1

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA`ss OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEA IAAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss

I?NEssAeEIEIIII? INA?OE

?I. I.E. OOIEEA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

IAIIA OAAe?? ?AAIIAE*

OAeE: 617.55-001.45-089.193.4;

616.382-089.85.193.4; 61.355

I?AAI?CAOe?ss AeIIIIIAE ? O??O?A?*IA OAEOEEA

I?E ?AEAIA?IOII?ssO O IIOA?I?EEO

?C IIOEIAeAEAIIssIE AEEAIOA

14.01.03 — o??o?a?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

AeENA?OAOe?? IA CAeIAOOOss IAOEIAIAI NOOIAIss

AeIEOI?A IAAeE*IEO IAOE

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?enueeiai-iaaee/iiio ?inoeooo? Oe?a?inueei?
a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? II Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee

eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?eee Aieiaeeie? sseiae/ — ia/aeueiee
Aieiaiiai a?enueeiai-iaaee/iiai oi?aae?iiy II Oe?a?ie-ia/aeueiee
iaaee/ii? neoaeae CN Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee o??o?a II Oe?a?ieIo?oe?ei?
iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ?aaec?oianueeee Aiaoie?e Iaaeiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o??o?a?? ? ii?eiai? oai?iae Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ieaeieoi?
iaaee/ieo iaoe, Iieaea Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? ? 1 Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ieaeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe Aeiiainueeee
Ai?en Anaaieiaeiae/, aee?aeoi? ee?i?ee iaa?aeeeaaeii? o??o?a?? ? 2
Ee?anueei? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae IIC Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:?inoeooo ee?i?/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii? o??o?a?? AII
Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e o??o?a?? oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 11-00
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.613.02 i?e
Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea
IIC Oe?a?ie (254112, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie (254112,
i.Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea,9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 17 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
I.I.AaicaeyeCAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?aeaia?ioii?y (?E) i?e iioeiaeaeaiiyo aeeaioa aei
oaia??oiueiai /ano caeeoa?oueny iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiith ? aei e?ioey ia
ae??oaiith iaaee/iith i?iaeaiith. Eaoaeuei?noue i?e i?e iai?eionoeii
aeniea ? aeinyaa? 30-70 % (I.I.Oae?iia ? ni?aaao., 1984; A.?.Eoeio ?
ni?aaao., 1985; E.I.Eeneoeei 1987; N.I.Eociaeaa 1996; A.I.?e/aaia 1997;
A.Hirner et al., 1982; S.E.Ross, P.D.Morehouse, 1986).

Ia aeeaey/enue ia aaeee? oni?oe a o??o?a??, aianoac?ieia?? ?
?aai?iaoieia??, o ae??oaii? i?iaeaie ?aeaia?ioii?e i?e iioeiaeaeaiiyo
aeeaioa iiee ui ia iai?oeeinue cia/ieo c?ooaiue. sse oea ia
ia?aaeienaeueii, aea e n?oue oaeineiiaeaiiy o??o?a?a, yea iino?eii
?icoe?th?oueny, ca inoaii? aeaa aeanyoe??//y oaeiae ia i?eianea
a?ae/ooieo ?acoeueoao?a o e?eoaaii? iioa?i?eeo, ui ia?aianee
?aeaia?ioii?th i?e o?aaiao aeeaioa. Ie ia?aeiiai?, ui oeth i?iaeaio
iaiiaeeeai aoaea ae??oeoe aei oeo i??, iiee ia aoaea a?aei?aoeueiaaia
nenoaia i?aai?caoe?? ? iaaeaiiy o??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei c
o?aaiith aeeaioa, ui ia?aianee ?E, yea a ?aoe?iiaeueii ii?aeioaaea a
nia? aeinyaiaiiy eiaeii? c aeacaii? aeua aeenoeeie?i.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e ? iianyeaeaiia i?aeoeea iieacothoue, ui aei
oaia??oiueiai /ano cono??/athoueny iaaecae/aeii noia?a/eea?, a ia??aeei
oeai? i?eioeeie e?eoaaiiy oneeaaeiaiue i?ney iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo o?aai
aeeaioa. Iai?eeeaae, ?nio? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue o ?icoi?ii? oa?i?iiaino?
iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy oeeo iioa?i?eeo ? a?aaeath/a ieooaieia a iacaao
iia?aoe?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?i?i?a aeeiiaiiy ?E (I.I.Aaoyi, 1975;
I.A.I?eiiia, E.Ae.Oine?i ? ni?aaao., 1990; I.A.Eiia?ia, 1994; S.E.Ross,
P.D.Morehouse, 1986). Aeoaea /anoi iiaeia ciaeoe oe?eeiaeoi ??cia
oeoia/aiiy ii /ano aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e oa?i?iiai?, iaaaeii?, aeno?aii?,
iaa?aeeeaaeii?, oi/a c oi/ee ci?o iiaiiai cia/aiiy oe? neiaa ?
neiii?iaie (A.N.Oaie?i, A.I.Oi??a, 1976; I.A.Eiiao?aeca ? ni?aaao.,
1981; A.E.Ainoeuaa ? ni?aaao., 1985; TH.I.Aoaia, A.A.Iaeioa?i, 1987;
A.Hirner et al., 1982). Ana oea a?aeaiaeeoue i?aeoe/iiai e?ea?y a?ae
?icoi?iiy noo? ni?aae, ii?iaeaeo? oaeoeeo ianeaiiai niinoa??aaiiy ca
iioa?i?eeie, ui ia?aianee iia?aoe?th c i?eaiaeo iioeiaeaeaiue aeeaioa ?
ae?ae cao?oaeith? iaoeiaee aiae?c ? ni?anoaaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a ??cieo
aaoi??a.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaa oey i?iaeaia ? aeey a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? neoaeae i?e
aiaiaiaeueieo ii?aiaiiyo aeeaioa. Aeooaeuei?noue ?? coiiaeaia
iaaeinoaoiueith aea/aii?noth, a?aenooi?noth /?oeeo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey
aecia/aiiy iieacaiue aei ?E, iacaaeia?eueieie ?acoeueoaoaie e?eoaaiiy a
ca`yceo c aenieith eaoaeuei?noth (?.I. Aieiianueeee, 1984; I.I. Coaa??a,
1985; E.I. Eeneoeei, 1986, 1987; E.I. A?naieia, I.I. Coaa??a, 1997). Ia
i?iaaaeaiee ?aoaeueiee aiae?c e?ea?nueeeo iiieeie, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei
?E i?e aiaiaiaeueieo ii?aiaiiyo ? iioeiaeaeaiiyo aeeaioa. Ia ae??oai?
ieoaiiy iiaa?iaiiy a no??e iaeneiaeueii? e?eueeino? ii?aiaieo ?
iioa?i?eeo c iioeiaeaeaiiyie aeeaioa i?ney ?E (E.I. Eeneoeei, 1979;
TH.A. Oaiioi?eia, 1982; E.?. Iieyeia, 1985; I.A. A?thnia, 1992). Ia
?ic?iaeaia nenoaia aoaeoeaieo ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo i??ii?e?inoa (E.I.
E?neoeei,1979; ?.?. Aea?ya?i, I.N. Ianiie?i, 1987; I.I. Coaa??a,1989;
A.?. Caoa?ia, 1992, 1993, 1994; I.A. A?thnia, 1997). Aea/aiiy oeeo
ieoaiue ia? aaeeea nioe?aeueia ? iai?iiia cia/aiiy.

Ia?aoo?, a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao aeae o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy iae?a?oueny
ia a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaea?aea oneeaaeiaiiy ? aaaeeino? noaio
iioa?i?eiai, a a?aeiia?aeii aei iniaenoeo aiiaeiaaiue o??o?aa, ye?
ia??aeei a?oioothoueny ia iaaaeee?e e?eueeino? niinoa?aaeaiue ? ?
iiieeeiaeie. Oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy o??o?a?/ii?
oaeoeee (E.A. ?iinoa?, 1983; ?.I. Aieiianueeee, 1984; I.I. Coaa??a,
1985; E.I. A?naieia, I.I. Coaa??a, 1997; R. Kronse, 1987; W. Teichmann
et al., 1986, 1993).

Ana neacaia na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui i?iaeaia e?eoaaiiy iioa?i?eeo c
o?aaiaie aeeaioa, ui ia?aianee ?E, caeeoa?oueny iaae??oaiith, ae?ae
aeooaeueiith ? iio?aao? anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy ye a oai?aoe/iiio
a?aeiioaii?, oae ? a i?aeoe/iiio canoinoaaii?. C oeeo iiceoe?e aeacai?
i?iaeaie i?e iioeiaeaeaiiyo aeeaioa ?ai?oa ia ?icaeyaeaeenue.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? neoaeae CN Oe?a?ie oa oaiaoe/iiai ieaio IAe?
Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ia 1995-1998 ??. “Noai
caei?ia`y iniaiaiai neeaaeo CN Oe?a?ie oa ?ic?iaea
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iie?auaoe ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy iioa?i?eeo ?c iioeiaeaeaiiyie aeeaioa,
eio?? ia?aianee ?aeaia?ioii?th, ia i?aenoaa? iioei?caoe?? ?aiiuei?
ae?aaiinoeee i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue oa o??o?a?/ii? oaeoeee.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaie aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. C’ynoaaoe iniiai? i?e/eie ?aeaia?ioii?e i?e iioeiaeaeaiiyo aeeaioa.

2. Aea/eoe ae?aaiinoe/i? iiaeeeaino? ?aii?o iciae i?neyiia?aoe?eieo
oneeaaeiaiue, ye? aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe iieacaiiy aei ?E.

3. Aea/eoe i?e/eie ?icaeoeo oneeaaeiaiue ? c’ynoaaoe ?o i?noea ? ?ieue a
i?io?eaeoeoe? ?E.

4. C’ynoaaoe i?e/eie eaoaeueiino? ? oeyoe ?? cieaeaiiy i?nea ?E i?e
aiaiaiaeueieo ii?aiaiiyo ? iioeiaeaeaiiyo aeeaioa.

 5. Iioei?coaaoe i?ia?aio ?iooc?eii-o?ainooc?eii? oa?ai?? a caeaaeiino?
a?ae oneeaaeiaiiy, ui ?icaeioeinue.

6. Cai?iiiioaaoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe ?io?aiia?aoe?eio oaeoeeo o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy ??cieo a?oi ii?aiaieo a aeea?o a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oneeaaeiaiue, ui ?icaeioeenue i?ney eaia?ioii??.

7. Aea/eoe a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy iioa?i?eeo c o?aaiith
aeeaioa, eio?? ia?aianee ?E, ? ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? ii ?o aoaeoeai?e
?aaa?e?oaoe??.

8. Ia?aa??eoe i?aeoe/ii aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie e?eoaaiiy
ii?aiaieo, eio?? ia?aianee ?E.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Noi?ioeueiaaii ee?i?/i? iciaee
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue ? ?aii? niaoe?aeuei? iciaee, ye?
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe iieacaiiy aei ?aeaia?ioii?? — ?ioaa?aeueia
?aia?ao?y o?ea, iieaeoee na?aaeiuei? iane, a?ieia?/i? oanoe oiene/iino?
ne?iaaoee e?ia? ? i?iaeoeoe ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeineiiaeaii ee?i?/io eeaneo?eaoe?th
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo ? i?iaaaeaii ?? ai?iaaoe?th, ui
caaacia/eei eiie?aoiee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei e?eoaaeueii?
oaeoeee.

Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii ? ae?iaeaii ?aoe?iiaeueio o??o?a?/io oaeoeeo, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? aeeiiaiiy iaea?eueo iioeiaeueii? iia?aoe?? a eiaeiiio
ie?aiiio aeiaaeeo i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai oneeaaeiaiiy.

Neeaaeaii iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? i?ia?aie ?iooc?eii-o?ainooc?eii?
oa?ai?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oneeaaeiaiue, ui ?icaeioeenue, a ia?aae-,
iia?aoe?eiiio ? i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iaeao.

I?iaiae?ciaaii e?ea?nuee? iiieeee, aecia/aii ?o i?noea ? ?ieue a
i?io?eaeoeoe? ?aeaia?ioii?e.

Aea/aii a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy iioa?i?eeo c o?aaiith aeeaioa,
eio?? ia?aianee ?aeaia?ioii?th, ? ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? ? noaia ii ?o
aoaeoeai?e ?aaa?e?oaoe?? a Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aaenoaaeaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoe?th? ciaiiy ee?i?oeeno?a i?i i?aai?caoe?th
o??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae ii?aiaiei, eio?? ia?aianee ?aeaia?ioii?th, a
cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia e?eoaaiiy oe??? eaoaai??? iioa?i?eeo cia/ii
aeiiiiiaea i?aeoe/iei o??o?aai a??ii i?eeiaoe oaeoe/i? ??oaiiy a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oneeaaeiaiue eaia?ioii??.

Iie?auaii nenoaio i?aai?caoe?? ? iaaeaiiy o??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae
ii?aiaiei a aeea?o, eio?? ia?aianee ?aeaia?ioii?th, ui aeicaieeei cia/ii
cieceoe eaoaeuei?noue na?aae oeeo iioa?i?eeo. Aenieo aoaeoeai?noue
nenoaie, ui i?iiiio?oueny, i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aaaaoi??/iith i?aeoeeith ia
aaeee?e e?eueeino? niinoa?aaeaiue.

Ee?i?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo, ui cai?iiiiiaaia,
aeicaieeoue aeiaeoeny ?aeiino? o?aeooaaiiy o a?enueeiai-iieueia?e
o??o?a?? ? o??o?a?? iioeiaeaeaiue oeea?eueieo e?eoaaeueieo caeeaae?a.

Aeei?enoaiiy a ??cieo e?eoaaeueieo caeeaaeao ni?eueieo e?eoa???a
?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue, ?aoe?iiaeueii?
o??o?a?/ii? oaeoeee, iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii? ?iooc?eii-o?ainooc?eii?
oa?ai?? ? i?aai?caoe?? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae aeicaieeoue iie?aueoe
?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy o oe??? eaoaai??? iioa?i?eeo ye o ai?iiee, oae ? a
ie?iee /an.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe nooo?ai aeiiiaiththoue iaei aea/ai? ?icae?ee
a?enueeiai-iieueiai? o??o?a??, o??o?a?? iioeiaeaeaiue o ieoaiiyo
iiaa?iaiiy a no??e iaeneiaeueii? e?eueeino? ii?aiaieo ? iioa?i?eeo c
iioeiaeaeaiiyie aeeaioa i?ney ?aeaia?ioii??, ?o ?aaa?e?oaoe??. Aiie a
cia/i?e i??? caaaa/othoue iaaee/io i?aeoeeo a na?oe? iaoeiaeo
ocaaaeueiaiue ia noeeo ?ioeo aeenoeeie?i ee?i?/iiai i?io?eth.

I?eioeeie iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei c iioeiaeaeaiiyie aeeaioa, ui
ia?aianee ?aeaia?ioii?th, ia aoaiao iaaee/ii? aaaeoaoe?? iiaeooue aooe
i?eeiyo? ca iniiao i?e ina?oeaii? a?aeiia?aeiiai ?icae?eo “Aeac?aie c
a?enueeiai-iieueiai? o??o?a??”. Aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo a?aeiiinoae a
iaa/aeueieo i?ia?aiao ? oaiaoe/ieo ieaiao Oe?a?inueei?
a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??, eaoaae?ao aeno?aiaeueii? iaaeeoeeie ?
iaaeeoeeie eaoano?io aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ?icoe?eoue iiaeeeaino?
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano i?e ia?aeii?e ? i?neyaeeieiii?e
i?aeaioiaoe? e?ea??a, a ia?oo /a?ao o??o?a?a, e?ea??a caaaeueii?
i?aeoeee, oa?aiaao?a, aianoac?ieia?a-?aai?iaoieia?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?o aeena?oaoe?? iaeaaeeoue caaaeueia
?aeay ? iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie, oi?ioethaaiiy iniiaieo oeyo?a ?? ae??oaiiy,
iaoaioiee oa e?oa?aoo?iee iiooe, iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy ee?i?/iiai
iaoa??aeo ca niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiith iei i?ia?aiith, oi?ioethaaiiy
iniiaieo iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a, iino?eia ? aaciina?aaeiy
o/anoue o cae?eniaii? ae?aaiinoe/iiai ? e?eoaaeueiiai i?ioeano,
?aae?caoe?? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a a ee?i?/i?e i?aeoeoe?. Ia?aaaaeio
a?eueo?noue iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue (2/3) aeeiiaii ca aaciina?aaeiueith
o/anoth aaoi?a. Iei oaeineiiaeaii ee?i?/io eeaneo?eaoe?th
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai i?neyo?aaiaoe/iiai ia?eoii?oo; i?iaaaeaii aiae?c
e?ea?nueeeo iiieeie; aea/aii a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?aeaia?ioii?e;
?ic?iaeaii nenoaio ii aoaeoeai?e ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ii?aiaieo, eio??
ia?aianee ?aeaia?ioii?th. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
aiae?c oa ?ioa?i?eoaoe?y iaoa??aeo iaeaaeaoue aaoi?o. ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe, ui aeeeaaeai? a ni?aaaoi?noa? o ioae?eaoe?yo, ? caeiaooeaie
aeine?aeaeaiue aeena?oaioa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue
ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo A?enueeiai-iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo i?e Eoeaeoaanueeiio iaaee/iiio
?inoeooo? (1990, 1991), Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
(Ee?a, 1995), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
iaaeaiiy aeno?aii? aeiiiiiae i?e iaa?aeeeaaeieo noaiao” (Ee?a, 1995),
tha?eaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? Aieiaiiai a?enueeiaiai
ee?i?/iiai aini?oaeth II Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1995, 1997), iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy o??o?a??”, i?enay/ai?e 75-??//th
eaoaae?e o??o?a?? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
IIC Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a, eenoiiaae 1997 ?.), Ana?in?enuee?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “No/ania aiaiaiaeueia o?aaia” (i.Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, o?aaaiue
1998 ?.).

Cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio i?aai?caoe?? ? iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae ii?aiaiei c
iioeiaeaeaiiyie aeeaioa, eio?? ia?aianee ?aeaia?ioii?th, i?ioyaii
aaaaoueio ?ie?a aeei?enoiao?oueny a IAI “Oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ?
iaaeeoeeie eaoano?io”, i. Ee?a, a oaeiae a a?enueeiaeo aini?oaeyo II
Oe?a?ie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? i?e i?iaaaeaii? caiyoue ia eaoaae?? a?enueeiai? o??o?a??
A?enueeiai-iaaee/iiai ?inoeoooo Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? c? neooa/aie oaeoeueoaoo i?aeaioiaee a?enueeiaeo e?ea??a ?
oaeoeueoaoo ia?ai?aeaioiaee ? oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 30 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, c
ieo: 1 -iaoeiaa a?ioo?a; 7 — o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 11- o ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 10 — o oacao eiioa?aioe?e, 1 — iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia
aeiao?ae (??oaiiy Aea?aeiaoaioo Oe?a?ie ? 2495 a?ae 24.01.98 i?i
aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae ca cayaeith ? 97052175, iiaeaii? 12.05.97).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 272 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e,
caaaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeo ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, yeee ioiieth? 410 aeaea?ae, c ieo —
308 a?o/eciyieo ? 102 ?iicaiieo.

?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 49 oaaeeoeyie ? 3 ?enoieaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aena?oeai? eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue,
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeianai? ia caoeno, i?aaenoaaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i
?aae?caoe?th ? ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe, a oaeiae i?i ia`?i ? no?oeoo?o
aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia ee?i?/ieo aacao eaoaae?e ia
i?ioyc? 1992-1997 ??. cae?enithaaeinue niinoa?aaeaiiy ca 3538
iioa?i?eeie ?c cae?eoeie iioeiaeaeaiiyie, iiaeiaeie ? aiaiaiaeueieie
ii?aiaiiyie aeeaioa, ui ia?aianee ??ci? ca ia`?iii iia?aoe?? ia i?aaiao
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. O 184 (5,2 %) iioa?i?eeo a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae? ?icaeioeenue oneeaaeiaiiy. ?i aeeiiaia ?E.

E??i aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue, aoee aea/ai? a?o?ai? iaoa??aee ee?i?/ieo
aac eaoaae?e — 75 ?noi??e oai?ia iioa?i?eeo c iioeiaeaeaiiyie aeeaioa, o
yeeo i?ney iia?aoe?? aeieeee oneeaaeiaiiy, ui iio?aaoaaee ?E. Oe?
iaoe??ioe ciaoiaeeeenue ia noaoe?iia?iiio e?eoaaii? c 1974 aei 1991 ?.

Oaeei /eiii, a?aeiiino? i?i iioa?i?eeo io?eiai? ia i?aenoaa? 184 aeanieo
ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ? i?e aiae?c? 75 ?noi??e oai?ia.

?iciiae?e iioa?i?eeo ca oa?aeoa?ii iioeiaeaeaiiy, a?eii ? noaooth
i?aaenoaaeaiee a oaae. 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

?iciiae?e iioa?i?eeo ca oa?aeoa?ii iioeiaeaeaiiy, a?eii ? noaooth

A?e a ?ieaoOa?aeoa?

iioeiaeaeaiiyE?euee?noue

iioa?i?eeo17-3031-4041-5051-6061-70/ae/ae/ae/ae/aeAiaiaiaeuei? ii?aiaiiy
aeeaioa

106

93

9

4

-Cae?eoa o?aaia aeeaioa

93

51

4

8

16

1

8

4

1Iiaeia? ii?aiaiiy603221225151—Anueiai259176629225213141

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue iioa?i?eeo (70,3 %) aoee o a?oe? aei 30 ?ie?a.
*ieia?e?a — 247 (95,4 %), ae?iie — 12 (4,6 %). C ieo 116 (44,8 %) —
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?. Aiaiaiaeuei? ii?aiaiiy ca oa?aeoa?ii nia?yaeo, ui
aeeeeeaa ii?aiaiiy: eoeueia? — 73,6 %, ineieeia? — 26,4 %). C ieo
iane??ci? ii?aiaiiy neeaaeaee 49,5 %, ne?i? — 50,5 %. An? ii?aiaiiy
i?iieeath/?. Iiiaeeiie? ii?aiaiiy aoee o 20 % ii?aiaieo, iiiaeeii? — o
70,6 %, ii?aeiai? — o 9,4 %.

I?e/eie aiaiaiaeueieo ii?aiaiue: aieia? ae?? — 83,1 %, aeiaaeeiaee
iino??e i?e ianaii? ea?aoeueii? neoaeae — 5,3 %; ni?iaa naiiaoanoaa —
5,3 %; /eaiiooeiaeaeaiiy — 2,1 ; /enoea ca?i? — 1,0 %; ?ioa — 3,2 %.

Ii?aiaieo nieaeao ? na?aeaio?a no?ieiai? neoaeae aoei — 82, io?oea??a —
9, i?aii?uee?a — 1, ?ioeo — 14.

Ca aeaieie iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ? ?acoeueoaoaie iaoieiaiaiaoii?/ieo
?icoei?a, iioeiaeaeaiiy aioo??oi?o i?aai?a aeyaeai? o 100 % ii?aiaieo.

O 80 % ii?aiaieo ia?aaaaeaee iioeiaeaeaiiy aeaoo ? a?eueoa i?aai?a.
Na?aaei?e ia`?i e?iaiao?aoe, aeyaeaiee i?e eaia?ioii??, neeaa 1160100
ie. Aea? o?aoeie ii?aiaieo aoei aeinoaaeaii ia aoai eaae?o?eiaaii? ?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? aeiiiiiae a aaaeeiio ? ae?ae aaaeeiio noai?, ?aooa — a
noai? na?aaeiuei? aaaeeino?. O?aaiaoe/iee oie ae?aaiinoiaaii a 91,4 %
ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue.

Iaeio ?E aeeiiaii 81 ii?aiaiiio, aea? — 18, o?e — 7.

I?e cae?eo?e o?aai? aeeaioa ?cieueiaai? iioeiaeaeaiiy neeaee 73,5 %,
iiiaeeii? — 22,1 %, ii?aeiai? — 4,4 %.

I?e/eie cae?eoi? o?aaie — iaae?iiy c aenioe (35,3 % iioa?i?eeo),
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oia i?eaiaea (33,8 %) ? iiaooiaa (30,9 %). A noai?
aeeiaieueiiai ni`yi?iiy aoee 13 /ieia?e. Na?aae iioa?i?eeo c cae?eoith
o?aaiith nieaeao ? na?aeaio?a no?ieiai? neoaeae — 15, io?oea??a — 2,
?ioeo — 74.

Ca aeaieie iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ? ?acoeueoaoaie iaoieiaiaiaoii?/ieo
?icoei?a, o an?o aeyaeaii iioeiaeaeaiiy aioo??oi?o i?aai?a.

O iioa?i?eeo c cae?eoith o?aaiith ia?aaaaeaee iioeiaeaeaiiy iaeiiai
i?aaio (73,5 %). Na?aaei?e ia`?i e?iaiao?aoe, aeyaeaiee i?e eaia?ioii??
— 1050100 ie. 51,4 % iioa?i?eeo aeinoaaeai? ia e?eoaaiiy o aaaeeiio ?
ae?ae aaaeeiio noai?, 48,6 % — a noai? na?aaeiuei? aaaeeino?.
O?aaiaoe/iee oie ae?aaiinoiaaii a 54,4 % ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue.

Iaeio ?E aeeiiaii 84 iioa?i?eei, aea? — 7, o?e — 2.

Iaeeii/i? iiaeia? ii?aiaiiy aoee o 37,9 % iioa?i?eeo, iiiaeeii? — o 56,9
%, ii?aeiai? — o 3,2 %. An? i?iieeath/?, ne?i? iiaeia? ii?aiaiiy iineee
iiaooiaee oa?aeoa?. A noai? aeeiaieueiiai ni`yi?iiy aoee 27 /ieia?e. C
58 iioa?i?eeo c iiaeiaeie ii?aiaiiyie nieaeao ? na?aeaio?a no?ieiai?
neoaeae aoei aeai?, ?aooa — oeea?euei?.

Ca aeaieie iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ? ?acoeueoaoaie iaoieiaaiaoii?/ieo
?icoei?a, iioeiaeaeaiiy aioo??oi?o i?aai?a o iaoe??io?a c iiaeiaeie
ii?aiaiiyie neeaaeaee 94,8 %. Ia?aaaaeaee iioeiaeaeaiiy aeaio ? a?eueoa
i?aai?a (56,9 %). Na?aaei?e ia`?i e?iaiao?aoe, aeyaeaiee i?e
eaia?ioii??, neeaa 700100 ie. 37,9 % ii?aiaieo aeinoaaeaii a noaoe?iia?
a aaaeeiio ? ae?ae aaaeeiio noai?, 62,1 % — a noai? eaaei? ? na?aaeiuei?
aaaeeino?. O?aaiaoe/iee oie ae?aaiinoiaaii a 37,9 % ee?i?/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue.

Iaeio ?E aeeiiaii 59 ii?aiaiei, o?e — iaeiiio.

Oneeaaeiaiiy, ui i?ecaaee aei iaiao?aeiino? aeeiiaiiy ?E i?e o?aaiao
aeeaioa, ? eaoaeuei? aeiaaeee iaaaaeai? a oaae. 2.

Iaea?eueo /anoith i?e/eiith iiaoi?ii? iia?aoe?? i?e iioeiaeaeaiiyo
aeeaioa aoa ia?eoii?o — 184 (71,0 %), iio?i iaoai?/ia iai?io?aei?noue
eeoa/ieea — 51 (19,7 %), i?neyiia?aoe?eia e?iaioa/a — 24 (9,3 %).

Oaaeeoey 2I?e/eie ?aeaia?ioii?? i?e iioeiaeaeaiiyo aeeaioa

Aeae

oneeaaeiaiiyAiaiaiaeuei?

ii?aiaiiy

Cae?eoa

o?aaiaIiaeia?

ii?aiaiiyAnueiain*m**nmnmnmIa?eoii?o7644663042818482AIIE25417-91515E?iai
oa/a a /a?aaio ii?iaeieio

2

2

9

1

8

2

19

5E?iaioa/a a i?ina?o OO

3

1

1

5

-Anueiai106509331601125992 * — anueiai ii?aiaieo; ** — iiia?ei.

Na?aaei? no?iee a?ae iioeiaeaeaiiy aei eaia?ioii?? neeaee: aiaiaiaeuei?
ii?aiaiiy — 5,81,1; cae?eoa o?aaia — 13,13,1; iiaeiaa ii?aiaiiy — 1,80,3
aiaeeie. An? iaoe??ioe i?ney eaia?ioii?? ciaoiaeeeenue o a?aeae?eaii?
aianoac?ieia?? ? ?aai?iaoe??, aea na?aaei?e oa?i?i ?o e?eoaaiiy neeaa:
i?e aiaiaiaeueiiio ii?aiaii? — 3,20,7; cae?eo?e o?aai? — 2,50,9;
iiaeiaiio ii?aiaii? — 2,41,4 aeiae.

C 259 iioa?i?eeo iaeoaeaee 167 (64,4 %), iiia?ee 92 (35,6 %).

I?e/eie nia?o?: ia?eoii?o — 75, aeaia?/ia a?iioi- aai aanoeaaeoth/a
iiaaiii?y ia oii? ia?eoii?oo — 9, aino?a ie?eiaa iaaeinoaoi?noue — 3,
nainen — 2, i?neyiia?aoe?eia e?iaioa/a — 3.

C 116 a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, eio?? ia?aianee ?E, iiia?ei 49.

I?e aeienoe? ?c noaoe?iia?o aeciaii iai?eaeaoieie a ie?iee /an,
i?eaeaoieie aei iano?ieiai? neoaeae o ai?iiee /an 34 (60,7 %) nieaeaoa ?
na?aeaioa, 22 (39,3 %) — aeciaii iai?eaeaoieie aei a?enueeiai? neoaeae c
aeeeth/aiiyi c a?enueeiaiai iae?eo. O?noue io?oea??a aeciaii i?eaeaoieie
aei a?enueeiai? neoaeae.

A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy aea/aii o 81 iaoe??ioa.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ? ae??oaiiy caaea/, ui iinoaaeai? a
aeine?aeaeaii?, aeei?enoiaoaaee ianooii? iaoeia? iaoiaee: ?noi?e/iee,
iaoo?iiai ? ee?i?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy, noaoenoe/iee ? eia?/iee.

?noi?e/iee iaoiae canoiniaoaaee i?e aea/aii? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae,
iniaeeai noa?eo aeaeaiue, ni?anoaaeaiiy io?eiaieo a?aeiiinoae c aeaniei
iaoa??aeii, a oaeiae i?e ?iaio? c a?o?aieie aeieoiaioaie. Iaoiae
iaoo?iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaee a i?ioean? aaciina?aaeiueiai
ni?eeoaaiiy c a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie, aea/aiiy oiia a?enueeiai? i?aoe?
? iiaooo, aeyaeaiiy oaeoi??a, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia caei?ia`y
ii?aiaieo a aieia?e ianoaiiaoe?.

