OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?i. A.N. NEIAI?IAeE

IA?OEIAIEI IEAIA IEEIEA?AIA

OAeE 378.12 (09) + 007

I?AAI?CAOe?ss IAOEIAI-AeINE?AeII? ?IAIOE

AEEEAAeA*?A AEUEO IAA*AEUeIEO CAEEAAe?A

A OE?A?I? (XIX no.)

13.00.01– oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Cieiooo?ia Na?oeaia O?ioei?aia,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,

i?ioani?
eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

Aieei
Aeea Ieeeo?aia,

Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

?inoeooo
?i. A.A.Ei?ieaiea

i?i?aeoi?
c iaoeiai? ?iaioe;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Uie?ia
Iaoae?y Ai?en?aia,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo

o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith iaaeaaia?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa- E??iaia?aaenueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.E.Aeiie/aiea, eaoaae?a

iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i.E??iaia?aae.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “25“ aa?aciy 1999?. i 15-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.04 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee ca
aae?anith: 310168, i. Oa?e?a,

aoe. Aethoa?a, 2, aoae.214

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee /310168,
Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2/

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 22 “ ethoiai 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?
Aeieo?aiei O.I.

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaeeCaaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie.

A oiiaao aeiei??iieo ia?aoai?aiue o nioe?aeuei?e, iie?oe/i?e ? aeooiai?e
noa?ao a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy, ye a?aecia/aii o Aea?aeaai?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? «Ina?oa». /»Oe?a?ia OOI noie?ooy»/, iniaeeaiai
cia/aiiy iaaoaa? i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie aeui? ina?oe.
O oe?e no?aoaa?? c?inoath/o ?ieue iieeeeaia a?ae?a?aaaoe aoc?anueea
iaoea ye i?aai?/ia /anoeia nenoaie aeui? ina?oe ? aaciaee aeaiaio
i?aeaioiaee aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo niaoe?ae?no?a.

Caaino?aiiy i?ioe??/ i?ae aeiiaaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, eiai
eaae?iaei ? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iei caaacia/aiiyi ia’?eoeaii noeioeth?
?icaeoie iaoee, aeoea?co? iaoeiao ? a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo. Iaeiei ?c
ae??aeo oeyo?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoee ? e?eoe/ia inieneaiiy iaeiie/aiiai
a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, i?i iayai?noue yeiai na?ae/eoue aiae?c /eneaiieo
i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. Oae, ieoaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoc?anueei? iaoee a Oe?a?i? o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ?icaeyaeaeenue o ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
iiiia?ao?/ieo i?aoeyo Aaaae?y Ae.?. “Aeina?ae ?noi??? Oa?e?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (ca iaaeaeaieie iaoa??aeaie)” o aeaio oiiao / o.1 —
1802-1815 ??. ?  o. 2 – 1815 -1835 ??./, Aaaae?y Ae.?., I?e-e??a Ae.I.
“?noi??y i?noa Oa?eiaa ca 250 ?ie?a eiai ?nioaaiiy (c 1655 ii 1905?.),
Aaaae?y Ae.?., Noioeiaa I.O., Aocaneoea A.I. “Ei?ioeee ia?en ?noi???
Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca ia?o? noi ?ie?a eiai ?nioaaiiy (c 1805 ii
1905?.); Aeaaeeie?nueeiai-Aoaeaiiaa I.O. ”?noi??y oi?aa?neoaoo na.
Aiei-aeeie?a”, Ooeuea?ia A.ss. «?noi??y oi?aa?neoaoo na. Aieiaeeie?a”,
aea ia?aaaaeii o ca’yceo c aea/aiiyi ?noi??? ?icaeoeo aeuaiacaaieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Aeai? ?noi?e/iiai oa?aeoa?o i?i ?icaeoie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie o OIO no. i?noyoueny ? o
niaoe?aeueieo aeaeaiiyo, i?enay/aieo tha?eaeiei aeaoai Ee?anueeiai ?
Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a, oai?/ino? a?aeiieo a?o/eciyieo a/aieo O?O
no., a oaeiae o i?aoeyo, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue niaoeeo?eo ?icaeoeo
a?ieia??, iaoaiaoeee, o?ceee, o?i??, ?noi??? ia oie ia??iae.

Ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? aeui? ina?oe a ?in?? ? aoanoaoe?? iaoeiaeo eaae??a
o ia??iae, ui aeine?aeaeoaaany, ii?ooothoueny o iiiia?ao?yo Niaieaai?
?.A., Uaoei?ii? A.?., Eaa?ii? I., Aeiiioiai? ?.A., a oaeiae o ca??ieeao
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

Aea/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ia?o, aeeiiaieo oe?a?inueeeie a/aieie, c
iaeiiai aieo, na?ae/aoue i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?ioa?ano aei aeaii?
i?iaeaie, ??ciiiai?oi?noue oaiaoeee aeine?aeaeaiue, c ae?oaiai – i?i
aeayeo iaiaaeai?noue /aniaeie ?aieaie ? aaeoccth iaoee. Oae,
aeena?oaoe?th Oa?anaiei I.I. i?enay/aii aiae?co ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/ii?
iaoee ? ina?oe o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? (1834 -1884 ??.);
Noaeueiaoa N.I. – iie?oeee naiiaea?aeaanoaa a aaeoc? ia?iaeii? ina?oe a
Oe?a?i? a e?ioe? O?O no.; E?aa/aiei I.A. – aieeao Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ia ?icaeoie ina?oe o Ee?anueeiio iaa/aeueiiio ie?oc?;
Ieeei/oea I.ss. – ?noi??? ?icaeoeo Ee?anueeiai oiaa?enoaa
i?e?iaeiaeine?aeiee?a (1869-1929 ??.).

Iaeiae, i?iaaaeaiiee aiae?c aaaaoi/eneaieo ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a na?ae/eoue, ui oai?aoe/i? ?aea?, aaaaoee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae
c aeaii? i?iaeaie oa iaeiie/aiee aaee/aciee a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae
i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o O?Ono. ua ia aoee i?aaeiaoii
niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, cia/ei?noue iaoee o noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai, iie?oe/iiai
? aeooiaiiai noaiiaeua o noni?euenoa?, c?inoath/a a oiiaao iiiaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeui? ina?oe, ia’?eoeaia iio?aaa a/aieo ? iaaeaaia?/ii?
a?iiaaenueeino? o aea/aii? ?noi?e/iiai, a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo
i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue
aeaii? i?iaeaie coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy: “I?aai?caoe?y
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a a
Oe?a?i? (O?O no.)”.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?aai?caoe?y iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie o O?O no.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – oai??y ? i?aeoeea i?aai?caoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – ia iniia? aiae?co ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue
nenoaiaoecoaaoe oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? ocaaaeueieoe aeina?ae
i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe noai i?iaeaie o iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? ? aeieoiaioao
io?oe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o ca ia??iae, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

2. Aecia/eoe ci?no ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe oi?ie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no.

