EE?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

I?EIAINssI Iiiia ?aai?aia

OAeE69.003:658.5.012.2

I?AAI?CAOe?EII-OAOIIEIA?*I? INIIAE

OI?IOAAIIss IAEEO OA NA?AAeI?O

AOAe?AAEUeIEO I?AAI?CAOe?E

A ?EIEIAEO OIIAAO

08.06.01 -Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa oa i?aai?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa (oaoi?/i?
iaoee)

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EE?A-1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy aoae?aieoeoaii
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iiai?aeueoeaa
Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy
aoae?aieoeoaii Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?a?inueeee Ieaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/,
Aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa Oe?a?ie, a?oea-i?aceaeaio, caneoaeaiee
aoae?aaeueiee Oe?a?ie.

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio I?i/oe Aieiaeeie? sseiae/, ia/.
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oi?aae?iiy I?i?noa?noaa Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue
iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e oa o ni?aaao caoenoo ianaeaiiy a?ae iane?aee?a
*i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — II Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo aoae?aaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao aoae?aieoeoaa,
a?o?oaeoo?e ? aeeoeiai? iie?oeee, i. Ee?a, a?aeae?e a?ae?ioaoi?/iiai oa
niaoe?aeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. a 15 aiaeei ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.056.03 i?e Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith:
252037, Ee?a-37, Iia?o?ioeionueeee i?iniaeo, 31.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 30 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ae.a.i., i?ioani?
_______________ I.A.Oaaeiniaa

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aoae?aaeueia ?iaeono??y Oe?a?ie oi?ioaaeany a oiiaao oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai
ieaioaaiiy. Aoee noi?iiaai? ia?aaaaeii aaeee? aoae?aaeuei? o?anoe, aei
yeeo aoiaeeee ia?aeii? aoae?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? (AII, IIE oiui).
Inoaii? ia iaee aeiiii?/ii? naiino?eiino?, ai aoee no?oeoo?ieie
i?ae?icae?eaie o?ano?a.

Ia?o? e?iee aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i aeaui ci?ieee neooaoe?th, aea ? iei?oiy
no?oeoo?a i?aai?caoe?e ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai ?eieo noiniaii noai?aiiy
eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua. Ioaea, a?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o
aeciaii?, ui aaaeeeaei /eiieeii ? eiiiiiaioii ?eieo ? a?euei? ae?iaieee,
?ai?acaioiaai? iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie ae?iaie/eie i?aai?caoe?yie.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

Iaea?eueo neaaeith eaieith ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ? iaaeinoaoi?e
?icaeoie iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. Oey i?iaeaia a cia/i?e i???
noino?oueny ? aoae?aaeueii? aaeoc?.

Aiae?c ?iaioe aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano,
aeeiai?ea ci?i ?o e?euee?niiai neeaaeo a ia?aae? aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie na?ae/eoue, ui ?eieiaa ?aeaieia?y iia?eueii
ao?eth?oueny na?aae aoae?aaeueiee?a. Iaei??th c i?e/ei oeueiai yaeua ?
oa, ui ?i?oe?aoeai? i?aei?e?ioe? ia iathoue ?ino?oiaioo iiooeo ? ioe?iee
ae?iaie/eo iiaeeeainoae. A ?nioth/?e e?oa?aoo?? iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeai?
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iaeeo ? na?aaei?o
aoae?aaeueieo o??i. I?iaeaia iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy noai?aiiy iaeeo ? na?aaei?o
o??i o aoae?aieoeoa? ? aeooaeueiith ? iio?aao? ?ic?iaee niaoe?aeueieo
iiaeaeae ? aeai?eoi?a aeey ?? ae??oaiiy. Aeeeaaeai? ianoaaeie iaoiiaeee
aea?? iaoe ? caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aeena?oaoe?y iia’ycaia c i?ia?aiaie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue EAeOOAA oa
ni?eee oeea?eueieo ?iaeaia??a Oe?a?ie, ui aeeiioaaeenue oai?/ei
eieaeoeaii ia caiiaeaiiy Aea?aeaoaeo Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aecia/aiiy iai?yieo i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i
(?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??) aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono??? Oe?a?ie oa oi?ioaaiiy
iaoiaeieia?? ooai?aiiy ( i?iaeooaaiiy) niaoe?ae?ciaaieo aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?? iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iaoe, iniiaieie caaea/aie ?:

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c no?oeoo?e aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono??? ??cieo e?a?i ?
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai (?eieiai?, ia?eieiai?, ia?ao?aeii?);

Iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaoaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace, ui a?aeaeaa?
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/io no?oeoo?o ? iniaeea?noue aoae?aaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeieia?? iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o iai?yieo ?iaioe iaeeo ?
na?aaei?o o??i (?o niaoe?ae?caoe??) ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy i?eioeei?a ?
iaoiae?a oai??? ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a;

Eeaneo?eaoe?y aoae?aaeueieo o??i iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c
o?aooaaiiyi i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae aoae?aaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa;

Iiaoaeiaa iiaeae? aeai?eoio i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy
o??ie iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a aoae?aieoeoa? ( ia iniia?
aaeaioaoe?? i?aeoiae?a i?iaeooaaiiy aaeeeeo nenoai).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aecia/aia i???ioiaia no?oeoo?a aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono??? Oe?a?ie, ui
a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai ?eieo, iaa?oioiaaia ia iniia?
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ieo iciae eeaneo?eaoe?e aoae?aaeueieo o??i ye
ae??aieo, iaeeo ? na?aaei?o;

Iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy oai??? ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a a
iiooeo iai?yieo niaoe?ae?caoe?? ?iaioe (i?n??) aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, oa i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy uiaei
niaoe?ae?caoe?? aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? o??i;

Ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie i?eioeeie, iaoiaee iiaoaeiae i?aai?caoe?e
a canoinoaaii? (aaeaioaoe??) ?o aei i?iaeooaaiiy iaeeo ? na?aaei?o
aoae?aaeueieo o??i.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaeeee ? aeai?eoio aeai?o iai?yieo ?iaioe (niaoe?ae?caoe??-i?n??)
aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. Oeei
noai?th?oueny ?ino?oiaio ?aae?caoe?? ?i?oe?aoeae noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, iaa?oiooaaiiy eiai iiaaae?iee ia i?ae?yaeiiio ?eieo.

