua ?1 i.Oa?iiiiey, aee?aeoi?.

I?ia?aeia AEeoiie?nueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo

Onoaiiaa ?i. ?. O?aiea, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i. AEeoiie?.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “24” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.451.01 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254060, i. Ee?a,
aoe. I.Aa?eeinueeiai, 9, 5-e iiaa?o, cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie (254060, i.
Ee?a, aoe. I.Aa?eeinueeiai, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “23” n?/iy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee OeEAOEUeNUeEA A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?aaoaeiaa iaoiai
noni?euenoaa ia i?eioeeiiai iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo canaaeao,
ia?ai???ioaoe?y aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ia na?oiaee ?eiie coiiaeththoue
iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy aeiia aei i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy iaeaooi?o
?ia?oiee?a, ?o caaaeueiiina?oiueiai, eoeueoo?iiai oa oaoiaiai ??aiy.
Aeioneieee i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo caeeaae?a ina?oe iiaeii? aooe aioia?
i?aoethaaoe a oiiaao iino?eiiai iiiaeaiiy oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?e c
o?aooaaiiyi na?oiaeo oaiaeaioe?e. Oea iathoue aooe i?aei?e?ieea?
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei? ?ia?oieee c aenieei ??aiai i?ioan?eii?
eiiiaoaioiino?, iia?eueiino?, aioiaiino? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
oaoiieia?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ca noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie, aeecueei 80 a?aenioe?a ianaeaieo ioieo?a
Oe?a?ie ? n?euenueeeie (o 1998 ?ioe? ?o iae?/oaaeinue 28 794). Aeecueei
32-o a?aenioe?a ianaeaiiy i?iaeeaathoue o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?,
cia/iith ? /anoeia ianaeaiiy, caeiyoiai a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
iaoi? aea?aeaae. Ca oeeo oiia iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ae?yeuei?noue
n?euenueeeo caaaeueiiina?oi?o oa i?ioan?eieo caeeaae?a, ye? i?aeoe/ii
noaee noaa?e?coth/ei oaeoi?ii aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? naea, cie?aia a
aeaiia?ao?/iiio, aeiiii?/iiio oa nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiio aniaeoao.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee eaae??a aeey naea – iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
oiia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia
iniia? canoinoaaiiy iiai? oaoi?ee ? i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e. Ci?no ?
oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a
iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoe aeia?aaeaeoaaeueia c?inoaiiy ??aiy ?o
eaae?o?eaoe??, iaia?a?ai?noue ? ianooii?noue o caeiaooo?
eaae?o?eaoe?eieo ??ai?a.

Ia?ao?ae aei aia?aicaa??aath/eo, aaca?aeo?aeieo e aeiiii?/ii aacia/ieo
oaoiieia?e ia?aaeaa/a? ia o?eueee iayai?noue no/aniiai oaoi?/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano, aea e aeoeaio o/anoue o oeueiio
i?ioean? o?oae?aieea, yeee ae aieiae?a iiaeie aeaeaie i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, aoa ae caeaoiee oai?/i ioe?ithaaoe neooaoe?th ? a?aoe ia
naaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, a oaeiae iaa ae aenieee
??aaiue oaoiieia?/ii? ? ae?iaie/i? eoeueoo?e.

?aae?caoe?y no/anieo ina?oiuei-aeoiaieo caaaeaiue iia’ycaia c iiooeaie
aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. Oea aeiaaa?
iiiaeaiiy ci?noo i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy, ?ic?iaee noaiaea?o?a
i?iooaoina?oe c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo aeinyaiaiue iaoee, oaoi?ee oa
oaoiieia?e, noai?aiiy iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio. ?aeay noai?aiiy
aeuiai i?ioan?eiiai o/eeeua-aa?io??ie (AIO-aa?io??ie) a iiaeo oiiaao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia?iaeaeaia naiei aeeooyi. Iniiaia iaoa ae?yeueiino?
oeueiai caeeaaeo – caaacia/aiiy ye?nii iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aeaeuaiiy
i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy i?aeaioiaee iaoai?caoi?nueeeo eaae??a-aa?a?iee?a ia
iniia? eiiieaeniiai caaacia/aiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano iaiao?aeiei
ianyaii iaoai?ciaaieo, oaoiieia?/ieo, ?aiiioieo ?ia?o ye aaaeeeai? oiiae
oi?ioaaiiy i?aeoe/ieo iaae/ie o/i?a i?ae /an iaa/aiiy.

sse iieacaei aea/aiiy, a Oe?a?i? iaeiie/aii aaaaoee iiceoeaiee aeina?ae
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a. ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe
oe??? aaaeeeai? i?iaeaie a?aeia?aaeaii a eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?yo:
?.A. Aaa?eo, A.A. Eaieoia, ?.E. E?ea?/oea, I.A. Ieoaeeianueei?, A.Ae.
Ii?ica, I.I. Iaaeoi, N.A. Oethea?aa oa ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a. I?iaeaie
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i? i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a c
na?aaeiueith ina?oith oa ia?aoiaeo aei aeueo i?ioan?eieo o/eeeu
aena?oeaii a i?aoeyo ?.A. Aaneeue?aa, A.I. Cae/oea, I.I. Eioaiea.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?iaeaia i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai
i?ioeano a caeeaaeao i?iooaoina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth,
a oiio /ene? o aeuiio i?ioan?eiiio o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?, ia aoea i?aaeiaoii
niaoe?aeueieo iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. A?aenooi?noue iaoeiai
ia??oioiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ae?yeueiino? ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
eieaeoea?a oeeo caeeaae?a, ?o aca?iiae?? c ?ioeie nioe?aeueieie
?inoeoooaie o cae?eniaii? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano iaaaoeaii
iicia/a?oueny ia yeino? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee eaae??a aeey
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

O ca’yceo c oeei aeieeea ia’?eoeaia iio?aaa oai?aoe/ii ia??oiooaaoe oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iiaeaeue oa ?iiiaaoe?eio oaoiieia?th
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae? i?iooaoina?oe iiaiai oeio.

Aeeeaaeaia aeua coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:
“I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o aeuiio i?ioan?eiiio
o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?”. Oey oaia aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie
ye neeaaeiaa caaaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?iaeaie a?aeai?o ci?noo ? iaoiaeeee i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy” (?E ?
0196E008881).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy: ci?no ? oi?ie i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o aeuiio i?ioan?eiiio o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: oai?aoe/ii ia??oiooaaoe, ?ic?iaeoe oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o
aeuiio i?ioan?eiiio o/eeeu?-aa?io??i? oa ?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai ia??oioiaai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o
caeeaaeao i?iooaoina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth.

Eiioeaiooaeueieie ?aeayie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iieiaeaiiy uiaei:

iaia?a?aiino? aaaaoi??aiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, ?? i???ioaoe?? ia
aeiiae na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ? a?aooaaiiy i?iaiic?a ?icaeoeo
iaoee, oaoi?ee, aeiiii?ee, ??cieo aaeocae i?iieneiaiai,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa noa?e iineoa;

a?aooaaiiy no/anieo iio?aa i?aeaaeocaai?, i?aei?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee,
caaacia/aiiy iaa/aiiy c ?ioaa?iaaieo i?ioan?e a ?aaeueieo oiiaao
ae?iaieoeoaa;

iiaeaethaaiiy oe?e?niiai iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a caeeaae?
i?iooaoina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth a oiiaao nooiaiaai?
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy;

a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a AIO-aa?io??ie ia ??cieo aoaiao i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy
a ?aaeueieo oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o
aeuiio i?ioan?eiiio o/eeeu?-aa?io??i? i?aeaeuoaaoeiaoueny ca oaeeo oiia:
oai?aoe/iiai ia??oiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeae?
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o AIO-aa?io??i?; aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
oeeee?a iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? c o?aooaaiiyi ee?iaoe/ieo
iniaeeainoae, o?aaeeoe?e o aaaeaii? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a
?a??ii?, iniaeeainoae oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?; i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a oeueiio
caeeaae? ca iaa/aeueieie ieaiaie ? i?ia?aiaie iiaiai iieie?iiy,
iiaoaeiaaieie ia iniia? ?ioaa?iaaiiai i?aeoiaeo; ?ic?iaee oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c
i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o
?ineeiieoeoa?“ a ?aaeueieo oiiaao a?aeiia?aeii? aaeoc?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa; ia iniia? eaieiai? nenoaie
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy ?icaeoeo aca?iiae?? AIO-aa?io??ie c aeueie
caeeaaeaie ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth.

Ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa ? a?iioaca coiiaeee caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a
i?io-oaoina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth iiaiai oeio.

2. Oai?aoe/ii ia??oiooaaoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iiaeaeue
iaa-/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o AIO-aa?io??i?.

3. Ia??oiooaaoe iia? i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee iaa/aeueieo ieai?a IOO ? AIO
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth.

4. ?ic?iaeoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy
eaai-?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y
iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o ?ineeiieoeoa?”.

5. Iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? iai?yie aca?iiae?? AIO-aa?io??ie oa aeuiai
caeeaaeo ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth.

6. ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaen iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o AIO-aa?io??i?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai??y iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy,
oai??? nenoai ? oai??? oi?aae?iiy, ae?aeaeoe/iee i?eioeei
anacaaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu iaoa??aeueiiai na?oo, ?o
aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iicoiiaeaiino?, ii?aeiaiiy iaa/aiiy c i?iaeoeoeaiith
i?aoeath a niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa;
iieiaeaiiy uiaei i?ioan?eii? ni?yiiaaiino? aeeeaaeaiiy caaaeueiiina?oi?o
aeenoeeie?i o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao i?iooaoina?oe, ianooiiino?,
iaia?a?aiino? aaaaoi??aiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, a oaeiae iieiaeaiiy
no/anieo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo eiioeaioe?e i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith noaee iaoeia? i?aoe? c oai??? oa ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee, o?einio??, ineoieia??, aeiiii?ee,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, cie?aia: A.N. Iaea?aiea,
A.I. Nooiieeinueeiai c ieoaiue o?oaeiaiai, ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
iieiae?, ii?aeiaiiy iaa/aiiy c i?iaeoeoeaiith i?aoeath, aeoiaaiiy
ethaia? aei ??aeii? caie?; oai??? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee (N.ss.
Aaoeoaa, A.N. Aac?oeiaa, A.I. Aaey?aa, I.?. Aeoi/aiei, A.?. Aeueii?i,
I.A. Eocuei?ia, I.?. Iaoiooia, I.A. Ie/eaei); ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
?ioaa?aoe?? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? ? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee,
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a caeeaaeao
i?iooaoina?oe (A.N. Aooi?ia, I.N. Aeoaei/oe, I.A. ?eue?i, A.N. Eaaei?a,
E.Ae. O?iiiaa, A.O. Oeey?),

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aoiaoaaeenue iieiaeaiiy Aea?aeaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”), Caeii?a
Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”, “I?i i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io ina?oo”, a oaeiae ?yaeo
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe, I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? ?
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie cae?enithaaeinue o 1990-1998 ?ieao o o?e
aoaie:

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1990-1992 ?iee) aea/aany noai aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie a iaaeaaia?/i?e, ineoieia?/i?e, aeiiii?/i?e, ?noi?e/i?e,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e, iaoiaee/i?e oa ?io?e e?oa?aoo??. Iniaeeao
oaaao aoei i?eae?eaii ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiio aniaeoo i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aeey n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ??cieo ?a??ii?a
Oe?a?ie. Aecia/aeenue eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino?
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth
iiaiai oeio. Iaa?oioiaoaaeenue ia’?eo, i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
eiie?aoeciaoaaeenue eiai caaaeaiiy. Cae?enithaaeinue oaeiae aea/aiiy
noaio i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aeey ??cieo aaeocae
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Aiae?coaaeanue
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa aaca ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe o iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1993-1996 ?iee) aea/aeenue aeeaeaeoe/i? aniaeoe
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, cae?enithaaany aiae?c noaio i?aeaioiaee
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o ?yae? ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, cie?aia
i?ae /an a?ae?yaeaeaiue aei NOA oa I?ia//eie. Iaa?oioiaoaaeanue iiaeaeue
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?. Ia iniia?
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co iaa/aeueieo ieai?a oa i?ia?ai aeey caeeaae?a
i?iooaoina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth (o/eeeua-?aaeainio,
o/eeeua-aa?io??ie oa aeuiai i?ioan?eiiai o/eeeua-aa?io??ie) aeyaeyeenue
?o iniaeeaino?. ?ic?iaeyeenue aa??aioe aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaa/aeueieo
ieai?a, cae?enithaaeanue aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea ?ic?iaeaii? iaie
iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo
?ia?o o ?ineeiieoeoa?”.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1996-1998 ?iee) iaa?oioiaoaaeenue iniiai? iai?yie
aca?iiae?? AIO-aa?io??ie oa aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, cae?enithaaeanue ?o
aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea. ?ic?iaeyeanue nenoaia iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? AIO-aa?io??ie. Ocaaaeueithaaeenue ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, ui i?iaiaeeeanue a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i? ia
??cieo aoaiao iaoeiaiai iiooeo.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue o
Aaeeinueeiio AIO-aa?io??i?, o i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeuao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth Oiaeueieoeueei?, A?iieoeueei?,
Oa?iii?euenueei? oa Euea?anueei? iaeanoae, o Iiae?euenuee?e aea?aeaai?e
aa?a?ii-oaoi?/i?e aeaaeai??, Ai?u?anueeiio aa?a?ii-oaoi?/iiio eieaaeae?,
a oaeiae ia aac? 8 n?euenueeeo ainiiaea?noa ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? o
??cieo ?aeiiao Iiae?eey. O iueiio a?aee o/anoue 1360 o/i?a, 97
?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, 45 i?aoe?aiee?a Iiae?euenueei?
aa?a?ii-oaoi?/ii? aeaaeai?? ? 680 i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeeo ainiiaea?noa
Aeoia?aaoeueeiai, ss?iieeiaoeueeiai, *aia?iaaoeueeiai, Iiaiooeoeueeiai
oa Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aeii?a Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano?.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/iiai ??aiy: aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii?,
ineoieia?/ii?, ?noi?e/ii?, aeiiii?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae c
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie; aea/aiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeieoiaio?a,
iaa/aeueieo ieai?a, i?ia?ai, ieai?a ?iaioe caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth oa ?ioi? iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii?
aeieoiaioaoe??; aii??e/iiai ??aiy: ae?aaiinoe/i? (aieaooaaiiy,
?ioa?a’thaaiiy, aan?aee); iana?aaoe?ei? (i?yia ? iai?yia
niinoa?aaeaiiy); i?iaiinoe/i? (iiaeaethaaiiy, i?iaeooaaiiy, aenia?oi?
ioe?iee); aenia?eiaioaeuei? (eiinoaooth/ee ? oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaioe);
e?euee?nia oa ye?nia ia?iaea aeaieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa oai?aoe/ii
ia??oioiaaii eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino?
AIO-aa?io??ie, ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a
oeueiio caeeaae? a oiiaao aaaaoi??aiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe; aeyaeaii
iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy oa ae?iaie/i? i?aeoeee a
?aaeueieo oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa; ia??oioiaaii
iniiai? iai?yie aca?iiae?? AIO-aa?io??ie oa aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth; iaaoee iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
iieiaeaiiy uiaei ieaioaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo ?ia?o
c i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o
?ineeiieoeoa?”.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a: ia??oiooaaii? iieiaeaiiy
uiaei iaia?a?aii? aaaaoi??aiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth; ?ic?iaoe? i?eioeei?a a?aeai?o oa
no?oeoo?oaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ?c niaoe?aeueieo aeenoeeie?i;
aecia/aii? iniiaieo oeeee?a iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? a
o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?; ?ic?iaoe? eaieiai? nenoaie ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy a
?aaeueieo oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa; oai?aoe/iiio
ia??oiooaaii? aeeaeaeoe/ieo aeiia aei ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaa/aeueieo ieai?a,
i?ia?ai, iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? aeey i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o AIO-aa?io??i?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?:
iaa/aeueieo ieai?a aeey AIO-aa?io??ie; iiaeae? ?ioaa?iaaii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?ioan??: o?aeoi?eno-iaoei?no ??? eeano,
nethna?-?aiiioiee ?? ?ic?yaeo, o?aeoi?eno-iaoei?no oe?ieiai i?io?eth,
nethna?-?aiiioiee ???-?V ?ic?yaeo, aiae?e o?ainii?oieo cania?a eaoaai??e
“A”, “N”, iieiaeoee niaoe?ae?no ?c niaoe?aeueiino? “Iaoai?caoe?y
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa”;

— iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y
iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o ?ineeiieoeoa?”; iaoiaeeee ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy a
?aaeueieo oiiaao no/aniiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa;
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe oa aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, a oaeiae o ?ic?iaoe?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai eiiieaeno AIO-aa?io??ie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii: o aeueo i?ioan?eieo
o/eeeuao-aa?io??iao oa ?ioeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao i?iooaoina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano? (aeia?aeea ?
1015 a?ae 13.11.1998 ?.), Euea?anueei? iaeano? (aeia?aeea ?531 a?ae
28.112.1998 ?.), a oaeiae o i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo oa aeueo caeeaaeao
ina?oe ?-?? ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth
??cieo ?a??ii?a Oe?a?ie (aeia?aeea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ? 117
a?ae 30 a?oaeiy 1998 ?.)

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa?:

— o oai?aoe/iiio ia??oiooaaii? iiaeae? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o
aeuiio i?ioan?eiiio o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy
i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o
?ineeiieoeoa?”;

— o ?ic?iaoe? iaa/aeueieo ieai?a oa i?ia?ai iiaiai iieie?iiy aeey
caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth;

— o aecia/aii? iniiaieo iai?yi?a aca?iiae?? AIO-aa?io??ie oa aeuiai
caeeaaeo ina?oe ???-?V ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe??;

— a ia??oiooaaii? ? i?aeoe/i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? AIO-aa?io??ie.

A??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/o?oueny iaoiaeieia?/iith ia??oioiaai?noth eiai aeo?aeieo
iieiaeaiue, aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoiae?a, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iao?,
i?aaeiaoo ? caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiae?cii cia/ii? e?eueeino?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo aeaea?ae c i?iaeai iaia?a?aii? aaaaoi??aiaai?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, ii?aeiaiiyi
e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai aiae?co aeine?aeieoeueeeo aeaieo, a oaeiae
?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee aenoiooi? a?iioace.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

— oai?aoe/ii ia??oioiaaia iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o
aeuiio i?ioan?eiiio o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?;

— iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y
iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o ?ineeiieoeoa?”;

— iniiai? iai?yie aca?iiae?? AIO-aa?io??ie oa aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth o i?aeaioiaoe? aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a oa iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a;

— iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee eiiieaen, ni?yiiaaiee ia caaacia/aiiy
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o aeuiio i?ioan?eiiio o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo oa
iaeanieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo c i?iaeai i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
(Iineaa 1991 ?.; Euea?a 1994 ?., A?iieoey, 1996 ?.); ?anioae?eainueeeo
oeieao ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo, ye? i?aoeththoue ia aac?
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeu Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano? (1991, 1993 ??.),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao (Euea?a, 1993 ?., A?iieoey 1997 ?.).
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo o I?ia//ei? (1996, 1997 ??.) oa ia i?aeia?iaeieo ?
anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ,nai?ia?ao, ye?
i?iaiaeeeenue ia aac? Aaeeinueeiai AIO-aa?io??ie o 1997-1998 ?ieao.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o AIO-aa?io??i?,
?ic?iaeai? iaa/aeuei? ieaie, i?ia?aie, iaoiaeeee oa iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao
?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a Oiaeueieoeueei?, A?iieoeueei?,
Oa?iii?euenueei?, Ee?anueei?, Euea?anueei? oa ?ioeo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaii o naie iaeiiin?aieo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a, c ieo 1 iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee, 4 noaoo? o
iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, 2 noaoo? o iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ca??ieeao, a
oaeiae o 2-o iaa/aeueieo ieaiao, i?ia?ai? c i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ?
oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o ?ineeiieoeoa?”.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y ianyaii 179 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ei?ioeeo aeniiae?a aei
eiaeiiai ?icae?eo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
(298 iaeiaioaaiue c ieo 4 ?iicaiieie iiaaie), 45 oaaeeoeue oa 16
?enoie?a ui caeiathoue 82 noi??iee, a oaeiae 53 aeiaeaoee ia 162
noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??.

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao ? iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai a?iioaco oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy,
aeeeaaeaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aena?oeaii iai?yie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ai?iaaoe??
?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii
iieiaeaiiy, aeianai? ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “I?ioan?eia iaa/aiiy eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a aeey
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ye iaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeaia” –
aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy ?noi?e/iiai aniaeoo i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee
eaae??a aeey naea o caeeaaeao i?iooaoina?oe Oe?a?ie, noi?ioeueiaaii
eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth iiaiai oeio, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco ae?yeueiino? i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a o iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao.

Aea/aiiy ?noi?e/iiai aniaeoo i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aeey
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i? aeaei ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ia
??cieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo iaoi? aea?aeaae caeaaeii a?ae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo oa ?ioeo
oiia a?aeiia?aeii ci?ithaaeenue ci?no, oi?ie oa iaoiaee i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oiee?a aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Cae?eniaiee ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c aeaa ciiao aeyaeoe iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth
ia ??cieo aoaiao, ii??aiyoe ia??iaeecaoe?? ?icaeoeo i?iooaoina?oe a
Oe?a?i? (I.O. Iocaiiaa, A.?. Oa?auaiea, I.E. O?iiiai? oa ?.E.
E?ea?/oea), aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? o ci?no? oa oi?iao i?aai?caoe??
i?aeaioiaee eaae??a aeey naea, i?iaiae?coaaoe aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo
caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe ??ciiai oeio, cie?aia: oe?e ?aaeainiiiai,
iaoeiio?aeoi?iiai e eieainiiiai o/i?anoaa (?AO, IOO, EAO),
oe?e-caaiae?a, oe?e OCO, a caiaeii — i?iooaoo/eeeu, na?aaei?o
i?iooaoo/eeeu n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, o/eeeu-aa?io??i oa
AIO-aa?io??i.

O ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi oaeoi?e, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ?ica’ycaiiy
caaaeaiue iiiaeaiiy ? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, na?aae ieo: iaa?aeiia?aei?noue
iayaii? no?oeoo?e caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? oa aeui? ina?oe iio?aaai
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee; ciaioaiiy, iaaeinoaoi?noue oa ianoaa?euei?noue
o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe; iai?eaeaoi?noue ciaiue oa oi?iue, io?eiaieo a
caeeaaeao ina?oe, aeey canoinoaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee;
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iaoai?ci?a eiio?ieth ? a?aenooi?noue aa?aio?e yeino?
ina?oe; iineeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e ia??aiii?aaiino? a io?eiaii? ina?oe.
Ii?yae c oeei iaea i?noea iaaei??ia ?aeaieia?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano o i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeuao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?io?eth, ye ? a caeeaaeao i?iooaoina?oe ?ioeo oei?a, ui iaaaoeaii
a?aeaeeinue ia ci?no? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?.

Aiaeii/an aea/aiiy iieacaei, ui o aeina?ae? i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a iaee i?noea i?ia?aneai? ?aea?, cie?aia: ?ioaa?oaaiiy ci?noo
caaaeueii ina?oiuei? ? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, i?io?ethaaiiy
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? i?aeaioiaee, caaacia/aiiy i?aeoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy
ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo oa ?io?.

O ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi ?icaeoie i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?i
i?aeaioiaee eaae??a aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a iao?e
e?a?i?. Aena?oeaii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae noai?aiiy
o/eeeua-aa?io??ie ye i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai caeeaaeo iiaiai
oeio, a yeiio iiaeia cae?enithaaoe:

— oe?eani?yiiaaio i???ioaoe?th oa caaacia/aiiy aca?iica’yceo
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oa i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ia ??cieo ??aiyo
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy, ?ioaa?oaaiiy ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ?c
caaaeueiiina?oi?o ? niaoe?aeueieo aeenoeeie?i, ?ic?iaeo ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? aaaaoi??aiaaiai i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy;

— ii?aoethaaiiy iiai? iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??,
eaae?o?eaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaiai iieie?iiy c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo
oa ia?niaeoeaieo aeiia, ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeinyaiaiue o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?, iia?aoeaia
aianaiiy ci?i aei iaa/aeueieo ieai?a ? i?ia?ai c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia
aea?aeaaiiai noaiaea?oo.