3. Iaa?oiooaaoe aoaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no.

4. Iae?aneeoe oeyoe ?aae?caoe?? iaeiie/aiiai aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a a oiiaao ?iaioe no/anii?
aeui? oeiee.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai??y i?ciaiiy ?noi?e/iiai
aeina?aeo iaoeiai? ?iaioe ye aeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, yea
cae?enith?oueny ia ??cieo ??aiyo ? a ??cieo oi?iao,
ae?aeaeoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue oai?/iai
aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aneaiiai a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe a i?aeoeoe? no/anii? aeui? oeiee.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
oae? iaoiaee: o?iiieia?/iee, yeee aeaa iiaeeea?noue ?icaeyiooe
i?aai?caoe?th iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o aeeiai?oe?, /aniaiio i?inoi?? ? iine?aeiaiino?;
i?iaeaiii-oe?eueiaee ? ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e, noaooo?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, io?oe?eieo ? a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, iaoa??ae?a
a?o/eciyii? ia??iaeeee c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae
nenoaiaoecaoe?y oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aeaea?aeiciaa/a aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae,
iaiao?aeiee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy, c?a?aii a aeieoiaioao io?oe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o: Ca??ieeao iinoaiia ? ?icii?yaeaeaiue I?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii?
ina?oe; aei?aaiethoe?eieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo («AEo?iae Ieienoa?noaa
ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey”, “Aanoiee Aa?iiu”, aacaoe Oa?e?anuee? ?
Ee?anuee? “Aoaa?ineea aaaeiiinoe”, “THaeiue e?ae” ? o.i.); ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oi?aa?neoao?a, oiaa?enoa ? c’?cae?a
i?e?iaeiaeine?aeiee?a, e?ea??a oa a?oaieia?a.

Cia/ia i?noea o ?ice?eoo? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiaee a?o?ai?
iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie /O.707
“Oi?aae?iiy Ee?anueeei iaa/aeueiei ie?oaii”/, Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?aa i?noa
Ee?aa /O.16 “Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao”/, Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?aa Oa?e?anueei?
iaeano? /O.3 “Eaioeaey??y Oa?e?anueeiai aoaa?iaoi?a”, O. 667
“Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao”/, iaoa??aee oiiae?a OeIA OAeO ? EAeO,
Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i.A.A.Ei?ieaiea,
Ee?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i.A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai.

Ie?ai? aniaeoe oai??? ? i?aeoeee i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no. a?aeia?aaeaii a no/anieo
iiiia?ao?/ieo ? aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e
aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii aoaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a Oa?e?anueeiai ? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a o O?O no.;
nenoaiaoeciaaii iiaeyaee oe?a?inueeeo iaaeaaia?a ? i?aaenoaaiee?a
i?ia?aneaii? a?iiaaenueeino? ia ?ieue ? oiiae i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai?
?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao e?a?ie; ocaaaeueiaii
aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a
Oa?e?anueeiai ? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a o O?O no.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie o aeine?aeaeaii? iaea?aeaee aiae?c io?oe?eii?
iie?oeee c ieoaiue ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a, i?aeaioiaea iaoeiaeo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? O?O
no., a oaeiae nenoaiaoecaoe?y iieiaeaiue noaooo?a oi?aa?neoao?a c
i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ? ocaaaeueiaiee
aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a Oe?a?ie o O?O
no. iiaeooue aooe oai?/i aeei?enoai? a oiiaao no/anii? aeui? oeiee i?e
?ic?iaoe? eaeoe?eii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c oai??? ? ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee,
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a ? niaoenai?ia??a c iaaeaaia?ee, i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o, a oaeiae o eaeoe?yo “Iniiae iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? aeui? oeiee” aeey ani??aio?a, iiooeoaa/?a, aeeeaaea/?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a on?o ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie aeine?aeieea iieyaa? a ocaaaeueiaii? aeina?aeo
i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, Oa?e?anueeiai ? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a o O?O no.; o
aaaaeaii? a iaoeiaee ia?a iiaeo iaiioae?eiaaieo ?ai?oa aeaieo ? a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiai iniiaieo aeniiae?a
caaacia/o?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoeiaeo iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo
iao?, i?aaeiaoo ? caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe, oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a, iaoa??ae?a ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue O?O no., nenoaiiei
aiae?cii iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ao?eaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
iaaeaaia?ee, i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee /1996-1998/, ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 275 ??/ieoe? c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy
A.N.Neiai?iaee, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o eaeoe?yo ? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyooyo c
eo?no oai??? ? ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee, i?ae /an iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee, a
oaeiae o ioae?eaoe?yo, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue ci?no aeena?oaoe??.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

· Iaa?oioiaai? ia iniia? aiae?co ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e,
io?oe?eieo aeieoiaio?a, a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a c i?iaeaie, ui
aeine?aeaeoaaeanue, aoaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no.

· Aecia/aiee i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?no ? nenoaiaoeciaai? oi?ie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no.

· Ocaaaeueiaiee aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a Oe?a?ie a O?O no. ? oeyoe eiai oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy a
no/anieo oiiaao.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (190).
Ci?no aeeeaaeaii ia 147 noi??ieao oaenoo, aei yeiai aoiaeyoue 6
oaaeeoeue.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii eiai
ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy, aena?oeaii iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao oa
iaoiaee, ?ice?eoi aeaea?aeiciaa/o aaco, iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia,
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, iniaenoee aianie aeine?aeieea,
aeinoia??i?noue, oi?ie ai?iaaoe?? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O IA?OIIO ?ICAe?E? – “Oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
a Oe?a?i? o O?O no.”, — iieacaii aieea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia ia
?icaeoie aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie O?O no., ?icaeyiooi
i?aai?caoe?ei? ieoaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a
aoc?a, cao?eniaai? o noaoooao oi?aa?neoao?a, a oaeiae ?ice?eoi ci?no ?
oi?ie aoanoaoe?? iaoeiaoe?a.

