?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AII OE?A?IE

AAIAAeTHE Aaeaioeia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 371.044.3: 551.4/5: 908(021)

I?AAI?CAOe?ss E?A?CIAA*I? ?IAIOE O*I?A

O I?IOeAN? AEA*AIIss O?CE*II? AAIA?AO??

INIIAII? OEIEE (V-IX eeane)

13.00.02 — oai??y oa iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy aaia?ao??

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee Ei?i??a A?eoi? Iao?iae/, ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie,
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi??? iaoiaeeee aaia?ao??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaeueie/oe
?aai Aaneeueiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, caa.
eaoaae?e iaeaiioieia??;

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iaeaia?/oe Ea?ena Ai?en?aia,
Ee?anueeee i?ae?aa?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a
?i. A.A??i/aiea, noa?oee aeeeaaea/ eaoaae?e iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy
i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/ieo aeenoeeie?i

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 19 aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.452.03 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252053, i. Ee?a, aoe. A?oaia, 52a

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie (252053, i. Ee?a, aoe. A?oaia, 52a).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 19 ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

i?ioani? Eaaeee I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaaeeeao ?ieue o caaacia/aii?
iaeaaeii? oai?aoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee oeiey??a aei iaeaooiuei? aeoeaii?
o/ano? a aoae?aieoeoa? aea?aeaae, o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? a?iiaaeyieia
iieeeeaia a?ae?a?aoe oe?eueia e?a?ciaanoai. Aenooiath/e o nai?e
??ciiiai?oiino? oi?i, aiii ni?ey? ii?aeueiiio, o?oaeiaiio, anoaoe/iiio,
aeieia?/iiio, o?ce/iiio aeoiaaiith, ?icoe?th? e?oaic?? oeiey??a,
?icaeaa? ?o i?ciaaaeuei? ?ioa?ane. O i?ioean? e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o/i?
naiino?eii canaiththoue iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae, iaaoaathoue iaae/ie,
iaiao?aeieo o aeeoo?, aioothoueny aei i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa
?icoe?ththoue caaaeueiiina?oi? ciaiiy. E?a?ciaanoai, oaeei /eiii,
?icaeyaea?oueny ia eeoa ye ae?yeuei?noue oeiey??a, ni?yiiaaia ia
aea/aiiy e?ath, aea ? ye iaeia c oiia iie?ioaiiy aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo
i?aaeiao?a, cie?aia aaia?ao??. ?aeay aeei?enoaiiy e?a?ciaa/eo iaoa??ae?a
o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy aoea iaa?oioiaaia ua a i?aoeyo a?aeiiiai /anueeiai
iaaeaaiaa ss.A.Eiiainueeiai. I?ci?oa ??ci? aniaeoe oe?eueiiai
e?a?ciaanoaa aeine?aeaeoaaee AE.-AE.?onni, I.A.Eiiiiinia,
E.Ae.Ooeinueeee. Ia iaae? XIX-XX no. o ?in?? oaeeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
caeiaeenue Ae.Ae.Naiaiia, A.TH.Iao??, N.I.A?aeaiia oa ?io?.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? oe?eueia e?a?ciaanoai a nenoai?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee. O
a?aeiia?aeiino? c eiai i?aai?caoe?eieie no?oeoo?aie ?ic??ciythoue aeaa
iniiai? iai?yie o e?a?ciaa/eo iiooeao: ia?oee – oea aaciina?aaei?
aea/aiiy nai?? i?noeaaino?, ae?oaee – aeei?enoaiiy c?a?aii? i?e oeueiio
?ioi?iaoe?? aeey aea/aiiy i?ioean?a ? yaeu o aaia?ao?/i?e iaieiioe?.
Eaeaoueny i?i e?a?ciaa/ee i?eioeei, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai a/eoaeue
?aae?co? a?aeiia aeeaeaeoe/ia i?aaeei – “a?ae a?aeiiiai aei
iaa?aeiiiai”, “a?ae aeecueeiai aei aeaeaeiai”. Oea noaeaeaiiy,
aacia?a/ii, i?noeoue o nia? aaaeeeao iaoiaeieia?/io nooi?noue. Aea/ath/e
iaeaeeae/a aeiae?eey, o/i? nii/aoeo ciaeiieyoueny c iaei?ino?oeie
yaeuaie. C /anii i?ioean iaa/aeueiiai i?ciaiiy oneeaaeith?oueny. Oeiey??
ana aeeaoa i?iieeathoue o nooi?noue i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?. Oa?eoi??aeueii ?icoe?th?oueny iiiyooy
??aeiiai e?ath. C?inoa? ?ieue oai?aoe/iiai ieneaiiy oeiey??a.
Iineeth?oueny ?aei?noue ? aca?iica’ycie e?a?ciaa/eo iiooe?a o/i?a
aaciina?aaeiuei ia o?ioe? oa a iicao?i/iee /an. I?ioa iaoiaee/i? iniiae
oaei? ?aeiino? iiee ui a e?oa?aoo?? ?ice?eo? iaaeinoaoiuei. Oea ? iaeiei
c aeaiaio?a iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ie?ai? iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe no/aniiai oe?eueiiai e?a?ciaanoaa ?ic?iaeyee
A.A.Aea?einueeee, ss.?.AEoiainueeee, A.I.Ei?i??a, I.TH.Eino?eoey,
I.I.E?a/eei, E.?.E?oaeee, I.I.Ia?eie/, ?.A.Iaeueie/oe, A.A.Iaiciee,
I.I.Inoaiaoeue-Naaoi?eia, I.I.Ioeaeaiei, E.A.Iaeaia?/oe, I.I.?iuei,
I.A.?onaeia, A.C.Nao?oee?i, A.E.Ne?ioaiei, E.O.No?i?a, O.A.Oaoa?nueeee,
A.I.*a?iia, ?.E.Oeiiae/, I.A.Oeuaiei, I.O.ssiei oa ?io?.

C aeooaeueieo i?iaeai e?a?ciaanoaa aoei caoeuaii ?yae aeena?oaoe?e
(?.I.Aoeaniaa, A.Aeno?iaa, ?.?.Aiiaea?aiei, AE.Aai?i, ?.A.Ea/aiiaa,
Ae.I.Eei/aa, A.I.Eeeiiaa, I.I.E?a/eei, A.A.Eaaaae?a,
I.I.Inoaiaoeue-Naaoi?eia, I.A.?yaei, A.C.Nao?oee?i, A.N.Ni??iia,
I.N.Oa?aniaa, A.I.*a?iia oa ?io?).

Iniaeeai c?inea ?ieue e?a?ciaanoaa o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? a
90-? ?iee, eiee ia oa?eoi??? N?N? a?aeaoaaeinue noaiiaeaiiy naiino?eieo
aea?aeaa. I?aaeiaoii ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o oe? ?iee
aoee: noai?aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy ae?aiii-caoeiaeo cania?a c e?a?ciaanoaa
(O.A.Eiaaeue/oe); i?ioan?eia ni?yiiaai?noue eo?no caieaciaanoaa oa
e?a?ciaanoaa ia oaeoeueoao? ii/aoeiaeo eean?a iaae?inoeooo?a
(I.A.Oeiiue); aeiiii?/ia ina?oa o/i?a o iicaeeani?e ?iaio? c aaia?ao??
(E.A.E?nianueeee); eiiieaen e?a?ciaa/eo ea?oia?ao?/ieo cania?a oa eiai
aeei?enoaiiy ia o?ieao o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? (A.A.Eioeoi). O ?acoeueoao?
i?iaaaeaieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo iiooe?a o no/ani?e oeie? neeaeanue
iaaia nenoaia oe?eueiiai e?a?ciaanoaa. O oie aea /an aiia aeiaaa?
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy.

Ii-ia?oa, oe?eueia aaia?ao?/ia e?a?ciaanoai ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoenue ye
naiioe?eue. Aiii, ca iaoei ia?aeiiaiiyi, ianaiia?aae ? caniaii
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy aaia?ao?/ieo ciaiue, iaeiei ?c
aieiaieo i?eioeei?a o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?. Aeania, eaeaoueny
i?i e?a?ciaa/ee i?aeo?ae aei oi?ioaaiiy ci?noo, no?oeoo?e ? iaoiaee/ieo
iniia oe?eueii? aaia?ao??. Ca?aene aeieeaa? iaiao?aei?noue /?oei?
?aeiino? i?ia?aiiaiai ? iicai?ia?aiiaiai e?a?ciaanoaa. I?ioa o
iaoiaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oaea ?aei?noue ?ice?eaa?oueny caeaa?eueoiai a
caaaeueieo ?enao. Iio??aii ?ic?iaeoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe a?aeiia?aei?
i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie oa iaoiaee/i? c?acee o oe?eueiiio aaia?ao?/iiio
e?a?ciaanoa?, ye? a caaacia/oaaee ?aei?noue iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
oeiey??a ia o?ieao ? a iicao?i/iee /an. Ii-ae?oaa, iei? a?aeaoaa?oueny
noaiiaeaiiy iiaiai ci?noo ? no?oeoo?e iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a. Oea
ia’?eoeaii coiiaeth? aeayea a?aenoaaaiiy oe?eueiiai e?a?ciaanoaa a?ae
?icaeoeo oe?eueii? aaia?ao??. E?a?ciaa/a ?iaioa aeiaaa? a?aeiia?aeiiai
ocaiaeaeaiiy c iei? ae?th/eie i?ia?aiaie oa eiie?aoecaoe?? ?? ci?noo.
Ii-o?ao?, a iaoiaeeoe? aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a, o oiio /ene?
aaia?ao??, a inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aathoueny ie?ai? iiaaoi?nuee?
i?aeoiaee. Aiie, a ia?oo /a?ao, ni?yiiaothoueny ia aeoea?caoe?th
oai?/iai ieneaiiy ae?oae. Oea aeiaaa? a?ae oe?eueiiai aaia?ao?/iiai
e?a?ciaanoaa oaeiae a?aeiia?aeieo iiaaoe?e. Ca iaoei caaeoiii, oea
iiaeiia aooe aeoea?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a,
naiino?eia ?ice?eooy ieie iaeaaaeeea?oeo caeiiii??iinoae oa
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?. I?e oaeiio
i?aeoiae? a ia?niaeoea? iiaeooue aeieeiooe oiiae aeey iiyae o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aeaiaio?a iaoeiaiai iiooeo.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? i?iaeaie oa iaaeinoaoiy ?? oai?aoe/ia ? iaoiaee/ia
?ic?iaea coiiaeee aea?? oaie “I?aai?caoe?y e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o/i?a o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? iniiaii? oeiee (V-IX eeane)”.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?ioean aeei?enoaiiy e?a?ciaa/iai iaoa??aeo ia
o?ieao o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae aeei?enoaiiy e?a?ciaa/iai
iaoa??aeo a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? i?e aea/aii? o?ce/ii?
aaia?ao??.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy e?a?ciaa/iai iaoa??aeo ia o?ieao o?ce/ii?
aaia?ao??.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aecia/aii oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