Ia iniia? aiae?co eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino?
caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe iiaiai oeio iaie c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i
iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy iiaeo oaiaeaioe?e, iia’ycaieo c ia?aaoaeia/eie
i?ioeanaie, iiaeie iio?aaaie aeiiii?ee aea?aeaae a oiiaao ?icaeoeo
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, caeiaooeaie ?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ii? ?aaiethoe??,
a oaeiae aeinyaiaiue o ??cieo aaeocyo i?iieneiaiai oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Cae?eniaiee aiae?c iniaeeainoae i?aai?caoe?? caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio aeaa
ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie uiaei iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy noeoiiino?
a?aeiia?aeieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo,
a?a??i?/ieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo oa ?ioeo oiia. I?ia?aeiith iniaeea?noth
ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe iiaiai oeio ? ?iiiaaoe?eiee
i?aeo?ae aei cae?eniaiiy iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a ?aaeueieo
oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aea/aiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe
iieacaei iaa?aeiia?aei?noue aaaaoueio ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeieoiaio?a
no/aniei iio?aaai. Aeiaaaeaii ia’?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iiai?
i?aaiai? aace, eio?a a?aoiaoaaea a aeiiae caeiiiaeaanoaa, cie?aia,
Caeii?a Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”, “I?i i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io ina?oo” oa
iieiaeaiiy Eiioeaioe?? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Nooiaiaaa i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai
i?i-oeano o AIO-aa?io??i?” – iaa?oioiaaii iiaeaeue
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o AIO-aa?io??i?, aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co iaa/aeueieo ieai?a caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, cie?aia IOO, o/eeeua-aa?io??ie oa
aeuiai i?ioan?eiiai o/eeeua-aa?io??ie, a oaeiae aaoi?nueeo iaoiaeeeo
aeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o
?ineeiieoeoa?”.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/iiai aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo
oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, a oaeiae a?o/eciyieo oa
ca?oa?aeieo eiioeaioe?e iaia?a?aii? aaaaoi??aiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
iaie ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o AIO-aa?io??i?
(noaia 1).

C o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee AIO-aa?io??ie ye caeeaaeo iiaiai oeio, ia
iniia? i?eioeei?a aeaiie?aoecaoe?? ? aoiai?caoe??, aio/eino?, ii?aeiaiiy
caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, aoaiiino? a iaieiae?ii?
?ioaa?iaaieie i?ioan?yie, iioei?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
caeaaeii a?ae neeaaeiino? i?ioan?e, aecia/aiiy iaia’yceiaiai aaeocaaiai
? ?a??iiaeueiiai eiiiiiaio?a o ci?no? ina?oe aoei cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee
iaa/aeueiee ieai aeey nooiaiaai? i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy
iaeno??a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aiae??a aaoiiia?ey
eaoaai??e “A”, “N” oa iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a c? niaoe?aeueiino?
5.09190101 “Iaoai?caoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa”.

Ia??oioiaaii ci?no i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy ca nooiaiyie:

? nooi?iue – o?aeoi?eno-iaoei?no eaoaai??e “A”, “A”, nethna?-?aiiioiee
?? ?ic?yaeo – ia aac? iniiaii? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee;

?? nooi?iue – o?aeoi?eno-iaoei?no oe?ieiai i?io?eth eaoaai??e “N”, “Ae”,
“A”, nethna?-?aiiioiee ???-?V ?ic?yaeo, aiae?e o?ainii?oieo cania?a
eaoaai??e “A” ? “N”;

??? nooi?iue – iieiaeoee niaoe?ae?no (?c niaoe?aeueiino? 5.09190101
“Iaoai?caoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa”).

A?aeiia?aeii aei Eiioeaioe?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie aaciaa
(?iaa??aioia) neeaaeiaa /anoeia ci?noo oi?ioaaeanue ia iniia?
aea?aeaaieo noaiaea?o?a, a aa??aoeaia /anoeia aecia/aeanue
aaciina?aaeiuei iaa/aeueiei caeeaaeii ca o/anoth oao?aoe?a i?aei?e?inoa
– caiiaiee?a eaae??a eiie?aoiiai ?a??iio c o?aooaaiiyi iaaieo
oaoiieia?e, iayaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oaoi?ee, i?aai?caoe??
i?aoe? oa aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei.

O ?icae?e? ia??oioiaaii aeiiae aei ci?noo i?aaeiao?a
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iiai oa i?ioan?eii-i?aeoe/iiai oeeee?a. Aeeeaaeaii
iniaeeaino? ieaioaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c
i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o
?ineeiieoeoa?”. Aeyaeaii niaoeeo?eo i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy oa
ae?iaie/i? i?aeoeee a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?.

?ic?iaeaia iaie iaoiaeeea eaieiaiai iaa/aiiy i?ae /an
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y
iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o ?ineeiieoeoa?” iiaoaeiaaia ia iniia?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai iaa/aiiy a nenoai?: “iaenoa? ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy –
o/aiue”, “iaoai?caoi?-ianoaaiee – o/aiue”. I?e oeueiio iaaieioo?oueny ia
aaaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy aocueeii?io?eueiiai i?ioan?eiiai aeina?aeo.
Eiai iin??i ? iaoai?caoi?, yeee ui??/ii ia i?aeoeoe? a?aei?aoeueiao?,
oe?oo? eiai aei iaeiaioeo aeaoaeae ? ia?aaea? o/iaa? c a?aeiia?aeiith
oai?aoe/iith i?aeaioiaeith. Aoaeoeai?noue oaeiai niiniao ia?aaea/?
i?aeoe/ieo ciaiue aeiaaaeaia ?acoeueoaoaie iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai
i?ioeano, ui cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaie iaoiaeeee.
Ioaea, aeioneiee?a AIO-aa?io??ie ia iio??aii aeio/oaaoe i?aeoe/iei
iaae/eai iaaiee ia??iae o eiie?aoiiio ainiiaea?noa?. Eaeaoueny eeoa i?i
?o aaeaioaoe?th i?ae /an iaa/aiiy a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i? aei i?aeoe/ii?
?iaioe.

Ia i?eeeaae? i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c i?aaeiaoa
“I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o ?ineeiieoeoa?” ?ice?eoi
niaoeeo?eo i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a
o/eeeu?-aa?io??i? ? aeiaaaeaii aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee.
Aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano, ui
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaieo iaie eiioeaiooaeueieo
i?aeoiae?a oa ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy a ?aaeueieo
oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano ia? a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee
ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy oa ae?iaie/i? i?aeoeee a oeueiio iaa/aeueiiio
caeeaae?.

Ia oeueiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei i?eae?eaii oaaao ia??oiooaaiith
?a??iiaeueiiai eiiiiiaioa niaoe?aeueiiai eo?no ? ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy.
?a??iiaeueiee eiiiiiaio a?aeia?aaea? niaoeeo?eo eiie?aoiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, a oiio a?i aecia/a?oueny AIO-aa?io??iith c o/anoth
iaaeaaia?a, aieiaieo niaoe?ae?no?a oeueiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo oa
?aeiiiiai oi?aae?iiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Ii?yae c oeei
cacia/eii, ui iaa/aeueiee /an, ia?aaeaa/aiee ?a??iiaeueiei eiiiiiaioii,
aeei?enoiao?oueny o iaaeao oai niaoe?aeueieo i?aaeiao?a ? ae?iaie/iai
iaa/aiiy ca?aeii c i?ia?aiaie.