Iaoiae ee?i?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy — iniiaiee a aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii?.
A?i caniiaaiee ia ?aoaeueiiio niinoa?aaeaii? ca ii?aiaieie a ia??iae
ianoaaeaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy a iaaee/ieo onoaiiaao. Noaoenoe/iee iaoiae
canoinoaaee aeey io?eiaiiy e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aea/aiiai
iaoa??aeo, ia iniia? /iai i?iaaee ye?niee aiae?c ? aeaee ioe?ieo
aeinoia??iino? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

I?e aiae?c? ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue a?aoiaoaaee ianooii? aeai?:

caaaeuei? ? i?noeaa? ee?i?/i? iciaee iioeiaeaeaiue aeeaioa;

caaaeueiiee?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy: caaaeueiiee?i?/iee aiae?c e?ia?
(aaiiaeia?i, a?eo?ioeeoe, eaeeioeeoe, eaeeioeeoa?io oi?ioeo, oaeaee?noue
in?aeaiiy a??o?ioeeo?a — OIA), caaaeueiiee?i?/iee aiae?c na/?, /an
cai?oaiiy ? o?eaae?noue e?iaioa/?, i?io?iia?i, ai?eaca, ae?anoaca na/?,
o?iiaioano. Caaaeueiiee?i?/i? aiae?ce e?ia? i?iaiaeeee ia
aaiaoieia?/iiio aiae?caoi?? “System 9020 Diff Iiaeaeue Serono”
(Oaaeoea??y);

 a?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy: caaaeueiee a?eie ne?iaaoee e?ia? oa eiai
o?aeoe??, caeeoeiaee iaa?eeiaee acio, na/iaeia, e?aaoei?i, a?e??oa?i,
oeoei?, aeaeo?ie?oe. A?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaee ia
a?io?i?/iiio aiae?caoi?? “Cobas Mira Plus” uaaeoea?nueei? o??ie “Roche”.
Aeey aecia/aiiy a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a e?ia? aeei?enoiaoaaee iaai?e o??i
“Roche” e “Boehring Mannheina” (I?ia//eia);

 eiioeaio?aoe?th iieaeoe na?aaeiuei? iane (INI) a ne?iaaooe? e?ia?
ii?aiaieo c ia?eoii?oii aecia/aee iaoiaeii aaeue-o?iiaoia?ao?? ia
naoaaeaen? G-25 (o??ia “Pharmacia” — Oaaoe?y);

eaeeioeeoa?iee ?iaeaen ?ioieneeaoe?? (E??);

 aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae INI aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae
ioe?iee aieeao ?o ia i?ioeane ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (IIE),
oiene/i?noue ne?iaaoee e?ia? aeiii??a (C.A.Ooi?eiaa, 1983). Aieea INI ia
oiene/i?noue ne?iaaoee aecia/aee oeyoii oao?ao?iaiiaiai oanoo
(A.A.Oo?aiia, 1986). C iaoith aea/aiiy i?ioean?a IIE a ne?iaaooe? e?ia?
aecia/aee ae??iia? eii`thaaoe (AeE) ca iaoiaeii A.A.Aaa??eiaa ?
I.I.Ieoei?oaeii? (1983); IAeA — ca iaoiaeii F.R.Hunter (1963) a
iiaeeo?eaoe??? C.A.Ooi?eiai? (1963), oeoia? iniiae (OI) — ca iaoiaeii
B.L.Fletcher et al. (1973);

 oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie aeeiioaaee ia
aia?aoao “Lodq-500” o??ie GE ? “Aloka-2000” (ssiii?y);

 ?aioaaiieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia ?aioaaiae?aaiinoe/iiio
eiiieaen? “Siregraf D-3” o??ie “Siemens” (I?ia//eia);

 ?ioaa?aeueio ?aia?ao?th o?ea (??AO) ii I.?. O?uaiei (1973);

 ia`?i iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy (eaia?ioii?y, ?E);

 o?eaae?noue ? ia`?i eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy aei eaia?ioii??, aei ?E,
i?ney ?E;

 e?ea?nuee? iiieeee, ui i?ecaaee aei ?E;

 e?ea?nuee? iiieeee, oi i?ecaaee aei eaoaeueiiai iane?aeeo;

a?noieia?/ia oa iaoieiaiaiaoii?/ia caeeth/aiiy;

?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy;

 a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy a?ae 1 aei 22 ?ie?a.

Caaaeueii-ee?i?/i? iciaee iioeiaeaeaiue aeeaioa a?aoiaoaaee ca
iieacieeaie ioeueno, oaiia?aoo?e o?ea, a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo, /anoioe
aeeoaiiy ca oaeeeio, noaiii oe??ieo iie?ia?a ? neeciaeo, naiiii/oooyi,
iayai?noth aeeniaioe/ieo yaeu.

I?noeaa? iciaee aea/aee c o?aooaaiiyi aieth/ino? aeeaioa i?e
iaeueiaoe??, acaeoooy aeeaioa, cao?eiee aeii?iaeiaiue ? aac?a, iayaiino?
ia?enoaeueoeee eeoa/ieea, aieth a aeeaio?, iai?oaeaiiy i`yc?a
ia?aaeiuei? /a?aaii? no?iee, neiioii?a iiae?aciaiiy i/a?aaeie.

Eaai?aoi?i? iieacieee aecia/aee ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeeeaie:
a?eie ne?iaaoee e?ia? a?o?aoiaei iaoiaeii; o?aeoe?? a?eea ne?iaaoee —
iaoiaeii aeaeo?ioi?aco ii I.?.Ao?a?/o (1955). Aaiaoie?eo, a?e??oa?i,
aeaeo?ie?oe, na/iaeio, caeeoeiaee acio, ai?eaco, oeoei?, e?aaoei?i,
i?io?iia?i, o?iiaioano, /an cai?oaiiy ? o?eaae?noue e?iaioa/? aecia/aee
ca iaoiaeeeaie, ui iienai? o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo??.

A i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? ia an?o iioa?i?eeo caiiaithaaee ea?oe
?ioaineaii? oa?ai??, aea a?aei?/aeanue iiaiaeeiia ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e
o?ea, ioeueno, a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo, oeaio?aeueiiai aaiiciiai oeneo,
/anoioe aeeoaiiy ca oaeeeio, e?euee?noue ??aeeie, ui aeae?ey?oueny /a?ac
ae?aiaae? ? ii?eoe?, aeii?iaeiaiiy ? ae?o?ac. Uiaeaiii ia i?ioyc? aeaio
? a?eueoa oeaei?a aeine?aeaeoaaee iieacieee e?ia?: a?eie ne?iaaoee
e?ia?, o?aeoe?? a?eea ne?iaaoee e?ia?, a?e??oa?i, oeoei?, na/iaeio,
aeaeo?ie?oe, caeeoeiaee acio, ai?eaco, e?aaoei?i, aaiaoie?eo. O
ii?aiaieo ia ??aeoa ye iaeei ?ac ia o?e aei? ia i?ioyc? 7-10 aei?a i?ney
iia?aoe?? aecia/aee i?io?iia?i, o?iiaioano, /an cai?oaiiy ? o?eaae?noue
e?iaioa/?.

An?i iioa?i?eei c yaeuaie iai?io?aeiino? eeoa/ieea aeeiioaaee iaeyaeiao
?aioaaiia?ao?th i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, oeueo?acaoeiao ae?aaiinoeeo
?/aai eiii’thoa?io oiiia?ao?th i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. O 5
ii?aiaieo aeine?aeaeoaaee ianaae aa??th ii eeoa/ieeo.

Ca an?ia iioa?i?eeie aaee ?aoaeueia ee?i?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ?c
caiiaiaiiyi oi?iae?ciaaii? ea?oe.

O eiaeiiai iioa?i?eiai ? ii?aiaiiai aeeeaaeaiee aeua eiiieaen
ianoaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee aei eaia?ioii??, iaia?aaeiaei? iia??oaiiy noaio
i?ney eaia?ioii??, a aeaiue iia??oaiiy noaio i?ney eaia?ioii??,
aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae ?E, ia ianooiiee aeaiue i?ney ?E, a iio?i a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ee?i?/ieo iieaciee?a ? ii cae?i/aiith e?eoaaiiy.

Ia i?aenoaa? ia?oiai ianoaaeaiiy iiaeia aoee noaeeoe i?i noai iioa?i?eeo
iaia?aaeiaei? iia?aoe??, aaaee?noue o?aaie. Ae?oaa ianoaaeaiiy
aeiiiiaaaei aeyaeoe iaea?eueo ?aii? neiioiie oneeaaeiaiiy, ui aeieeei, ?
aeei?enoiaoaaeinue a yeino? eiio?ieth. Aeai?, io?eiai? i?e o?aoueiio
ianoaaeaii?, aoee iniiaieie e?eoa??yie aeey ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee.
?acoeueoaoe /aoaa?oiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaee i?cith neiioiiaoeeo
oneeaaeiaiue, ui iio?aaoaaee ?E.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aea/aii ia?aa?a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo o
eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? ii?aiaieo ? iioa?i?eeo (126 /ieia?e) a?eii 18-40
?ie?a, eio?ei aeeiiaii eaia?ioii?y c aeaaii?e?iiei ?acoeueoaoii. C ieo
37 — c aiaiaiaeueieie ii?aiaiiyie aeeaioa, 57 — c cae?eoith o?aaiith
aeeaioa ? 32 — c iiaeiaeie ii?aiaiiyie.

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea io?eiaieo aeaieo aeicaieeea aeyaeoe iaea?eueo ?aii?
? aeinoia??i? iciaee, ui aecia/athoue iieacaiiy aei ?E i?e
iioeiaeaeaiiyo aeeaioa, c aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th o?ueio
ee?i?ei-i?iaiinoe/ieo a?oi: iieacaia ?E, iio??aia aeeiai?/ia
niinoa?aaeaiiy, ?E ia iieacaia.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii:

1925 ee?i?/ieo aiae?c?a e?ia? oa na/?; 2031 a?io?i?/ieo aiae?c?a
e?ia?;

1517 E??; 976 ??AO; 317 ?aioaai?anueeeo ci?ie?a;

81 ea?oa a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ia?iaeaii aa??aoe?eii-noaoenoe/iei iaoiaeii ?c
ae?aooaaiiyi na?aaeiuei? aaee/eie (I), iiaeeeai? na?aaeiuei? iiieeee
na?aaeiuei? aaee/eie (m), aeinoia??iino? a?aei?iiinoae na?aaei?o aaee/ei
a ii??aith?ieo a?oiao (?) ca No’thaeaioii ia eiii’thoa?? Pentium ca
aeiiiiiaith i?ia?ai StatGraphics 2.6 ? MS Exnel.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiy aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e ? aeaniiai aeina?aeo
e?eoaaiiy iioa?i?eeo c i?neyiia?aoe?eiei ia?eoii?oii ie i?iiiio?ii
ianooiio eeaneo?eaoe?th i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai i?neyo?aaiaoe/iiai
ia?eoii?oo:

A. Ii eieae?caoe?? ? e?euee?noi?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ia?aeiiiai
iioeiaeaeaiiy:

1) ?cieueiaaia;

2) iiiaeeiia;3) ii?aeiaia;

4) eiia?iiaaia. A. Ca oa?aeoa?ii iioe?aiiino? i?ioeano:

1) i?noeaaee

2) ?iceeoee.(a?aeie?aieaiee, iaa?aeie?aieaiee);A. Ca oa?aeoa?ii
aenoaeaoo ? ai?noo /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie:

— na?iciee;

— o?a?eiiciee;- ai?eiee;

— aaii?aa?/iee;- aieeuei?e;

— ci?oaiee.A. Ca oacaie ?icaeoeo iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano:

— ?aaeoeaia oaca;

— oiene/ia oaca;- oa?i?iaeueia oaca.Ae. Ca e?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii:

1) ?aa?anoth/ee ia?eoii?o;

2) i?ia?anoth/ee ia?eoii?o;

3)ia?eoii?o c oneeaaeiaiyi, yea noi?ioaaeinue: aanoeane, eeoeia?
ii?eoe?, aaaio?aoe?y oa ?io.

Ca iaoeie aeaieie, i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia?eoii?o — iaea?eueo /anoa
oneeaaeiaiiy, yea iio?aao? aeeiiaiiy ?E i?e ??cieo iioeiaeaeaiiyo
aeeaioa. A?i ?icaeioany o 184 (71,0 %) iioa?i?eeo. O 127 (69%) c ieo
ia?eoii?o aoa iane?aeeii iaonoiaiiai ia?aeiiiai ia?eoii?oo: aiaiaiaeuei?
ii?aiaiiy — 51, iiaeia? — 32, cae?eoa o?aaia — 44.

I?e ?E iani?iiiaei?noue oa?a aeyaeaia o 21 iaoe??ioa. O 18 ia?eoii?o
?icaeioany aiane?aeie iaiii?/aiiai iioeiaeaeaiiy ii?iaeieiieo i?aai?a.
Ii?ooaiiy aa?iaoe/iino? i?ae aeaaaeaiith eeoeith ? ia???oaeueiith
i/a?aaeiith aeieeei o 8 ii?aiaieo, iae?ic no?iee ii?iaeieiiiai i?aaio —
o 7. Iae?ic ia/?iee a ae?eyioe? iaeeaaeaiiy oa?a ia ?? ?aio o aeaio
ii?aiaieo ? iae?ic /anoeie aaeeeiai naeueieea o o?aoueiai noaee
i?e/eiith ia?eoii?oo ? ianooiii? ?E.

I?e i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia?eoii?o? iaea?eueo /anoi aeeiioaaee
e?ea?aeaoe?th aeaea?aea, naiaoe?th, ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie ?
?iooaaoe?th oiiei? eeoee — 99 ii?aiaieo. A 40 aeiaaeeao iniiaiei aeaeii
iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy aoei ooeaaiiy aeaoaeo?a ii?iaeieiieo i?aai?a aai
?o aianoiiic?a. O 23 ii?aiaieo aeeiiaia ?acaeoe?y oiiei? aai oianoi?
eeoee.

Ia oii? ?ioaineaii? oa?ai?? i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia?eoii?o i?ia?anoaaa
iioaeeii. Neiioiie iiae?aciaiiy i/a?aaeie aeyaeai? eeoa o 88 (47,8 %)
iaoe??io?a, a iai?oaeaiiy i`yc?a ia?aaeiuei? /a?aaii? no?iee — o 80
(43,5 %). C 17 aea/aieo ee?i?/ieo ? eaai?aoi?ieo iciae
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie aeyaeeenue
aeaa`youe (oaae. 3): oao?ea?ae?y a?eueoa 100 oaea??a ca 1 oa. — o 131
(96,3%), i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e o?ea — o 130 (95,5 %), nooee
iaeeaaeaiee ycee, noo?noue o ?io? — o 125 (92,6 %), ioaeioa — o 118
(86,7 %), a?eue a aeeaio? — o 118 (86,7 %). *anoi cono??/aeenue
neiioiie, ciaoiiaeai? ia?acii eeoa/ieea. Oae, ia?enoaeueoeea eeoa/ieea
ia aeneooiaoaaeanue o 115 (84,5 %) iioa?i?eeo. C ?ioeo iieaciee?a a?eueo
?ioi?iaoeai?: ca?eueoaiiy E?? — o 92,6 %, OIA — o 90,4 %, ca?eueoaiiy
/enea eaeeioeeo?a — o 76,5 % iioa?i?eeo.

Aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy aeaa`yoe iciae a ee?i?/i?e i?aeoeoe? canoiniaaiee
iaoaiaoe/iee iaoiae ??oaiiy i?iaeaie aaaaoie?eoa??aeueiino? (A.I. Naaeei
?? ni?aaao., 1982; A.E. Ainoeuaa ? ni?aaao., 1985; ?.A. Eauaiei, TH.?.
Eauaiei,1986, 1991), ui ia`?eoeaii a?aeia?aaea? ?o ae?aaiinoe/io
oe?ii?noue. Iaoiae aeicaiey? ia`?aeiaoe a iaeei ?ioaa?aeueiee iieaciee
e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? ae?aaiinoe/i? iciaee i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo.
Nooi?noue eiai a oiio, ui cia/aiiy eiaeiiai iieacieea (oaae. 3) iaaoaa?
a?aeiia?aeii? e?eueeino? aae?a.

Oaaeeoey 3Ae?aaiinoe/i? iciaee i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo

oa ?o aaeueia ioe?iea

Ae?aaiinoe/ia

iciaea

n

P1,%m0=wmetafile8? ??H???????????
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a?&???a?6???u?th???????1-?0t=wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
@???&??yyyy?????Ay·y?* ???&? ?MathType??a?
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AaeeOao?ea?ae?y a?eueoa 100 ca 1 oa13296,32,4791,129,19100 Oaiia?aoo?a
o?ea aeua 37,1 0N13195,52,5890,328,2196Nooee iaeeaaeaiee ycee, noo?noue
o ?io?12792,62,9487,424,9785Eaeeioeeoa?iee ?iaeaen ?ioieneeaoe?? a?eueoa
1,512792,62,9487,424,9785Ca?eueoaiiy OIA a?eueoa

15 ii/aiae o /ieia?e?a ?

a?eueoa 19 ii/aiae o
ae?iie12490,43,1885,222,9678Ioaeioa11886,73,5781,520,1769A?eue o
aeeaio?11886,73,5781,520,1769A?aenooi?noue ia?enoaeueoeee
eeoa/ieea11584,53,7779,318,7964Iaeo?io?eueiee eaeeioeeoic a?eueoa 9,5 o
109/e 10476,54,4371,314,7950I?ei?oea : ?0 — oiiaia na?aaeiy ?iia??i?noue
?aeaia?ioii?? aeey an??? a?oie — 5,2%; m0 — na?aaeiy iiieeea aeey an???
a?oie a oe?eiio:

wmetafile8? ??H???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ay§y@ ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????]D???]????H?????y?
???u??
???????»????-????¦y????ueA????-?????ueE????a?&???
a?&???a?6???u?th??????Oao?ea?ae?y a?eueoa 100 ca 1 oaeeeio
ioe?iaia iaie a 100 aae?a. Aeae? c aeei?enoaiiyi e?eoa??y No’thaeaioa
ae?aoiaoaaee ?io? iieacieee. Noia aae?a an?o iieaciee?a aecia/aea
ae?aaiinoe/iee ?iaeaen (Ae?). Ai?iaaoe?th oeueiai iaoaiaoe/iiai
i?aeoiaeo i?iaaaeaii o 138 iioa?i?eeo c iiceoeaiei ?acoeueoaoii. Ca
aeaieie Ae? 126 ii?aiaiei ?E ia aoea iieacaia.