 Aea/eoe noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaie i?iaeaie o iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? ?
i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe oeiee. C’ynoaaoe cia/aiiy ? i?noea e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? i?e aea/aii? o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??.
Anoaiiaeoe, ye ?aae?co?oueny i?eioeei ?aeiino? i?ia?aiiaiai oa
iicai?ia?aiiaiai e?a?ciaanoaa o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? a/eoae?a oa
o/i?a.

 Iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe noeoii?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ye? ni?eythoue
aoaeoeaiiio aeei?enoaiith e?a?ciaa/iai iaoa??aeo ia o?ieao o?ce/ii?
aaia?ao??. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie ?ice?eooy o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo
iiiyoue ? caeiiii??iinoae ia e?a?ciaa/?e iniia? ia ??cieo aoaiao
aea/aiiy aaia?ao??. I?e oeueiio ia?aaeaa/eoe naiino?eiee ca?? oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy oeiey?aie iaa/aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ?ice?eooy
iaeaaaeeea?oeo caeiiii??ieo ca’yce?a o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?,
aeei?enoaiiy noi?iiaaieo iiiyoue aeey aea/aiiy iiaeo caeiiii??iinoae.

 O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iei? ae?th/eie i?ia?aiaie aecia/eoe iniiai? iai?yie
aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia oa?eoi??? ??aeiiai e?ath. Ocaiaeeoe ?o
ci?no c? ci?noii oe?eueieo eo?n?a aaia?ao??.

 Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue ie?aneaieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo
oiia.

 ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey a/eoae?a uiaei aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
e?a?ciaa/iai iaoa??aeo ia o?ieao o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??.

O ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia aeine?aeaeaiiy ie nie?aeenue
ia iieiaeaiiy:

a) iaoeiai? oai??? i?ciaiiy i?i ia?ic?eaio ?aei?noue /ooo?aiai ?
?aoe?iiaeueiiai o i?ciaaaeueiiio i?ioean?; i?i iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
yaeu o aca?iica’yceo ? ?icaeoeo ?o eiiiiiaio?a; aea/aiiy i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua ye ia aii??e/iiio, oae ? ia oai?aoe/iiio ??aiyo;

a) aen?ieia?? – oai??? oe?iiinoae, cie?aia aoiai?noe/ii? iaaeaaia?ee,
ca?aeii c yeith iaeaeuith oe?ii?noth a noni?euenoa? ? ethaeeia;

a) ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ye? aecia/athoue i?aaiao iniiao
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ina?oe: Eiinoeoooe?th Oe?a?ie, Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i
ina?oo”, Aea?aeaaio iaoe?iiaeueio i?ia?aio “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia XXI
noie?ooy”).

?ic?iaeyth/e iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie ea?oaaeenue aeiiaaie, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue niaoeeo?oe? iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue:
iaiao?aei?noth nenoaiiiai aiae?co iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano, eiiieaeniiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy:

 Oai?aoe/i?: aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie; oe?eueieo i?ia?ai ?
i?ae?o/iee?a, a oaeiae io?eiaiiai o ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioo oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo.

 Aii??e/i?: ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?yeuei?noth
a/eoae?a oa o/i?a o i?ioean? ?o ?iaioe c e?a?ciaa/ei iaoa??aeii i?e
aea/aii? o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??; aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? oa
o/i?anueeeo i?aoeue; aan?aee c o/eoaeyie oa o/iyie; aieaooaaiiy;
iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio; aea/aiiy ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeina?aeo; iaoaiaoe/ii-noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee.

Iniiaiei iaoiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa eiinoaooth/ee oa oi?ioth/ee
aenia?eiaio. A?i i?iaiaeeany ia an?o aoaiao aeine?aeaeaiiy o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??.

Iaoith eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo aoei: a) aea/aiiy ??aiy e?a?ciaa/eo
ciaiue o/i?a, noi?iiaaieo o i?ioean? canai?iiy o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo
iiiyoue a oiiaao ?aaeueii ae?th/iai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo oa
o?aaeeoe?eii? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy; a) aecia/aiiy eiio?ieueieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi; a) anoaiiaeaiiy ci?noo oa ianyao e?a?ciaa/eo
ciaiue oeiey??a o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieie caaaeaiiyie
eo?no o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??.

Eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany o 1993-1994 iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe?
(Caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a ? 7, 9, 10, 19, 22, 24, 25, 26
i. Eooeueea, Eeieinueea, Eeuainueea, Iaye?anueea, I?aeaaeoe?anueea,
I?aeaeoaoe?anueea, ?iiai?anueea, Oi?/einueea caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee
?-??? nooiai?a oa Ai?ioi?anueea caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea ?-?? nooiai?a
Aieeinueei? iaeano?; Eeeianueea, Nieie?anueea, *a?aiiia?i?enueea,
ssniiiieyinueea caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a oa I/a?aoyinueea,
*a?iyanueea caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-?? nooiai?a, ui ia AEeoiie?uei?;
Aa?aci?anuee? caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a ? 1 ? 2 ??aiainueei?
iaeano?). Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aoei ioiieaii 689 o/i?a oa 162 a/eoae?.

Ii?aoethaaiiy oai?aoe/iiai iaoa??aeo oa aea/aiiy noaio aeei?enoaiiy
e?a?ciaa/i? ?ioi?iaoe?? a eo?n? o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? aeicaieeee iai
?ic?iaeoe iaaio noeoii?noue iaoiaee/ieo i?eeii?a oa i?aai?caoe?eieo
oi?i, ye? neeaaeathoue aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy e?a?ciaa/i?
?iaioe o i?ioean? aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??. Ca iaoei i?eiouaiiyi, oea
iiaeiii aoei caaacia/eoe i?aeianaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a.

Iaoith oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aoea ia?aa??ea aecia/aieo iaie
aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o i?ioean? aea/aiiy o?ce/ii?
aaia?ao??. Aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa/aiiy cae?enithaaeinue aacia?a?aii
ai?iaeiaae 1994-1995, 1995-1996, 1996-1997 iaa/aeueieo ?ie?a c o/iyie
5-9 eean?a. O oi?ioth/iio aenia?eiaio? a?aee o/anoue 548 o/i?a
(Caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a ? 7, 9, 10, 19, 22, 24, 25, 26
i.Eooeueea, Eeieinueea, Eeuainueea, Iaye?anueea, I?aeaaeoe?anueea,
I?aeaeoaoe?anueea, ?iiai?anueea, Oi?/einueea caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee
?-??? nooiai?a oa Ai?ioi?anueea caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea ?-?? nooiai?a
Aieeinueei? iaeano?; Eeeianueea, Nieie?anueea, *a?aiiia?i?enueea,
ssniiiieyinueea caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a oa I/a?aoyinueea,
*a?iyanueea caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-?? nooiai?a, ui ia AEeoiie?uei?;
Aa?aci?anuee? caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a ? 1 ? 2 ??aiainueei?
iaeano?).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue o /ioe?e aoaie.

Ia?oee aoai – iiooeiaee (1991-1993 ??.). A?i aoa i?enay/aiee aea/aiith
oa aiae?co ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, iia’ycaii? c i?iaeaiith
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aoee ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? iniiae
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cae?enithaaany aiae?c ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeina?aeo uiaei aeei?enoaiiy a/eoaeyie e?a?ciaa/eo iaoa??ae?a o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? oa i?aai?caoe?? e?a?ciaa/eo iiooe?a o
i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aoee aecia/ai? ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa oa
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1993-1994 ??.) aoee i?aeaioiaeai? iaoa??aee aeey
ae?aaiinooth/eo c??c?a uiaei e?a?ciaa/eo ciaiue oa oi?iue o/i?a c
o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??. I?iaaaeaii eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio, yeee aeaa
iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue o?aaeeoe?eii? iaoiaeeee i?aai?caoe??
e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe a/eoae?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy o/iyie o?ce/ii?
aaia?ao??. Aoee i?aeaioiaeai? iaoa??aee aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaioo.