I?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue ??aiy ?
oa?aeoa?o ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no. a?ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo,
iie?oe/ieo oiia ? o?yaeiai? iie?oeee a aaeoc? iaoee. I?aaiaiiy
io?oe?eieo e?e no?eiaoe ?icaeoie i?ia?aneaieo nee ? ia?aaeiai?
eoeueoo?e, ianoi?nieo c ?nioth/ith a e?a?i? oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeueeith
nenoaiith, i?eaaei aei /eneaiieo ?ai?an?e (noai?aiiy o 1817 ?.
I?i?noa?noaa aeooiaieo ni?aa ? ia?iaeii? ina?oe, i?eeiyooy ??ciiiai?oieo
?ino?oeoe?e, iaiaaeaiue, caai?ii, ye? aaeueioaaee ?icaeoie iaoee,
cae?eooy iaoeiaeo aeaeaiue ? o.i.). No??ieee aea ?icaeoie eai?oae?cio
aeiaaaa ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eaae??a aeey oeo
aaeocae aeiiii?ee, ui ?icaeaaeeny, ? iiaeo iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue aeey ?o
ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Ana oea coiiaeei ia?ao?ae a?ae ?aaeoe?eii?
iie?oeee aei iie?oeee ?aoi?i ia?iaeii? ina?oe ? iaoee: a?aee?eooy aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ? iaaeaiiy ?i /eneaiieo i?aa ? i?ea?ea?a ? o.i.

Aieiaiei caeiiiaeaa/ei i?aaiii oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith ?iaioith
a Oe?a?i? o O?O no., ye iieacaei aea/aiiy iaoa??ae?a
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai oa?aeoa?a, aoei I?i?noa?noai ia?iaeii? ina?oe,
yea, a naith /a?ao, caeaaeaei a?ae ?iia?aoi?a, Eii?oaoo i?i?no??a, ?aaee
i?i?no??a, Aea?aeaaii? ?aaee.

Ea??aieoeoai iaoeiaith ae?yeuei?noth a Oe?a?i? o O?O no.
cae?enithaaeinue ia?aaaaeii eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieie iaoiaeaie
oi?aae?iiy: ?aaeaiaioaoe?y ae?e oi?aa?neoao?a (iniiaieo oeaio??a
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o aea?aeaa?), iaiaaeaiiy oaiaoeee iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aei?noea oeaico?a aeine?aeieoeueei? ? aeaeaaie/i?
ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iniiaieie io?oe?eieie aeieoiaioaie,
ye? ?aaoethaaee iaoeiao-aeine?aeio ?iaioo a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae,
noaee noaoooe oi?aa?neoao?a, “Iieiaeaiiy” ? “?icii?yaeaeaiiy”, ui
i?eeiaeeny I?i?noa?noaii ia?iaeii? ina?oe. O O?O no. a Oe?a?i? ae?yei 6
oi?aa?neoaonueeeo noaooo?a: 1804 ?. ? 1835 ?. – aeey Oa?e?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, 1833 ?. ? 1842 ?. – aeey Ee?anueeiai, noaoooe 1863 ?. oa
1884 ?. – caaaeuei? aeey iaio oi?aa?neoao?a. I?ia?aneai? ca nai?i
ci?noii noaoooe 1804 oa 1863 ??. iaaeaee oi?aa?neoaoai a?aeiinio
aaoiiii?th o ieoaiiyo aioo??oiueiai oi?aae?iiy. Oa?aeoa?iith ?o
iniaeea?noth noaei aeae?eaiiy ie?aieo ia?aa?ao?a ? ?icae?e?a “I?i
i?iaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo iaoeiaeo can?aeaiue ?aaeith oi?aa?neoaoo”
(1804 ?.) oa “I?i eiooe aeey ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?
oi?aa?neoao?a” (1863 ?.).

A?aeiia?aeii aei iieiaeaiue i?eeiyoeo noaooo?a, ?aaea (caaaeuei? cai?e
oi?aa?neoaoo) ye aeua ea??aia ?inoaioe?y c iaoeiaeo, iaa/aeueieo ?
i?aai?caoe?eieo ieoaiue (ca?aeii c? noaoooii 1804 ? 1863 ??.) caeiaeany
iaaiai?aiiyi iiaeo a?aee?eoo?a, aeine?aeaeaiue, aeina?aeo ye aeeeaaea/?a
caeeaaeo, oae ? ?ioeo ae?y/?a iaoee e ina?oe; ae??oaiiyi ieoaiue i?i
i?enoaeaeaiiy i?ai?e ca iaoeia? i?aoe? oa ?o aeaeaiiy; i?aai?caoe??th ?
i?iaaaeaiiyi ??cieo iaoeiaeo eiieo?n?a, neeaaeaiiyi i?iaeo?a, noaooo?a
iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa, ?ic?iaeith iaoai?cio i?enoaeaeaiiy iaoeiaiai
nooiaith.

Aei ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a oaeoeueoao?a oi?aa?neoao?a,
i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo “?aae?”, aoiaeeei ?icaeyae iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
i?aoeue, ui aeaeaaaeeny oi?aa?neoaoii, iaaiai?aiiy eaiaeeaeaoo?, ye?
iai?aaeyeeny aeey noaaeoaaiiy ca ea?aeii, i?iaaaeaiiy “aei?iaoaaiue”
iiooeoaa/ai iaoeiaeo nooiai?a ? ioe?iea iiaeaieo aeena?oaoe?e.

Cia/i? ci?ie o nioe?aeuei?e, aeiiii?/i?e ? iie?oe/i?e noa?ao
noni?euenoaa ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o oa?aeoa?? ? ni?yioaaii?
iie?oeee “i?aaey/i? aa?o?aee” a aaeoc? iaoee ? ina?oe ?, ia?o ca ana, a
noaoooao oi?aa?neoao?a. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?eeiyoeie noaoooaie, o
aeine?aeaeaii? aeae?eaii 4 aoaie noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a Oe?a?ie a O?O no.:

Ia?oee aoai (1804–1835??.) — ca?iaeaeaiiy nenoaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe o a?o/eciyieo oi?aa?neoaoao ? i?aai?caoe?y ?? ia iniia?
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Aeaiee aoai, ca?aeii c i?eeiyoei o 1804 ?. noaoooii
ia?oiai aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo a Oe?a?i? – Oa?e?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, oa?aeoa?ecoaaany /?oeith iinoaiiaeith iaoe, caaaeaiue,
aecia/aiiyi oi?i iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe, anoaiiaeaiiyi iaoeiaeo
ca’yce?a c ?iicaiieie aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie, a oaeiae iaaeaiiyi
oi?aa?neoaoo a?aeiinii? aaoiiii?? c ieoaiue aioo??oiueiai oi?aae?iiy.