Cai?iiiiiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? i?eioeeie ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? a
aoae?iaeono???, iaoiaee iaa?oiooaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue aeei?enoai?
a Aea?aeaai?e ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?iiioaaeniaoeaoae”, o??i? “Iiiieii” oa
o/aiaiio i?ioean? EAeOOAA oa I?aea?aeii/iai ?inoeoooo i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe (I?II).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Iaeiiin?aieie ?ic?iaeaie caeiaoaa/a ? iaoiaee iaa?oiooaaiiy
oi?aae?inueeiai ??oaiiy uiaei niaoe?ae?caoe?e iaeeo ? na?aaei?o
aoae?aaeueieo o??i ia iniia? aeiaaeeiai? aacia?a?aii? ia?ai?iii? oa
“Oaaeeoeue aecia/aieo iciae”; Canoinoaaiiy ianeao “?ic?aooieiaeo
ii?iaoea?a aeey neeaaeaiiy IIA”, ye iniiae ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace aeey
iiooeo iai?yieo niaoe?ae?caoe?e, a?oioaaiiy ia’?eo?a aoae?aieoeoaa c
iaoith caoaeoaaiiy iiooeiaiai iiey a ianea? ?ioi?iaoe??; eeaneo?eaoe?y
iaoiae?a i?iaeooaaiiy ae?iaie/eo no?oeoo? a aoae?aieoeoa? aei
i?iaeooaaiiy o??i iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii?eethaeiai? o aeiiia?aeyo ia 57-e , 58-e,
59-e iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo EAeOOAA. Aeniiaee noaaeai?
naeoe??th IOA.

Ioae?eaoe??.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? ?iaioe [1 — 8]. Caeiaoaa/oe? iniaenoi
iaeaaeeoue: a ?iaio? [1] — oi?ioaaiiy ?yaeo aaeocaaeo /eiiee?a c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a aoae?aieoeoa?, a ?iaio? [2] — i?eioeeiiaa noaia
ieaioaaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa a ?eieiaeo oiiaao, no?oeoo?a aoae?aaeueiiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie, no?oeoo?a aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono??? ca noaiii ia 1990
?., a ?iaio? [3] — iaa?oiooaaiiy ea?iaaiino? caeo/aiiy a Oe?a?i?
?iicaiieo aoae?aaeueieo o??i, a ?iaioao [4, 7] — iiaoaeiaa ocaaaeueiaii?
iiaeae? no?oeoo?e iieaciee?a ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace, a ?iaio? [8] —
ia?aa?aoe “Aecia/aiiy oaeoi??a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa”, ?
“Ei?enooaaiiy iao?eoeath noaae??-oaeoi?e”.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? 6 aeiaeaoe?a. Ci?no aeeeaaeaii ia
noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 24 oaaeeoeyo ? 14
?enoieao. A?ae?ia?ao?y aeeth/a? 126 iaca.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Aoae?aaeueia aaeocue iin?aea? aaaeeeaa i?noea a aeiiii?oe? i?iieneiai
?icaeiooeo e?a?i. Iniiaieie aeieaie aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?
aoae?aaeueia ?iaeono??y — ia?aaea aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e c ?o
ae?iaie/ith aacith.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? ?iaioe ? aoae?aaeueia ?iaeono??y ye
i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a aaeoc?. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiue ?
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i? ca’ycee a aoae?aaeuei?e ?iaeono??? ?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ae?iaie/eo i?aai?caoe?e ye ia’?eo?a niaoe?ae?caoe??.

?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee iaoi? e?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeoie ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei ?, a oiio /ene?, ?icaeoie ?eieo i?ae?yaeieo ?ia?o. ?eiie
ooai?th?oueny a?aeiineiaie a?eueieo ae?iaiee?a a eiieo?aioiiio
na?aaeiaeu?. Ioaea, oeyo aei i?ae?yaeiiai ?eieo ? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y
aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono???, noai?aiiy aaeeei? ia?aae? a?eueieo o aeai??
nai?? iiaaae?iee, ??cieo ca ?ici??ii ? niaoe?ae?caoe??th aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e.

Ieoaiiy, uiaei iaeeo ? na?aaei?o ae?iaie/eo i?aai?caoe?e a ?icaeiooeo
e?a?iao c ?eieiaeie a?aeiineiaie aena?oeai? a ?iaioao ca?oa?aeieo
aaoi??a A. Oeaiaea?a, I.O.Ianeiia, ss.Iiiaeaia, E.Oaoa?n?.

Aeina?ae ?iaioe iaeeo aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e a ca?oa?aeieo
aea?aeaaao aena?oeththoue Eacainueeee TH.I., ?ae?oa? ss.A., Caaai?iaei?e
A., A?iiyea E., aiae?oe/i? iaci?e iaoeiaeo onoaiia.

I?iaeaie ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? o ae?iaie/?e noa?? ?icaeyaeathoue Eoe?iia
?.A., Aei?iaoioeia N.?., Aa?oeue A. Ieoaiue iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa o
aoae?aieoeoa? oi?eaeeny a nai?o ?iaioao Aa?aiia A.I., Oaaeiniaa I.A.,
Oaoea/ A.E., ?in?enuee? aaoi?e Aaee?? I.A., Oeoee?i A.A., Ae?iaeae?i
A.?., Oa?aiooa I.E., I?oeiaa O.A.

Caaaeai? aaoi?e ?icaeyaeathoue aeiiii?ei-i?aaia? aniaeoe
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aeiiii?ee aaeoc? aoae?aieoeoaa ? ooai?aiiy ia?aae?
iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa. A?oioiaia ?iaioa I?oeiai? O.A. oi?ea?oueny noai?aiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace, a aecia/aiiy eaoaai??? iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa aiia
iia’yco? c /enaeuei?noth ia?niiaeo oa niiniaii ooai?aiiy o??ie.

AEiaeiee ?c aaoi??a ia oi?ea?oueny i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ieo aniaeo?a
ooai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy o??i iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a
aoae?aieoeoa?.