A 12 ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo aeeiiaia ?E, i?ae /an yei? aeyaeaia
ea?oeia i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo. Oaeei /eiii, a ee?i?oe?
c`yaeeanue iiaeeea?noue aeae?eeoe o?e a?oie iioa?i?eeo c iioeiaeaeaiiyie
aeeaioa: ia iio?aaoth/eo ?E (Ae? iaioa 470 aae?a), iio?aaoth/eo
aeeiai?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy (Ae? aei 696 aae?a), iio?aaoth/eo ?E (Ae?
696 ? a?eueoa aae?a).

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui cae/aei? ee?i?/i? oanoe ci?iththoueny aiane?aeie
naii? o?aaie ? iia?aoe??, iaie aea/aii ci?ie oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee
ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaea ?ioaa?aeueii? ?aia?ao?? o?ea o 134 (72,8 %)
ii?aiaieo.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaea?aea ?iceeoiai i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo
ii?aiai? ?icae?eai? ia 2 a?oie: ia?oa — ii?aiai?, o yeeo ?icaeoie
ia?eoii?oo aoa aino?ei (“i?i?eaiee ia?eoii?o”) — iani?iiiaei?noue oa?a
eeoee, aianoiiico, iae?ic ii?iaeieiieo i?aai?a — 31 /ie.; ae?oaa —
ii?aiai?, o yeeo ia?eoii?o i?ia?anoaaa — 103 /ie., c ieo a oiene/i?e
oac? — 95 /ie., a oa?i?iaeuei?e oac? — 8 /ie.

Aeey ia?oi? a?oie aeyaeeenue oa?aeoa?ieie: oao?ea?ae?y (93,14,0
oae./oa.); iii??ia i?aeaeuaiiy nenoaiiiai a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo (128,81,1
? 80,01,7 ii ?o. no.); oeaio?ae?caoe?y e?iaiia?ao (E?O — 79,40,4 iae.);
cieaeaiiy oeaio?aeueiiai aaiiciiai oeneo aei ieaei?o a?aieoeue (61,03,8
ii aiae. no.); ciaioaiiy ia`?io oee?eoethth/i? e?ia? ca ?aooiie
ieaciiao?aoe (65,40,9 ie/ea); cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaioe na?oey
(ca?eueoaiiy oaea?iiai ia`?io na?oey — 101,64,8 ie, oaea?iiai ?iaeaeno —
60,62,7 ie/i2) oa ?ioaineaiino? e?iaiia?ao (i?aeaeuaiiy oaeeeiiiai
ia`?io na?oey — 9,00,45 e/oa ? na?oeaaiai ?iaeaeno — 6,10,7 e/oa/i2,
cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioo ?aca?aa — 1,860,1 iae.). Noia?ia ioe?iea
ia?a?aoiaaieo ci?i aeicaiey? ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe noai oeaio?aeueii?
aaiiaeeiai?ee ye a?ia?e?iaoe/iee.

A ae?oa?e a?oi? iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieie aoee: oao?ea?ae?y (104,52,6 —
111,34,2 oae/oa); a?iiaieai?y aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy ye ieaciaiiiai, oae ?
aeiaoey?iiai ia`?io (29,10,37 ? 24,60,4 ie/ea); iecueeee oeaio?aeueiee
aaiiciee oene (13,32,3 — 4,71,4 ii aiae. no.); cieaeaiiy nenoaiiiai
a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo (123,63,8 — 92,24,1 ii ?o. no. ? 73,42,5 — 49,02,4
ii ?o. no.); oeaio?ae?caoe?y e?iaiia?ao (E?O — 80,40,5 ? 82,20,7 iae.);
ae?aaeaia na?oeaaa iaaeinoaoi?noue (oaea?iee ia`?i na?oey — 45,31,7 ?
32,21,5 ie, oaea?iee ?iaeaen — 25,90,4 ? 27,91,4 ie/i2, EAe? — 2,390,15
? 3,520,30 iae.) ? aeecueea aei ae?aaeaii? iaaeinoaoi?noue e?iaiia?ao
(oaeeeiiee ia`?i na?oey — 4,60,1 ? 3,60,2 e/oa, na?oeaaee ?iaeaen —
2,70,1 ? 1,990,1 e/oa/i2). Oaea cieaeaiiy iieaciee?a oeaio?aeueii?
aaiiaeeiai?ee oa?aeoa?eco? ?? a?iie?iaoe/iee noai.

C iaoith aea/aiiy ?ie? INI a aaiac? aiaeioieneeico a oeeo aea a?oiao
ii?aiaieo iaie aoei ianoaaeaii ? 45 caei?iaeo aeiii??a. Iaea?eueo /?oei
aieea iniiaiiai iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano ia ??aaiue INI i?iyaeany a ia?o?e
a?oi?: a oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee i?e/eiith ?icaeoeo i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai
ia?eoii?oo noaei oneeaaeiaiiy, ui ?icaeioeinue ?aioiai (iani?iiiaei?noue
oa?a), eiioeaio?aoe?y INI a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? aoea iaeiaioith (538,696,9
iea/ie, N — 29130,3 iea/ie). O ii?aiaieo c i?ia?anoth/ei ia?eoii?oii
a?aeiia?aeii (1230,1167,7 ? 1773,239,0 iea/ie). Oe? iieacieee
ia?aaeuothoue ii?io a?eueoa ye o 5 ?ac?a. Aenieiio ??aith INI a ae?oa?e
a?oi? ii?aiaieo a?aeiia?aeaee aaaee? ee?i?/i? i?iyae aiaeioieneeico, ye?
ia caeaaeaoue a?ae i?e/eie aeaea?aea ia?eoii?oo.

O 25 ii?aiaieo c oeeo a?oi aei ii/aoeo i?iaaaeaiiy e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a
INI aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ia a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue. Iai aaeaeinue
anoaiiaeoe, ui ii i??? ?icaeoeo iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano oiene/i?noue INI
ca?eueoo?oueny: ia?oa a?oia — 14,80,7 oa; ae?oaa a?oia 3,00,2 oa;
eiio?ieue — 20,41,2 oa.

Iaie oaeiae aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ii i??? ?icaeoeo i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai
ia?eoii?oo a?aeaoaa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo i?iaeoeo?a IIE. Oae, i?e
aino?iio («i?i?eaiiio») ia?eoii?o? — ??ceiai i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo eiai
i?iaeoeo?a a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? a?aei?/aii ia aoei (AeE — 2,340,18
A233/ie, eiio?ieue 1,420,06 A233/ie; IAeA — 6,990,05 ieiieue/ie,
eiio?ieue 3,350,10 ieiieue/ie; OI — 7,820,21 oi. iae./ia, eiio?ieue
7,100,09 oi. iae./ia). A ae?oa?e a?oi? ii?aiaieo i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo
i?iaeoeo?a IIE a?aeaoaaeinue ia a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?e/eie ?iceeoiai
caiaeaiiy i/a?aaeie (AeE — 4,760,52 ? 4,580,89 A233/ie; IAeA — 10,090,89
? 15,030,33 ieiieue/ie; OI — 9,770,51 ? 16,700,56 oi. iae./ia).
I/aaeaeii, ui a oe?e a?oi? ii?aiaieo i?e/eiaie iaeiie/aiiy a ne?iaaooe?
e?ia? i?iaeoeo?a IIE aoee aaaee? iai?ii? ii?ooaiiy, aeanoea? neiae?iio
aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??, a iniaeeaino? — iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo ?
oeooiaeo iniia — e?ioeaaeo eaiie i?ioeano.

Oaeei /eiii, iaaaaeai? aeua ye?ni? ? e?euee?noi? ee?i?/i? iciaee ?
iaaeinoaoiuei ?ioi?iaoeaieie, oi/a aeoaea aaaeeeaeie. ?o ?icaeoie /e
?aa?an i?aaeth?oueny ii?aiaiiyi, ia?oith iia?aoe??th,
aioea?ioeeioa?ai??th, ciaaieaiiyi, ?ioaineaiith ?iooc?eiith oa?ai??th.
I???ioaoe?y eeoa ia oe? iciaee i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?aeaia?ioii??, yea
aeeiio?oueny ?c cai?ciaiiyi. Niaoe?aeuei? iciaee: ?ioaa?aeueia ?aia?ao?y
o?ea, ??aaiue iieaeoe na?aaeiuei? iane ? aeoeai?noue a?ieia?/ieo oano?a
a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ? e?io?, ??aaiue i?iaeoeo?a ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy
e?i?ae?a, ye? cai?iiiiiaai? ? ai?iaiaai? iaie, ?: a)
aeniei?ioi?iaoeaieie; a) ia’?eoeaieie; a) ?aii?ie. ?o aecia/aiiy ni?eyei
nai?/aniiio aeeiiaiith ?E.

A ca`yceo c ??cieie o??o?a?/ieie iiieeeaie i?e i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia?eoii?o? ?E aeeiiaia 158 (86 %) iaoe??ioai. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo
/anoeie aoee e?eoaaeueii-oaeoe/i? iiieeee — 100 (54,4 %).
E?eoaaeueii-oaoi?/i? i?ecaaee aei 39 (21,3 %) ?E, a ae?aaiinoe/i? — aei
19 (10,3 %). A 14 % ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue aeyaeaii i?aai?caoe?ei?
i?i?aooiee: i?ci? caa?oaiiy, aeinoaaea ? aini?oae?caoe?y ii?aiaieo.

C 184 iioa?i?eeo c i?neyiia?aoe?eiei ia?eoii?oii, yeei aeeiiaia ?E,
iiia?ei 83 (45,1 %). Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue eaoaeueieo aeiaaee?a i?e ?E
— 59 (71,1 %) — ciaoiiaeaia e?ea?nueeeie iiieeeaie. Iaea?eueo /anoi
i?eaiaeyoue aei ?E, a a iiaeaeueoiio aei nia?o? iioa?i?eeo
e?eoaaeueii-oaeoe/i? iiieeee — 31 (52,5 %). E?eoaaeueii-oaoi?/i? iiieeee
aeiiouai? o 20 (33,9 %) iaoe??io?a, a ae?aaiinoe/i? iiieeee — o 8 (13,6
%).

A ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ee?i?/ieo aacao eaoaae?e
iai aaeaeinue cieceoe e?euee?noue e?ea?nueeeo iiieeie o ii?aiaieo c
i?neyiia?aoe?eiei ia?eoii?oii. Oae, yeui c 1974 aei 1991 ?ieo c 41
iioa?i?eeo 39 (95,13,5 %) ?aeaia?ioii?th aeeiiaii a ca`yceo c
e?ea?nueeeie iiieeeaie, oi c 1992 aei 1997 ?ieo c 30 — 21 (70,010,0%)
(?0,05). Ia?aeaeueii cieceeanue ? e?euee?noue eaoaeueieo aeiaaee?a. Oae,
c 1974 aei 1991 ?ieo c 41 iaoe??ioa iiia?ee 29 (70,78,5%), a ianooii? ae
1992-1997 ?iee c 30 iiia?ei 10 (33,314,9%) (?0,05). Ia cieaeaiiy
e?ea?nueeeo iiieeie ? eaoaeueieo iane?aee?a aieeioei i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? o??o?a?a, iie?ioaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe o??o?a?/iiai
noaoe?iia?o, ?aoaeueiee aiae?c ? ee?i?/iee ?ica?? an?o iiieeie, ui
aeiiouai? e?ea?yie a e?eoaaii? eiaeiiai iioa?i?eiai; cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
eiiieaeno i??ii?e?inoa: iie?ioaiiy ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo, nei?i/aiiy oa?i?i?a aeeiiaiiy ?E,
i?io?eaeoeea o??o?a?/ieo iiieeie. Inoaiiy aeeth/aea iino?eiee aiae?c
iiia?aaei?o e?ea?nueeeo iiieeie, ciaiiy iaoiaaiaco ?icaeoeo ?aiaai?
oai?iae i?e ii?aiaiiyo aeeaioa, ineoieia?/io aioiai?noue aei ?E ?
aeeiiaiiy ?? iaea?eueo aeina?ae/aieie o??o?aaie, i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoaeueii?
?aa?c?? /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie ? cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o, aaeaeaaoiee
ooaeao ? i?iieaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie i?ae /an ? i?ney ?E,
iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaaio ?ioaineaio oa?ai?th a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae?.

Aino?a iaoai?/ia iai?io?aei?noue eeoa/ieea ?icaeioeanue o 51 (19,7 %)
iioa?i?eiai. Aiia iaeiaeiai /anoi niinoa??aaeanue ye a ia?o? aeanyoue
aei?a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, oae ? a ianooiio aeaeaaeo. I?ioa, c
6-? ii 15-o aeiao aino?a iaoai?/ia iai?io?aei?noue eeoa/ieea
?icaeioeanue o 40 (78,4 %) iioa?i?eeo. Iniiaiith ?? i?e/eiith aoei
ooai?aiiy niaeie — 46 (90,1 %) ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue. O 4 (7,8 %)
iioa?i?eeo ii?yae c ooai?aiiyi niaeie a?aeaoany caai?io oiiei? eeoee. A
iaeiiai ii?aiaiiai a?aeaoeiny cauaieaiiy iaoe? oiiei? eeoee o “a?ei?” ??
a?eae?.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae i?e/eie iai?io?aeiino? eeoa/ieea aeeiiaii ianooii?
iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy: ?icn?/aiiy niaeie, naiaoe?y oa ae?aioaaiiy
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, ?iooaaoe?y oiiei? eeoee iaciaano?iaioa?aeueiei
ciiaeii — 35; ?icn?/aiiy niaeie, naiaoe?y oa ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii?
ii?iaeieie — 10; ?icn?/aiiy niaeie, onoiaiiy caai?ioo ? cauaieaiiy eeoee
— 5; ?icn?/aiiy niaeie, ?acaeoe?y oiiei? eeoee — 1.

O 6 iioa?i?eeo iai?io?aei?noue eeoa/ieea aeieeea aiane?aeie e?ea?nueeeo
iiieeie: e?eoaaeueii-oaeoe/i? i?eaaee aei ?E a o?ueio ee?i?/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiiyo — ?acoeueoao iaiiaiioe?iii? naiaoe?? ? ae?aioaaiiy
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. Aea? ?E aeeiiaii a ca`yceo c e?eoaaeueii-oaoi?/ieie
iiieeeaie ? iaeio — c ae?aaiinoe/iith.

C 51 iioa?i?eiai c aino?ith iaoai?/iith iai?io?aei?noth eeoa/ieea, yeei
i?iaaaeaia ?E, iiia?ee 5 (9,8 %). Iniiaiith i?e/eiith nia?o? aoa
i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia?eoii?o (4 ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiiy), a iaeiiio
aeiaaeeo — aeaia?/ia aanoeaaeoth/a iiaaiii?y.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aii?ie ae?aaiinoe/ieie iciaeaie aino?i? iaoai?/ii?
iai?io?aeiino? eeoa/ieea, ye? neoaeaoue iieacaiiyie aei ?E, ? ioaeioa,
aethaioa, acaeoooy aeeaioa, cao?eiea no?eueoey ? aac?a (96,0 %). 47
(96,0 %) /ieia?e a?aei?/aee ia?aeiiiiae?ai? aie? a aeeaio? i?e
iaeueiaoe??. Iai?oaeaiiy i`yc?a ia?aaeiuei? /a?aaii? no?iee
niinoa??aaeinue eeoa o 16 (34,1 %) iioa?i?eeo, neiioii iiae?aciaiiy
i/a?aaeie — o 24 (47,0 %). Oao?ea?ae?th a?eueoa 100 oaea??a ca 1
oaeeeio, nooee iaeeaaeaiee ycee, noo?noue o ?io? a?aei?/aii 47 (92,2 %)
iaoe??io?a, a no?eea i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e o?ea eeoa o 33 (67,7 %). A
aiae?c? e?ia? o iioa?i?eeo: ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? eaeeioeeo?a aoei o 33
(67,7 %), cnoa eaeioeeoa?ii? oi?ioee e?ia? ae?ai — o 47 (92,2 %),
ca?eueoaiiy OIA — o 47 (92,2 %). O 43 (84,3 %) /ieia?e i?e iaeyaeia?e
?aioaaiia?ao?? i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie aeyaeaii iiaaiaoic eeoa/ieea.