O?ao?e aoai – aenia?eiaioaeueiee (1994-1996 ??.). Aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?yiiaoaaeinue ia aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ye?
caaacia/othoue aeinoaoiuei aenieo aoaeoeai?noue e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??. I?iaaaeaii na??th ae?aaiinooth/eo
c??c?a oa aieaooaaiiy o/i?a. Eiio?ieue ca oiaeii oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaioo cae?enithaaany a i?ioean? oe?eani?yiiaaieo niinoa?aaeaiue o
eiio?ieueieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao, a oaeiae oeyoii
aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? a i?aai?caoe?? e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??.

Ia /aoaa?oiio aoai? (1997-1998 ??.) i?iaiaeeeanue noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea
c?a?aii? oaeoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??. C?iaeaii ?? aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy.
Aecia/aia aoaeoeai?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia oa aenia?eiaioaeueii?
iaoiaeeee, ?ic?iaeaii? o oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a i?aai?caoe??
e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe oeiey??a. ?ice?eoi aieea cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee ia
??aaiue oa aeeaeio ciaiue o/i?a. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? e?a?ciaa/eo iiooe?a oeiey??a oa aeei?enoaiiy c?a?aieo
iaoa??ae?a o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?.

I?aai?caoe?y ? aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue
ai?iaeiaae 1993-98 ??. o oeieao Aieeinueei?, AEeoiie?nueei? oa
??aiainueei? iaeanoae. E??i oiai, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoa??aee c ?ioeo
iaeanoae, aea/aany aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe a/eoae?a
aaia?ao??, ye? i?aoethaaee o iiia?aaei? ?iee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
cina?aaeaeoaaeenue a iniiaiiio a 24 oeieao. Ci?no oa oa?aeoa?
aenia?eiaio?a ocaiaeaeoaaany c a?aeiia?aeieie oi?aae?iiyie ina?oe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui a oiiaao iei? ae?th/eo i?ia?ai
aeine?aeaeo?oueny aeeaeaeoe/iee aniaeo i?aai?caoe?? e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy: ?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a/eoaeyi aaia?ao?? uiaei aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy
e?a?ciaa/iai iaoa??aeo i?ae /an aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? ?
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe? iaoiaeeee aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
e?a?ciaa/iai iaoa??aeo ia o?ieao ? a iicao?i/i?e ?iaio? c aaia?ao??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?oeoaai? o 8
iaoeiaeo noaooyo. Aiie ai?iaaaeaeai? o i?aeoeeo ?iaioe a/eoae?a ?yaeo
oe?e Aieeinueei?, AEeoiie?nueei? ? ??aiainueei? iaeanoae
(Caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a ? 7 ? 10 i.Eooeueea oa
Ai?ioi?anueea caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea ?-?? nooiai?a Aieeinueei? iaeano?;
*a?aiiia?i?enueea, ssniiiieyinueea caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a
oa I/a?aoyinueea, *a?iyanueea caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-?? nooiai?a, ui
ia AEeoiie?uei?; Aa?aci?anuee? caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee ?-??? nooiai?a ? 1
? 2 ??aiainueei? iaeano?). ?ic?iaeai? iaie iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeeeaaea/aie eaoaae? o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? oa
iaaeaaia?ee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee o
i?ioean? /eoaiiy eaeoe?e, i?iaaaeaiiy nai?ia?nueeeo oa eaai?aoi?ieo
caiyoue, ea??aieoeoaa aeeieiiieie oa eo?niaeie ?iaioaie ia e?a?ciaa/o
oaiaoeeo. Aiie aoee iieeaaeai? a iniiao iaienaiiai a/eoaeyie
?iaeeuainueeiai ?aeiio iaoiaee/iiai iin?aieea “??aeiee e?ae”. Oea
ni?eyei iie?ioaiith ciaiue o/i?a c aaia?ao??, iie?auaiith i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a aei e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o oeie?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeanue ia eo?nao oa
nai?ia?ao o/eoae?a aaia?ao?? a AEeoiie?nuee?e oa Aieeinuee?e iaeanoyo,
i?ae /an iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee c? nooaeaioaie Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i Ean? Oe?a?iee. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o aeiiia?aeyo ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo c i?iaeai
ina?oe, cie?aia, ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaaeaaia?/ia oaoiieia?y o no/aniiio aoc?” (Eooeuee, 1995 ?.), ia
Anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/eo eiioa?aioe?yo o AEeoiie??
(1996 ? 1997 ??.), ia i?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiio nai?ia??
“Aacia?a?aia aaia?ao?/ia ina?oa: ?iiiaaoe?ei? iaoiaee ? oaoiieia??” o
Oa?eia? (1998 ?.), ia i?aeia?iaei?e e?a?ciaa/?e eiioa?aioe??
“E?a?ciaanoai ? oo?eci: ina?oa, aeoiaaiiy, noeeue aeeooy” o Oa?nii?
(1998 ?.).

A??ia?aei?noue aeniiae?a oa ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
iaoiaeieia?/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue; eiiieaeniei
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy; i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie
aenia?eiaioo; ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi eiai ?acoeueoao?a o i?aeoeeo.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? o 8 ?iaioao: na?aae
ieo 1 noaooy o iaoeiaiio aeo?iae?, 3 – o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 4 –
o iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a aei ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. ?oeiien aeena?oaoe?? i?noeoue 157 noi??iie
iniiaiiai oaenoo, 22 oaaeeoe? oa 13 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ?ice?eoi aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii eiai
ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo oa caaaeaiiy, aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeei?enoaieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io
cia/ou?noue ?iaioe. Iiaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — “Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae oo?enonueei-e?a?ciaa/i?
?iaioe o oeie?” ?ice?eaa? ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae noaiiaeaiiy e?a?ciaanoaa
? e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio a oe?euei?e aaia?ao??. Ia iniia? e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae iaa?oioiaothoueny ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee oe?eueiiai
e?a?ciaanoaa, aena?oeth?oueny aeina?ae iaa/aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue o
iaaeieeoiueiio i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aeaco?oueny ia iaaeinoaoith
a?aeiia?aei?noue iniiaieo iai?yi?a oa ci?noo no/aniiai e?a?ciaanoaa iei?
ae?th/ei iaa/aeueiei ieaiai ? i?ia?aiai.

O ?icae?e? ?ice?eaathoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? iniiae
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Cie?aia, i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui a no/ani?e
iaoiaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? e?a?ciaa/ee i?eioeei ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oaeee, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? nenoaiaoe/ia anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yce?a aoaeue-yeiai eo?no
aaia?ao?? c oeie ciaiiyie, ye? io?eiaee o/i? a ?acoeueoao?
aaciina?aaeiueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ath. Oeiey?? ?icaeyaeathoue
iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua o na?oe? ?ioi?iaoe??, c?a?aii? ieie i?ae /an
i?iaaaeaiiy aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue. Oaea i?ciaiiy, ?icii/eiath/enue c
a?ae/ooo?a, i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy a?aeoai?aii? o
na?aeiiino? ?ioi?iaoe??. Iaa/aeueia ni?eeiyooy na?oo iinooiiai
ia?aoiaeeoue a?ae /ooo?ai-i?aeoe/iiai aei oai?aoe/iiai. O oiae?
aano?aaoaaiiy oi?iothoueny iiiyooy. I?aai?ciaoth/e iiooeiao
ae?yeuei?noue oeiey??a o iaeaeeae/iio na?aaeiaeu?, ie aeoiaeeee c oiai,
ui oai?aoe/ia ieneaiiy, ye aeua nooi?iue eiai ?icaeoeo, ? ieneaiiy
ae?aeaeoe/ia. Aiii ni?yiiao?oueny ia iiyniaiiy yaeu, ia i?ciaiiy
ia’?eoeaieo caeiiii??iinoae, ui a?aee?eaa? iiaeeea?noue ia?aaeaa/aiiy.

Iaei??th ?c iniaeeainoae oai?aoe/iiai ieneaiiy ? ?oo aeoiee a?ae
iaeeie/iiai oaeoo aei caeiiii??iino?. Ia ianooiiiio aoai? i?ciaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo eiie?aoia ?ioi?iaoe?y ?icaeyaea?oueny aaea o na?oe?
?ai?o noi?iiaaieo aano?aeoe?e. Aacia?a/ii, oaeee i?ioean ia iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ni?iuaii. Aaeaea ?iaeoeoe?y oa aeaaeoeoe?y o?nii
ia?aie?oathoueny. O oe?eueiiio eo?n? o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? oa o i?ioean?
i?aai?caoe?? e?a?ciaa/eo iiooe?a iaea?eueo caaaeuei? o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i?
caeiiii??iino? ? oai?aoe/iith aacith aeey ?ice?eooy iiaeo, iaio
caaaeueieo caeaaeiinoae.