Ae?oaee aoai (1835 –1863 ??.) — i?iaaaeaiiy “ioi?iiii?” iie?oeee
io?oe?eiie aeaaee a aaeoc? iaoee ? ina?oe, ui coiiaeei iaiine?aeiai?noue
(“nea/eiiiae?ai?noue”) cae?eniaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ae?yeueiino?
oi?aa?neoao?a. I?eeiyo? a 30 ?iee I?i?noa?noaii ia?iaeii? ina?oe
“Ianoaiiae”, “?icii?yaeaeaiiy” ciaeoee nai? iiaeaeueoa caeiiiaeaa/a
ioi?ieaiiy a caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueeiio noaooo? 1835 ?., a oaeiae o
noaoooao Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo Na. Aieiaeeie?a 1833 ? 1842 ??.

Iieiaeaiiyie caaaeaieo noaooo?a iaiaaeoaaeanue oi?aa?neoaonueea
aaoiiii?y ? iineethaaeanue aeaaea ii?eoia. Iaeiae, naia a e?ioe? 30-o
??. O?O no. a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a a?aecia/athoue iiaeaaaeaiiy
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ae?yeueiino? a oi?aa?neoaoao, yeo a 40-50 ??.
oaeoe/ii aoei iiai?noth i?eieiaii.

O?ao?e aoai (1863-1884 ??.) oa?aeoa?ecoaaany i?aeianaiiyi a?iiaaenueei?
? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ? ?aoi?ioaaiiyi on??? nenoaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe.
Caaaeyee aeoeai?e o/ano? ia?aaeiai? iaaeaaia?/ii? a?iiaaenueeino? o 1863
?. aoei i?eeiyoi iiaee oi?aa?neoaonueeee noaooo, yeee ni?eya ia o?eueee
iiaa?iaiith aocai iaaeaieo ?i ?ai?oa i?aa, a ? ?icoe?aiith ?o
naiino?eiino? o ae??oaii? ieoaiue aioo??oiueiai oi?aae?iiy, aianaiith
?yaeo iieiaeaiue uiaei aeoea?caoe?? iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?, ca?eueoaiith
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace oi?aa?neoaoo oiui.

*aoaa?oee aoai (1884 – 1900 ??.) a?aecia/aany nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie
i?ioe??//yie i?ae ?aaeoe?eieie caoiaeaie “i?aaey/i? aa?o?aee” a aaeoc?
aeui? ina?oe ? i?ia?aneaieie ae?yie iaaeaaia?/ii? a?iiaaenueeino? ?
aeeeaaea/?a oi?aa?neoao?a. Noaooo 1884 ?. neanoaaa oi?aa?neoaonueeo
aaoiiii?th, iaiaaeea iaoeiao noa?o ae?yeueiino? ?aae ? oaeoeueoao?a
oi?aa?neoao?a, iicaaaea ?o i?aaa aeai?o aeanii? aaei?i?no?aoe??
(?aeoi?a, aeaeai?a) ? aeeeaaeaoeueeeo eaae??a. Iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueea
ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/?a oi?aa?neoao?a ? ?ioaineaiee ?oo ia?aaeiai?
a?iiaaenueeino? ia oeueiio aoai? ??cei eiio?anooaaa c aaoi?eoa?iei
noeeai ea??aieoeoaa a aaeoc? aeui? ina?oe.

O aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii i?ia?aneai? iiaeyaee ia?aaeiai? a?o/eciyii?
a?iiaaenueeino? ? i?ioano?e ia ?ieue ? cia/aiiy iaoee o aeeoo?
noni?euenoaa, ?ice?eoi oiiae cae?eniaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe:
i?aai?caoe?y ia?iaeii? ina?oe ? iaoee ia iniia? naiia?yaeoaaiiy,
noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeai? aoiinoa?e aca?iiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ii?aeueia ?
iaoa??aeueia noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a/aieo ? o.i.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeiaaaeaii, ui i?aaiaiiy io?oe?eieo e?e
no?eiaoe ?icaeoie i?ia?aneaieo nee, caa?aaoe yeiiiaa aeiaoa ?nioth/o
aeiiii?/io oa iie?oe/io nenoaio, aeaiye?noue ? iaiine?aeiai?noue
ina?oyinueei? iie?oeee o?yaeo anooiaee a i?ioe??//y c ia’?eoeaiith
iio?aaith aea?aeaae o ?icaeoeo iaoee ye iaiao?aeii? oiiae ??
ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

O Ae?OAIIO ?ICAe?E? – “Oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a Oe?a?ie a O?O no.” – aeeeaaeaii iniiai? aeiiae
? ii?yaeie i?aai?caoe?? caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e, aena?oeaii aianie
aeeeaaea/?a Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o noai?aiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai
eiiieaeno ia ii/aoeo O?O no., i?iaiae?ciaaii ci?no aeoiaeo i?iiia ?
ioae?/ieo eaeoe?e aeeeaaea/?a Oa?e?anueeiai ? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a
o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, ?ice?eoi cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
aeneo?n?e ? aeniaaeeoe?e aeey ??oaiiy caaaeaiue
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a, iieacaii o/anoue
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oi?aa?neoao?a o iaoeiaeo
oiaa?enoaao ? ?iaio? iaoeiaeo c’?cae?a.

Aiae?c ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e ? ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a
aeia?a, ui iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino? o
aea?aeaaieo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie ? iaea?aeaiiy noaoono
iaoeiaiai i?aoe?aieea a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae aoea iayai?noue
iaoeiaiai nooiaith. O aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ieoaiiy
aoanoaoe?? iaoeiaeo eaae??a o O?O no. ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a noaoooao
oi?aa?neoao?a, “Iieiaeaiiyo i?i i?enoaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo nooiai?a” ?
?aa?iiaeueieo i?aaeeao. Ia?ae?/ai? aeieoiaioe ?aaeaiaiooaaee iaoai?ci
i?enoaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo nooiai?a ? i?enai?iiy a/aieo caaiue (oa?i?i,
aeiiae ? iine?aeiai?noue).