Iaie aea/aii ci?ie oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo
?ioaa?aeueii? ?aia?ao?? o?ea o 42 (82,5 %) ii?aiaieo c AIIE. Io?eiai?
aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e AIIE ?icaeaaany a?ia?e?iaoe/iee noai
oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee, ui i?iyaeyeinue a cia/iiio ca?eueoaii?
oaea?iiai ? na?oeaaiai ?iaeaen?a (63,72,8 ie/i2 ? 6,150,65 e/oa/i2);
eiao?oe??ioa ?aca?ao (1,920,11 iae.); ca?eueoaiiyi /anoioe na?oeaaeo
nei?i/aiue (94,13,8 oae/oa); eiao?oe??ioo ?ioaa?aeueii? oii?/iino?
(79,60,38 iae. i?e ii?i? 73-77 iae.).

C iaoith aea/aiiy ?ie? INI a aaiac? aiaeioieneeico o oe??? ae a?oie
ii?aiaieo aoei ianoaaeaii 37 caei?iaeo aeiii??a. Ai?no INI a ne?iaaooe?
e?ia? ii?aiaieo c AIIE aoa cia/ii aeuee (702,2140,7 iea/ie), i?ae a
eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? (291,430,3 iea/ie), ui aeacoaaei ia ?icaeoie
oneeaaeiaiiy. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? a?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae INI a oe?e
a?oi?, caaeaaeue iaei?ino?oeo (oao?ao?iai) a?aeaoaaeanue ia 14,60,8 oa.,
a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? — ia 20,41,2 oa. Aeeiai?ea iaeiie/aiiy i?iaeoeo?a
IIE a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ii?aiaieo iieacaea, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny ?o
iinooiiaa i?aeaeuaiiy — a iaioiio nooiai? ae??iiaeo eii`thaao?a
(1,980,16 A233/ie, eiio?ieue 1,420,66 A233/ie), ui oyaeythoue ii/aoeiaee
aoai ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy ? iaeiaio no?eeeo, a a?eueo?e — iaeiiiaiai
ae?aeueaeaa?aeo (5,160,25 ieiieue/ie, eiio?ieue — 3,350,10 ieiieue/ie) ?
oeooiiiaeo iniia (7,820,21 oi.iae/ia, eiio?ieue — 7,100,09 oi.iae./ia) —
e?ioeaaeo eaiie i?ioeano, ui na?ae/aoue i?i eiai aeeaeio ?
ae?aaeai?noue. Inue /iio ??ceiai i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo i?iaeoeo?a IIE a
ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ii?aiaieo c AIIE a?aei?/aii ia aoei.

I?neyiia?aoe?eia e?iaioa/a aeieeea o 24 (9,3 %): aioo??oiuei/a?aaia — o
19, a i?ina?o o?aaiiai o?aeoo — o 5. O a?eueo i?ae iieiaeie ii?aiaieo
(14) aiii ae?aaiinoiaaia i?ci?oa aeaio ae?a i?ney iia?aoe??.

I?e/eiith i?neyiia?aoe?eii? e?iaioa/? aoee e?ea?nuee? iiieeee: oaoi?/i?
(a ?acoeueoao? iaiiaiioe?iiiai aaiinoaco) — 19 ? ae?aaiinoe/i? — 4. O
iaeiiai ii?aiaiiai aeaea?aei e?iaioa/? ia aeyaeaii.

I?ae /an ?E aeeiiaii: ia?a`yceo noaeei — 20, nieaiaeoii?th — 1,
iao?aeoii?th — 2, naiaoe?th ? ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie o
iioa?i?eiai c iaanoaiiaeaiei aeaea?aeii e?iaioa/?.

C 24 iioa?i?eeo c i?neyiia?aoe?eiith e?iaioa/ath iiia?ei 5 (20,8 %): o
o?ueio aoa ia?eoii?o, o aeaio — aino?a e?iaiao?aoa, ui ?icaeioeanue a
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?.

Iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeai? ae?aaiinoe/i? iciaee, ui aecia/athoue iieacaiiy
aei ?E i?e i?neyiia?aoe?ei?e e?iaioa/?: cieaeaiiy ??aiy aaiiaeia?io
(84,93,8 a/e), aaiaoie?eoo (0,270,13 e/e) ? e?eueeino? a?eo?ioeeo?a
(2,730,1o1012/e). Aeniei?ioi?iaoeaieie (95,8%) aeyaeeenue iieacieee
aaiiaeeiai?ee — /anoioa ioeueno (1152,8 ca 1 oa) ? aaee/eia nenoie?/iiai
a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo (93,74,5 ii ?o. no.).

Aei a??ia?aeieo neiioii?a (75,0-91,6 %) iiaeia a?aeianoe: nooee
iaeeaaeaiee ycee, noo?noue o ?io?, ae?ae?noue oe??e ? neeciaeo iaieiiie,
ca?eueoaiiy OIA, eaeeioeeoa?iee cnoa oi?ioee e?ia? ae?ai.

Iaio ?ioi?iaoeai? — neiioiie iiae?aciaiiy i/a?aaeie (33,3%), iai?oaeaiiy
i`yc?a ia?aaeiuei? /a?aaii? no?iee (33,3%), acaeoooy aeeaioa (25,0%).

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui iaoiae ?ioaa?aeueii? ?aia?ao?? o?ea aeicaiey?
ia`?eoeaii ioe?ieoe noai oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee, i?iaaaeaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy o 15 ii?aiaieo c i?neyiia?aoe?eiith e?iaioa/ath. A
ca`yceo c oei, ui ee?i?/ia ea?oeia e?iaioa/? a /a?aaio ii?iaeieio
aecia/a?oueny oaiiii e?iaiao?aoe, ie ?icae?eeee ii?aiaieo ia aea? a?oie:
ii?aiai? c aino?ith (i?ioociith) i?neyiia?aoe?eiith e?iaioa/ath — 9
/ie.; ii?aiai? c eaaeith (ne?eoith) i?neyiia?aoe?eiith e?iaioa/ath — 6
/ie.

Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui o ii?aiaieo c aino?ith (i?ioociith)
e?iaioa/ath ?icaeioany a?ia?e?iaoe/iee noai oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee,
ui i?iyaeeinue a cia/iiio ca?eueoaii? oao?ea?ae?? (1152,8 oae./oa),
oaea?iiai ? oaeeeiiiai ia`?io (102,63,9 ie ? 9,40,5 e/oa, eiio?ieue —
80-100 ie ? 6-8 e/oa.); oaea?iiai ? na?oeaaiai ?iaeaen?a (64,54,2 ie/i2
? 5,30,4 e/oa/i2, eiio?ieue — 479 ie/i2 ? 3,10,7 e/oa/i2); eiao?oe??ioa
?aca?ao (1,820,1 iae., eiio?ieue — 1,10,1 iae.); eiao?oe??ioa
?ioaa?aeueii? oii?/iino? (79,10,4 iae., eiio?ieue — 73-77 iae.).

A a?oi? c eaaeith (ne?eoith) i?neyiia?aoe?eiith e?iaioa/ath aecia/aeanue
/?oea oaiaeaioe?y aei a?iie?iaoe/iiai noaio oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee:
cieaeoaaeenue oaea?iee ? oaeeeiiee ia`?i na?oey (68,72,2 ie ? 5,10,2
ie); oaea?iee ? na?oeaaee ?iaeaene (35,02,8 ie/i2 ? 4,30,1 e/oa/i2);
eiao?oe??io ?aca?ao (1,190,04 iae.); cia/ii ca?eueooaany eiao?oe??io
?ioaa?aeueii? oii?/iino? (81,20,6 iae.).

I?ney i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i ?E c i?eaiaeo i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai
i?ia?anoth/iai ia?eoii?oo ? AIIE, iaiao?aeia i?iaaaeaiiy ?ioaineaii?
ia?aaeiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee, iai?aaeaii? ia cieaeaiiy ee?i?/ii?
iai?oanoaoe?? aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a aiaeioieneeico c iaia`yceiaei
aeeth/aiiyi ii/aoeiai? aioeaaeoa??aeueii? oa?ai??.

Noaiaea?oeciaaia noaia ia?aaeiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee o ii?aiaieo ia
i?ioyc? 1,5 aiaeei iaaaaeaia a oaae. 4.

Oaaeeoey 4

Noaiaea?oeciaaia noaia ia?aaeiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee o

ii?aiaieo c i?neyiia?aoe?eiei ia?eoii?oii ? AIIE

Aaiaioieoe?y, no?oeia aaaaeaiiy 800,0 ?-io
??iaa?a-Eieea.Aioo??oiueiaaiia aaaaeaiiy 500,0 ?-io NaCl c 10 iei IAe
iai?oeee?io + aioo??oiueii`ycaaa aaaaeaiiy aioea?ioeeo oe?ieiai niaeo?o
ae??.Neiioiiaoe/ia e?eoaaiiy (na?oeaa?, eiea?aieneeaca, ai?iiiaeuei?
i?aia?aoe oiui).Aioo??oiueiaaiia aaaaeaiiy 400,0 iie?aethe?ia a
iia?aoe?eio.

??ciiiai?oi?noue i?e/ei, ui aeeeeeathoue ia?eoii?o, aecia/a? eiie?aoio
oaeoeeo ? niin?a ?io?aiia?aoe?eiiai aieeao.

Ca iaoith aeoieith, oaeoeea o??o?aa iiaeiia a?oiooaaoenue ia ianooiieo
i?eioeeiiaeo iieiaeaiiyo:

1. I?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia?eoii?o iiaeiai e?eoaaoenue o?eueee o??o?a?/iei
iaoiaeii.

2. Iniiaia caaea/a iia?aoeaii? aeiiiiiae — onoiooe aeaea?aei
oneeaaeiaiiy.

3. Iaoa iia?aoe?? — a?yooaaoe aeeooy ii?aiaiiai, a ia`?i iia?aoe??
iiaeiai aooe i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee oe?e iao?.

I?e aeeiiaii? ?E, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?io?aiia?aoe?eieo ciao?aeie, ie
aeio?eioaaeenue iaaii? eiioeaioe??. Aiia oyaeyea niaith eiiieaen
iaoiaaiaoe/ii ni?yiiaaieo ?io?aiia?aoe?eieo aieea?a ? aeeth/aea oe?ieee
iia?aoe?eiee aeinooi, e?ea?aeaoe?th aeaea?aea ia?eoii?oo, aeaeiii?aneaio
?iooaaoe?th eeoa/ieea, naiaoe?th /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, aaeaeaaoia
ae?aioaaiiy ? caoeaaiiy eaia?ioiiii? ?aie c a?aooaaiiyi ai?eiiai
i?ioeano.

Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui aeeiiaiiy eiaeiiai c a?aei?/aieo aeaiaio?a
iia?aoe?? ia? nai? iniaeeaino?, o?oaeiiu? ? iaae??oai? i?iaeaie, iaeiae
iaiiaiioe?ii?noue ?o aeeiiaiiy ia iiaea aooe eiiiainiaaia aeiaeieie
coneeeyie a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?.

O an?o ii?aiaieo canoiniaaii ?iooaaoe?eiee ia?eic. ?E aeeiiaii /a?ac
na?aaeeiiee aeinooi. Naiaoe?y /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie cae?enithaaeanue iaie
oeyoii aaaaoi?aciaiai i?iieaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie oaieei ?ic/eiii
??iaa?a-Eieea aai ?cioii?/iei ?ic/eiii iao??y oei?eaeo a ia`?i? 8-12 e.
Ae?aioaaiiy oiiei? eeoee ne?ae aaaaeaoe neeaaeiaith /anoeiith a
eiiieaen? iaoiaaiaoe/ii? oa?ai??. Ca ?? aeiiiiiaith ae??ooaaeenue
ianooii? caaaeaiiy: aeaeiii?an?y ? ca?eueiaiiy ia?a?icoyaiooeo iaoaeue
eeoee a?ae ??aeeiai ai?noo ? aac?a; i?io?eaeoeea ia?aco eeoa/ieea i?ney
?E; i?iaaaeaiiy aioo??oiueieeoeiai? aeaoieneeaoe?eii? oa?ai??,
/a?acciiaeiai? ei?aeoe?? ?ioano?iaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua oa neeciai?
iaieiiee eeoa/ieea ? aioa?aeueiiai oa?/oaaiiy. O 121 (65,8 %) ii?aiaiiai
?iooaaoe?y oiiei? eeoee cae?enithaaeanue c
aeaeiii?an?eii-aeaoieneeaoe?eiith iaoith. *ano?oa ?iooaaoe?y
cae?enithaaeanue iaci?ioano?iaeueiei niiniaii o 99 (81,8 %). O 22 (18,1
%) aeiaaeeao canoiniaaii eiia?iiaaio iaoiaeeeo c ?icae?eueiei
ae?aioaaiiyi aa?oi?o ? ieaei?o a?aeae?e?a oiiei? eeoee. A 12 aeiaaeeao
?ao?ia?aaeia ?iooaaoe?y ca ?.Ae. AEeoitheii ii?aeioaaeanue c
ae?aioaaiiyi aa?oi?o a?aeae?e?a oiiei? eeoee ca TH.I. Aeaaea?a?ii. A 10
aeiaaeeao aeeiioaaeanue oeaeiaioa?inoii?y ? iaci?ioa?aeueia ae?aioaaiiy.
O?eaae?noue ia?aaoaaiiy ciiaea neeaaeaea 4-7 ae?a.

Iia?aoe?y cae?i/oaaeanue iaeeaaeaiiyi o?aeoe?eii? ia?eoiiaaeueii?
ia?ooc?? ca ?.?. Aea?ya?iei ? I.?. E?caioeii. E?eoa???i aeey i?eieiaiiy
ia?eoiiaaeueii? ia?ooc?? neoaeeee a?aenooi?noue a ia?ooc?eiiio ?ic/ei?
e?ia?, o?a?eio, aiith, iie?ioaiiy caaaeueiiai noaio ii?aiaiiai,
ciaioaiiy /anoioe ioeueno, cieeiaiiy neiioii?a iiae?aciaiiy i/a?aaeie,
a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? o?aaiiai o?aeoo.

I?e aino??e iaoai?/i?e iai?io?aeiino? eeoa/ieea aeio?eioaaeenue o?? ae
eiioeaioe??, ui ? i?e ia?eoii?o?. Iaeiae, a ca`yceo c iniaeeainoyie
iia?aoe?e, aeeiiaieo o iioa?i?eeo c o?aaiaie aeeaioa, iai caea?oueny
aaaeeeaei aeacaoe ianooiia:

— ia?aae iiooeii i?e/eie iai?io?aeiino? iaiao?aeii aaanoe o a?eaeo
eeoee ?ic/ei iiaiea?io oa cae?enieoe, yeui iiaeeeai, iiaio aeaeiii?an?th
o?aaiiai o?aeoo aei i?noey ia?aoeiaee ca aeiiiiiaith
iaci?ioano?iaeueiiai ciiaeo;

— iaiaaaoeny ia aaaio?oaaoe eeoa/iee i?ae /an iia?aoe?? oa oieeaoe
caeai? o?aaie i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie;

— aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?acaeoe?th eeoee a e?aei?o aeiaaeeao eeoa i?e
iioe?aiiio ?oeioaaii? ?? no?iee oa a?aenooiino? ?iceeoiai ia?eoii?oo;

— i?e iayaiino? aiaiaiaeueiiai ia?eoii?oo oa aeinoaoi?e aeiaaeei?
i?eaiaeyuiai a?aeae?eo (a?eueoa 1,5 i) aacia/i?oa cae?i/eoe iia?aoe?th
aeaaaeaiiyi e?ioeaai? noiia ia ia?aaeith no?ieo aeeaioa;

— on? aeana?iciaai? iiaa?oi? eeoee o?aaa ?aoaeueii ia?eoii?coaaoe;

— o aeiaaeeo cia/ii? ?oaoeaai? aeaoi?iaoe?? e?aua iaeiaeeoe iao?aeiee
aianoiiic i?ae i?eaiaeyuei oa a?aeaiaeyuei a?aeae?eaie;

— i?e iioeiaeaeaii? eeoee oa ?io?eoaai? /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie iaaaeii
o?aaa ooeoe ioa?? o no?ioe? eeoee, aeeiiaoe eaaaae /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie
(10-12 e) oa ?? ae?aioaaiiy, a oaeiae aeaeiii?an?th o?aaiiai o?aeoo, ye
i?e ia?eoii?o?;

— o aeiaaeeao noii?a?a o aeeoo?caeaoiino? eeoee oa i?e a?aenooiino?
iiaeeeaino? ia’?oeaii ioe?ieoe aaeaeaaoi?noue e?iaiia?ao aeioe?eueii
aeeiiaoe iiaoi?io ?E /a?ac 24 aiaeeie (“second look”). ?E ooai?th?
aenieee ?ecee iaaii?iiy iia?aoe?eii? ?aie oa aaaio?aoe?? eeoa/ieea. Oiio
?o, iniaeeai a oiiaao ia?eoii?oo, aeioe?eueii cae?i/oaaoe iaeeaaeaiiyi
??aeeeo oa?a ia oe??o, a ua aacia/i?oa — iaeeaaeaiiyi nenoaie i?ioi/iiai
i?iieaiiai ae?aioaaiiy. ?iia??i?noue iiaoi?iiai ?ice?eooy /a?aaii?
ii?iaeieie ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy eaia?inoiie o aeaeyae?
“aeeneaaee”.