I?eioeeiiai iiaee i?aeo?ae aei i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o
?ia?oiee?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa iio?aao? noai?aiiy
oiia aeey caaacia/aiiy iiaoaiiiai aea/aiiy niaoe?aeueiiai eo?no,
cae?eniaiiy ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy o/i?a c eiaeii? c ?ioaa?iaaieo i?ioan?e
oiai /e ?ioiai nooiaiy iaa/aiiy, a oaeiae aoanoaoe?? ciaiue, oi?iue ?
iaae/ie o/i?a a e?ioe? aecia/aieo aoai?a (nooiai?a). Ca?aeii c
aeeeaaeaieie aeua eiioeaiooaeueieie iieiaeaiiyie i?ae /an ieaioaaiiy
ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy aoei ia?aaeaa/aii i?i?iaeueiee /an ia oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eieo iaae/ie o oe?e?niiio iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iio i?ioean?
o/eeeua-aa?io??ie.

?ic?iaeaia oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aia i?ia?aia ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy
oa ae?iaie/i? i?aeoeee a?aoiao? eiie?aoi? oiiae ??cieo aaeocae
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aeey yeeo cae?enith?oueny
i?aeaioiaea eaae??a, iaieiae?iiy o/iyie no/aniith oaoi?eith ?
oaoiieia??th, aoaeoeaieie i?eeiiaie ? niiniaaie ?iaioe.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueii?
?iaioe c?iaeaii oae? aeniiaee:

— cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue caeeaaeo i?iooaoina?oe iiaiai oeio,
i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a ?aaeueieo oiiaao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, no/ania iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia
aaca o/eeeua-aa?io??ie iiceoeaii aieeaathoue ia ye?noue i?ioan?eiiai
iaa/aiiy. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aea? ciiao caaacia/oaaoe aea/aiiy oai,
ia?aaeaa/aieo ? nei?eaiaaieo o naciiiiio ieai? i?iaaaeaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o. Cacia/eii, ui oea caiaeeoue iai?aaoeue
?i?oaoe?th n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioean?a o iaa/aeuei?e
ae?yeueiino?, yea ia aeaaaea iaeaaeieo ?acoeueoao?a o i?ioan?eiiio
iaa/aii?;

— iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/ee i?ioean o AIO-aa?io??i? ia? yne?aai ae?aaeaio
niaoeeo?eo. Ii?yae c ?ioeie oaeoi?aie aiia coiiaeth?oueny
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi iiai? iiaeae? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano, iiiaeaiei
ci?noii i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy, a oaeiae iaoeiai ia??oioiaaieie
i?aeoiaeaie aei ?ica’ycaiiy ina?oiuei-aeoiaieo ? ae?iaie/eo caaaeaiue o
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iiio caeeaae? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth
iiaiai oeio. ?ic?iaeai? iaie /ioe?e a?ao?ee iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai
i?ioeano a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i? a?aeia?aaeathoue oeth niaoeeo?eo. O
eiaeiiio a?ao?eo a?aoiaaii iniaeeaino? ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe??
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy o oeueiio caeeaae? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?io?eth. Aiae?c aeeiai?ee ci?i o a?ao?eao iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai
i?ioeano ia an?o eo?nao aeaa ciiao aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?th aei ?ioaa?oaaiiy
ci?noo oai?aoe/iiai ? ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy c aeayeei aeia?aaeaeaiiyi
oai?aoe/iiai iaa/aiiy ia ia?oiio, ae?oaiio oa /aoaa?oiio eo?nao.

Ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? i?aeaioiaee aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo iaeno??a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia? i?noea iii?oia c?inoaiiy
??aiy i?ioan?eii-i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee. Ia??oioiaaii oaeiae aeniiaie
uiaei aaaeeeaino? caaacia/aiiy o AIO-aa?io??i? caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo o
na?o? oiia aeey iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy ii?aeueii, o?ce/ii ? ineo?/ii
caei?iai? iniae. Oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue ?ica’ycaiiy
ina?oiuei-aeoiaieo caaaeaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c caaacia/aiiyi i?aeaioiaee
eaae??a ia iniia? i?ia?aneaieo eiioeaioe?e, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/ee i?ioean iiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e,
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo aeinyaiaiue, iineeaiiy i?aai?/iiai ca’yceo iaa/aiiy
c i?iaeoeoeaiith i?aoeath a ?aaeueieo oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ca oeeo oiia c?inoa? cia/aiiy aeei?enoaiiy a iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iio
i?ioean? o/eeeua-aa?io??ie iiaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo nenoai i?ioan?eiiai
iaa/aiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi iia?oiuei? oaoi?ee, o?aiaaea??a, i?iaeaiieo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo iaoiae?a. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaea?oueny aio/eiio
ii?aeiaiith ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa a?oiiai? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/i?
ae?yeueiino? o/i?a.

Ui ae noino?oueny ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy, oi iaie i?inoaaeaii oaiaeaioe?th
a?ae c?inoaiiy ia ia?oiio eo?n? aei ciaioaiiy ia ae?oaiio ? cia/iiai
i?aeaeuaiiy ia o?aoueiio oa noaa?eueiino? ia /aoaa?oiio eo?nao. Ia iaoo
aeoieo, oea iiynith?oueny noai?aiiyi iaeaaeieo oiia aeey cae?eniaiiy
oe?e?niiai iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano, yeee caaacia/o? i?aeaioiaeo
aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo iaeno??a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a, caeaoieo i?aoethaaoe a ?eieiaeo oiiaao, aooe
oa?ia?aie, naiino?eii aanoe oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa.

A?aooaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co noaio aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioiaee
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o caeeaaeao i?iooaoina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, a oaeiae aeiia, ui aeieeaathoue c
Oeaco I?aceaeaioa “I?i ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe” (1996
?.), ?c Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io ina?oo” (1998 ?.) oa
“Iieiaeaiiy i?i ina?oiuei-eaae?o?eaoe?ei? ??ai? (nooiaiaao ina?oo)”,
i?eeiyoiai Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, aeaei ciiao ?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai
ia??oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai
i?ioeano a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i? a ?aaeueieo oiiaao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaii?
iiaeae?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?” – i?inoaaeaii
?icaeoie aca?iiae?? AIO-aa?io??ie oa aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, aecia/aii ?? iniiai? iai?yie;
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ci?no ? no?oeoo?o iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
ae?yeueiino? AIO-aa?io??ie; i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe.

Iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/ee i?ioean o AIO-aa?io??i? ni?yiiao?oueny ia
oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a iio?aae iino?eiiai i?ioan?eiiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy,
naii-ina?oe, iiaeaeueoiai iaa/aiiy i?ney cae?i/aiiy oeueiai caeeaaeo oa
iaiao?aeiino? i?aeo?eioaaoe e i?aeaeuoaaoe naith eaae?o?eaoe?th o
aoaeue-yeeo aeinooiieo oi?iao, cie?aia i?iaeiaaeoaaoe iaa/aiiy o aeuiio
caeeaae? ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth ca nei?i/aieie
oa?i?iaie iaa/aiiy.

O ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii cia/aiiy iaoeiaiai ia??oiooaaiiy oa?i?i?a
iaa/aiiy, ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaa/aeueieo ieai?a oa i?ia?ai nooiaiaaiai
iaa/aiiy, ni?yiiaaieo ia caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy i?aeaioiaee eaae??a
aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a?aeiia?aeii aei iei?oi?o
oa ia?niaeoeaieo aeiia, a oaeiae iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy aoiai?oa?ieo,
i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/ieo ? i?ioan?eieo ciaiue.

No?oeoo?a i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy ia ia?oiio nooiai? ia?aaeaa/a? –
i?aeaioiaeo ?ia?oiee?a ieae/i? aai na?aaeiuei? eaae?o?eaoe?? c iaei???
i?ioan?? (2 ?iee iaa/aiiy); ia ae?oaiio nooiai? – ?ia?oiee?a na?aaeiuei?
oa aeui? eaae?o?eaoe?? (3 ?iee iaa/aiiy); ia o?aoueiio nooiai? –
iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a (4 ?iee iaa/aiiy); ia /aoaa?oiio nooiai? –
?iaeaia??a (3-4 ?iee iaa/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth ???-?V ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??).