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?eeiyoeie ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie oi?aa?neoaoai Oe?a?ie
aoei iaaeaii i?aai i?enoaeaeoaaoe iaoeia? nooiai? – eaiaeeaeao, iaa?no?,
aeieoi? ? (c 1864 ?.) “ii/aniee” aeieoi? iaoe, a oaeiae i?enaithaaoe
caaiiy “ae?eniiai nooaeaioa”. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?ia?aneaia i?ioano?a
? ia?aaeiaa a?iiaaenuee?noue (Ie?iaia I.?., Iaiaeae??a Ae.?.,
Iao?aaeeoeueeee E., Aon?a I.I. oa ?i.) iaiaeii?aciai aenooiaee i?ioe
?nioth/iai a ia??iae, ui aeine?aeaeoaaany, ioioiaeiaiiy iaoeiaeo
nooiai?a c a?iiaaeyinueeeie /eiaie.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui i?enoaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
nooiai?a a Oe?a?i? o O?O no. ia?aaeaa/aei, ia?o ca ana, iayai?noue
ioae?/iiai caoenoo aeena?oaoe??. Ia ii/aoeo O?O no. ia?aeiia e?euee?noue
aeena?oaoe?e aoea iacia/iith, aiie iaee ia?aaaaeii o?einionueeee
oa?aeoa?, ia a?aecia/ath/enue iaoeiaith aeeaeiith. Oaea noaiiaeua
iiynithaaeinue caneeeyi ?iicaiii? “inooi?iaii?” i?ioano?e o aocao (59%),
iaaiith ooieoe?iiaeueiith iaiaaeai?noth ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a
oi?aa?neoao?a, ia?aaaaeii aeeeaaeaoeueeith ? i?ina?oieoeueeith.
Oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? caoeuaieo aeena?oaoe?e ? i?aeaeuaiiy
?o iaoeiaiai ??aiy, ui ae?acii aeyaeeanue o 30-40-? ??. O?O no., ??cei
ci?ieeanue o ca’yceo ?c cae?eniaiiyi eiina?aaoeaii? io?oe?eii? iie?oeee
a aaeoc? ina?oe ? iaoee a 40-50 ??..

A?iiaaenueeee i?aeeii 60-o ??., i?eeiyooy noaoooo 1863 ?. ni?eyee
i?aeaeuaiith aeiia aei ci?noo ? ianyao aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ia?o.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui ?acoeueoaoii ?aoi?ie ia?iaeii?
ina?oe, cae?eniaii? ia ii/aoeo O?O no., noaea i?aai?caoe?y iiaeo oei?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a: i?eoiaenueeeo ? iia?oiaeo o/eeeu, a?iiac?e, a
oaeiae ia?oiai aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo a Oe?a?i? — Oa?e?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Ca?eueoaiiy ia?aae? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ia’?eoeaii
aeiaaaei i?aeaioiaee iiai? a?o/eciyii? o/aiai? e?oa?aoo?e; ?nioth/? ia
oie /an ia?aaaaeii ia?aeeaaei? i?ae?o/ieee ? iin?aieee ia caaeiaieueiyee
i?ioean iaa/aiiy. Aeuaneacaia ? coiiaeei cia/iee ?ioa?an o/aieo aei
noai?aiiy a?eueo aeineiiaei? a?o/eciyii? iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e. I?i aenieee iaoeiaee ??aaiue i?ae?o/iee?a, ii?aaeiee?a ?
iin?aiee?a, i?aeaioiaeaieo, iai?eeeaae, aeeeaaea/aie Oa?e?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?eaenueeei ?.N., Oniainueeei A.I., Ineiianueeei O.O.,
A?ca O.?., sseiaii E.A. oa ?i. na?ae/eoue oe?iea ?o aeei?enoaiiy a
aaaaoueio iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ia o?eueee Oe?a?ie, aea ? ca ?? iaaeaie,
aeniea ?o ioe?iea c aieo io?oe?eii? aeaaee ? i?ia?aneaii?
a?iiaaenueeino? (i?ai??, iaai?iaee, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei ao?eaiiy o
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean), a oaeiae ia?aeeaae a?o/eciyii? iaa/aeueii?
e?oa?aoo?e ia ?iicaii? iiae.

Aiae?c ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aeia?a, ui
i?aai?caoe?y ? i?iaaaeaiiy caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueeeo aeoiaeo i?iiia ?
eo?n?a ioae?/ieo eaeoe?e ye aeoeaieo oi?i a?iiaaenueei? ?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie O?O no. ni?eyee ca?eueoaiith
e?eueeino? ina?/aieo ethaeae o e?a?i?, cia/iiio i?aeaeuaiith caaaeueiiai
eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy. Ioae?/i? eaeoe?? ? aeoia? i?iiiae,
aeaieioai? aeeeaaea/aie Oa?e?anueeiai ? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a o O?O
no., iaee i?ia?aneaiee aieea ca ?aooiie iiioey?ecaoe?? ae?yeueiino?
a?o/eciyieo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, aiae?co oai?/ino? ?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a iaoee, iie?oeee ? e?oa?aoo?e,
aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iaoeiaeo ieoaiue, ?ic?iaee i?aeoe/ieo
ii?aae ? ianoaiia, aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy, iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaino? ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa e?ath, a oaeiae eaeoi?nueei?
? iaoiaee/ii? iaenoa?iino? aeiiia?aea/?a.

Ia cia/iiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae? iieacaii, ui ioae?/i? eaeoe?? o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie aia?oa aoei i?aai?ciaaii ? i?iaaaeaii c
?i?oe?aoeae o?yaeo (30-40-? ??. O?O no.), a i?ci?oa – oi?aa?neoaoaie ?
iaoeiaeie oiaa?enoaaie ye iane?aeie ia’?eoeaii? iio?aae aea?aeaae o
ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? niaoe?ae?no?a aeey i?iieneiaino? ? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ui ?icaeaaeeny.

Noni?eueiee i?aeeii 60-o ?. O?O no. ni?eya cia/iiio ?icoe?aiith oaiaoeee
ioae?/ieo eaeoe?e: a?ae eaeoe?e ia?aaaaeii c i?eeeaaeieo aeenoeeie?i
(oaoiieia?? ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, iaoai?ee, oaoiieia?/ii? o?i??)
aei eaeoe?e c aoiai?oa?ieo (e?oa?aoo?e, ?noi???, ienoaoeoaa, iiae),
i?e?iaeie/eo, iaaee/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iaoe.