Aeoiaey/e c i?aaenoaaeaieo aeua i?eioeei?a, aeey ?E i?e
i?neyiia?aoe?ei?e e?iaioa/? aaaaeaee aaaeeeaei ianooiiee i?aeo?ae:
iia?aoe?y iiaeiia aooe i?i?iaeueiith ca ia`?iii ? uaaey/ith ca
oa?aeoa?ii. Iaiao?aeii i?aaiooe aei oiai, uia a iiiaio iia?aoe??
a?oa??aeueiee oene aoa aeinoaoiuei aenieei — ia iaioa 90-100 ii ?o.no.,
oiio ui oea iieaaoo? iiooee aeaea?aea e?iaioa/? ? aa?aioo? ?? iaae?eio
coieieo.

I?ney cae?i/aiiy iia?aoe?? ii?aiai? ia?aaiaeeeenue o a?aeae?eaiiy
?ioaineaii? oa?ai??. Aeey iie?auaiiy a?aeoieo ii ae?aiaaeao ?
ca?eueoaiiy aeeoaeueii? aeneo?n?? ae?ao?aaie ii?aiaiei iaaeaaaeinue
iieiaeaiiy Oiaea?a. Aioa?inoii?/ia o?oaea i?ae`?aeioaaeanue aei nenoaie
Iii?i, yea caiiaithaaeanue aiaeith aai ae?ae?ciith ??aeeiith.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a e?eoaaii? aioa?aeueii? iaaeinoaoiino? a?aeaiaeeeinue
onoiaiith ia?aco eeoa/ieea. An?i ii?aiaiei cae?enithaaeanue AeIA.
O?eaae?noue ?? neeaaeaea a?ae 3 aei 7 ae?a. O 31 (16,9 %) ii?aiaiiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ooiai? ooieoe?? oiiei? eeoee aeinyaiooi a ia?oo aeiao, o
44 (23,9 %) — ia ae?oao, o 26 (14,1 %) — ia o?aoth. I?e/eiith
a?aenooiino? iiceoeaiiai aoaeoo o 83 (45,1 %) ii?aiaieo aoei
i?ia?anoaaiiy ia?eoii?oo.

?ioano?iaeueia aeaoieneeaoe?eia oa?ai?y a 121 aeiaaeeo iineea
o?aeoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, a 22 aeiaaeeao i?e eiia?iiaaiiio ae?aioaaii?
oiiei? eeoee i?iieaaiiy ?? cae?enithaaeinue i?ioi/iei iaoiaeii. A yeino?
ae?ae?coth/i? ??aeeie aeei?enoiaoaaeanue aiaea aai ?cioii?/iee ?ic/ei
iao??y oei?eaeo. A 12 aeiaaeeao aei o?c?ieia?/iiai ?ic/eio aeiaeaaaany
aioa?iaeac c ?ic?aooieo 10 a ia 300 ie ??aeeie.

Iiaoi?i? i?iieaaiiy eeoee i?iaiaeeee /a?ac 3-4 aiaeeie, aeiaiaey/e ?o
e?euee?noue aei 5-7 ?ac?a ia aeiao. ?aciaee ia`?i ae?ae?coth/i? ??aeeie
ia ia?aaeuoaaa 1,5 e ? neeaaeaa a na?aaeiueiio 800 ie. Ca iaoeie
aeaieie, e?oeiaee ae?ae?c ia iiaeiai ia?aaeuoaaoe aeaio ae?a, uia
caiia?aoe ?iceaaeai aiaeii-aeaeo?ie?oiiai aaeaino ? a?eeiaiai iai?io. A
iiaeaeueoiio a?eueo aoaeoeaiith ? aioa?ini?aoe?y. A yeino?
aioa?ini?aaio?a iaie aeei?enoiaoaaeenue 10 % ?ic/ei aioa?iaeaco,
noniaic?y aioa?ini?aaioo NEI ? aeaoieneeaoe?ei? ?ic/eie aeey
ia?aioa?aeueiiai canoinoaaiiy (aaiiaeac, iie?aeac, ?aiiie?aethe?i).
Caaaeai? ii 10 ? 15 a aioa?ini?aaioe ?icaiaeeee a 100 ie aiaee aai
o?c?ieia?/iiai ?ic/eio iao??y oei?eaeo ? a ia`?i? 200-250 ie aaiaeeee a
i?ina?o eeoee. Ciiae ia?aoeneoaaee ia 50-60 oaeeei, a iio?i a?aee?eaaee
ia a?eueiee a?aeo?e. I?ioeaaeo?o iiaoi?thaaee aei 5 ?ac?a ia aeiao.
Oaei? ae noaie aeio?eioaaeenue i?e i?iaaaeaii? aioa?ini?aoe??
aeaoieneeaoe?eieie ?ic/eiaie.

?ioano?iaeueia oa?ai?y aeicaieeea iie?aueoe ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai
ia/?iee ? ie?ie. ??aaiue na/iaeie e?ia? i?ney ia?oi? aeiae
aioa?ini?aoe?? cieaeoaaany a 1,5 ?ace, a aei e?ioey ae?oai? —
iaaeeaeoaaany aei ii?iaeueieo iieaciee?a. ??aaiue e?aaoei?io a ia?oo
aeiao cieaeoaaany ia 20-25 %, ia ae?oao aeiao — ia 15 %, ia o?aoth — o
iieiaeie ii?aiaieo noaaaa ii?iaeueiei. O?eaae?noue aioa?ini?aoe??
cae/aeii ia ia?aaeuoaaea 5-6 ae?a, ui a?aeiia?aea? o?eaaeino?
ia?aaoaaiiy ciiaeo a i?ina?o? eeoee.

I?e ??cei ae?aaeaieo ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ? aaiioee?eoeyoi?ieo
ii?ooaiiyo a no?ioe? ia?aoe/ii ci?iaii? eeoee i?e o?ii?/ieo aai aino?eo
ai?eii-caiaeueieo caoai?thaaiiyo c aieo aeeoaeueii? nenoaie ?
na/iaea?aeieo oeyo?a, ai?eieo oneeaaeiaiiyo c aieo /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie ?
iia?aoe?eii? ?aie iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiith aeyaeeanue noaia
aioeaaeoa??aeueii? oa?ai?? ee?iaeai?oeei-aaioai?oeei ?
aaioai?oeei-iao?ii?aeacie. Ee?iaeai?oeei canoiniaoaaee a aeiaia?e aeic?
1,8 a, iiae?eai?e ia 2-3 aioo??oiueiaaiieo aaaaeaiiy. Aaioai?oeei
aaiaeeee aioo??oiueiaaiii aai aiaeie?ioaoe/ii a aeiaia?e aeic? 320 ia.
Iao?ii?aeacieo aai?noeoeeiao canoiniaoany a aeiaia?e aeic? aei 1,5 a.
Eiia?iaoe?y ee?iaeai?oeei- iie?i?enei A ? iao?ii?aeacie-iie?i?enei A
aeyaeeanue a?eueo iieacaiith i?e aaeoa???i??, ae?aaeaieo iciaeao
?ioieneeaoe?? ? aiaeioieneiiaiio oioe?, i?ia?anoth/iio ia?eoii?o?.
Iie?i?enei A aaiaeeany aioo??oiueiaaiii ii 1 a o?e ?ace ia aeiao.

Ia?aeaeueii i?iaiaeeee aioeoa?iaioio (o?aneeie, eiio??eae, ai?aeien) ii
100 oen. iae. uiaeiaiai ? eiio?ieueiaaio aioeeiaaoeyioio oa?ai?th
(aaia?ei ii 5 000 IAe 6 ?ac?a ia aeiao).

C ia?oi? aeiae ii?aiaiei i?ecia/aee aiaaie?/i? ai?iiie (ia?iaie,
?aoaaie?e ii 2 ie /a?ac 5-6 aei?a), eiiieaen a?oai?i?a. ?ioiiei?eaoth/o
oa?ai?th i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith o?iae?io ii 20 ia ia aeiao ia i?ioyc?
5-7 aei?a aai eaoa?iio ii 1000 ia ia aeiao — 4-5 aei?a.

?ic?iaeaia iaie eiiieaenia ?ioaineaia oa?ai?y i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo o ii?aiaieo c i?neyiia?aoe?eiei ia?eoii?oii ? AIIE aeeth/a?:

1) ei?aeoe?th aieai?/ieo oa aeaeo?ie?oieo ii?ooaiue ia?aeeaaiiyi
eiei?aeieo ? e??noaei?aeieo ?ic/ei?a;

2) aeaoieneeaoe?eio oa?ai?th;

3) e?eoaaiiy i?neyo?aaiaoe/ii? aiai??;

4) ei?aeoe?th a?ii- oa aeeni?ioa?iai?e ? aia?aaoe/ieo ao?ao aaaaeaiiyi
a?ee?a, ai?iieeneioieo noi?oae ? ?ic/ei?a aetheice c a?oai?iaie oa
aeaeo?ie?oaie;

5) aioeaaeoa??aeueia e?eoaaiiy oeyoii aaaaeaiiy aioea?ioee?a
aioo??oiueiaaiii,aioo??oiueii’ycaai aai /a?ac eaoaoa? a /a?aaio ai?oo;

6) ei?aeoe?th iaoaaie?/iiai aoeeaeico;

7) eiio?ieth?io aioeeiaaoeyioio oa?ai?th ? onoiaiiy a?ia?oa?iaioai??;

8) i?eai?/aiiy iaoaaie?/ieo ?aaeoe?e oa noeioeyoe?th ?aia?aoeaieo
i?ioean?a;

9) aeia?aaeaeaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy aeeiai?/ii? iai?io?aeiino? eeoa/ieea ?
aeeiiaiiy ia?eoiiaaeueii? ia?ooc?? (ii iieacai);

10) i?ioeeaeoeeo oa e?eoaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue aeeoaiiy ?
na?aeoeaai? ae?yeueiino?;

11) ai?ioueao c a?iien??th neeaaeiiai aaiaco ca aeiiiiiaith ?inooeyoe?e
eenith /a?ac iinia? eaoaoa?e aai AAI-oa?ai??th;

12) aeiaeyae ca ii?aiaieie, ueeueia niinoa?aaeaiiy (a oiio /ene?
«noi?iaeiaa») ca ?o noaiii c iaoith ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee ? nai?/aniiai
e?eoaaiiy oneeaaeiaiue, ye? ciiao c’yaeeenue i?ney ?aeaia?ioii??.

Ciai?oi? ae?aioaaiiy a?oaeii? i?ioiee aoei aeeiiaii o 24 ii?aiaieo. O 18
ii?aiaieo aoea oiene/ia oaca ia?eoii?oo, o 6 — oa?i?iaeueia. 14
ii?aiaieo oe??? a?oie ianoaaeai? ia ai?no INI a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ?
e?ioe. O 10 c ieo aeaea?aei ia?eoii?oo aoei iaae?eii onoiaia, /a?aaia
ii?iaeieia ?aoaeueii naiiaaia i?ae /an ?E. ??aaiue INI a e?io?
(708,4141,1 iea/ie) aoa a?eueo ye o aeaa ?ace ieae/ee, i?ae o ne?iaaooe?
(1708249,3 iea/ie). O 4 ii?aiaieo i?ae /an ?E a iio??aiiio ia`?i?
oeueiai c?iaeoe ia aaeaeinue — aeaea?aeii ia?eoii?oo aoa aeano?oeoeaiee
iinoo?aaiaoe/iee iaie?aaoeo. Eiioeaio?aoe?y INI a e?io? aoea oaeith ae
aenieith, ye ? a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? (1200,0114,6 iea/ie ? 1573,2303,7
iea/ie). Oaeei /eiii, iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui ae?aioaaiiy a?oaeiiai i?ioieo
c ianooiiith e?ioini?aoe??th iieacaii:

— ii?aiaiei, o yeeo i?ae /an ?E ia aoei onoiaia aeaea?aei ia?eoii?oo;

— ii?aiaiei, o yeeo c oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei ?io?aiia?aoe?eia naiaoe?y
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie aeyaeeanue iaiiaiith aai iaaoaeoeaiith ? caiaeueiee
i?ioean a /a?aai?e ii?aeiei? i?ia?ano?;

— ii?aiaiei, o yeeo /a?ac aaaee?noue caaaeueiiai noaio ?aeaia?ioii?y ia
iiaea aooe ?icii/aoa aac i?iaaaeaiiy ?ioaineaii?, aaaaoieiiiiiaioii? ?
o?eaaei? ia?aaeiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee.

Iaie canoiniaaii iaoiaeeeo ciai?oiuei? aaaeii?iaeueii? a?iioa?i?? ca
aeiiiiiaith aia?aoo aeey a?iioa?i?? “A?iioa?i”, a ii?aeiaii? c
a?iioa?i?/iei ia??oiiaaeueiei eaaaaeai. Eaaaae i?iaiaeeee ia?a?ea/anoei
niiniaii ia i?ioyc? 1,5-2 aiaeei aei 6 ?ac?a ia aeiao c oaiia?aoo?ith
?ic/ei?a +10+12N.

Iniiaiee i?eioeei iiaoaeiae ?iooc?eii-o?ainooc?eii? oa?ai?? (?OO) i?e
i?neyiia?aoe?ei?e e?iaioa/? iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiaeia c ieo a?aoiao?
aaaee?noue e?iaiao?aoe, a oaeiae iniaeeaino? aino?iai ?
iinoaaii?aa?/iiai ia??iae?a o?aaie.

Aeey ia??iaea aaii?aa?/iiai oieo cai?iiiiiaaia i?ia?aia 1. Iniiaiei
i?ecia/aiiyi oe??? i?ia?aie ? ei?aeoe?y aino?eo oee?eoeyoi?ieo
ii?ooaiue, i?aeo?eiaiiy AO ia ??ai? ia ieae/a 80 ii ?o. no. ca
aeiiiiiaith oaeaeei? ca oaiiii aaaaoieiiiiiaioii? cai?nii? oa?ai??:
e?enoaei?aei? ?ic/eie, ?cioii?/i? neioaoe/i? eiei?aee. I?e ae?ae aaaee?e
e?iaiao?ao? ii?yae c aioo??oiueiaaiiith ?iooc??th canoiniaoaaee
aioo??oiueiai?oaeueia aaaaeaiiy ?iooc?eieo ?ic/ei?a. Ci?ie oeaio?aeueii?
aaiiaeeiai?ee eiio?iethaaee ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioaa?aeueii? ?aia?ao?? o?ea
(ca I.?.O?uaiei).

2-e aa??aio i?ia?aie ?OO i?iaiaeeoueny i?ae /an iaiao?aeieo iia?aoe?e
aei coieiee e?iaioa/?. Oey i?ia?aia aeeth/a? o? ae caniae, ui ? 1-a, aea
i?e cieaeaii? aaiiaeia?io ieae/a 100 a/e ? aaiaoie?eoo iaioa 0,25 e/e
ia?aeeaa?oueny ua e?ia aai a?eo?ioeeoa?ia iana. I?e aeinyaiaii?
aaiinoaco i?iaiaeeoueny iiaeaeueoa ei?aeoe?y aiai??, iaoaaie?/ieo
c?ooaiue ? noaa?e?caoe?y iieioe/iiai oeneo ieacie e?ia? aeey
caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai o?ainii?oo eenith aei oeaiei ?
o?aineai?ey?iiai iai?io.

3-e aa??aio i?ia?aie ?OO i?iaiaeeoueny a ia?o? 24 aiaeeie i?ney coieiee
e?iaioa/? ? onoiaiiy aino?eo aaiiaeeiai?/ieo c?ooaiue. Iniiaiith
caaea/ath oe??? i?ia?aie ? a?aeiiaeaiiy aaeaeaaoii? oeaieiii? ia?ooc??,
aieiaiei /eiii, ca aeiiiiiaith aea?e?a?iaaieo e?enoaei?aeieo ?ic/ei?a,
?aieia?/ii aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu ? i?aia?ao?a ia?aioa?aeueiiai oa?/oaaiiy.