Aaaeeeai ?icaeyiooe i?iaeaio ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono???
noiniaii ?aaeueieo oiia Oe?a?ie oa i?iaeoe?? ?o ia na?oiaee aeina?ae.
?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaiaothoueny:

noaoenoe/i? a?aeiiino? Oe?a?inueeiai ?inoeoooo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa
aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

iaoa??aee Aea?aeeiinoaoo Oe?a?ie;

iaoa??aee IAe?AA “Eai?oaeueia aoae?aieoeoai Oe?a?ie”;

noaoenoe/i? a?aeiiino? c ?iicaiii? oa ia?aeeaaeii? e?oa?aoo?e i?i ?iaioo
?iicaiieo aoae?aaeueieo o??i;

ii?iaoeaii-aeia?aeeia? aeaeaiiy c ieoaiue aoae?aieoeoaa;

caeiiiaeaa/? oa ?icii?yae/? aeieoiaioe aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?ie, ui aeaeai? i?ney 1992 ?.;

iaoa??aee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue EAeOOAA, ni?eee oeea?eueieo ?iaeaia??a
Oe?a?ie, Aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa Oe?a?ie.

Aoae?aaeueia ?iaeono??y Oe?a?ie iin?aeaea cia/ia i?noea a aoae?aaeuei?e
aaeoc? eieeoiueiai N?N?, aeeiioth/e a?eueoa 12% caaaeueiinithciiai
ianyao aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o (AI?). Aeiey eai?oaeueiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa o aioo??oiueiio aaeiaiio i?iaeoeo? (AAI) ?anioae?ee
neeaaea? a?eueoa 10%, o aoae?aieoeoa? aoei caae?yii 20,1% a?ae /enea
i?aoethth/eo o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?. Ca noaiii ia 1990 ?. a Oe?a?i?
ae?yee 185 caaaeueii aoae?aaeueieo ? 165 niaoe?ae?ciaaieo o?ano?a, a
?acii c aoae?aaeueieie i?aai?caoe?yie i?e??aiaieie aei ieo ?o aoei 365.

Oea aoee o??ie c /enaeuei?noth aeaniiai ia?niiaeo a iaaeao 2-5 oen.
/ieia?e. Aei ?o neeaaeo aoiaeeee no?oeoo?i? i?ae?icae?ee — ia?aeii?
aoae?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? (AO, AIO, IIE ? o.i.), i?aei?e?inoaa
iaoai?caoe??, o?ainii?oo, caaiaee cae?ciaaoiiieo, iaoaeaaeo, aea?aa’yieo
eiino?oeoe?e oiui.

Ii/eiath/e c 1960-o ?ie?a, ia?aeii? aoae?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? ao?aoeee
iaa?oue iaiaaeaio, ui iaee aei oeueiai, aeiiii?/io naiino?ei?noue.

A oiiaao oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aeiiii?ee oeaio?aeuei? aea?aeaai? i?aaie
aecia/aee e?i?o AI? ? ?ano?n?a, ui /a?ac a?aeiia?aei? oi?aae?inuee?
no?oeoo?e aeiaiaeeeenue aei o?ano?a (caaeey ia’?eoeaiino? ieaioaaiiy
a?aeaoaaeiny ca noaiith: aee?aeoeaa caa?oo — i?iiiceoe?? a?ae o?ano?a —
caoaa?aeaeaiee ieai caa?oo). ?iia?aoeai?noue ieai?a noiyea ia ia?aoeiae?
?i?oe?aoeae ia ??ai? aoae?aaeueiiai o?anoo, aiia aoea iiaeeeaa eeoa a
iaaeao caoaa?aeaeaiiai ieaio (“ieai-caeii”).

Ia?aeii? aoae?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? noai?thaaeeny ca anoaiiaeaieie
aee?aeoeaieie noaiaie ooao?a, ?o no?oeoo?a aeiaaaea aeeiiaiiy iaaiiai
ianyao AI?, uia ia aoee ai??i?? caeoeiaeie, ? oiio ?o /enaeuei?noue ia
iiaea aooe iaioa 150-200 /ieia?e. Ioaea, a?ae ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo
Oe?a?ia io?eiaea a niaaeie aoae?aaeueio ?iaeono??th, yeo neeaaeaee
o?eueee aaeee? ? na?aaei? ca ?ici??ii (ii ca?oa?aeiei i??eai)
aoae?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe??.

Na?eiciei niaaeeii noaea ia?ae?o/ai?noue a?aeoai?thth/i? no?oeoo?e
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue (EA), ye? a i?iieneiaa aoae?aieoeoai noaaeee a?ey
36-37%.

A 1987 ?. EA noaaeee: a i?iieneiaino? — 35,6%, a aeeoeiaa aoae?aieoeoai
— 16,3%, n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai — 17,8%. A NOA, Eaiaae?, O?aioe?? ?
O?I i?iieneiaa aoae?aieoeoai a?aeiia?aeii nyaaei: 18; 24,8; 21; 26,5
a?aenioe?a. Niaae ?iaanoeoe?e a i?iieneiaa ? nioe?aeueia aoae?aieoeoai a
Oe?a?i? iinoaaeei ia iaaeo ?oeioaaiiy aoae?aaeueio aaeocue.

O ca’yceo ?c ci?iith a?ioiaeo iaeeieoeue, ?ioeyoe??th a e?a?i?,
aeine?aeaeoaaoe aeeiai?eo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a a a?ioiaiio
ae?aaeaii? aaaeei. A oaaeeoe? 1 iaaaaeai? aeai? ii no?oeoo?? aaaaeaiiy a
ae?th ia’?eo?a aoae?aieoeoaa. Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoue ci?ie a?eueo ye ca
10 ?ie?a.

Oaaeeoey 1

No?oeoo?a aaaaeaiiy a ae?? ia’?eo?a aoae?aieoeoaa

Ia’?eoe Iaeeieoe? aei??o 1985 ?. 1996 ?. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy

AEeoeia? aoaeeiee iei. i2 ieiu? 19.2 6.7 2.8:1

Caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee oen. i?noeue 180.0 29.2 6.2:1

Aeioe?euei? caeeaaee oen. i?noeue 89.7 2.8 31:1

E?ea?iyi? caeeaaee oen. e?aeie 11.2 1.6 7:1

Iie?ee?i?e oen. a?aea?aeoaaiue a ci?io 35.7 4.5 8:1

I?iooaoo/eeeua oen. o/aiaeo i?noeue 16.8 — —

I?iieneiaa aoae?aieoeoai ia’?eo?a 41.9 — —

a o./. iiaiaoaeia ia’?eo?a 1.3 — —

Iaea?eueo cia/ieo ci?i ca ianyaii EA caciaee aeeoeiaa ? i?iieneiaa
aoae?aieoeoai, ianyae aaaaeaiiy a ae?th ia’?eo?a ciaioeeenue
a?aeiia?aeii a 1.9 ? 1.7 ?ace.