O i?ioean? iaoeiaiai iiooeo anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aai?caoe?y ? i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoeiaeo aeneo?n?e ? aeniaaeeoe?e i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeei neeaaeii
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no. cia/ii iiaeaaaeee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/?a, iiiiaieee ?
?icoe?eee iaoa??aeueio aaco, cie?aia iaoeiai-aeiiii?aei? onoaiiae
oi?aa?neoao?a – eaai?aoi???, eaa?iaoe, ioca?, a oaeiae ni?eyee
cae?eniaiith /eneaiieo iaoeiaeo a?aee?eoo?a   o  aaeoc?
  i?e?iaeiciaanoaa. A?o/eciyi?   a/ai? c?iaeee nooo?aee aianie o
?icaeoie o?oioeaiieia?? – E?aniia A.I., Ia/inueeee ?.O.; aaieia?? ?
a?ae?iaaieia?? – Ai?enye I.Ae., Eaaaeianueeee ?.O.; oaoie ? oei?e
– Aanna? A.A., O?aooaooa? ?.?., ?iaiae/ A.N., Oiaeueaaocai
?.O., Aaea-oia A.I., Oae??a A.?., Eannea? E.O., Niaeinueeee A.E.,
Eiaaeaanueeee I.I., Eaeaie/aiei ?.I. oa ?i.

Iaoeia? aeneo?n??, aeniaaeeoe?? i?ioiaeeee ye ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie,
ni?eyth/e oei naiei ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
e?ath, oae ? aeaeaei ca ?? iaaeaie, aeinoieii i?aaenoaaeyth/e a?o/eciyio
iaoeo ca ei?aeiiii ? caaaa/oth/e ?? iaeiia?oeie a?aee?eooyie.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui o ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? iaoee ?
ina?oe a O?O no. iniaeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?aee iaoeia? c’?caee, aeoeaio
o/anoue o ?iaio? yeeo a?aee ? aeeeaaea/? Oa?e?anueeiai ? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoao?a. O aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui cia/iith iiae??th o
a?iiaaenueei-iaoeiaiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie noaee a?oaieia?/i? iaoeia? c’?caee
(Ee?a – ??? c’?cae o 1874 ?. ? O? – 1899 ?.) oa c’?caee
i?e?iaeiaeine?aeiee?a ? e?ea??a (Ee?a – ??? o 1871 ?. ? O – 1898 ?.),
ye? ni?eyee, ia?o ca ana, ia’?aeiaiith iaoeiaeo nee e?a?ie, io?eiaiith
iacaeaaeiino? (“aiain?iaoe??”) a?o/eciyii? iaoee a?ae ?iicaiii?,
i?aeiyooth ?? i?anoeaeo ca ei?aeiiii, cae?eniaiith ianooiiino? iaoeiaiai
aeina?aeo, a oaeiae i?aai?caoe?? oiaa?enoaa aeine?aeiee?a i?e?iaee a
on?o oi?aa?neoaoao, yea iaaiei /eiii noeioethaaei ?icaeoie i?e?iaeie/eo
iaoe o e?a?i?.

O/anieee c’?cae?a, na?aae yeeo aoee aeeeaaea/? ia o?eueee aeueo, aea ?
na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ni?a?ia?oieee iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo onoaiia e?a?i ?in??, Oe?a?ie, I?ia//eie, Aano???,
i?no Ia?eaea, Aa?oaae oa ?i., iaoo?ae?noe, ethaeoae? i?e?iaeiciaanoaa ?
a?oaieia??, iaaiai?thaaee iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? ? iia?aeiieaiiy c
aaaaoi/eneaiieo i?iaeai i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiaeo oa ?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i, i?iaiaeeee aeneo?n??, ?iceiiee, i?aai?ciaoaaee aenoaaee
oiui.

Ia cia/iiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae? iieacaii ?ieue a?aeiieo iaaeaaia?a,
cie?aia i?ioani?a Ee?anueeiai, a iio?i Iaoa?ao?cueeiai
oi?aa?neoao?a Eannea?a E.O. ? Ie?iaiaa I.?. a i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiaeo
c’?cae?a i?e?iaeiaeine?aeiee?a, i?aaenoaaeaii aianie o/aieo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo a i?aai?caoe?th ? i?iaaaeaiiy a?oaieia?/ieo c’?cae?a a
Oe?a?i?, ?ice?eoi ?o iaoo ? caaaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii i?ioeaaeo?o
neeeeaiiy iaoeiaeo c’?cae?a.

I?aai?caoe?y iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao O?O no.
o?nii iia’ycaia c ae?yeuei?noth Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i?e yeiio
aaea o 1812?. ae?yei ia?oa “Oiaa?enoai iaoe” a Oe?a?i?. Ci?ie o
aeooiai?e, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?e ? aeiiii?/i?e noa?ao aeeooy
noni?euenoaa, aaaaeaiiy aei oi?aa?neoaonueeiai noaoooo 1863 ?.
iieiaeaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue ni?eueii? ?iaioe a/aieo o ae??oaii?
iaoeiaeo ieoaiue noeioethaaee c?inoaiiy iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa i?e aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao e?a?ie. Iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue
oiaa?enoa (i?iaaaeaiiy uii?ny/ieo ? ui??/ieo cai??a, ia yeeo
iaaiai?thaaeenue ??ci? iaoeia? i?iaeaie; i?aai?caoe?y, o?iainoaaiiy ?
i?iaaaeaiiy aeneo?n?e, o/anoue o ?iaio? iaoeiaeo c’?cae?a) aoea
i?aai?/ii iia’ycaia c iaaeaaia?/iith ? i?ina?oeoaeuenueeith. *eaie
oiaa?enoaa caeiaeenue i?aeaioiaeith ? aeaeaiiyi iin?aiee?a aeey oe?e,
a?iiac?e, aiae?cii iaaeaaia?/ieo noaoae, ?aoeaicoaaiiyi i?ae?o/iee?a ?
ii?aaeiee?a, iaaiai?aiiyi ieoaiue iaoiaee/iiai oa?aeoa?o, /eoaiiyi
ioae?/ieo eaeoe?e, aeaeaiiyi iaoeiaeo noaoae, i?aai?caoe??th aenoaaie,
a?aee?eooyi a?ae?ioae, i?iaaaeaiiyi iaoeiaeo eiieo?n?a. Iaea?eueo
aeoeaio o/anoue o ae??oaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo ieoaiue a?aee Oa?e?anueea
?noi?eei-o?eieia?/ia oa Ee?anueea o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ia oiaa?enoaa.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui iaoeiaa,
i?ina?oieoeueea, iaoiaee/ia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo O?O no.,
ye? cia/io oaaao i?eae?eyee iiooeai iiaeo i?ia?aneaieo oi?i i?aai?caoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe, nooo?ai aieeaaea ia ?icaeoie ia o?eueee
a?o/eciyii?, aea ? na?oiai? iaoee.