Iaeaaaeeea?o? o?einionuee? oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea?, i?i ye?
eoeiny aeua, neeaaeathoue iniiao e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio i?e aea/aii?
aaia?ao??. Aiie ?icaeyaeathoueny iaie ye iaoiaeieia?/iee i???ioe? a
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueieo iiooe?a o iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?. Cie?aia,
o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? caeiiii??iino?, ye? ?ice?eaathoueny i?ae /an
aeneo?n?e oa iioiae?a ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? aea/aiiy aaia?ao??, ?
oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeey ona?aeiieaiiy a?eueo neeaaeieo caeaaeiinoae,
ui aea/athoueny i?ci?oa, a ?aa?iiaeueieo eo?nao o?ce/ii? aaia?ao??.
Cae?eniaiiy e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio, – ieoa A.A.Aea?einueeee, –
ia?aaeaa/a? ia eeoa nenoaiaoe/ia iciaeiieaiiy ai?iaeiaae anueiai eo?no
c? nai?i e?a?i, aea e iino?eia aeei?enoaiiy e?a?ciaa/eo ciaiue o/i?a o
iaa/aii? aaia?ao??, nenoaiaoe/ia anoaiiaeaiiy o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy
anioe?aoeaieo ca’yce?a e?a?ciaa/eo ciaiue ?c iaoa??aeii, yeee
aea/a?oueny, a oaeiae i?euaieaiiy o/iyi i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie
e?a?ciaa/iai oa?aeoa?o.

?ice?eaath/e nooue i?ia?aiiaiai oa iicai?ia?aiiaiai e?a?ciaanoaa,
?.E.Oeiiae/ i?aee?aneth? aaaeeea?noue aca?iica’yceo i?ae ieie. I?ioa
iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? oaeiai aca?iica’yceo ?ice?eaa?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei.
Iaoiaeeno caeaa?eueoiai cina?aaeaeo? oaaao ia iiaeeaeaiiio aea/aii?
canai?ieo ia o?ioe? ciaiue o i?ioean? iicao?i/ii? ?iaioe. Cai?ioiee aea
ca’ycie i?ine?aeeiao?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei. sse naia i?aeoe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue o/i?a, ni?yiiaaia ia aea/aiiy aaia?ao?/iiai na?aaeiaeua,
iia’yco?oueny c aeoea?caoe??th oai?/i? aeoiee oeiey?a aaciina?aaeiuei ia
o?ioe?? O /iio cia/ou?noue oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia iniaeea?noue oaeiai
ca’yceo? Ca iaoei i?aeoiaeii, aanue oeeee e?a?ciaa/iai iiooeo a oeie?
iiaeiai i?ioiaeeoe ii ni??ae?: iaa/aeueia ae?yeuei?noue ia o?ioe? —
e?a?ciaa/ee iiooe aaciina?aaeiuei o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu? (ia iniia?
canai?ieo ia o?ioe? ciaiue) — ia?ainieneaiiy naiino?eii c?a?aii?
e?a?ciaa/i? ?ioi?iaoe?? c iaoith ?ice?eooy iiaeo iiiyoue ?
caeiiii??iinoae ia o?ioe? — a?eueo aeeaiea aaia?ao?/ia aea/aiiy ??aeiiai
e?ath ia iniia? noi?iiaaieo ciaiue ? o.ae. I?e caaacia/aii? ?aeiino? oa
iane?i/aiiino? oaeiai i?ioeano a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeiie/aiiy oa
ona?aeiieaiiy ciaiue o/iyie, ?icaeaathoueny ?o oi?iiy ? iaae/ee
naiino?eii a/eoenue, inienethaaoe iaa/aeueio ?ioi?iaoe?th, i?iaiaeeoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aaaeeeaei iaoiaeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii a i?aai?caoe?? oe?eueiiai
aaia?ao?/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa ? nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei oaei? i?aai?caoe??.
Oea icia/a?, ii-ia?oa, caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino? o?i/ii? oa iicao?i/ii?
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a. Ii-ae?oaa, iiaeiia i?ine?aeeiaoaaoenue
iaaia nenoaia iiiyoue ? caeiiii??iinoae, ye? ?ice?eaathoueny ia o?ieao
aaia?ao?? oa i?ae /an e?a?ciaa/eo iiooe?a. Iniiaiei i???ioe?ii aeey
aecia/aiiy oaei? nenoaie ? iaa/aeuei? i?ia?aie. Ii-o?ao?, naia
aeei?enoaiiy e?a?ciaa/eo iaoa??ae?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy iiaeiii iineoe
nenoaiaoe/iee oa?aeoa?. E??i oiai, ie aeoiaeeii c noaeaeaiiy,
aeneiaeaiiai A.A.Aea?einueeei oa ?ioeie iaoiaeenoaie, ui e?a?ciaa/?
iaoa??aee a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue ye iniiaa aeey ii??aiyiue, ye
nai???aeiee aoaeii i?e aea/aii? a?aeaeaeaieo a?ae ??aeiiai e?ath
?aeii?a.

Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa aeina?aeo a/eoae?a aaia?ao??
?ice?eaathoueny iniaeeaino? iaoiaeeee oa i?aai?caoe?? iicao?i/iiai
e?a?ciaanoaa a no/ani?e oeie?. Ie?ai? eiai aniaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaee
A.I.Eeeiiaa, I.I.E?a/eei, ?.O.I?on, A.C.Nao?oee?i, E.O.No?i?a,
?.N.THiue?a oa ?io?. O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? ia noaaeeinue caaaeaiiy
?ic?iaeoe iaai? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a o
iicao?i/iee /an. Ie ?icaeyaeaee oaeo ?iaioo a na?oe? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo
caaaeaiue, ye? ?ica’ycothoueny aaciina?aaeiuei ia o?ieao aaia?ao??. I?e
oeueiio ie ea?oaaeenue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie A.I.Ei?ioiaa ? ?.O.I?ona, ye?
i?iiiiothoue oaeo nenoaio iaoiae?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano:
a)?ioi?iaoe?eiee, yeee iieyaa? o niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaai?e iaaeaaiaaie
ia?aaea/? aeoiaaioeyi e?a?ciaa/i? ?ioi?iaoe??; a)iiooeiaee, ui eaaeeoue
a iniia? an?o iai?yi?a e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe; a)aeine?aeiee, ye aeua oi?ia
iiooeo; a)iaoiae aca?iiiai caaaa/aiiy ciaiiyie ? aeina?aeii e?a?ciaa/i?
?iaioe, ui iieyaa? a aeoeaiiio iai?i? ?ioi?iaoe??th, oaeoaie, aeoieaie o
i?ioean? aan?ae, eiioa?aioe?e, oyaieo iiaei?iaeae ii Aaouee?auei?,
aeenioo?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e – “Iaoiaee/i? iniiae canoinoaaiiy e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio
ia o?ieao aaia?ao??” a iniiaiiio iiaoaeiaaiee ia iaoa??aeao
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue o oeieao
Aieeinueei?, AEeoiie?nueei? oa ??aiainueei? iaeanoae. Ia?oee ia?aa?ao
i?enay/aiee oi?ioaaiith ii/aoeiaeo ciaiue i?i i?e?iaei? iniaeeaino?
??aeiiai e?ath. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?ia?aiith, o 5 eean? aea/athoueny
iiiyooy i?i i?e?iaeia o?ei, i?i ?a/iaeio oa ?? aa?aaaoi? noaie, i?i
i?e?iaeiee i?ioean, i?e?iaei? eiiiiiaioe oiui. I?ioa aiae?c a?aea?aeaieo
o?ie?a na?ae/eoue, ui a?eueo?noue o/eoae?a, ?ice?eaath/e iiiyooy i?i
i?e?iaeiee i?ioean, iaiaaeothoueny eeoa ia?ae?eii i?e?iaeieo yaeu, ye? o
nai?e noeoiiino? neeaaeathoue oaeee i?ioean. Eiai ae caeiiii??ia
nooi?noue ia ?ice?eaa?oueny. Ioaea, ?nio? iaiao?aei?noue cina?aaeaeaiiy
oaaae a/eoae?a oa o/i?a ia ?ice?eoo? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo oa
caeiiii??ieo ca’yce?a o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?. C oe??th iaoith ie
nenoaiaoecoaaee iniiai? iiiyooy, ye? aea/athoueny a eo?n? aaia?ao??
??aeiiai e?ath o aeaeyae? noaie, ?icae?eeaoe i?e oeueiio i?e?iaei?
i?ioeane, a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiaeeeainoae niinoa??aaoe ca ieie, ia o?e
a?oie: a)i?ioeane, iaaeinooii? aeey i?yieo niinoa?aaeaiue (o?eaae?
aaieia?/i? i?ioeane, ??ci? eini?/i? yaeua oiui); a)i?ioeane, ye? iiaeia
niinoa??aaoe ai?iaeiaae e?eueeio ?ie?a /e aeanyoee?oue; a)i?ioeane, ye?
iiaeia niinoa??aaoe i?ae /an aeneo?n?e aai ai?iaeiaae iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo.

sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oaea nenoaiaoecaoe?y o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo
i?ioean?a aeiiiiaaa? a/eoaeyi a?eueo /?oei, oe?eani?yiiaaii
i?aai?ciaoaaoe aea/aiiy ??aeiiai e?ath, caaacia/oaaoe a?aeiia?aei? oiiae
aeey iaa/aeueii-iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a. E??i oiai, ie aeoiaeeee
c iaiao?aeiino? o?ni?oa ocaiaeaeoaaoe iicao?i/io ?iaioo thieo
aaia?ao?a-e?a?ciaaoe?a ?c iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieie caaaeaiiyie, ye?
?ica’ycothoueny ia o?ieao. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea iaoi? iaoiaeeee,
nooue yei? – iaa/aeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aeiae?eey,
i?iaiaeeeanue ia i?eeeaae? oaie “Iiaa?oiy ? ei?eni? eiiaeeie ??aeiiai
e?ath”. Aea/aiiy iaoa??aeo ?icii/eia?oueny c aeneo?n??, oiaoi, c
iaa/aeueiiai iiooeo, ui a?oioo?oueny ia ciaiiyo, noi?iiaaieo o
ii/aoeiaeo eeanao. I?e oae?e i?aai?caoe?? ianooii? o?iee a?ae?a?athoue
aaaeeeao ocaaaeueithth/o ?ieue. I?ae /an aeneo?n??, ia yeo
a?aeaiaeeoueny 2 aiaeeie, iniaeeaa oaaaa cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia ?ice?eoo?
aca?iiae?? aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o nee Caie?, ye? oi?iothoue iiaa?oith.
Iaeii/anii ?ice?eaa?oueny eaiaeoaooioai?/a ?ieue ?aeue?oo nai??
i?noeaaino?. Ocaaaeueiaiiy c?a?aieo i?ae /an aeneo?n?? iaoa??ae?a
ai?iaeiaae ianooiieo /ioe?ueio o?ie?a i?aeaiaeeoue o/i?a aei ?ice?eooy
oaeeo iiiyoue: oi?ie iiaa?oi? nai?? i?noeaaino?, i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy
a??nueeeo ii??ae; a??nuee? ii?iaee nai?? i?noeaaino?, ia?aianaiiy
i?iaeoeo?a ?o ?oeioaaiiy aiaeith oa a?o?ii, iiiyooy i?i aea?o?thaaiiy;
ei?eni? eiiaeeie nai?? i?noeaaino?; iniiai? oi?ie iiaa?oi? Caie?;
e?a?aeaee nai?? i?noeaaino? (oi?ioaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace aeey
?ice?eooy o ia?niaeoea? iiiyooy i?i eaiaeoaoo).

Ioaea, eaeaoueny i?i oi?ioaaiiy ii/aoeiaeo o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo iiiyoue
oeyoii i?aai?caoe?? iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ocaaaeueiaiiy c?a?aii?
?ioi?iaoe??. I?e oeueiio ia?oueny ia oaac? ?aei?noue iaa/aeueieo iiooe?a
a o?i/iee oa iicao?i/iee /an. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui oaeee
i?aeo?ae aei iiaoaeiae iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano caaacia/o? a?eueo
aeeaiea ona?aeiieaiiy noo? o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu o
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?. Oeiey?? iaaoaathoue i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue
naiino?eii aeyaeyoe o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu? caeiiii??i? caeaaeiino?,
iienoaaoe i?e?iaei? ia’?eoe. Eiee i’yoeeeanieeai aoei cai?iiiiiaaii
iienaoe aeieeio, eoaee ?ai?o i?iaiaeeeanue aeneo?n?y, o/i?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a a?eueo aeeaiei ?ice?eee i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia?
oa caeiiii??i? ca’ycee a ?aeue?oioai?/eo i?ioeanao. Ia iayai?noue oaeeo
ca’yce?a aeacaee 71,1% o/i?a, ui iaa/aeeny ca iaoith iaoiaeeeith. O
eiio?ieueieo eeanao oeae iieacieo noaiiaea eeoa 44,9%. E??i oiai, o
oiae? aenia?eiaioo io?eiaei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iaoa i?eiouaiiy, ui
?ioi?iaoe?eia iniiaa, noai?aia o 5 eean? ia iniia? iaa/aeueieo iiooe?a
oeiey??a, caaacia/o? oiiae aeey iioei?caoe?? oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?aoe?
oeiey??a i?e aea/aii? caaaeueii? aaia?ao??.

O?einionueea ia?ainieneaiiy iaaeieeoiuei? ae?eniino?, oi?ioaaiiy iaaii?
nenoaie iaoeiaeo o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo iiiyoue oaeoe/ii a?aeaoaa?oueny o
eo?n? caaaeueii? aaia?ao??. Oiio ye?noue ciaiue, noi?iiaaieo o 6 eean?,
iniaeeaino? naiiai i?ioeano o/?iiy ooo iathoue ia eeoa aaciina?aaeiuei
iaa/aeueii-?ioi?iaoeaia cia/aiiy, aea e iaoiaeieia?/ia. Aaaeeeai, uia
ona?aeiieai? iiiyooy oeiey? oi?a aeei?enoiaoaaoe o i?ioean? aeoiaiiy,
aeey a?eueo aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy i?e?iaeieo caeiiii??iinoae. Ni?eyoeea?
oiiae aeey oeueiai aeieeathoue i?e canoinoaaii? e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio
iaa/aiiy. Aiae?c a?aea?aeaieo iaie o?ie?a na?ae/eoue, ui a/eoae?
caeaa?eueoiai aeei?enoiaothoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i naith i?noeaa?noue aeey
?ice?eooy caaaeueieo aaia?ao?/ieo iiiyoue ? caeiiii??iinoae. I?ioa oey
?iaioa iae/ano?oa iineoue ai?ciaee/iee, ?iiae? oi?iaeueiee oa?aeoa?.
Oiio iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue ae?iaeoe iaaiee eiiieaen caaaeaiue, yeee ae
noaiiaea e?a?ciaa/o iniiao aeey oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo
iiiyoue, ia?aaeaa/aieo i?ia?aiith. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ie ae/eaieee
oaie (ii eiaei?e ?c aainoa?), ye? aeioe?eueii aea/aoe a iniiaiiio ia
e?a?ciaa/?e iniia?. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia
i?eeeaae? ?icae?eo “E?oinoa?a”.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ?aeue?oioai?/eie i?ioeanaie ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe oaia? ye
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?ia?o, ?icii/aoeo i?e aea/aii? aaia?ao?? ??aeiiai e?ath.
sse ? ?ai?o, ci?no oa iniaeeaino? iaa/aiiy ocaiaeaeothoueny c iniiaieie
iai?yiaie iiooeiaeo ?ia?o o iicao?i/iee /an. Oaea ?aei?noue caaacia/o?:
a)a?eueo aeeaiea ona?aeiieaiiy ?aeue?oioai?/eo i?ioean?a oa
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a o ieo; a)?icaeoie i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue
oeiey??a naiino?eii iienoaaoe ?aeue?o nai?? i?noeaaino?, ?ice?eaaoe
oaeoi?e, ye? coiiaeththoue eiai oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie; a)i?euaieaiiy
aeaiaioa?ieo oi?iue i?iaiicoaaoe ?icaeoie ?aeue?oo; a)?icaeoie oi?iue
aeaaaoe aeieia?/io ioe?ieo ?aeue?oo ye eiiiiiaioo i?e?iaee, ?ic?iaeyoe
caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.

Eia?/iee ca’ycie i?ae ??cieie eo?naie aaia?ao??, ?aei?noue i?ia?aiiaiai
? iicai?ia?aiiaiai e?a?ciaanoaa caaacia/o?oueny iinoaiiaeith ia?aae
o/iyie a?aeiia?aeieo caaaeaiue (ei?ioei/anieo oa ia o?eaaeee /an). ?o
eiie?aoiee ci?no, o caeaaeiino? a?ae i?e?iaeieo oiia, o ??cieo oeieao
iaiaeiaeiaee. Aea ca nai?th noooth aiie aeecuee?. Iiaea?ii c?acee oaeeo
caaaeaiue (ia i?eeeaae? n.Eeeiae Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai ?aeiio
AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?): c?a?aoe iaoa??ae i?i iaea?eueo? ?iaeiaeua oa
??ciiaeaee eaie?io ia oa?eoi??? AEeoiie?ueie; iiecaoe ?aeue?o o?i/eua
?oaea, iae?aneeoe eiai iiia?a/iee noaiaoe/iee i?io?eue, iicia/eoe, ye?
ii?iaee oai caeyaathoue, yeo ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue oaeo/? aiaee oa a?o?e o
oi?ioaaii? ?aeue?oo oeueiai o?i/eua; a ?aeii? o?i/eua ?oaea iienaoe y?,
iae?aneeoe eiai noaiaoe/iee i?io?eue, ?ice?eoe i?e/eie eiai ooai?aiiy ?
?icaeoeo; iienaoe iniaeeaino? aeieeie ?. Neo/ i?ae naeaie ?iaa/?a ?
Oaeueee, iiynieoe /ei coiiaeai? aeyaeai? a?aei?iiino?.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui o/i?, ye? iaa/aeeny ca iaoith
iaoiaeeeith, aeyaeee a?eueo aeeaie? ciaiiy. I?ney aea/aiiy e?oinoa?e ?i
aoei cai?iiiiiaaii iienaoe ?aeue?o a?aeiii? oa?eoi??? a ieieeoeyo naiai
ianaeaiiai ioieoo. 49,1% o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a i?ioeane
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oi?i iiaa?oi? ?ice?eee aeineoue aeeaiei. Eeoa
15,4% c ieo iienoaaee ?aeue?o aeeeth/ii ca ciai?oi?ie iciaeaie. Na?aae
o/i?a, ye? iaa/aeeny ca o?aaeeoe?eiith iaoiaeeeith, oe? iieacieee
noaiiaeee a?aeiia?aeii 8,5% oa 50,0%. O oie aea /an aeaiaio
i?iaiicoaaiiy a noaeaeaiiyo oeiey??a, ye? iaa/aeeny ca iaoeie
iaoiaee/ieie c?aceaie, aeyaeany ieae/ei a?ae i/?eoaaiiai. I?ioa iaaiee
i?ia?an ? a ?ica’ycaii? oeueiai ieoaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny.