I?e oaeiio noai? ?iaanoeoe?e ca io?oe?eieie noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie
/enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a a aoae?iaeono??? Oe?a?ie aoea ia ii/aoie 1990
?. 1238 oen. /ie., a o./. ae?iaie/iai ia?niiaeo 1160 oen. /ie., a ia
ii/aoie 1994 ?. — a?aeiia?aeii 923 oen. /ie. ? 883 oen. /ie., 74% aei
??aiy 1990 ?. Ioaea, iaiiaeia aiai?eoe i?i oe?eeiaeoa ?oeioaaiiy aaeoc?,
ai caa??aa?oueny aaaeeeaee no?aoaa?/iee iioaioe?ae -ethaee.

Aeai? oaaeeoe? 2 na?ae/aoue, ui no?oeoo?a aoae?iaeono??? caciaea iaaieo
ci?i, aea ae?iaie/?e iioaioe?ae ua caa??aa?oueny. Aaeee? aoae?aaeuei?
i?aai?caoe?? oaeoe/ii ?icaea?aeaaeai? (a iiiyoo? iineaaeaiiy ca’yce?a),
? a ?o no?oeoo?? ? i?aea?aeii/? i?aai?caoe??, ??ci? ca oi?iith
aeaniino?.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aeeiai?ea noaio aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e

? Iieacieee Iaeeieoe? aei??o ?iee

1992 1994 1996

1 O?anoe oa i?e??aiai? i?aai?caoe?? iaeeieoe? 296 298 270

2 *enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a oen. /ie. 1119.3 923.8 832

3 I?aea?aeii/? o?anoai i?aai?caoe?? (oeio NIO) iaeeieoe? 2024 2353 2117

a o./. aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? iaeeieoe? 1222 1161 655

eieaeoeaii? aeaniino? iaeeieoe? 299 891 1462

ci?oaii? aeaniino? iaeeieoe? 498 299 —

4 *enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a iniiaii? ae?yeueiino? a i?aea?aeii/eo
i?aai?caoe?yo oen. /ie. 1059 883 710

na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a iaeii? i?aai?caoe?? /ie. 522 372
393

5 Iae? i?aei?e?inoaa iica o?anoaie iaeeieoe? 5590 5923 5297

na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa oen. /ie. 148
140 87

na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a iaeiiai iaeiai i?aei?e?inoaa /ie.
24 24 16

6 Aoae?aaeuei? eiiia?aoeae iaeeieoe? 3689 1114 587

na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a aoae?aaeueieo eiiia?aoea?a oen.
/ie. 96 34 12

na?aaeiy /enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a iaeiiai aoae?aaeueiiai eiiia?aoeao
/ie. 26 30 20

7 Aoae?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? (aac o?ano?a) iaeeieoe? 11303 9390 8001

a o./. c e?euee?noth i?aoe?aiee?a iiiaae 500 /ie. (aaeee?) % 21 — —

c e?euee?noth i?aoe?aiee?a a?ae 100 aei 500 /ie. (na?aaei?) %

25 —

c e?euee?noth i?aoe?aiee?a iaioa 100 /ie. (iae?) % 79 75 —

Aeeiai?eo a no?oeoo?? aoae?iaeono??? iaiiaeia ioe?ithaaoe ye iiceoeaio.
Caaaeueia /enaeuei?noue aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e a 1996 ?. ciaioeeanue
a?aeiinii 1992 ?. ia 30%, niinoa??aa?oueny iano?eeee noai iaeeo
i?aei?e?inoa iica o?anoaie, ciaioo?oueny /enei aoae?aaeueieo
eiiia?aoea?a. A iaeeo i?aei?e?inoaao ? aoae?aaeueieo eiiia?aoeaao
caeiyoi eeoa 19.7% i?aoe?aiee?a a?ae /enea caeiyoeo a i?aai?caoe?yo
na?aaeiueiai ??aiy.

Noai ? iniaeeaino? aoae?iaeono??? a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao c ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaeeeith e?euee?noth, ?icaeiaiith
no?oeoo?ith aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ? aio/e?noth ca’yce?a i?ae ieie.

Ca aeaieie ia 90-o? ?iee iae?/oaaeinue aoae?aaeueieo o??i a NOA — 1400
oen., a ssiii?? — 600 oen., a O?I — 50 oen. sseui ni?aa?aeianoe
ianaeaiiy e?a?i aei /enea aoae?aaeueieo o??i, oi oaea a?aeiioaiiy iaoeia
cia/aiiy aeey NOA — 160, aeey ssiii?? — 200, aeey O?I — 950. Ca
aiaeia??th a oiiaao noaa?eueii? aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i? iio??aii iaoe a?ey
45-50 oen. aoae?aaeueieo o??i.

A ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao ??ciee ??aaiue i?eaaoieo ? aea?aeaaieo EA, ??cia
/enei aoae?aaeueieo o??i, aea aeey an?o oa?aeoa?ia noiae?noue no?oeoo?e
aoae?iaeono???. Aeai? oaaeeoe? 3 na?ae/aoue, ui iaea?eueoee a?aenioie ca
/eneii iaeaaeeoue ae??aiei ? iaeei o??iai. Ae??ai?, iae? ? na?aaei?
o??ie noai?ththoue eiieo?aioia na?aaeiaeua, ?iaeyoue aeeiai?/iei
i?ae?yaeiee ?eiie.

Aiie ? ina?aaeeii caii/aoeoaaiiy oaoi?/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e, ui iio?i
iaaoaathoue oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy /a?ac aaeee? o??ie, ye? ei?enoothoueny
iineoaaie niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iaeeo ? na?aaei?o o??i ia oiiaao noai?ae?yaeo
(noaeiio?aeoo).