O caeeth/aii? ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oi?ioeththoueny eiai iniiai? aeniiaee.

Aiae?c ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, io?oe?eieo aeieoiaio?a O?O no., no/anieo aeena?oaoe?eieo ?
iiiia?ao?/ieo i?aoeue aeicaieea:

1. Aecia/eoe:

a) caeaaei?noue ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no., nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?
aoanoaoe?? eaae??a aeui? eaae?o?eaoe?? a?ae nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai,
aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua a e?a?i?, oa?aeoa?o o?yaeiai? iie?oeee a aaeoc?
iaoee ? ina?oe;

a) ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo iaoee a Oe?a?i? a O?O no.: ?iciaae
oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeueei? nenoaie, oaeaeea c?inoaiiy eai?oae?noe/ieo
a?aeiinei, iineeaiiy eeaniai? ai?ioueae o aea?aeaa?, aeoea?caoe?y
i?ia?aneaii? a?iiaaenueei? ? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee, aeaiie?aoe/i?
ia?aoai?aiiy a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?;

a) aianie aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie a ?icaeoie a?o/eciyii?
iaoee o O?O no., a oaeiae iaa?oiooaaoe cia/aiiy
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a uiaei i?aeaioiaee oa
aoanoaoe?? iaoeiaeo eaae??a.

2. ?ice?eoe iaoai?ci ae?th/i? a O?O no. a Oe?a?i? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee
oa aoanoaoe?? iaoeiaeo eaae??a ye o ooieoe?iiaeueiiio (?ieue, cia/aiiy),
oae ? o i?eeeaaeiiio (oeyoe, aeiiae, ci?no, oa?i?i) aniaeoao.

  3. Aeyaeoe, ui iniiaieie io?oe?eieie aeieoiaioaie, ye? ?aaeaiaiooaaee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/?a Oe?a?ie ? nenoaio
aoanoaoe?? iaoeiaeo eaae??a aoee noaoooe oi?aa?neoao?a (1804, 1833,
1835, 1842, 1863, 1884??.), “Iieiaeaiiy i?i i?enoaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
nooiai?a” (1819, 1837, 1844, 1864 ??.) oa “?icii?yaeaeaiiy” I?i?noa?noaa
ia?iaeii? ina?oe.

4. Iaa?oiooaaoe aoaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o a?o/eciyieo
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae:

Ia?oee aoai (1804 –1835??.) — ca?iaeaeaiiy nenoaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe o a?o/eciyieo oi?aa?neoaoao ? i?aai?caoe?y ?? ia iniia?
naiioi?aae?iiy.

Ae?oaee aoai (1835 –1863 ??.) — i?iaaaeaiiy “ioi?iiii?” iie?oeee
io?oe?eii? aeaaee a aaeoc? iaoee ? ina?oe, ui coiiaeei iaiine?aeiai?noue
(“nea/eiiiae?ai?noue”) iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ae?yeueiino? oi?aa?neoao?a.

O?ao?e aoai (1863-1884 ??.) — i?aeianaiiy a?iiaaenueei? ? iaaeaaia?/ii?
aeoiee ? ?aoi?ioaaiiy on??? nenoaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe.

*aoaa?oee aoai (1884 – 1900 ??.) — ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo
i?ioe??/ i?ae ?aaeoe?eieie caoiaeaie “i?aaey/i? aa?o?aee” a aaeoc? aeui?
ina?oe ? i?ia?aneaieie ae?yie iaaeaaia?/ii? a?iiaaenueeino? ?
aeeeaaea/?a oi?aa?neoao?a.

5. Ocaaaeueieoe aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no., aeyaeoe
iniiai? iai?yie ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a oa iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? ?? oi?ie
(noai?aiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai eiiieaeno, i?aeaioiaea ? i?iaieioaiiy
aeoiaeo i?iiia, /eoaiiy ioae?/ieo eaeoe?e, i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
aeneo?n?e oa aeniaaeeoe?e, i?aai?caoe?y iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa, o/anoue o
?iaio? iaoeiaeo c’?cae?a).

6. Aeiaanoe, ui iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo aeui? oeiee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ??
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoaea ni?eyoe:

· ?icoe?aiiy iaoeiaeo ca’yce?a a?o/eciyieo o/aieo c ?iicaiieie aeueie
iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie ? iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie oeyoii i?aai?caoe??
eiioa?aioe?e, neiiic?oi?a, ia?aae, iiiiaiaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii?
aace oi?aa?neoao?a, caaacia/aiiy ?o iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th oa
?i.;

· caeo/aiiy, noeioethaaiiy aeeeaaea/?a oi?aa?neoao?a aei i?aeaioiaee
i?ae?o/iee?a, iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a ye aeey aeui?, oae ? na?aaeiuei?
oeiee;

· a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa, ?iaioa a yeeo o?nii
iia’caia c ?ic?iaeith ? ??oaiiyi aeeaeaeoe/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo i?iaeai
aeui? ? na?aaeiuei? oeiee; o/anoue o ?iciianthaeaeaii?
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue /a?ac oiaa?enoaa;

· iaeaaiaeaeaiiy o?nieo eiioaeo?a i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
aoc?a c a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie, i?aaenoaaieeaie ?ioae?aaioe??, ui
aacoiiaii ni?eyei a ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio ? aeooiaiiio ?icaeoeo iaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia ae/a?io? an?o ieoaiue i?aai?caoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
a Oe?a?i? O?O no. Aeiaaathoue iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a, ?iaioa o ??cieo
eii?n?yo ? a?iiaaenueeeo eii?oaoao, i?aeia?iaei? iaoeia? ca’ycee
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
Oe?a?ie o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeaii a oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1? Iai?yie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie a O?O no. // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue: Iai?yie
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997. –
N. 102-107.