4-e aa??aio i?ia?aie ?OO i?ecia/a?oueny aeey caaacia/aiiy i?aai?cio
aia?a??th, ieanoe/ieie iaoa??aeaie ? noeioeyoe?? e?iaioai?aiiy. Oaea
e?eoaaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny ia 2-3-e aeaiue i?ney coieiee e?iaioa/?.

Ia?aoo?, 5-e aa??aio i?ia?aie ?OO, yeee i?iaiaeeoueny ia 4-5-o aeiao,
ia?aaeaa/a? nei?i/aiiy ia`?io ?OO ? ia?ao?ae ia aioa?aeueia oa?/oaaiiy.

A ?OO i?e aino?eo e?iaioa/ao ie aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?ey?ii aaiinoaoe/iei
i?aia?aoai ? naia oiio o aa??aio i?ia?aie 1 aeeth/a?ii aoaic?eao
(ae?oeaiii), a?eanieueio e?io?e?ciaaio aai ?icii?iaeaio ieacio.

Iaaaaeai? iaoa??aee aeathoue i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui a ?acoeueoao?
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iai aaeaeinue ?ic?iaeoe aeineoue
?aoe?iiaeueio noaiaea?oeciaaio i?ia?aio ?OO o ii?aiaieo c
i?neyiia?aoe?eieie oneeaaeiaiiyie i?ney o?aai aeeaioa, ui ia?aianee
eaia?ioii?th. Aiia aeicaiey? ia?aaeyiooe oaeoeeo canoinoaaiiy oe?eueii?
e?ia?. A aaaaoueio aeiaaeaeao aa?iiai ?acoeueoaoo iiaeia aeiaeoeny ca
aeiiiiiaith e?iaicai?iiee?a oe?eani?yiiaaii? ae??, ui ia oaia??oi?e /an,
a ca`yceo c o?oaeiiuaie caaio?ae? e?ia? ? c?inoath/ith iaaaciaeith
ca?aaeaiiy a??onii NI?Ae, iaaoaa? iniaeeai aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy.

A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy aea/ai? a oa?i?ie a?ae 1 aei 22 ?ie?a.
A ca`yceo c ia?ai?iith i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy ia io?eiaii a?aeiiinoae a?ae
82. Aeai? iiia?ei a?ae caoai?thaaiue, ui ia iia`ycai? c o?aaiith
aeeaioa, /a?ac 6 ? 8 ?ie?a i?ney ?E, aeai? ia?aaoaathoue o a`ycieoe?.

?iciiae?e iioa?i?eeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo iioeiaeaeaiiy ? oa?i?i?a
niinoa?aaeaiiy iaaaaeaiee a oaae. 5.

Oaeei /eiii, ie ia?ii a?aeiiino? i?i 81 iaoe??ioa, c yeeo ?iaae?ae?a
ae?oai? a?oie — 9, o?aouei? — 6, ?io? — i?aeoe/ii caei?ia?.

Oaaeeoey 5?iciiae?e iioa?i?eeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo

iioeiaeaeaiiy ? oa?i?i?a niinoa?aaeaiiy

Oa?i?ie niinoa?aaeaiiy a ?ieaoAiaiaiaeuei? ii?aiaiiyCae?eoa

o?aaiaIiaeia?

ii?aiaiiy

Anueiai1 — 3191518524 — 101681511 — 2227514?acii:22283181

Aeeiiothoue iiia?aaeith ?iaioo 51,8 %, ia?aeoee ia a?eueo eaaeo — 18,5
%, iaa/athoueny a ?inoeooo? — 4,8 %, ia i?aoeththoue a ca`ceo c
?iaae?aei?noth — 11,1 %, oei/aniai ia i?aoeththoue — 10 /ieia?e, iaeei —
iain?iia?.

Aeia?a naaa ii/oaathoue 1/3 iioa?i?eeo, caaeia?eueii — 64,2 %. Iiaaia
naiiii/oooy a?aei?/athoue aeaa ?iaae?aea.

Aie? a aeeaio? a?aenooi? o iieiaeie ianoaaeaieo, iaeia o?aoeia iiaea?
nea?ae ia ei?ioei/ani? iii??i? aie?, 12 (15,3 %) — ia ia?aeiiiiae?ai? ?
3 (3,7 %) — ia aino??.

O 54 (66,6 %) /ieia?e ooieoe?y eeoa/ieea ia ii?ooaia, 18 (22,3 %)
no?aaeaeathoue caii?aie, 7 (8,6 %) — i?iiinaie, o 2 (2,5 %) i?iiine
/a?aothoueny c caii?aie.

Aeio?eiothoueny ae??oe 29,5 % iioa?i?eeo, ?aaeeio i?aoe? oa a?aeii/eieo
— 20, 5 %, ia naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiio e?eoaaii? aoee 15,3 % a oa?i?ie a?ae
1 aei 3 ?ie?a i?ney ?E.

I?neyiia?aoe?eia aaio?aeueia a?eaea aeyaeaia o 19 iioa?i?eeo. O?eueee
aeai? c ieo i?iiia?iaai? ia 1-io ? 2-io ?ioe? i?ney ?E.

O 10 ii?aiaieo ae?aaiinoiaaii niaeeiao oai?iao. C ieo 8 aoee
aini?oae?ciaai? c i?eaiaeo iai?io?aeiino? eeoa/ieea, a iio?i 4
i?iiia?iaaii (/a?ac 1, 2, 5 ? 10 ?ie?a i?ney ?E).

O 10 /ieia?e a oa?i?ie a?ae 1 aei 11 ?ie?a i?ney ?E ia??iaee/ii
a?aee?eaathoueny e?aaoo?i? ii?eoe?. I?ioei?e?iaeiee caaei?e i?io?ae ia
onoiaiee o 2 iioa?i?eeo, oianoieeoeiaa ii?eoey — o 4. O iaeiiai
iaoe??ioa /a?ac aeaa ?iee i?ney ?E iayaia a`yei a?aioethth/a ?aia
ia?aaeiuei? /a?aaii? no?iee. Oaeei /eiii, 56,7 % iioa?i?eeo a oa?i?ie
a?ae 1 aei 11 ?ie?a iio?aaoaaee aiaoeaoi?iiai aai noaoe?iia?iiai
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

Aeyaeaii ooieoe?iiaeuei? ? i?aai?/i? ci?ie iaea?eueo /anoi
cono??/athoueny a ia?o? o?e ?iee i?ney ?E.

Aei aeaoaeo?a ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ne?ae a?aeianoe: iaaeinoaoi?e iaaee/iee
eiio?ieue i?ney aeienee ?c noaoe?iia?o, neaaeo i?iiaaaiaeo na?aae
iioa?i?eeo ?aoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a oa?/oaaiiy, ?aaeeio i?aoe? oa
a?aeii/eieo, ianai?/ani?noue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iane?aee?a o?aaie ?
?E, iecueeee i?ioeaio naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiai e?eoaaiiy.

Aiae?c a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieacaa, ui aeey iiaa?iaiiy aei
aeoeaii? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? ? a?enueeiai? neoaeae iaeneiaeueii?
e?eueeino? iioa?i?eeo ? ii?aiaieo i?ney ?E, ?i iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe
eiiieaen ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a, ui aeeth/a? ae??oioa?ai?th,
?aoe?iiaeueiee ?aaeei i?aoe? ? a?aeii/eieo, aiaoeaoi?ia ?
naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oia e?eoaaiiy, o??o?a?/io ei?aeoe?th iane?aee?a o?aaie ?
?E.

?ic?iaeaia iaie noi?nii c a?enueeiai-iaaee/iith neoaeaith II Oe?a?ie
nenoaia ?aaa?e?oaoe?? in?a, ui ia?aianee ?E, i?ney iioeiaeaeaiue aeeaioa
ia aini?oaeueiiio ? naiaoi?ii-iie?ee?i?/iiio aoaiao i?aaenoaaeaia ia
?en. 1.

Oeaio?e ?aaa?e?oaoe?? (Iaeana, Oeei, Naee)

IIE?EE?I?EANiaoe?ae?ciaai? a?aeae?eaiiy aaciaeo, oeaio?aeueieo oa
aieiaieo aini?oae?a

A?aeae?eaiiy a?enueeiaeo naiaoi???a (IIO)

Aeaii? noaoe?iia?e aini?oae?a oa iie?ee?i?e IIO?en. 1. Nenoaia iaaee/ii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? in?a, eio?? ia?aianee ?E i?ney iioeiaeaeaiiy aeeaioa ia
aini?oaeueiiio ? naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiio aoaiao.

AENIIAEE

1. Aieiaieie i?e/eiaie i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue i?e i?iieeath/eo
ii?aiaiyo aeeaioa ? neeaaei? ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie, ui coiiaeai?
iaoai?ciii o?aaie, e?eoaaeueii-oaeoe/i? (55,1%) oa e?eoaaeueii-oaoi?/i?
(32,1%) iiieeee o??o?a?a, eio?? ia i?eeiyee aei oaaae neeaaeiee
iaoiaaiac ?o ?aae?caoe?? i?e aeeiiaii? ia?oi? iia?aoe??. *?oea
i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe o??o?a?/ieo a?eaaae, iino?eia i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? o??o?a?a oa ?aoaeueiee aiae?c o??o?a?/ieo iiieeie
aeicaieeee iai a 1,5 ?ace cieceoe /enei e?ea?nueeeo iiieeie.

2. Iaea?eueo /anoeie oneeaaeiaiiyie i?iieeath/eo ii?aiaiue aeeaioa
iio??aii ?aooaaoe i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia?eoii?o (71,0%), aino?o iaoai?/io
iai?io?aei?noue eeoa/ieea (19,7%), i?neyiia?aoe?ei? e?iaioa/? (9,3%).

3. Iniiaith oni?oo e?eoaaiiy oneeaaeiaiue ? ?aiiy ae?aaiinoea. I?e
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia?eoii?o? oa iai?io?aeiino? eeoa/ieea iaea?eueo
?ioi?iaoeaiei ? eiio?ieue iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??aaiue ?
aeeiai?eo aiaeioieneeico (?ioaa?aeueia ?aia?ao?y o?ea, iieaeoee
na?aaeiuei? iane, a?ieia?/i? oanoe ia oiene/i?noue ne?iaaoee e?ia?,
i?iaeoeoe ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a), a oaeiae ?ioaa?aeueiiai
e?eoa??th, yeee aecia/a?oueny iaoaiaoe/iith iiaeaeeth. I?e
i?neyiia?aoe?ei?e e?iaioa/? — iieacieee ?ioaa?aeueii? ?aia?ao?? o?ea, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee.

4. A iniiao o??o?a?/ii? oaeoeee i?e ?aeaia?ioii?yo, aiane?aeie
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo ? iai?io?aeiino? eeoa/ieea o?aaa iieeanoe
iaeneiaeueia aeaeaeaiiy i?iya?a aiaeioieneeico oeyoii iiaii?
e?ea?aeaoe?? aeaea?aea oneeaaeiaiy, naiaoe?? /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie,
aeaeiii?aneaii? ?iooaaoe?? eeoa/ieea, ae?aioaaiiy oa cae?eooy
eaia?ioiiii? ?aie ca?aeii noaae?? ai?eiiai i?ioeano. I?e
i?neyiia?aoe?ei?e e?iaioa/? — iaae?eio e?ea?aeaoe?th aeaea?aea
e?iaioa/?, naiaoe?th ? ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, caoeaaiiy ?aie
/a?aaii? no?iee.

5. Aaaeeeaeie oaeoi?aie eiiieaeniiai i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy
iioa?i?eeo ? iaoiaaiaoe/ii ciaoiiaeaia ?ioaineaia oa?ai?y, yea i?noeoue
?iaeea?aeoaeueio ?iooc?eii-o?ainooc?eio, aioeaaeoa??aeueio oa
?ioiiei?aaoth/o oa?ai?th, no/ani? iaoiaee aeaoieneeaoe??, e?eoaaeueio
a?iioa?i?th ? a?ia?aa?e/io ieneaaiaoe?th.

6. Ia?eoii?o ? iaea?eueo /anoith i?e/eiith nia?o? i?ney ?aeaia?ioii??
(97,8%). Cia/iee ??aaiue eaoaeueiino? (88,5%) i?e iueiio coiiaeaiee
aeaoaeoaie ia?aeiieo iia?aoe?e. ?aiiy ae?aaiinoeea, aaeaeaaoia
o??o?a?/ia oaeoeea ? iaoiaaiaoe/ia i?neyiia?aoe?eia oa?ai?y ni?eyee
cieaeaiith a 2 ?ace eaoaeueiino? i?e i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia?eoii?o?.

7. ?aaa?e?oaoe?y — iaia’yceiaee eiiiiiaio ?aeeiiai e?eoaaeueiiai
i?ioeano. A?eueoa iieiaeie iioa?i?eeo ?c iioeiaeaeaiiyie aeeaioa i?ney
?aeaia?ioii?? iio?aaothoue aiaoeaoi?ia, noaoe?iia?ia oa
naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oia e?eoaaiiy, a na?aae ii?aiaieo aiaiaiaeueiith ca?i?th
— 95%. Uia iiaa?iooe iaeneiaeueio e?euee?noue aei aeoeaii? o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino? oa a?enueeiai? neoaeae iaiao?aeii ?i i?iaiaeeoe eiiieaen
?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a ca?aeii /ioe?ueio iniiaieo ??aiae:
i?aaiii-aiaoii?/iiai, nenoaiii-o?c?ieia?/iiai, nenoaiii-ineoieia?/iiai,
nioe?aeueii-o?oaeiaiai.

8. Aei i?aeaioiaee e?ea??a niaoe?ae?no?a (o??o?a?a, oa?aiaao?a,
aianoac?ieia?a-?aai?iaoieia?a), eio?? iai?aaeythoueny aeey iaaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy aieiaeo ae?e oa o aiaieua iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e,
iaia’yceiai iiaeii? aooe aeeth/ai? ianooii? ieoaiiy: ?aiiy ae?aaiinoeea
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue, iaoiaaiaoe/ii ciaoiiaeaia o??o?a?/ia
oaeoeea ? eiiieaenia i?neyiia?aoe?eia oa?ai?y.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? i?aoeue.

1. Eauaiei E.A., Iaiia O.E. ?aeaia?ioiiey i?e iia?aaeaeaieyo aeeaioa. —
Eoeauoaa: Eoeauoaaneee iaae. ei-o, 1991. — 75 n.

2. Eauaiei E.A., Iaiia O.E. ?aeaia?ioiiey i?e iia?aaeaeaieyo aeeaioa //
Eeei. oe?. — 1987. — ? 4. — N. 17-19.

3. Eauaiei E.A., Iaiia O.E. I?e/eiu eaoaeueiuo enoiaeia iinea
?aeaia?ioiiee i?e o?aaiao aeeaioa // Aiai. — iaae. aeo?i. — 1988. — ? 1.
— N. 40.

4. Eauaiei E.A., Iaiia O.E. Iineaiia?aoeeiiiay yaaio?aoeey i?e
iia?aaeaeaieyo aeeaioa // Eeei. oe?. — 1990. — ? 4. — N. 4-5.

5. Eauaiei E.A., Iaiia O.E. Iineaiia?aoeeiiiia e?iaioa/aiea i?e o?aaiao
aeeaioa // Eeei. oe?. — 1991. — ? 4. — N. 37-39.

6. Eauaiei E.A., Iaiia O.E. E aii?ino i ?aeaia?ioiiee i?e
iaiano?aeueiuo i?iieeathueo ?aiaieyo aeeaioa // Aiai. — iaae. aeo?i. —
1992. — ? 6. — N. 9-10.

7. Eauaiei E.A., Iaiia O.E. Ioaeaeaiiua ?acoeueoaou ?aeaia?ioiiee i?e
o?aaiao aeeaioa // Aiai. — iaae. aeo?i. — 1992. — ? 11. — N. 31-32.

8. Iaiia O.E.. ?aeaia?ioiiey i?e i?iieeathuai iaiano?aeueiii ?aiaiee
aeeaioa // Ee?i. o??. — 1996. — ? 1. — N. 27-29.

9. Iaiia O.E. ?aeaia?ioiiey i?e iaiano?aeueiuo i?iieeathueo ?aiaieyo
aeeaioa // Nia?aiaiiua aniaeou aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu. — E.: Aeaaiue aiaiiue
eeeie/aneee ainieoaeue, 1995. — N. 96-97.

10. Iaiia O.E., *aao?aoei A.N., ?oaoeia I.E.. Iaoaiaoe/aneia
i?iaiice?iaaiea iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?eoiieoa i?e o?aaiao aeeaioa //
Nia?aiaiiua aniaeou aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu. — E.: Aeaaiue aiaiiue
eeeie/aneee ainieoaeue, 1995. — N. 97-98.