Oaaeeoey 3

No?oeoo?a aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono??? ?icaeiooeo e?a?i (%)

? Eaoaai??? o??i NOA ssiii?y Aiae?y O?I

1 Ae??ai? (1-19 /ie.)

ca /eneii o??i 91.6 90 96.3 80.9

ca e?euee?noth caeiyoeo 37.4 — 32.4 31.7

ca ianyaii ?iaio 22.1 — 35.4 26.7

2 Iae? (20-99 /ie.)

ca /eneii o??i 7.6 8.5 3.1 16.6

ca e?euee?noth caeiyoeo 27.3 — 24.8 37.3

ca ianyaii ?iaio 33.1 — 23 36.5

3 Na?aaei? (100-500 /ie.), aaeee?, iaaeaaeee? (iiiaae 500 /ie.)

ca /eneii o??i 0.8 1.5 0.6 2.5

ca e?euee?noth caeiyoeo 25.6 — 42.7 30.6

ca ianyaii ?iaio 34.9 — 34.8 36.9

A on?o e?a?iao ??aaiue niaoe?ae?caoe?? caaaeueii-aoae?aaeueieo o??i
nyaa? 80%, ?io? o??ie — niaoe?ae?ciaai? (100%) ? aeeaa?neo?eiaai?.
Iaaoaa? aaeeeiai cia/aiiy noi?uaiiy aoai?a ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano:
iaa?oiooaaiiy ? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaeooaaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa.

Iino?eii c?inoa? oaoi?/iee ??aaiue aoae?aieoeoaa, i?i ui na?ae/eoue
ci?ia no?oeoo?e aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoo (aeea. oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4

No?oeoo?a aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoo aoae?aieoeoaa NOA (%)

Aaeoc? aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno 70-o? ??. 90 ??.

Aoae?aaeueia i?iaeoeoe?y 75.8 60.0

Iaoa??aee ? eiino?oeoe?? 17.6 23.0

Aoae?aaeueii-aei?iaei? iaoeie 3.9 7.0

I?iaeooaaiiy 2.7 10.0

?acii 100.0 100.0

A on?o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao aea?aeaaa i?aeo?eio? aoae?aieoeoai,
aeiiii?/ieie ? aeeieiiaoe/ieie caoiaeaie aeiiiiaaa? e?oiiei o??iai, ui
aenii?oothoue nai? iineoae; aeiiii?/ieie, i?aai?caoe?eieie ?
caeiiiaeaa/eie aaaeaeyie i?aeo?eio? ? aeiiiiaaa? iaeei ? na?aaei?i
aoae?aaeueiei o??iai.

A Oe?a?i? ca noaiii ia 1994 ?. (? oeae noai ia ia? oaiaeaioe?e aeniei?
aeeiai?/iino?) ae?yee 9390 aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e, na?aae yeeo 25%
oaeeo, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei aaeeeeo ? na?aaei?o, ? 75% — iae? ? ae??ai?.

I?aai?caoe??, i?aeii?yaeeiaai? o?anoai, iiaeia aaaaeaoe naiino?eieie
ae?iaieeaie, ai ca?ac aiie iathoue a?eueiee aeo?ae aei ?eieo ?ano?n?a, a
ca’ycee c o?anoaie a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iathoue oiiaiee oa?aeoa?, ye ?
ca’ycee aoae?aaeueieo o?ano?a c aea?aeaaieie ei?ii?aoe?yie.

?oaeeiaioii a?ae oiia, ui ae?yee aei 1991 ?., ? oa, ui ia’?aeiaiiy
aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e (aea?aeaaii?, eieaeoeaii? ? ci?oaii? oi?i
aeaniino?) a neeaae? o?ano?a, ae?thoue a iaaieo “cae/ieo” aeey ieo ciiao
? c ??cieo i?e/ei ooai?ththoue iiaeiao ie?aiiie??. Oaeo ?aa?iiaeueio
i???ioaoe?th ia ci?ith? iaa?oue i?aeoeea eiieo?nieo caiiaeaiue ia
aeeiiaiiy aoae?aaeueieo ?ia?o.

Uia noai?eoe eiieo?aioia na?aaeiaeua ia i?ae?yaeiiio ?eieo a /ene?
aecia/aii? e?eueeino? aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e, iaiao?aeii caa?aaoe
aaeee? i?aai?caoe?? (eieeoi? o?anoe), ai a ieo cina?aaeaeaiee aaaiiee
no?aoaa?/iee iioaioe?ae aoae?iaeono??? (aeina?ae, eaae?o?eiaai? eaae?e,
iniiai? ae?iaie/? oiiaee (IAO)). Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea ioneoue aooe
ni?yiiaaia ia i?aeo?eieo ? caioi/aiiy noai?aiiy oe?iei? ia?aae?
aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e: na?aaei?o (4-6%), iaeeo (9-10%) ? ae??aieo
(85%). ? aaaaoi niinia?a ooai?aiiy o??i iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a
Oe?a?i? (ia iniia? ?i?oe?aoeae, a?aeoi?aiaiiy, i?eaaoecaoe?? /a?ac
e?ea?aeaoe?th oiui). Aieiaiei oaeoi?ii ioneoue aooe aea?aeaaia iie?oeea
i?aeo?eiee iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?eieiai?
?aeaieia?? na?aae i?aei?e?inoa, /iio aoaeooue ni?eyoe iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
?ic?iaee aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo ? i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ieo iniia
iaa?oiooaaiiy ??oaiue uiaei noai?aiiy iaeeo ? na?aaei?o aoae?aaeueieo
o??i.

Aeey ?icaeoeo ?eieiai? ?aeaieia?? ? aeoea?caoe?? ?i?oe?aoeaieo
i?aei?e?ioe?a ia ?eieo aoae?aaeueieo iineoa aaaeeeaei ? ?icoi?iiy c ?o
aieo, ui caiiaieeii aeey iaeeo ? na?aaei?o o??i iiaea aenooiaoe
th?eaee/ia iniaa ye e?oii? aoae?aaeuei? o??ie (aaii?ae?yaeiee), oae ?
?io? no?oeoo?e, ui i?aai?cothoue i?ae?yaeio oi?io aoae?aieoeoaa.

Noai?ae?yaei? a?aeiineie aeey iaei? ? na?aaeiuei? o??ie iathoue aaaaoi
iiceoeaieo iiiaio?a: noaa?euei?noue caiiaeaiue, iaai? iaoa??aeuei?
iineoae, caoeuai?noue, iaeaooiaai?noue aaii?ae?yaeii? o??ie ia
ia?niaeoeai? caiiaeaiiy oiui.