2? N.?.Ie?iiieuenueeee i?i ?ieue ? caaaeaiiy “Oiaa?enoa” o
?iciianthaeaeaii? a?aiioiino?. // Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue. Aei.3:
N.?.Ie?iiieuenueeee /1842-1907/ a/aiee, iaaeaaia, iaoiaeeno.-Oa?e?a:
OAeIO, 1997.- N.81-87.

3? Aea?aeaai? oo?aioe i?i i?aai?caoe?th iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe
o aoc?. // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei.4: Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe: — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997.- N.151-154.

4? Ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy ia?oiai “Iieiaeaiiy i?i i?enoaeaeaiiy o/aieo
nooiai?a” o ?in?? a O?O no. // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 3: Caniae
iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997.-
N.8-11.

5? Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c i?aeaioiaee ? aoanoaoe?? iaoeiaeo eaae??a o
i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe aoc?a Oe?a?ie (O?O ? OO no.no) // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.
Aei.3: Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe. — Oa?e?a:
OAeIO, 1997. — N.11-16 (o ni?aaao. c I.I.Ieeeotheii).

6? I?aai?caoe?y aeneo?n?e oa aeniaaeeoe?e aeeeaaea/?a oi?aa?neoao?a a
Oe?a?i? o O?O no. // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei.6: Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998.- N.125-128.

7? Iaoeia? c’?caee ye can?a i?aeaeuaiiy oai?aoeei-i?aeoe/iiai ??aiy
aeeeaaea/?a oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no. // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei.6:
Caniae iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998.
— N.7-10 (o ni?aaao. c I.I.Ieeeotheii).

Aiioaoe?y

Ia?oeiaiei I.I. I?aai?caoe?y iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a a Oe?a?i? (O?O no.) — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. –
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o O?O no. O aeena?oaoe??
ia iniia? aiae?co io?oe?eieo aeieoiaio?a, ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a iaa?oioiaaii aoaie ?icaeoeo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
Oe?a?ie o O?Ono., iieacaii caeaaei?noue ?icaeoeo iaoee a?ae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ci?i o noni?euenoa?, ?ice?eoi ci?no
? nenoaiaoeciaaii oi?ie i?aeaioiaee ? aoanoaoe?? iaoeiaeo eaae??a o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae; ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae i?aai?caoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a Oa?e?anueeiai ? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoao?a, aeyaeaii iniiai? iai?yie iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?
aeeeaaea/?a ? iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? ?? oi?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae, io?oe?eia iie?oeea, aeu?
iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee, nenoaia aoanoaoe?? iaoeiaeo eaae??a, oi?ie
i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a.

Martynenko H.N. Organization of High School teachers’ research in
Ukraine (XIX c.). — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate’s degree by speciality 13.00.01 — Theory and
History of Pedagogics. — State Pedagogical University named after
G.S. Scovoroda, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to development and formation of theoretical
ideas and experience of organizing of High School teachers’ research in
Ukraine in XIX century. The stages of development of High School
teachers’ research in Ukraine in XIX c. were well-founded. The
dependence of science development upon social, economic and political
changinges in the society was shown. The forms and subject of training
and certification as science specialists of the investigated period were
revealed. The experience of organizing of Kharkiv and Kiev High School
teachers’ research in XIX c. was generalized. The basis directions and
forms of Kharkiv and Kiev High School teachers’ activities in XIX c.
were also determined. Analysis of the official documents, the
historical and pedagogical literature, contemporary records etc. was
serving as the basis for the investigation.

Key words: social and economic conditions; official policy; High School;
system of certification as science specialists; forms of organizing of
research.

Ia?ouiaiei A.I. I?aaiecaoeey iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee ia Oe?aeia (O?Ono.) —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee.
-Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei. A.N.
Nei-ai?iaeu. Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A ?aaioa i?iaiaeece?iaaiu acaeyaeu i?ia?anneaiuo ioa/anoaaiiuo
iaaeaaiaia ia ?ieue iaoee a aeecie iauanoaa, iieacaia caaeneiinoue
?acaeoey iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou i?aiiaeaaaoaeae aunoeo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee Oe?aeiu a O?O no., aeaenoaothuae a enneaaeoaiue
ia?eiae nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee e aooanoaoeee iao/iuo eaae?ia io
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai, yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey a no?aia e
oa?aeoa?a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeee a iaeanoe iaoee e ia?aciaaiey.

Inaauaiu i?aaiecaoeeiiiua aii?inu iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou
i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa aocia Oe?aeiu,
caoeene?iaaiiua a onoaaao oieaa?neoaoia, iainiiaaiu yoaiu ?acaeoey
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou i?aiiaeaaaoaeae aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou, ?aaoee?iaaaoea
nenoaio aooanoaoeee eaae?ia aunoae eaaeeoeeaoeee a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae,
a oaeaea ?ane?uo aa iaoaieci, eae a ooieoeeiiaeueiii, oae e a
i?eeeaaeiii aniaeoao.

A enneaaeiaaiee iaiauai iiuo i?aaiecaoeee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
?aaiou i?aiiaeaaaoaeae aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee a O?O no., auyaeaiu
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai
ninoaaa aocia,eceiaeaiu o?aaiaaiey e ii?yaeie i?aaiecaoeee caueou
aeenna?oaoeee, inaauai aeeaae i?aiiaeaaaoaeae Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa
a nicaeaiee iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiai eiiieaena a ia/aea O?O no.,
i?iaiaeece?iaaii niaea?aeaiea aeoiauo ?a/ae e ioaee/iuo eaeoeee
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae Oa?ueeianeiai e Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoia, ?ane?uoi
cia/aiea i?iaaaeaiey iao/iuo yeneo?nee e yeniaaeeoeee aeey ?aoaiey
caaea/ iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, iieacaii
o/anoea i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa oieaa?neoaoia a
iao/iuo iauanoaao e ?aaioa iao/iuo nuacaeia.

A ?aaioa iaia/aiu iooe ?aaeecaoeee iaeiieaiiiai iiuoa
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou i?aiiaeaaaoaeae a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
?aaiou aunoae oeieu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey, ioeoeeaeueiay
iieeoeea, aunoea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, nenoaia aooanoaoeee iao/iuo
eaae?ia, oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou.

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