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy noaio aca?iiae??
AIO-aa?io??ie oa aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?io?eth aecia/aii ?? iniiai? iai?yie. I?e oeueiio a?aoiaoaaeenue
iieiaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaie eiioeaioe?? oa iia? aeiiae uiaei
ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? oa aeui?
ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth. Aei oeeo iai?yi?a
a?aeianaii:

— noai?aiiy oiia aeey iiaeaeueoiai iaa/aiiy o/i?a AIO-aa?io??ie o aeuiio
iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth 3-4 ??aiy
ae?aaeeoaoe??;

— ni?eueia ?ic?iaea iaa/aeueieo ieai?a, i?ia?ai oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey caaacia/aiiy iaa/aiiy o/i?a, ye? i?iaeiaaeoaaoeiooue
iaa/aiiy o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe;

— i?aai?caoe?y noaaeoaaiiy aeeeaaea/?a AIO-aa?io??ie ia eaoaae?ao aeuiai
caeeaaeo ina?oe;

— aeiiiiiaa aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe AIO-aa?io??i? a iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiio
caaacia/aii? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a ?
iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a, ni?eueia i?iaaaeaiiy can?aeaiue iaoiaee/ieo
eii?n?e, i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia??a, eiioa?aioe?e oiui.

O ?icae?e? c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oni?oiino? aeioneiee?a oeueiai
caeeaaeo i?iooaoina?oe — iei?oi?o nooaeaio?a Iiae?euenueei?
aa?a?ii-oaoi?/ii? aeaaeai??, c oni?oi?noth nooaeaio?a iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a ?-?? ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe??, ye? aoiaeyoue a Iiae?euenueeee
aa?a?ii-oaoi?/iee iaa/aeueiee eiiieaen. Oae, na?aaei?e aae oni?oiino?
i?ae /an /ioe?ueio nan?e neeaaea? – 3,96%. ?acoeueoaoe i?aeaioiaee
aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo eiieo?aioiicaeaoieo ?ia?oiee?a o Aaeeinueeiio
AIO-aa?io??i? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeniiaie i?i aoaeoeai?noue nooiaiaai?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.

Aeeeaaeaii ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, ui
i?iaiaeeeanue ia ??cieo aoaiao iaoeiaiai iiooeo. I?iaiae?ciaaii
ae?yeuei?noue aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai iaeaeai/eea, yeee
i?aoeth? ia aac? Aaeeinueeiai AIO-aa?io??ie c 1994 ?ieo. Eiai iniiaia
caaaeaiiy – a?aei?aoethaaiiy ia iaoeiaeo canaaeao iiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo
oaoiieia?e i?aeaioiaee ? ia?ai?aeaioiaee aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a
aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?.

Aena?oeaii ieoaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa AIO-aa?io??ie c
i?ioan?eieie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie NOA oa I?ia//eie. Aeeeaaeaii o?ae
?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue a iaaeao i?ia?aie “O?AINOI?I”, cie?aia i?iaeoo
“I?aeo?eiee eiiia?aoeaieo oa i?aeainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? a Oe?a?i? ia
aac? Aaeeinueeiai AIO-aa?io??ie oa ?ioeo caeeaae?a”.

Ni?eueii c i?iaoeueeeie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie o??iaie Aa?Aai
(AgrEvo), Aaea? (Bayer), AANO (BASF), EAN (KWS), Eaiaea (Lembke), Oaiaeo
(Fendt), Eeaan (Claas), ?AO (RAU) ia iieyo AIO-aa?io??ie aoei caeeaaeaii
aeaiiino?aoe?eia iiea, ia yeiio ae?iuoaaeinue 8 eoeueoo?, 30 ni?o?a
cao?aeii? oa oe?a?inueei? naeaeoe??. An? ?iaioe ii ae?iuoaaiith oeeo
eoeueoo? i?iaiaeeeenue o/iyie AIO-aa?io??ie i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aeieoi?a
A?ee? Ae?aana — ea??aieea a?aeae?eo i?aeaioiaee eaae??a oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? Cae?eoiai aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa aieiaiiai eiiia?aoeao
“?aeooaecai Oe?a?ia”.

Oaea i?aai?caoe?y i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a aaeoc?
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a ?aaeueieo oiiaao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ?
oaeiae iaoa??aee ni?eueiiai ae?ciiai can?aeaiiy A?aeae?eaiiy iaaeaaia?ee
? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie, a/aieo ?aae
?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie,
?inoeoooo ci?noo ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, yea
a?aeaoeiny o Aaeeinueeiio AIO-aa?io??i? 3 aeiaoiy 1997 ?ieo. Ieoaiiy
“I?i aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a Aaeeinueeiio
AIO-aa?io??i? Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano?” iaaiai?thaaeinue ia can?aeaii?
I?aceae?? Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie 26 aa?aniy 1998 ?.
I?aceae?y AII Oe?a?ie noaaeeea aeina?ae i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oeueiio caeeaae?, aeciaea eiai ye
iiaaoi?nueeee oa oaeee, ui caneoaiao? iioe?aiiy o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeanue ?iaioa, ni?yiiaaia
ia aecia/aiiy oeyo?a iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano AIO-aa?io??ie. Oeueiio ni?ey? oai?/a
aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?ia?aneaieo ?aeae a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo.

AENIIAEE

1. Aea/aiiy no/anieo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo eiioeaioe?e aeaei ciiao
c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iaia?a?aia i?ioan?eia ina?oa ? iaei??th c
aaaeeeaeo no/anieo oaiaeaioe?e, aiia ?nio? a ?aaeueiiio nioe?aeueiiio
na?aaeiaeu? ? o?nii iia’ycaia c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii
eiaeii? aea?aeaae. Iaoeiai ia??oioiaaia iiaoaeiaa iaia?a?aii?
aaaaoi??aiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ye?nii ci?ith? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/ee
i?ioean, ui aecia/a?oueny iio?aaaie aio/eiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?,
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ethaeeie a iaa/aii? oa ?icaeoeo ?? nioe?aeueii?
?i?oe?aoeae e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

?ica’ycaiiy no/anieo caaaeaiue i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a ?
iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a o caeeaaeao ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?io?eth coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo iao?aaeeoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a,
iiaeo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, i?aeaeuaiiy
i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai ??aiy iaeaooi?o iaeno??a
aa?a?ii-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno.

2. Noai?aiiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo caeeaae?a ina?oe iiaiai oeio –
caeiiii??iee i?ioean o no/anieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao, yeee
na?ae/eoue i?i ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
?ic?iaee, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaoi?nueeeo iiaeaeae, i?ia?ai ? iaoiaeee
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aeey ??cieo aaeocae
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

3. Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/iiai aea/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie oa aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aeaei ciiao ia??oiooaaoe iiaeaeue
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o aeuiio i?ioan?eiiio o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?,
yea iiaoaeiaaia ia iniia? oaeeo i?aeoiae?a: noai?aiiy iaeaaeieo oiia
aeey caaacia/aiiy nooiaiaaiai i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy; ni?yiiaaiino?
i?ioeano iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy ia anaa?/ia oi?ioaaiiy ?ia?oieea aeniei?
eaae?o?eaoe??, eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiiai ia ?eieo i?aoe?.

Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co iaa/aeueieo ieai?a caeeaae?a ??ciiai
oeio, a oaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeo iio?aa aei ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe??
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy iaie ?ic?iaeaio iiao iiaeaeue iaa/aeueiiai ieaio
aeey aeuiai i?ioan?eiiai o/eeeua-aa?io??ie, yea ia?aaeaa/a? iiaoaiio
(nooiaiaao) i?aai?caoe?th i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aeey
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ??ciiai ??aiy eaae?o?eaoe??, a
naia: iaeno?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa c eaae?o?eaoe??th
o?aeoi?eno-iaoei?no eaoaai??? “A”, “A”, nethna?-?aiiioiee ?? ?ic?yaeo;
aenieieaae?o?eiaaiiai iaeno?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
oa?ia?a c oi?iiyi aeeiioaaoe ?iaioo o?aeoi?enoa-iaoei?noa oe?ieiai
i?io?eth, aiae?y aaoiiia?ey eaoaai??e “A”, “N”, nethna?y-?aiiioieea ?V
?ic?yaeo; iieiaeoiai niaoe?ae?noa (?c niaoe?aeueiino? 5.19190101
“Iaoai?caoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa”).