Uia ia?aoe iai?yiie niaoe?ae?caoe??, ciaeoe ?iaioo aeey ae??aii?, iaei?
? na?aaeiuei? o??ie, e??i caaaeueii? aeiiii?ei-i?aaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??,
iio??aii iaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th, ui iia’ycaia c eiie?aoiei ?aa?iiii,
iai?yieii aoae?aieoeoaa (aeey yei? aaeoc? noai?ththoueny iniiai?
oiiaee), a?aeiiino? i?i iiaeeea?noue ? iai?yiie niaoe?ae?caoe??,
oa?aeoa? niiaeea/iai ?eieo ? ?eieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a; oa?aeoa?
oiaa?i?ooo, iniaeeaino? oe?iiooai?aiiy, ??aaiue ? iniaeeaino? oaoiieia??
aeeiiaiiy ?iaio, nioe?aeueii-iiaooiao neooaoe?th a ?aa?ii?, a a ?ac?
noaeiio?aeoo — iaoe i?iaeo i?aai?caoe?? aoae?aieoeoaa (IIA).

Aea noai?aiiy aaieo aeaieo ia iniia? aiae?co i?iaeo?a aoae?aieoeoaa a
??cieo aniaeoao ii?aeiaiue ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/ii? neooaoe?? iio?aao?
iaaieo eioo?a ? aaaaoi /ano. ?ai?oa noai?ai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? nenoaie
/anoeiai c?oeiiaai?, a o?, ui noai?ththoueny a iao /an a Oe?a?i?,
ae??oothoue eieaeuei? i?iaeaie.

Ca?ac aeioe?eueii nei?enoaoeny ?ai?oa iai?aoeueiaaiei (ca o/anoth ?
oe?a?inueeeo i?iaeoieo i?aai?caoe?e) ianeaii «?ic?aooieia? ii?iaoeae
aeey neeaaeaiiy i?iaeo?a i?aai?caoe?? aoae?aieoeoaa» (/anoeia I-XIII)
(«?I»). O oe?e ?iaio? cina?aaeaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y noiniaii noa aaeocae ?
i?aeaaeocae ae?iaieoeoaa, ia’?eoe yeeo aoaeothoueny a 10 oa?eoi??aeueieo
iiynao (a ie ioneii ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia aenii?o aoae?aaeueieo iineoa), ye?
iathoue a?ae 2 aei 6 a?oi. Ii?iaoeae ci?iththoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? AI?, aeeth/athoue iiiaae 70 iieaciee?a aeo?ao ?ano?n?a ia
iiiaae 80 oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. Ianea iiaoaeiaaiee oae, ui
noeoii?noue (iiiaeeia) ianooiiiai (ieae/iai) ii?yaeeo aoiaeeoue aai
ia?aoeia?oueny c noeoii?noth iiia?aaeiueiai. Caaaeueia /enei iieaciee?a
aei??aith? 45.8o107. Oea aeoaea aaeeeee ianea, ui oneeaaeith? iiooe
iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Caniaii eiai caoaeoaaiiy ? aeaeiiiiceoe?y
ianeao «?I» oeyoii aecia/aiiy iaaieo a?oi (eean?a).

aeeth/athoue ae?iaieoeoaa ? aoaeiae aaeocae. Aoaeaii aaaaeaoe ?o
caieiaieie a iaaeao aaeoc?. ?o neeaaeia? iathoue iniiaio iciaeo ca
i?eiaeaaei?noth. Nai? iiiaeeie ia ia?aoeiathoueny ? ia iia’ycai?
yeeienue aeaiaioaie.

Ca?aene ia??aiicia/i? ia?aiao?e

Oiaoi iaai? iieacieee (ianyae aeo?ao yeiainue ?ano?no oiui) a ??cieo
aaeocyo aoae?aieoeoaa ia ? aea?aaeaioieie.

?icaeyaea?ii ye caieiaio, ui aeeth/a? a naaa iiiaeeie a?eueo iecueeiai
ii?yaeeo:

:

Aaeocaaa a?oioaaiiy iin??a ?ioi?iaoe?? cae?enith?oueny ii iai?yieao
noai?aiiy iniiaieo oiiae?a a aaeocyo aeiiii?ee. Aecia/aiiyi eean?a ?
i?aeeean?a iieaciee?a caoaeo?oueny iiooeiaee i?ino??, a aecia/aiiy
nooiaith eiia??iino? aeicaiey? canoinoaaoe iia?aoe?ei? iaoiaee iiooeo.

Aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ci?i iieaciee?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae aieeao ??cieo
oaeoi??a aeioe?eueii aeei?enoaoe iaoiaeieia?th oai??? ?ici?ciaaaiiy
ia?ac?a:

,

;

— eeane, ia ye? ?iciaaea?oueny noeoii?noue ia’?eo?a (ia’?eoe ?
ae?iaieoeoaa a

aaeocyo);

;

;

.

Ia’?eoe aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeia ca?oioaaoe ca oa?aeoa?ii cae?eniaiiy
oaoiieia?? iniiaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa:

aoaeiae, oaoiieia?? yeeo ?ici?uaii i?ae aeaoii,

aia?aoia oaoiieia?y (iaooiia?a?iai? caaiaee, o?i?/i? i?aei?e?inoaa, ?
o.i.,

aoaeiae aeey ci?oaii? oaoiieia??,

a??ie/i-i?ioiaeeia? oa ieiueiii-?ic??ci? oaoiieia??,

oaoiieia??, ui aacothoueny ia e?i?eieo nii?oaeao (aaoioeyoe, cae?cieoe?,
o?oaii?iaiaee, eaiaee ? EAI),

oi?eaeuei? ia’?eoe.

An? a?oie iathoue nai? iniaeeaino? ? aaeeeee aea?? aeey oaoiieia?/ii?,
i?aaeiaoii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? iaeeo ? na?aaei?o o??i.

A?oioaaiiy ia’?eo?a aoae?aieoeoaa ca oa?eoi??aeueieie iciaeaie oaeiae
caoaeo? iiooeiaa iiea. ?iaioo o?aaa ooeaoe oai, aea cina?aaeaeai?
aoae?aaeuei? iiooaeiino?, ui ianeoaiaoaaee aacia? aaeoc? i?iieneiaino?.

Ia iniia? aeua ?icaeyiooeo i?aeoiae?a aei a?oioaaiiy ? eeaneo?eaoe??
iciae ia’?eo?a aoae?aieoeoaa aoaeo?oueny iao?eoey ia?aeiiiai iiooeo
niaoe?ae?caoe?? (i?n??) o??ie ? iio?i aeine?aeaeothoueny an? iaiao?aei?
aeaea?aea ?ioi?iaoe?? oa aeeiio?oueny ioe?iea neooaoe?? aeey i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeiai ??oaiiy.