Oaeei /eiii, iaoa iaoiaeeea ia?aaeaa/a?, ui iniiai? iai?yie e?a?ciaa/eo
iiooe?a oeiey??a o oe?eiio aecia/athoueny ci?noii iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai.
Aieiaia oaaaa i?e oeueiio cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia ?ice?eoo? iaeaaaeeea?oeo
caeiiii??iinoae o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Oea aeicaiey? /?oe?oa
ona?aeiieoe oe?e?ni?noue na?oo, e?oaiia?a ?a/iaei oa aia?a?? ia Caie?.

Aiae?c iaa/aeueii? oa iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, aea/aiiy aeina?aeo ?iaioe
a/eoae?a aaia?ao?? na?ae/aoue, ui ?ieue e?a?ciaanoaa a eo?n? aaia?ao??
iaoa?ee?a ? ieaai?a ciaioo?oueny. I?ioa iaie e?a?ciaanoai
?icaeyaea?oueny ia ye oei/aniaee eiiiiiaio iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy, a ye
nenoaiaoe/ia, oe?eani?yiiaaia iaa/aeueia oa iaa/aeueii-iiooeiaa
ae?yeuei?noue oeiey??a ? a/eoaey. Ciaiiy i?i naith i?noeaa?noue
a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue ye aaca ii??aiyiiy, ye nai???aeiee aoaeii
i?e aea/aii? ?ioeo /anoei na?oo oa ?aa?ii?a. E?a?ciaa/ee i?eioeei
ia?aaeaa/a? nenoaiaoe/ia aeyaeaiiy ca’yce?a aoaeue-yeiai eo?no aaia?ao??
c oeie ciaiiyie, ye? io?eiothoue o/i? a ?acoeueoao? aaciina?aaeiueiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ath. Caaaeueia noaia i?ioeano ona?aeiieaiiy ciaiue i?e
aea/aii? aaia?ao?? iaoa?ee?a iiaea iaoe oaeee aeaeyae: oi?ioaaiiy ia
e?a?ciaa/?e iniia? iiiyoue i?i aaia?ao?/io iaieiieo oa ie?ai? aainoa?e,
i?i IOE, ?ice?eooy iaea?eueo caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae aaia?ao?/ii?
iaieiiee (6 eean) — c?noaaeaiiy o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, yea
a?aeia?aaea? i?e?iaei? iniaeeaino? ??aeiiai e?ath oa iaoa?eea, yeee
aea/a?oueny, aeyaeaiiy ?o ni?eueieo oa a?aei?iieo ?en — ocaaaeueiaiiy
iiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ?ice?eooy iiiyoue ? caeiiii??iinoae, aeanoeaeo aeey
naiai e?ath, iaoa?eea aai eiai ?aa?ii?a — ona?aeiieaiiy ocaaaeueiaii?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i a?aeaeaeai? iaoa?eee oa ?aa?iie (o ii??aiyii? c ??aeiei
e?a?i), ?ice?eooy ia oe?e iniia? iiaeo caeiiii??ieo caeaaeiinoae o
aaia?ao?/i?e iaieiioe? (ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? aea/aiiy eo?no).

Aeoiaey/e c iiiyooy e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio ye aaaeeeaiai aeaiaioo
iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie a/eoaey aaia?ao??, iaie aoea ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
aea/aiiy iaoa?eea (ia i?eeeaae? Aano?ae??) oeyoii ii??aiyiiy eiai
o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo iniaeeainoae c i?e?iaeith ??aeiiai e?ath.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui e?a?ciaa/ee i?eioeei i?e aea/aii?
aaia?ao?? iaoa?ee?a caaacia/o?: a)a?eueo aeeaiea ona?aeiieaiiy
i?ia?aeieo iiiyoue ? caeiiii??iinoae, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey a?aeaeaeaieo a?ae
??aeiiai e?ath oa?eoi??e; a)oi?ioaaiiy ii/aoeiaeo ciaiue i?i Oe?a?io,
yea aea/a?oueny i?ci?oa; a)?icaeoie naiino?eiiai, oai?/iai ieneaiiy
oeiey??a; a)ona?aeiieaiiy Oe?a?ie ye ??aeiiai e?ath, A?o/ecie.

?ic?iaeyth/e iaoiaee/i? iniiae canoinoaaiiy e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio i?e
aea/aii? aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie, ie a?aoiaoaaee, ui: a)o/i? aaea noi?ioaaee
iaaio nenoaio ciaiue i?i i?e?iaei? iniaeeaino? ye nai?? i?noeaaino?, oae
? aaia?ao?/ii? iaieiiee a oe?eiio, ?i a?aeii? iaeaaaeeea?o?
o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? caeiiii??iino? oa ?o ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? oa ?icaeoeo
ie?aieo IOE; a)o/i? iaieiae?ee iaaieie iaae/eaie i?iaiaeeoe aeaiaioa?i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?, naiino?eii aiae?coaaoe oa
ocaaaeueithaaoe c?a?aio ieie ?ioi?iaoe?th, ii??aithaaoe i?e?iaei?
iniaeeaino? nai?? i?noeaaino? oa a?eueo a?aeaeaeaieo oa?eoi??e;
a)nenoaiaoe/ia canoinoaaiiy i?e aea/aii? iiia?aaei?o eo?n?a aaia?ao??
e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio caaacia/eei noaiiaeaiiy a o/i?a nai???aeiiai
niiniao ieneaiiy, eiee o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? a?aeaeaeaieo a?ae
??aeiiai e?ath oa?eoi??e ?icaeyaeathoueny ia oii? ciaiue i?i na?e
ianaeaiee ioieo, ?aeii, iaeanoue, Aaouee?aueio. Ana oea noai?th?
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o oe?eueia e?a?ciaanoai
i?iaeaiii-iiooeiaeo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy.

I?ioean inieneaiiy e?a?ciaa/i? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e aea/aii? aaia?ao??
Oe?a?ie ni?yiiao?oueny, o ia?oo /a?ao, ia ?ice?eooy iaeaaaeeea?oeo
aaia?ao?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae. Iniiai? aoaie iaa/aeueii? i?aoe? o/i?a
iiaeia i?ine?aeeoaaoe ca oaeith noaiith: aea/aiiy aai a?aeoai?aiiy o
iai’yo? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? nai?? i?noeaaino?
( aea/aiiy iiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino?
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny ia o?ioe? ( c?noaaeaiiy
aaia?ao?/ieo iniaeeainoae nai?? i?noeaaino? oa oa?eoi???, yea
aea/a?oueny, ?ice?eooy ni?eueieo oa a?aei?iieo ?en o ?o i?e?iaeieo
iniaeeainoyo ( aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?icaeyiooi? ?ioi?iaoe??,
?ice?eooy i?e/ei iaea?eueo nooo?aeo a?aei?iiinoae oa ni?eueieo ?en,
aeyaeaiiy aaia?ao?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae, oi?ioaaiiy iiiyoue.

Aeoiaey/e c oaei? noaie, ie neiino?othaaee a?aeiia?aei? aa??aioe
aea/aiiy ?aeue?oo Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, iiaa?oi? aeni/ei ? ieciaei.
Aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany o oeieao Aieeinueei?, AEeoiie?nueei? oa
??aiainueei? iaeanoae. Na?aae iaoa??ae?a, c?a?aieo i?ae /an aeneo?n?e oa
iioiae?a, oaaaa cina?aaeaeoaaeanue ia oeo, ye? a?aeia?aaeaee aaieia?/io
aoaeiao oa iiaa?oith nai?? i?noeaaino?, I?eaei?i?ianueei? oa Aieeinueei?
aeni/ei. Aaaeeeai aoei ?ice?eoe caeaaei?noue ?aeue?oo i?noeaaino? a?ae
?? oaeoii?ee oa aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae. I?eeeaaeii ?ioi?iaoe??, yea
aeei?enoiaoaaeanue aeey oeueiai, aoee c?iaeai? i?ae /an oo?enonueeeo
iioiae?a iiene iiaa?oi? ia oa?eoi??? Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai,
Ei?aoeueeiai oa Aiuainueeiai ?aeii?a. THi? e?a?ciaaoe? aeyaeee, ui ia
cao?ae a?ae ?.Ei?/ee aeoiaee e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae ia aeaiio iiaa?oith
cieeathoue. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui e?enoae?/iee ooiaeaiaio
caio?th?oueny i?ae iiooaeio oiauo inaaei/ieo ii??ae. Oai ciaoiaeeoueny
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueea ieeoa. Ia i?e noi?ioaaeenue Aieeinueea ?
Iiae?euenueea aeni/eie. Aeey ii??aiyiiy aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae, oaeoii?ee
oa iiaa?oi? nai?? i?noeaaino? c a?eueo a?aeaeaeaieie oa?eoi??yie
aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ?ioi?iaoe?y ea?o oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy e?a?ciaa/eo
iaoa??ae?a aeey i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eiiai oai?/iai iiooeo a i?ioean?
aea/aiiy aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie ni?ey? ?icaeoeo a o/i?a ii??aiyeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei oa?aeoa?enoeee o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu,
aeeaoiio ?ice?eooth caeiiii??ieo ca’yce?a o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?. C
iaoith ia?aa??ee oaei? caeaaeiino? o/iyi aoei cai?iiiiiaaii iienaoe
?aeue?o Aieeinueei? aeni/eie. Ia?aaeaa/aeinue, ui o? c ieo, ye?
iaa/aeenue ca iaoith iaoiaeeeith, canoinothoue i?eeii ii??aiyiiy.
E?eoa???i ioe?iee aoea aecia/aia e?euee?noue ii??aiyiue. I?e oeueiio
aaaeeeai cacia/eoe, ui caaaeaiiy ia ia?aaeaa/aei c?noaaeaiiy ??cieo
aaia?ao?/ieo ia’?eo?a. Iiaa eaea i?i ii??aiyiiy ye aeaiaio o nenoai?
ieneaiiy oeiey??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui 61,8% o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
eean?a, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e Aieeinueeo aeni/eio, ii??aithaaee ?? c
?ioeie ieciaeiaie ? aeni/eiaie. O eiio?ieueieo eeanao oeae iieaciee
noaiiaea 25,3% (aeea. oaaeeoeth 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Canoinoaaiiy o/iyie i?eeiio ii??aiyiiy i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe?