4. Cai?iiiiiaaia oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aia iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy
i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o
?ineeiieoeoa?” iiaoaeiaaia ia iniia? i?eioeei?a aeeoa?aioe?aoe??,
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??, ?ioaa?iaaiiai i?ae-oiaeo, ianooiiino?, a oaeiae c
o?aooaaiiyi naciiiino?, ee?iaoe/ieo oiia, o?aaeeoe?e caiea?ianoaa a
eiie?aoiiio ?a??ii?. Oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee
iieyaathoue a i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy iaeaooi?o eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a
a ?aaeueieo oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui coiiaeei
iaiao?aei?noue iao?aaeeoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a aei iiaoaeiae a?ao?e?a
/a?aoaaiiy eaiie, cie?aia: caaacia/aiiy aea/aiiy oai, ia?aaeaa/aieo ?
nei?eaiaaieo a naciiiiio ieai? i?iaaaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
?ia?o a ?aaeueieo oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa; eaieiaa iaa/aiiy i?ae /an
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue cae?enith?oueny ia iniia?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai iaa/aiiy a nenoai? : “iaenoa? ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy –
o/aiue”, “iaoai?caoi?-ianoaaiee – o/aiue”.

5. Cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei aeyaeoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a
o/eeeua-aa?io??i?. Aei ieo ia?aaeon?i a?aeianaii ?icaeoie aca?iiae??
AIO-aa?io??ie oa caeeaaeo aeui? ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?io?eth. Aeyaeaii iniiai? iai?yie oe??? aca?iiae?? o caaacia/aii?
iaia?a?aii? aaaaoi??aiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe: i?iaeiaaeaiiy iaa/aiiy
o/i?a AIO-aa?io??ie o aeuiio iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth 3-4 ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe??; ni?eueia
?iaioa c ?ic?iaee iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e; ni?eueia i?iaaaeaiiy can?aeaiue iaoiaeeii?n?e,
nai?ia??a, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e oa ?io?.

?ic?iaeaiee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee eiiieaen aeey aeuiai i?ioan?eiiai
o/eeeua-aa?io??ie iiaoaeiaaiee ia iniia? a?aooaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? iaaeaaia?ee, ineoieia??,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? iaoee.

6. Ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe na?ae/aoue i?i
aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo iiaeae? oa iaoiaeeee i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano. Oae, o 43% o/i?a i?aeaeueany ?ioa?an
aei i?aoe? o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, o 38% i?aeaeueeanue
oni?oi?noue, 33% ae??oeee i?iaeiaaeeoe iaa/aiiy o aeueo caeeaaeao
ina?oe, an? nooaeaioe-aeioneieee AIO-aa?io??ie oni?oii iaa/athoueny a
aa?a?ii-oaoi?/i?e aeaaeai??.

7. Cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaei ciiao noi?ioethaaoe ?yae
iinoaiiai/ieo ieoaiue ? i?iiiceoe?e:

— ia?aaoaeiaa i?ioan?eii? ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth
iio?aao? ?ica’ycaiiy aaaaoueio iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ieoaiue uiaei
noai?aiiy iaa/aeueii-i?ia?aiii? aeieoiaioaoe??, caaacia/aiiy aio/eino? o
i?aeaioiaoe? eaae??a ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa ?eieo i?aoe?;

— noai?aiiy nenoai iaoeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oa iaoiaee/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?io?eth, aeaeaiiy i?ae-?o/iee?a oa aeeaeaeoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a ?c
niaoe?aeueieo i?aaeiao?a oe?a?inueeith iiaith;

— i?aai?caoe?y i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a niaoe?aeueieo i?aaeiao?a ia
iaaeaaia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao i?e aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, i?aai?caoe?y ?a??iiaeueieo oe?e
ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo;

— ia iniia? ni?ai?aoe? ?c ca?oa?aeieie niaoe?ae?noaie c iaoith aea/aiiy
oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ia aac? e?aueo
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeu n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth
i?aai?coaaoe “iieacia? aeine?aei? iiey”;

— c iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a
aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaiao?aeii noai?thaaoe iiao
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco.

Oaeei /eiii, ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaiai iiooeo iaie
i?inoaaeaii aaiethoe?th ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioiaee eaae??a o
i?iooaoo/eeeuao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth; aeyaeaii
iniaeeaino? iaia?a?aii? aaaaoi??aiaai? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe oeueiai
i?io?eth; ia??oioiaaii iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai
i?ioeano, ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee
eaae??a o caeeaae? iiaiai oeio – AIO-aa?io??i?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui a?aea?? ?
no?oeoo?oaaiiy ci?noo i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy ia iniia? i?eioeei?a
?ioaa?iaaiino?, ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi
cae?aiinoae oa iniaenoeo iio?aa o/i?a ni?eythoue iaieiae?iith o/iyie
a?ae ianeeaaeii? aaciai? i?ioan?? aei neeaaeii? ?ioaa?iaaii?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a iaaeaaia?/ieo
?inoeoooao, ?iaeono??aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoi?eoiao, caeeaaeao
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, o
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii
i?iooaoina?oe a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e ?iaio? a nenoai?
“IOO – AIO-aa?io??ia – aeuee iaa/aeueiee caeeaae – ?inoeooo i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe??”.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aaaaoianiaeoiei ? ia i?aoaiaeo? ia ae/a?iia
aena?oeaiiy on?o aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? aeueo
i?ioan?eieo o/eeeu-aa?io??i. Aei ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yi?a iiaeaeueoiai
aea/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia a?aeianoe ianooii?:
oai?aoe/ia ia??oiooaaiiy ?ioaa?aoe?? ci?noo caaaeueiiina?oi?o oa
niaoe?aeueieo ciaiue o caeeaaeao i?iooaoina?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth, iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaie/i? i?aeoeee a o/eeeuao-aa?io??iao; i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe iiaiai
oeio; iniaeeaino? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
eieaeoea?a i?iooaoo/eeeu n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth;
aeeaeaeoe/i? aeiiae aei ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaa/aeueieo ieai?a aeey
?ioaa?iaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioan?e ca ??aiyie
eaae?o?eaoe??; a oaeiae ii??aiyeueii-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c nenoai
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy o ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aoaa?ei A.A. O/eeeua-aa?io??ia: iiaee oei iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo:
Iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee / Ca ?aae. I.A. Ie/eaei. – E., 1998. –
108 n.

2. Aoaa?ei A.A. AIO-aa?io??ia a nenoai? aacia?a?aii? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
// I?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa. – 1998. — ?2. – N.15-18.

3. Aoaa?ei A.A. Iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o AIO-aa?io??i?
// Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. – 1998. — ?5. –
N.237-240

4. Aoaa?ei A.A. Ae?iaie/a oa aeieia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue o/eeeua-aa?io??ie
ia no/aniiio aoai? // Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a
i?ioan?eieo caeeaaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth:
Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ca??iee / A?aei. ?aae. Ie/eaei I.A. – E.: ?inoeooo
nenoaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie. – 1993. – N.
75-77.

5. Aoaa?ei A.A. O/eeeua-aa?io??ia – iiaee oei iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth // I?iaeaie ianooiiino? oa
?ioaa?aoe?? ci?noo iaa/aiiy o nenoai? “Oeiea – IOO – AIC”:
Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ca??iee. – A?iieoey. – 1996. – N.134-136.

6. Aoaa?ei A.A. Oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo ?ioa?an?a – ?oo?eia neea i?ciaiiy
// I?ioan?eia ina?oa. – 1996. — ?1-2. – N.9-10.

7. Aoaa?ei A.A. AIO-aa?io??ia a nenoai? aacia?a?aii? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
// I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo i?iooaoina?oe // I?ioan?eia ina?oa. – 1997. — ?1-2.
– N.23-25.