11. Aaeue A.ss., Iaiia O.E. I nia?aiaiiie eiioeaioeee aiaiiie oe?o?aee
// Nia?aiaiiua aniaeou aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu. — E.: Aeaaiue aiaiiue
eeeie/aneee ainieoaeue, 1997. — N. 3-6.

12. Ca?ooeeee ss.E., Ieeeiaiei A.A., Iaiia O.E. Ioeaiea noaiaie
oyaeanoe e i?iaiice?iaaiea enoiaea o aieueiuo n iia?aaeaeaieai ia/aie
i?e cae?uoie eciee?iaaiiie ni/aoaiiie aaaeiieiaeueiie o?aaia //
Nia?aiaiiua aniaeou aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu. — E.: Aeaaiue aiaiiue
eeeie/aneee ainieoaeue, 1997. — N. 98-99.

13. Iaiia O.E., ?oaoeia I.E., sseoaia O.I., ?iaianeee A.I. Iaioeiaeiay
?aeaia?ioiiey o aieueiuo n ia?eoiieoii // Nia?aiaiiua aniaeou aiaiiie
iaaeeoeeiu. — E.: Aeaaiue aiaiiue eeeie/aneee ainieoaeue, 1997. — N.
115-116.

14. Iaiia O.E., ?oaoeia I.E., THeaeaoaa O.TH. Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea
?aceeoiai ia?eoiieoa // Nia?. aniaeou aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu. — E.: Aeaaiue
aiaiiue eeeie/aneee ainieoaeue, 1997.- N. 116-117.

15. Iaiia O.E. Iineaiia?aoeeiiiia e?iaioa/aiea i?e o?aaiao aeeaioa //
Na. iao/. o?. Oe?aeineie aiaiii-iaaeeoeeineie aeaaeaiee. — E.: Eiain,
1997. — N. 195-199.

16. Iaiia O.E. I?e/eiu nia?oe iinea ?aeaia?ioiiee i?e iia?aaeaeaiee
aeeaioa // Na. iao/. o?. Oe?aeineie aiaiii-iaaeeoeeineie aeaaeaiee. —
E.: Eiain, 1997. — N.199-202.

17. Iaiia O.E. ?aeaia?ioiiee ii iiaiaeo iineaiia?aoeeiiiie ino?ie
iaoaie/aneie iai?ioiaeeiinoe i?e iia?aaeaeaieyo aeeaioa // Na. iao/. o?.
Oe?aeineie aiaiii-iaaeeoeeineie aeaaeaiee. — E.: Eiain, 1997. — N.
202-207.

18. Iaiia O.E. Oe?o?ae/aneea ioeaee eae i?e/eiu ?aeaia?ioiiee i?e
o?aaiao aeeaioa // Na. iao/. o?. Oe?aeineie aiaiii-iaaeeoeeineie
aeaaeaiee. — E.: Eiain, 1997. — N. 207-210.

19. Iaiia O.E. E?eoa?ee ?aiiae aeeaaiinoeee iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai
ia?eoiieoa i?e iia?aaeaeaieyo aeeaioa // Na. iao/. o?. Oe?aeineie
aiaiii-iaaeeoeeineie aeaaeaiee. — E.: Eiain, 1997. — N. 210-215.

20. Iao. 22676A Oe?a?ia. Niin?a ei?aeoe?? a?iiene/iiai noaio ? i?eno??e
aeey eiai cae?eniaiiy / Eicae A.A., Iaiia O.?., Neaeaoeueeee TH.I.,
Ei?ieue/oe I.N., ?oi’yioeaa TH.A. — ? 97052175; Cayae. 12.05.97; Iioae.
07.04.98; IEE 2495. — 3 n.

21. Eauaiei E.A., Iaiia O.E. I eeanneoeeaoeee ?aeaia?ioiiee i?e
iia?aaeaeaieyo aeeaioa: Na. iao/. ?aaio Aiai. iaae. oae-o. i?e EIE. —
Aui. XXIII. — Eoeauoaa, 1990. — N. 37-39.

22. Iaiia O.E., Eauaiei E.A. Eeanneoeeaoeey iinoo?aaiaoe/aneiai
iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?eoiieoa: Na. iao/. ?aaio Aiai. iaae. oae-o. i?e
EIE. — Aui. XXIII. — Eoeauoaa, 1990. — N. 41-42.

23. Iaiia O.E., A?aoee/oe A.I. Ioeaee, iianiinoe e ineiaeiaiey i?e
iia?aaeaeaieyo oienoie eeoee: Na. iao/. ?aaio Aiai. iaae. oae-o. i?e
EIE. — Aui. XIX. — Eoeauoaa, 1991. — N.28-29.

24. Iaiia O.E., Eauaiei E.A., A?aoee/oe A.I. Ioaeae?iiua ?acoeueoaou
?aeaia?ioiiee i?e iia?aaeaeaieyo oienoie eeoee: Na. iao/. ?aaio Aiai.
iaae. oae-o. i?e EIE. — Aui. XIX. — Eoeauoaa, 1991. — N. 34-35.

25. Eauaiei E.A., Iaiia O.E., A?aoee/oe A.I. I?e/eiu eaoaeueiuo
enoiaeia i?e iia?aaeaeaiee oienoie eeoee: Na. iao/. ?aaio Aiai. iaae.
oae-o. i?e EIE. — Aui. XIX. — Eoeauoaa, 1991. — N. 41.

26. Eoeo?oc ss.N., Iaiia O.E. Iaiano?aeueiua ?aiaiey oienoie eeoee:
yaiethoeey acaeyaeia ia oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea, nianoaaiiue iiuo //
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaaeaiiy aeno?aiii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e
iaa?aeeeaaeieo noaiao. — Ee?a, 1995. — N. 52.

27. Iaiia O.E., Aa?aiey I.I. I aiciiaeiinoyo iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea
a i?iaiice?iaaiee iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?eoiieoa i?e o?aaiao aeeaioa //
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaaeaiiy aeno?aiii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e
iaa?aeeeaaeieo noaiao. — Ee?a, 1995. — N. 60.

28. Iaiia O.E., Eoeo?oc ss.N.. ?aeaia?ioiiey i?e iaiano?aeueiuo
i?iieeathueo ?aiaieyo aeeaioa // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaaeaiiy aeno?aiii?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e iaa?aeeeaaeieo noaiao. — Ee?a, 1995. — N. 60.

29. Iaiia O.E., ?acoiiue I.E. Iiaua aniaeou iaoiaaiaoe/aneie ei??aeoeee
ia?ooaiee iioi?ii-yaaeoaoi?iie ooieoeee aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa i?e
ia?eoiieoa // Na. iao/. ?aaio «Iiaua oaoiieiaee a oe?o?aee» iiae ?aae.
i?io. A.E. Iai/e/a. — E.: A?o-A?aoee, 1997. — N. 175.

30. Iaiia O.E. ?aeaia?ioiiey a ea/aiee ineiaeiaiee iaiano?aeueiuo
i?iieeathueo ?aiaiee aeeaioa // Iao-eu Ana?inneeneie iao/iie
eiioa?aioeee “Nia?aiaiiay iaiano?aeueiay ?aia”. — Nia, 1998. — N. 130.

AIIOAOe?ss.

Iaiia O.?. I?aai?caoe?y aeiiiiiae ? o??o?a?/ia oaeoeea i?e
?aeaia?ioii?yo o iioa?i?eeo ?c iioeiaeaeaiiyie aeeaioa. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14. 01. 03 — o??o?a?y. — Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?aai?caoe?? aeiiiiiae ? o??o?a?/i?e oaeoeoe?
i?e ?aeaia?ioii?yo o iioa?i?eeo c iioeiaeaeaiiyie aeeaioa.

I?iaaaeaii ianoaaeaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy 184 iioa?i?eeo, ia?iaeai? ?
i?iaiae?ciaai? 75 ?noi??e oai?ia iaoe??io?a, yeei aeeiiaia
?aeaia?ioii?y. A ?iaio? ii-iiaiio ae??oai? aeaye? aaaeeea? ieoaiiy
eeaneo?eaoe?? i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia?eoii?oo, i?eioeeie aeai?o iaea?eueo
iioeiaeueii? iia?aoe?? a eiaeiiio ie?aiiio aeiaaeeo oneeaaeiaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaai? ?aii? iciaee i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue, ui
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe iieacaiiy aei ?aeaia?ioii??. Iioei?ciaai?
i?ia?aie ?iooc?eii-o?ainooc?eii? oa?ai?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oneeaaeiaiue, ui ?icaeeeny, aecia/ai? e?ea?nuee? iiieeee ? ?o i?noea ?
?ieue a i?io?eaeoeoe? ?aeaia?ioii?e.

I?e iaea?eueo /anoiio ? aaaeeiio oneeaaeiaii? — ia?eoii?o?,
?ioi?iaoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo iciae i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iaoaiaoe/iei
iaoiaeii. I?iaiae?ciaai? a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe i?ney ?aeaia?ioii?? a
no?iee a?ae 1 ?ieo aei 22 ?ie?a, aeyaeai? aeaoaeoe ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo ? ?ic?iaeaia noaia aoaeoeaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aeaia?ioii?y, i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia?eoii?o, aino?a
iaoai?/ia iai?io?aei?noue eeoa/ieea, i?neyiia?aoe?eia e?iaioa/a.

SUMMARY.

Panov F.I. Organization of attendance and surgical tactics during
relaparotomies in victims with abdominal injuries. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 14.01.03 — surgery. — Kyiv
Medical Academy for Postgraduate Education named after P.L. Shupik of
Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is divoted to organization of medical attendance and
surgical tactics during relaparotomies in victims with abdominal
injuries.

The observation and treatment of 184 victims, analysis of 75 medical
cards of patients, who undergone relaparotomy, were made. The new
solutions for some problmes of postoperative peritonitis classification,
of the most optimal operation principles according to every separate
occasion of complications, the earliest sings of postoperative
complications, determinating the depositions to relaparotomy, were
formulated. The infusion therapy programmes according to developed
complication were optimazied. The medical staff’s mistakes and their
role in the relaparotomy prophylactics were determinated.

The informational significance of proposed sings in the most frequent
and severe complication — peritonitis, was ensured by the mathematical
method. The distant results after relaparotomy from 1 to 22 years were
analysed. The defects of rehabilitation period were determinated and the
rehabilitation scheme were proposed.

Key words: relaparotomy, postoperative peritonitis, acute mechanical
intestinal obstruction, postoperative haemorrage.

AIIIOAOeEss.

Iaiia O.E. I?aaiecaoeey iiiiue e oe?o?ae/aneay oaeoeea i?e
?aeaia?ioiieyo o iino?aaeaaoeo n iia?aaeaeaieyie aeeaioa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14. 01. 03 — oe?o?aey. — Eeaaneay iaaeeoeeineay
aeaaeaiey iineaaeeieiiiiai ia?aciaaiey ei. I.E. Ooieea IC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa,
1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?aaiecaoeee iiiiue e oe?o?ae/aneie oaeoeea i?e
?aeaia?ioiieyo o iino?aaeaaoeo n iia?aaeaeaieyie aeeaioa.

Oeaeueth enneaaeiaaiey auei oeo/oeoue ?acoeueoaou ea/aiey iino?aaeaaoeo
a aeeaio, ia?aianoeo ?aeaia?ioiieth, ioo?i iioeiecaoeee aeeaaiinoeee
?aiieo iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo ineiaeiaiee e oe?o?ae/aneie oaeoeee.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee iaiaoiaeeii auei ?aoeoue ?yae
caaea/: ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua i?e/eiu ?aeaia?ioiiee i?e iia?aaeaeaieyo
aeeaioa; eco/eoue aeeaaiinoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe ?aiieo i?eciaeia
iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo ineiaeiaiee, iicaieythueo ii?aaeaeeoue iieacaiey e
?E; ii?aaeaeeoue i?e/eiu eaoaeueiuo enoiaeia e iooe eo nieaeaiey iinea
?E; iioeiece?iaaoue i?ia?aiio eiooceiiii-o?ainooceiiiie oa?aiee a
caaeneiinoe io ?acaeaoaainy ineiaeiaiey; i?aaeeiaeeoue e iainiiaaoue
eio?aiia?aoeeiiioth oaeoeeo ea/aiey ?acee/iuo a?oii ?aiaiuo a aeeaio a
caaeneiinoe io ?acaeaoeony ineiaeiaiee iinea eaia?ioiiee; eco/eoue
ioaeaeaiiua ?acoeueoaou ea/aiey iino?aaeaaoeo n o?aaiie aeeaioa,
ia?aianoeo ?E, e ?ac?aaioaoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eo yooaeoeaiie
?aaaeeeoaoeee.

I?iaaaeaii ianeaaeiaaiea e ea/aiea 184 iino?aaeaaoeo, ia?aaioaiu e
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu 75 enoi?ee aieaciae iaoeeaioia, eioi?ui auiieiaia
?aeaia?ioiiey. A ?aaioa ii-iiaiio ?aoaiu aaaeiua aii?inu aeeaaiinoeee,
ea/aaiie oaeoeee o iino?aaeaaoeo n o?aaiie aeeaioa, o?aaothueo
auiieiaiey ?aeaia?ioiiee a iauaoe?o?ae/aneii noaoeeiia?a e ia yoaiao
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie oe?o?ae/aneie iiiiue. Ia
iniiaaiee eco/aiey e aiaeeca i?e/ei, eioi?ua aucaaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue
i?iaaaeaiey ?E o 259 iaoeeaioia i?e aiaauo e iaaiaauo iia?aaeaeaieyo
aeeaioa iieacaii i?ei?eoaoiia cia/aiea i?eciaeia yiaeiaaiiie
eioieneeaoeee a aeeaaiinoeea iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?eoiieoa e
iai?ioiaeeiinoe eeoa/ieea. Yoe i?eciaee a?aoiaioe?iaaiii eniieueciaaiu
eae ?aiiea aeeaaiinoe/aneea e?eoa?ee, ii?aaeaeythuea iieacaiey e ?E.
?ac?aaioaia e ai?iae?iaaia nenoaia aaeeueiie ioeaiee yoeo i?eciaeia,
iicaieythuay iaoaiaoe/anee oa?aeoa?eciaaoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?E. E?iia
yoiai, aaoi?ii i?aaeeiaeaiu aunieieioi?iaoeaiua iieacaoaee,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea eciaiaiey yiaeiaaiiie eioieneeaoeee ia iniiaa
iieacaoaeae oeaio?aeueiie aaiiaeeiaieee, iieaeoe n?aaeiae iannu,
aeieiae/aneeo oanoia oiene/iinoe nuai?ioee e?iae e i?iaeoeoia
ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiey eeieaeia. I?aaeeiaeaia noaiaea?oece?iaaiiay
i?ia?aiia i?aaeiia?aoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee ?aiaiuo n iineaiia?aoeeiiiui
ia?eoiieoii e ino?ie iaoaie/aneie iai?ioiaeeiinoueth eeoa/ieea, a oaeaea
iioeiece?iaaiu i?ia?aiiu eiooceiiii-o?ainooceiiiie oa?aiee a caaeneiinoe
io ?acaeaoeony ineiaeiaiee. Aaoi?ii aeiiieiaia e ai?iae?iaaia
eeeie/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?eoiieoa,
iioeiece?iaaia oaoiieiaey niiniaia eio?aiia?aoeeiiiiai aicaeaenoaey i?e
?E a caaeneiinoe io ineiaeiaiey, iiae/??eiooa aaaeiinoue auiieiaiey
eaaeaeiai a? yeaiaioa, aeaiu aaaeiua i?aeoe/aneea niaaou, auiieiaiea
eioi?uo nouanoaaiii aeeyao eae ia oiae auiieiaiey iia?aoeee, oae e ia
oa/aiea iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea. Ii?aaeaeaiu a?a/aaiua ioeaee e eo
ianoi e ?ieue a i?ioeeaeoeea ?E. Eco/aiu ioaeae?iiua ?acoeueoaou iinea
?E a n?iee io 1 aiaea aei 22 eao, auyaeaiu aeaoaeou ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiiai
ia?eiaea e ?ac?aaioaia noaia yooaeoeaiie ?aaaeeeoaoeee eeoe, ia?aianoeo
?E.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aeaia?ioiiey, iineaiia?aoeeiiiue ia?eoiieo, ino?ay
iaoaie/aneay iai?ioiaeeiinoue eeoa/ieea, iineaiia?aoeeiiiia
e?iaioa/aiea.

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