Aieeinueei? aeni/eie (iaoa??aee aenia?eiaioo)

??aieie, c yeeie o/i?

ii??aithaaee iiaa?oith E?euee?noue ?ia?o, o yeeo canoiniaoaaany i?eeii
ii??aiyiiy

Aieeinueei? aeni/eie Aenia?eiaioaeuei? eeane Eiio?ieuei? eeane

Iie?nueea ieciaeia

Iiae?euenueea aeni/eia

I?eaei?i?ianueea aeni/eia

Iiaa?oiy nai?? i?noeaaino?

I?eeii ii??aiyiiy ia canoiniaoaaany 11 (10,8%)

15 (14,7%)

59 (57,8%)

63 (61,8%)

39 (38,2%) 5 (5,5%)

3 (3,3%)

17 (18,7%)

16 (17,6%)

68 (74,7%)

Anueiai o/i?a, ioiieaieo aenia?eiaioii 102 (100%) 91 (100%)

I?e nenoaii?e i?aai?caoe?? oe?eueiiai e?a?ciaanoaa niinoa??aa?oueny
oa?eoi??aeueia ?icoe?aiiy iiiyooy “??aeiee e?ae”. A?aeaoaa?oueny
iinooiiaa ceeooy o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aaia?ao?? oaeeo iiiyoue, ye “iiy
aaouee?aueia” ? “iiy Aaouee?aueia”. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, e?a?ciaa/ee
i?eioeei o eo?n? aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie iiaea ?icaeyaeaoenue o aeaio
aniaeoao. Ii-ia?oa, ia?oueny ia oaac? aea/aiiy aaia?ao?/ieo iiiyoue ?
caeiiii??iinoae, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey iaoi? aea?aeaae, o ii??aiyii? c
iniaeeainoyie ??aeiiai e?ath. Ii-ae?oaa, o/i?, ?icoi?th/e i?ae ??aeiei
e?a?i naith aea?aeaao, c?noaaeythoue ?? i?e?iaei? iniaeeaino? ?c
i?e?iaeith ?ioeo e?a?i oa ?aa?ii?a. I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ciaiue i?e
oeueiio i???ioiaii eiino?oth?oueny ca oaeith noaiith: aea/aiiy
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?e?iaei? iniaeeaino? Oe?a?ie aai ?? iaaiiai ?aa?iio —
o/i? i?eaaaeothoue aai ?icaeyaeathoue iiao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i i?e?iaei?
iniaeeaino? a?aeiia?aeiiai ?aa?iio ca iaaeaie A?o/ecie — ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c ?icaeyiooi? ?ioi?iaoe??, ?ice?eooy ni?eueieo ? a?aei?iieo ?en
Oe?a?ie oa ca?oa?aeii? oa?eoi??? — oi?ioaaiiy iiia?aaei?o ocaaaeueiaiue
i?i aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? ii??aithaaieo oa?eoi??e — ia?aa??ea
o/i?anueeeo noaeaeaiue ca iaa/aeueieie iin?aieeaie oa ca ?ioeie
aeinoia??ieie aeaea?aeaie, ocaaaeueiaiiy a/eoaey.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea oaei? iaoiaee/ii? noaie i?iaiaeeeanue iaie
ia i?eeeaae? ii??aiyiiy i?e?iaeieo oiia Oe?a?ie oa Eaiaaee. Oaeee aea??
iiynith?oueny oei, ui Eaiaaea, ye ? Oe?a?ia, ciaoiaeeoueny o i?ai?/i?e
i?aeoe?, ia? aaaaoi ni?eueiiai a aaieia?/i?e aoaeia? oa ?aeue?o?.
Iaeii/anii o oa?aeoa?enoeoe? iaio aea?aeaa ? nooo?a? i?ioeeaaeiino?,
coiiaeai? a?aeiia?aeieie /eiieeaie. ?o ?ice?eooy ni?ey? ona?aeiieaiith
oeiey?aie aaaeeeaeo caeiiii??iinoae. E??i oiai, aea/aiiy nai?? A?o/ecie
o ii??aiyii? c Eaiaaeith ni?ey? iiaeeaeaiith ciaiue i?i oeth e?a?io oa
i?i I?ai?/io Aia?eeo a oe?eiio. Aea/aiiy Oe?a?ie ia oii? aeaeaeiai oa
aeecueeiai ca?oa?aeaey ni?ey?: ?icaeoeo oai?/iai ieneaiiy o/i?a,
oi?ioaaiith o ieo i?aeoe/ieo iaae/ie ii??aithaaoe, aiae?coaaoe,
ocaaaeueithaaoe; ona?aeiieaiith oe?e?niino? aaia?ao?/ii? iaieiiee,
?aeiino? oa ia?ic?eaiiai ca’yceo ?? i?e?iaeieo eiiiiiaio?a; iiaeeaeaiith
ciaiue i?i i?e?iaei? iniaeeaino? iaoa?ee?a oa ?o /anoei; ona?aeiieaiith
Oe?a?ie ye nai?? A?o/ecie.

Ioaea, oiiaith oni?oiiai canoinoaaiiy e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio i?e
aea/aii? aaia?ao?? ? caaacia/aiiy iaaii? nenoaie iaa/aeueii-iiooeiai?
ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a. Iinooiiai ? nenoaiaoe/ii ?icoe?th?oueny noa?a
oaeiai iiooeo ye o oa?eoi??aeueiiio, oae ? a nieneiaiio ?icoi?ii?. O/i?
c /anii ?icaeaathoue nai? ai?iiy naiino?eii ?ice?eaaoe aaia?ao?/i?
caeiiii??iino?, c?inoa? ?ioa?an aei ciaiue, o iaea?eueo cae?aieo ae?oae
oi?io?oueny i?aaiaiiy aeeaoa i?iieeiooe a nooue i?ioean?a ? yaeu
aaia?ao?/ii? iaieiiee. Aeieeathoue ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aeey
i?aai?caoe?? e?a?ciaa/i? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a, yea iiaea iaoe iaaio
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue.

Ie ia noaaeee nai?i caaaeaiiyi ?ic?iaeo nenoaie iicao?i/iiai
e?a?ciaanoaa. Oea i?aaeiao ie?aiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. O iao?e ?iaio?
aecia/ai? iniiai? iai?yie iaa/aeueieo iiooe?a o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?
(o a?aeiia?aeiino? c? ci?noii oa no?oeoo?ith oe?eueii? aaia?ao??).
Cie?aia, i?aaeiaoii iaa/aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? caeiiii??iino?
aaia?ao?/ii? iaieiiee, ?? ie?aieo aainoa? oa IOE. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?e
oeueiio i?eae?ey?oueny i?iaeaiai aeieia?? oa ioi?iie i?e?iaee. Aeina?ae
e?aueo o/eoae?a aaia?ao?? oa iaoeiaoe?a na?ae/eoue, ui /?oea aecia/aiiy
iniiaieo iai?yi?a iaa/aeueieo iiooe?a o ianooaaao ie?aieo iaeanoae,
caaacia/aiiy iaeaaeiiai iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai ea??aieoeoaa iiooeiaeie
?iaioaie o/i?a ni?ey? i?aeianaiith iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? cia/ouino?
oe?eueiiai e?a?ciaanoaa. O Aieeinuee?e iaeano? i?aai?caoe?eiei oeaio?ii
oaei? ?iaioe noaea Iaea aeaaeai?y iaoe. Ooo ?ic?iaeaia ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aia iaaia nenoaia aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia
ii/aoeiaiio ?o aoai? ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aea/aiiy ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a
i?noeaaeo eaiaeoaoo?a. Ianooiiee aoai – ?ice?eooy iaoai?ci?a aca?iiae??
i?ae oaeeie eiiiiiaioaie, aeine?aeaeaiiy IOE. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?e oeueiio
cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia aeieia?/ieo i?iaeaiao eaiaeoaoo?a. Caeeth/iee aoai
– ?ic?iaea nenoaie i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia iaaio
noaa?e?caoe?th o IOE. A ?aeaaeueiiio aa??aio? eaeaoueny i?i
eiino?othaaiiy i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaoo?a. I?eeeaaeii ?
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy noai?aiiy ?ae?aaoe?eii-caiia?aeii?
ciie Iiaoaeaey, aeeiiaia o Iiaiaieeinuee?e caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie? ?-???
nooiai?a. E?a?ciaa/ee iiooe oeiey??a /a?ac ?o o/anoue o iaea?eueo
aenieii?aai?ciaaieo oi?iao iicao?i/ii? oa iicaoe??ueii? ?iaioe ie
?icaeyaea?ii ye caaa?oaeueiee aoai aea/aiiy o/iyie ??aeiiai e?ath.
I?iaeaia i?aai?caoe?? oaei? ?iaioe aeiaaa? aeiaeaoeiaeo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii oae?
aeniiaee:

 C’yniaaii, ui aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith oni?oii? i?aai?caoe?? oe?eueiiai
e?a?ciaanoaa ? nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui caaacia/aiiy eia?/ii? oe?e?niino?
o?i/ii? oa iicao?i/ii? ?iaioe oeiey??a ni?ey? ?icaeoeo ?o oi?iue
aeei?enoiaoaaoe noi?iiaai? ieie ciaiiy i?i ??aeiee e?ae aeey ?ice?eooy
noo? i?ioean?a ? yaeu o aaia?ao?/i?e iaieiioe?.

2. Aeiaaaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy i?eioeeio nenoaiaoe/iino? o i?ioean?
i?aai?caoe?? e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o/i?a caaacia/o? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean i?iaeaiii-iiooeiaeo
iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeyee nai?e aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiino? e?a?ciaa/ee
iaoa??ae aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a on?o eo?nao aaia?ao??: ye i?e
oi?ioaaii? caaaeueiiaaia?ao?/ieo iiiyoue, oae ? i?e aea/aii? aaia?ao??
iaoa?ee?a.

4. C’yniaaii, ui canoinoaaiiy e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio i?e aea/aii?
aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny neeaaei?noth ? aaaaoiaa??aioi?noth
iaoiaee/ieo c?ace?a, c?inoaiiyi ?ie? naiino?eiino?, oai?/ino? o i?ioean?
iaa/aiiy.

5. ?ice?eoi, ui ?acoeueoaoeai?noue e?a?ciaa/i? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a
caeaaeeoue a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeio iine?aeiaiino?, a?ae
iinooiiaiai oneeaaeiaiiy ci?noo oa i?aai?caoe?? iiooeiaeo caaaeaiue.
Naia iiiyooy ??aeiiai e?ath i?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? c /anii ceeaa?oueny ?c
iiiyooyi ??aeii? A?o/ecie.

6. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui e?a?ciaa/a ?iaioa o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? iiaea aooe aoaeoeaiith eeoa ca
oiiae ocaiaeaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu?
c? ci?noii, no?oeoo?ith oa iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie oe?eueiiai eo?no
aaia?ao??.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaiee o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

 E?a?ciaa/ee i?eioeei iaa/aiiy: ?noi?e/iee aniaeo // Aaia?ao?y oa iniiae
aeiiii?ee a oeie?. – 1998, ? 1. – N. 30-32.

 Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee oe?eueiiai e?a?ciaanoaa ia o?ieao
aaia?ao?? // Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. AEo?iae Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee. – 1998, ? 2. – N. 73-75.

 I?iaeaia aca?iica’yceo i?ia?aiiaiai ? iicai?ia?aiiaiai e?a?ciaanoaa a
iaoiaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? // Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. AEo?iae Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee. – 1999, ? 1. – N. 79-82.

 C ?noi??? oe?eueiiai e?a?ciaanoaa ia *a?aiiia?i?euei? // AEeoiie?ueia
e??cue i?ecio noie?oue: iaoeiaee ca??iee. Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe?? / A?aei. ?aae. Eino?eoey I.TH. –
AEeoiie?: AEo?oiiae, 1997. – N. 108-110 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c Aa?anei/oeii
A.I.).

 Aeoea?caoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a ia o?ieao aaia?ao?? i?ae
/an iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaaeaaia?/ia oaoiieia?y o no/aniiio aoc?”. – Eooeuee:
AAeO, 1995. – N. 6.

 Iaa/aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ae /an iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee
// Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaaeaaia?/ia
oaoiieia?y o no/aniiio aoc?”. – Eooeuee: AAeO, 1995. – N. 44.

 ?ieue aaia?ao?/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa o aea/aii? aaia?ao?? // Iaoa??aee IV
i?aeia?iaeiiai iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai nai?ia?o “Aacia?a?aia aaia?ao?/ia
ina?oa: ?iiiaaoe?ei? iaoiaee ? oaoiieia??”. – Oa?e?a: Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, 1998. – N. 70-72 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
Aa?anei/oeii A.I.).

 ?ieue ? cia/aiiy oe?eueiiai aaia?ao?/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa // Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “E?a?ciaanoai ? oo?eci:
ina?oa, aeoiaaiiy, noeeue aeeooy”. – Ee?a: II Oe?a?ie, 1998.– N. 52-53.

Aaiaaethe A.A. I?aai?caoe?y e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o/i?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy
o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? iniiaii? oeiee (V-IX eeane). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.02 – oai??y oa iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy
aaia?ao??. – ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeaiai oaeineiiaeaiiy e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe
o/i?a o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo ciaiue. ?ic?iaeai? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??ai? iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie aeei?enoaiiy ia o?ieao
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua nai?? i?noeaaino? c iaoith
?ice?eooy iaeaaaeeea?oeo aaia?ao?/ieo iiiyoue ? caeiiii??iinoae.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeinoaoiy aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aeueii? i?aoe?
caaacia/o?oueny nenoaiiei i?aeoiaeii aei i?aai?caoe?? iiooeiai?
ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a. Aecia/ai? oa ai?iaiaai? iniiai? oeyoe iiaoaiiiai
oneeaaeiaiiy e?a?ciaa/i? ?iaioe o/i?a. ?ice?eo? iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae
iinooiiaiai i?inoi?iaiai ?icoe?aiiy iiiyooy i?i ??aeiee e?ae (a?ae
ieieeoeue naiai ianaeaiiai ioieoo aei iaae A?o/ecie). Aeine?aeaeaii oa
iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue caaacia/aiiy a?eueo o?niiai aca?iica’yceo
e?a?ciaa/eo iiooe?a ia o?ieao oa a iicao?i/iee /an. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe ciaeoee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo iniia
canoinoaaiiy e?a?ciaa/iai i?eioeeio a eo?n? aaia?ao??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoe?iiaeueia e?a?ciaanoai, oe?eueia e?a?ciaanoai,
e?a?ciaa/ee i?eioeei, iiooeiaa ae?yeuei?noue, iaa/aeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aaiaaethe A.A. I?aaiecaoeey e?aaaaae/aneie ?aaiou o/aieeia a i?ioeanna
eco/aiey oece/aneie aaia?aoee iniiaiie oeieu (V-IX eeannu). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.02 – oai?ey e iaoiaeeea iao/aiey
aaia?aoee. – Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey e?aaaaae/aneie
?aaiou o/aueony a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey aaia?aoe/aneeo ciaiee.
?ac?aaioaiu e yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aiu iaoiaee/aneea i?e?iu
eniieueciaaiey ia o?ieao eioi?iaoeee i i?e?iaeiie n?aaea ie?oaeathuae
ianoiinoe n oeaeueth ?ane?uoey aaaeiaeoeo aaia?aoe/aneeo iiiyoee e
caeiiiia?iinoae. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeinoaoi/iay yooaeoeaiinoue o/aaiiai
o?oaea iaania/eaaaony nenoaiiui iiaeoiaeii e i?aaiecaoeee iieneiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe oeieueieeia. Ii?aaeaeaiu e ai?iae?iaaiu iniiaiua iooe
iiyoaiiiai oneiaeiaiey e?aaaaae/aneie ?aaiou o/aueony. ?ane?uou
iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey iinoaiaiiiai i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ?anoe?aiey
iiiyoey i ?iaeiii e?aa (io ie?anoiinoae naiaai ianae?iiiai ioieoa aei
?oaaaeae Io/eciu). Enneaaeiaaia e iainiiaaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue
iaania/aiey aieaa oaniie acaeiinayce e?aaaaae/aneeo iieneia ia o?ieao e
ai aiao?i/iia a?aiy. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee naia aiaae?aiea
i?e ?ac?aaioea iaoiaee/aneeo iniia i?eiaiaiey e?aaaaae/aneiai i?eioeeia
a eo?na aaia?aoee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoeeiiaeueiia e?aaaaaeaiea, oeieueiia e?aaaaaeaiea,
e?aaaaae/aneee i?eioeei, iieneiaay aeayoaeueiinoue, o/aaiia
enneaaeiaaiea.

Benediuk V.V. Organisation of the pupils’ region-study work in the
process of physical geography teaching in the basic school (IV-IX
classes) — Manuscript.

The Candidate’s of Science Degree Dissertation in Pedagogics, speciality
13.00.02 — methods of geography teaching / Institute of Pedagogics, the
Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine – Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is dedicated to the problems of improving the region
studying activities of the pupils in the process of forming their
physical – geographical knouledge. Methods of using the information
about the environment of the native plase at the lessons to reveal the
most important geographical notions and appropriatenesses have been
worked out and proved. It has been ascertained, that the sufficient
effectiveness of the teaching activity is provided by systematic
approach to the organisation of the searching activity of the pupils.
The main ways of the gradual complication of the region studying
activity of the pupils have been defined and approved. The pedagogical
conditions of the gradual spacious expansion of the notions about the
native land (from the borders of the native settlement up to the
frontier of the native country) are defined. The expediense of providing
more close correlation of the region studying searches at the lessons
and out — of — class activities have been investigated and founded. The
main results of the work have been adopted in working out the methodic
bases of the usage of the region studying principle in the course of
geography.

Key-words: national study of region lore, school study of region lore,
region-study principle, researching work, educational investigation.

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