A iaaeao eeano /e a?oie iieaciee?a ?ioi?iaoe?y ni?iuo?oueny ca iaaieie
i?aaeeaie:

1) «Aii??e/ia i?aaeei». ??oaiiy aaco?oueny ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aai
eieaeoeaiiio aeina?ae?;

2) Canoinoaaiiy nenoaie eaoaai??e. Neeaaea?oueny ia?ae?e eaoaai??e,
eean?a, ? oeei aeinyaa?oueny eiie?aoi?noue ??oaiue;

3) Iaoooaaiiy iaeicia/oueie aeey aeaiiai iiiaioo oaeoi?aie;

4) I?enoinoaaiiy aei ai?eciioo ieaioaaiiy. Noino?oueny iaeeo ? na?aaei?o
o??i, ui i?aoeththoue ca noaeiio?aeoaie;

5) Iaoooaaiiy ?eceeii. Eiee oea aeicaiey? ia?aaea/o ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
iaaiai?aiiy ia iia? aecia/aieo aaee/ei.

I?aeoiaee aei iiooeo ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaa?oiooaaiiy ??oaiue c canoinoaaiiyi
oai??? ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a iathoue aaaaoi iaoiae?a. Na?aae ieo iaoiae
aaaiaeo eiao?oe??io?a, iaoiae aacia?a?aieo aeiaaeeiaeo ci?iieo,
iioei?caoe?eia aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue.

Oe?iei a?aeiiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy aaaiaeo eiao?oe??io?a iieaciee?a c
canoinoaaiiyi aenia?oieo ioe?iie i?iiiio?oueny aeiiiaieoe iiaoaeiaith
«oaaeeoeue aecia/aeueieo iciae» (OAI). Oaeee can?a a oeueiio iaoiae?
iiaeeaeth? aiae?c iieacieea. Ooieoe?th ?aae?caoe?? ca’yce?a aeeiiothoue
«oa?aeoa?enoeee» — oe?e? iiooeo (iieacieee) ? «iiceoe??» — i?aeoe?e? (ui
aeeaoa ?ice?eaathoue nooi?noue oa?aeoa?enoee). Aeania «oa?aeoa?enoeee» ?
«iiceoe??» neeaaeathoue iniiao OAI.

) oi?i?. ?o ?aia aecia/a?oueny aeina?aeii aai aenia?oaie, ? ?aia noa?
iniiaith aecia/aiiy aaniethoii? aaae ca oi?ioeith:

.

— eiieo?aio?a iaia?.

Cia/ei?noue caoiaeo ioe?ith?oueny ca oi?ioeith

— e?euee?noue oa?aeoa?enoee.

.

Canoinoaaiiy OAI aea? iiaeeea?noue iia?aoe?eieie caniaaie ?ici?ciaoe ?
e?euee?nii ioe?ieoe noai ia’?eoa /e i?aaeiaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy, uia
i?eeiyoe iaaia ??oaiiy.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae aoaeo?oueny ia iaai?e aeene?aoiino? ?ioi?iaoe??.
Iani?aaae? ??oaiiy aeiaiaeeoueny i?eeiaoe c aenieei ??aiai
iaaecia/aiino?, ? oiae? a?eueo aeioe?eueii aoaeoaaoe iaoiaeieia?th
(i?aeo?ae) ia iinooiiaiio cieaeaii? nooiaiy iaaecia/aiino?, a iaoiae —
ia aeei?enoaii? cania?a, ui aeathoue ciiao e?euee?niiai aiae?co. Oaea
iiaeeea?noue caeeaaeaia a aae?n?anueeiio i?aeoiae? aei ??oaiiy
oi?aae?inueeeo caaea/.

ia?aoai?thaaoenue a a?eueo aecia/aiee aiinoa??i?iee aae aei
aeinyaiaiiy i?aaaeiiiae?aiino?, eiee iiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y ia ci?ieoue
inoaiiuei? aeoiee.

Iaoiaee/ii oaeee i?aeo?ae ?aae?co?oueny ia a?aeiioaii? aei ?ioi?iaoe??
ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ?iciiae?e?a.

?iciiae?e aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano:

,

,

— na?aaei? cia/aiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai niiae?aaiiy,

— aeenia?n?y ii?iaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo.

Aeae? ca noaiith ?en.1 ?icaeyaea?oueny:

— ai??i?iee ?iciiae?e iaoaiaoe/iiai niiae?aaiiy;

i?ioeano;

— aiinoa??i?iee ?iciiae?e iaoaiaoe/iiai niiae?aaiiy i?ioeano;

— ai??i?iee ?iciiae?e aiinoa??i?iiai iaoaiaoe/iiai niiae?aaiiy
i?ioeano.

Iaoaiaoe/ia nooi?noue oaeiai iaoiaeo iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino?
iia?aoe?iiaeueieo ae?e ? e?euee?nii? ioe?iee e?ie?a aiae?co noa’?eoii,
ui i?eeia? ??oaiiy. ?ioi?iaoe?y ia? ei?eni?noue aeey i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy,
ui onoaa? iaaecia/ai?noue ? ia? ?eieiao oe?io.

Noa’?eo oi?aae?iiy, yeee ioe?ith? ia?oa (ai??i?ia) i??eoaaiiy, i?aaia
io?eiaoe iaaiee ianya aeiaeaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae
iaaieo oiia ? iiaeeeainoae. Aeey inoaoi/iiai aecia/aiiy a?aeiioaiiy
ieaioaaeueieea aei ?ioi?iaoe?? aeei?enoaii a?aeiiee c e?oa?aoo?e
?ioaa?ae «e?i?eieo aeo?ao, ?iciiae?eaieo ii ii?iaeueiiio caeiio».

Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia aeai?eoio iiooeo iaa?oiooaaiiy oi?aae?inueeiai
??oaiiy ia iniia? aacia?a?aieo aeiaaeeiaeo ci?iieo aecia/a? coieieo
iiooeo, yeui ?acoeueoao ia?aaeinoaiiueiai aeieo aoaea iiceoeaiee. Iiaeia
i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy ia iaaoo?e ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iiaea neeanoeny neooaoe?y, eiee iai?? i?aei?e?ioey noi?iiaaii ye iaaiee
ieai. Aecia/ai? ianyae ?ia?o, oaoiieia??, aeo?aoe, iiaeeeaee aieea
aeiaaeeiaeo oaeoi??a a ?eieo. Oiae? canoiniao?oueny
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iioei?caoe?? ieaio c o?aooaaiiyi
aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei.