Aoaa?ei A.A. I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano o aeuiio
i?ioan?eiiio o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.04 – oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe. – ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae noai?aiiy
? ae?yeueiino? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio, a yeeo cae?enith?oueny
i?aeaioiaea aeniei-eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a ? iieiaeoeo niaoe?ae?no?a
aeey aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno. Oai?aoe/ii ia??oioiaaii iiaeaeue
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?. ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaeeeo ieaioaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c
i?aaeiaoa “I?aai?caoe?y ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaieo ?ia?o o
?ineeiieoeoa?”, a oaeiae iaoiaeeeo ae?iaie/iai iaa/aiiy,
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue, ae?iaie/i? i?aeoeee a o/eeeu?-aa?io??i?
a ?aaeueieo oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ca?aeii c
iine?aeiai?noth aeeiiaiiy ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e, iia’ycaieo c
ae?iuoaaiiyi n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? c o?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae a?aeiia?aeii? ee?iaoe/ii? ciie, naciiiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o, no/anii? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace.

?ic?iaeaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii iia? iaa/aeuei? ieaie
nooiaiaai? i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a ? iieiaeoeo
niaoe?ae?no?a aeey n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yie
aca?iiae?? AIO-aa?io??ie ? aa?a?ii-oaoi?/ii? aeaaeai??, eieaaeaeo a
cae?eniaii? iaia?a?aii? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?io?eth.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/ee i?ioean, AIO-aa?io??ia,
iaia?a?aia aaaaoi??aiaaa i?ioan?eia ina?oa, ae?iaie/a iaa/aiiy,
ae?iaie/a i?aeoeea.

Aoaa?ei A.A. I?aaiecaoeey o/aaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna a aunoai
i?ioanneiiaeueiii o/eeeua-aa?ioe?ia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.04 – oai?ey e iaoiaeeea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey. – Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee e ineoieiaee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo enneaaeiaaiea eiioeaiooaeueiuo aniaeoia
nicaeaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee nenoaiu i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey iiaiai oeia, a eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony iiaeaioiaea
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo e ieaaeoeo niaoeeaeenoia aeey
aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena.

Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia e yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aia iiaeaeue
o/aaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna a aunoai i?ioanneiiaeueiii
o/eeeua-aa?ioe?ia.

?ane?uoa niaoeeoeea o/aaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna a IOO-aa?ioe?ia,
AIO-aa?ioe?ia. Ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie oaeoi?aie yoa niaoeeoeea iaoneiaeaia
aiaae?aieai iiaie iiaeaee o/aaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna,
niaea?aeaieai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey, a oaeaea eiiiaaoeeiiiuie
iiaeoiaeaie e ?aoaieth o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiuo e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caaea/
a i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeey. ?ac?aaioaiu e yenia?eiaioaeueii
i?iaa?aiu oanoue oeeeeia e /aou?a a?aoeea o/aaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna a o/eeeua-aa?ioe?ia. A a?aoeeao o/oaiu iniaaiiinoe
niaea?aeaiey e oi?i i?aaiecaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey. Aiaeec
aeeiaieee eciaiaiey a?aoeeia o/aaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna ii anai
eo?nai iicaieee auyaeoue oaiaeaioeeth eioaa?e?iaaiey niaea?aeaiey
oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeoe/aneiai iao/aiey n iia?aaeaieai oai?aoe/aneiai
iao/aiey ia ia?aii, aoi?ii e /aoaa?oii eo?nao.

Inouanoaeai n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec o/aaiuo ieaiia IOO
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeey, o/eeeua-aa?ioe?iu, AIO-aa?ioe?iu,
eieeaaeaea, aa?a?iie oaoie/aneie aeaaeaiee, auyaeaiu eo iniaaiiinoe. Ia
iniiaa ?acoeueoaoia yoiai aiaeeca, a oaeaea n o/aoii iiauo o?aaiaaiee e
niaea?aeaieth e oi?iai i?aaiecaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey
?ac?aaioaia iiaay iiaeaeue o/aaiiai ieaia aeey aunoaai
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o/eeeua-aa?ioe?iu, eioi?ay i?aaeoniao?eaaao
iiyoaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth iiaeaioiaee ?aai/eo eaae?ia aeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ?aciuo o?iaiae eaaeeoeeaoeee:
ianoa? naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa n eaaeeoeeaoeeae
o?aeoi?eno-iaoeieno eaoaai?ee “A” e “A”, neana?ue-?aiiioiee II
?ac?yaea, aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai ianoa?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, oa?ia?a n oiaieai auiieiaiey ?aaio o?aeoi?enoa-iaoeienoa
oe?ieiai i?ioeey, aiaeeoaey aaoiiiaeey eaoaai?ee “A” e “A”, ieaaeoaai
niaoeeaeenoa (niaoeeaeueiinoe 5.19190101 “Iaoaiecaoeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa”).

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ieaie?iaaiey e i?iaaaeaiey
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/aneeo caiyoee ii i?aaeiaoo “I?aaiecaoeey e oaoiieiaey
iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ?aaio a ?anoaieaaiaenoaa” ia iniiaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
iao/aiey o/aueony ia nia?aiaiiie oaoieea a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iao/aiey, i?iaaaeaiey eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/aneeo
caiyoee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?aeoeee a o/eeeua-aa?ioe?ia, a eioi?ie
i?aaeoniio?aiu oeeeeu ia iniiaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe auiieiaiey
?acee/iuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, naycaiiuo n au?aueaaieai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae eeeiaoe/aneie ciiu,
naciiiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio, eiathuaeny
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu.

?ac?aaioaiu e yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aiu iiaua o/aaiua ieaiu
nooiai/aoie iiaeaioiaee, eioi?ua aiaae?aiu a o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo nenoaiu
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneiai ia?aciaaiey ?yaea iaeanoae Oe?aeiu. Ia
iniiaa iaiauaiey yenia?eiaioaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia naeaeai auaiae i oii, /oi
ioai? niaea?aeaiey iao/aiey ia iniiaa i?eioeeiia eioaa?aoeaiinoe,
eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iao/aiey, o/aoa niiniaiinoae e
ee/iuo iio?aaiinoae o/aueony niinianoaotho iaeaaeaieth i?ioanneae io
ianeiaeiie aaciaie e neiaeiie eioaa?e?iaaiiie.

Ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey acaeiiaeaenoaey AIO-aa?ioe?iu e
aa?a?ii-oaoie/aneie aeaaeaiee, eieeaaeaea a inouanoaeaiee iai?a?uaiiai
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o/aaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann, AIO-aa?ioe?ia,
iai?a?uaiia iiiaio?iaiaaia i?ioanneiiaeueiia ia?aciaaiea,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iao/aiea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiay i?aeoeea.

Bugerco A.A. Organization of training-productive process in higher
professional school-agrocompany. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree by speciality 13.00.04. – professional
pedagogy. The Institute of Pedagogics and Psychology of Professional
Training of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine. Kiev, 1999.

The work contains investigations connected with conceptual aspects of
creation and activity of a new type vocational training institutes where
preparation of the qualified workers for an agroindustrial complex in
market conditions carried out.

The substantiation of the training-productive process in
school-agrocompany modal which takes into consideration the available
industrial capacities for preparation of the mechanics-workers was
carried out.

The planning procedure and the lay-out of the practical training in
the course «The organization and the technology of the machanized
works in the plant-growing» is worked out. According to this methods
the individual training of the pupils by dint of the modern
machinery is provided.

The author gives the methods of the industrial teaching, the practical
training and the industrial practical experience in a
school-agrocompany. It is subdivided into the cycles according to
the succession of the different technological operations, that is
connected with the crops growing. A climatic zone, seasonal
prevalence, availability of material bases is taken into the
consideration.

The expedience of the continuous (leveled) training of the
high-skilled agricultural workers is grounded in the work.

The new curricula for the leveled training are worked out and
experiment-proved. These curricula were introduced in some vocation
schools within the system of vocation training in several regions of
Ukraine. It was revealed that the selection of educational
contents on the bases of those principles of integration,
differentiation approach to contents of education,
individualization of training subject to the abilities and the personal
needs of students promote mastering the profession from the simple
level to complicated one.

The main trends of interaction of higher professional
school-agrocompany, agricultural academy and college are determined.
They include realization of continuous training for the most skilled
pupils in order to get higher education.

Key words: productive-training process, higher vocational
school-agrocom-pany, continuous multilevel vocational training,
industrial training, industrial practice.

Похожие записи