Iniiaia iiaeaeue oe?eueiai? ooieoe??

,

,

— iiia? oaoiieia??,

— e?euee?noue oaoiieia?e, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny,

— e?euee?noue aeae?a caiiaeaiue,

— ianya ?ia?o (AI?),

-? oaoiieia??,

-? oaoiieia??,

-? oaoiieia??,

).

,

,

,

— aeenia?n?y.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeai?noo caaea/o aei iniiaii? iiaeae?, i?ney
i?aenoaiiaie

,

— iioeiaeueiee ?ica’ycie aeey i?yii? caaea/?,

— iioeiaeueiee ?ica’ycie aeey aeai?noi? caaea/?.

Iiaa cia/aiiy oe?eueiai? ooieoe??

I?iaeooaaiiy ae?iaie/i? i?aai?caoe?? ? noai?aiiy caniao ?aae?caoe??
i?n?? — aeeiiaiiy ia?aii? ?iaioe.

A i?ioean? iaa?oiooaaiiy ??oaiiy uiaei aeai?o iai?yieo ?iaioe
(niaoe?ae?caoe??) ieaioaaeueiee iaeiie/o? iaaiee ianya ?ioi?iaoe??,
iaiao?aeii? aeey iiaeaeueoiai i?iaeooaaiiy ae?iaie/i? no?oeoo?e a
aoae?aieoeoa?. I?iaeooaaiiy iaei? /e na?aaeiuei? aoae?aaeueii? o??ie ia?
nooo?a? a?aei?ie a?ae i?iaeooaaiiy aaeeeeo aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e,
ui cae?enithaaeinue a oiiaao oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aeiiii?ee ca i?eioeeiii
aiaeia?? ? ii?iaoea?a, a?aeianaieo aei aaeeeeo no?oeoo?. O??ie iaeiai ?
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a aoae?aieoeoa? iathoue ianoiae? c aaeeeeie
aioo??oi? ia?aiao?e, ? ia ieo ae?? a?eueo aei?noieee aieea ciai?oi?o
oaeoi??a a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Iiaoaeiaa aoae?aaeueii? o??ie ioneoue aacoaaoeny ia ioe?ioe? ca’yce?a,
ui aeieeathoue a aoae?aaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, ? a?oiooaaoeny ia
iine?aeiaiino? ae??oaiiy aeie?a ieoaiue. Oae? aeiee aecia/athoue: 1)
i?iaeoeo, ?iaioo, iineoae; 2) oaoiieia?th ae?iaieoeoaa (caniae
ae?iaieoeoaa, eaae?o?eaoe?th ethaeae, aeina?ae oiui); 3) aeiiii?eo o??ie
(o?iaine, athaeaeao, iiaeaoee, ?iaanoeoe?? oiui); 4)
no?oeoo?ii-aaei?i?no?aoeaio iiaoaeiao; 5) nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?
a?aeiineie.

Ia ?en. 2 a?aeia?aaeai? iniiai? e?iee i?iaeooaaiiy o??ie iaeiai ?
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano.

C on?o aaoi??a, ui ?icaeyaeathoue i?iaeaie iaeiai a?ciano, iaea?eueo
iiaii aecia/eea eaoaai??? i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai a?ciano a aoae?aieoeoa?
O.A.Iaoeiaa, aiia aeae?eeea ?iaeea?aeoaeueio ae?yeuei?noue oa ae??ai?
(aea?aaeaio yeeo — a?eaaaee aei 20 /ie.) ? na?aaei? (oeio ae?eueieoeue
50-100 /ie.) o??ie.

Na?oiaa i?aeoeea ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ae?yaeiiai ?eieo na?ae/eoue i?i
?icaeoie oe?ieiai ?yaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?. I?ae ieie aeieeathoue
aaaaoi oi?i ca’yce?a, ui ?iaeoue ?eiie aeeiai?/iei. A aoae?aaeuei?e
?iaeono??? Oe?a?ie iai?aoeueiaaiee aeina?ae ??cieo ii?aeiaiue
aoae?aaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a. Oea aoei iia’ycaii c iaiao?aei?noth
aeeiiaiiy ?iaio ia ?icina?aaeaeaieo ia’?eoao aai i?e eiioeaio?aoe??
?ano?n?a ia aoae?aieoeoa? aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a. I?ii?iiaoae ? I?in?eueaoae Oe?a?ie
oeyoii nenoaie i?ae?yaeieo ? noai?ae?yaeieo noinoie?a, noai?aiiy ??ciiai
?ici??o niaoe?ae?ciaaieo i?aai?caoe?e aeinyaaee iaaii? aeeiai?/iino? a
?iciiae?e? nee ? ?ano?n?a iaa?oue a oiiaao aei?noeiai ieaioaaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Ca ?iee naiino?eiino? Oe?a?ie ? oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a aoae?aieoeoa? iaeiie/aiee iaaiee aeina?ae ooai?aiiy
ca’yce?a i?ae aoae?aaeueieie no?oeoo?aie ? oi?ioaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa c ??cieie i?aai?caoe?eieie, oaoiieia?/ieie ca’yceaie ? c
??cieie oi?iaie aeaniino?. Aaaeeeaei aeey eaoaai?oaaiiy iaeeo ?
na?aaei?o aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ? niin?a ?o ooai?aiiy a ii?aeiaii?
c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?o no?aoaa?/iiai iioaioe?aeo (oaeiai, ui aaea a
iaaeaeae?e ia?niaeoea? aecia/aoeia ?o ae?iaie/? iiaeeeaino?). Oa?aeoa?
?iaioe ? no?oeoo?a aoae?aaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a (ca na?ae/aiiyi aenia?o?a
— aeina?ae/aieo i?aai?caoi??a aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa) iaoeiooue
nooo?a? a?aei?ie a i?aai?caoe?yo c /enaeuei?noth aei 49 /ie.
aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo aeeiiaaoe?a ? oeo, ui oaeiae iaoeiooue
/enaeuei?noue aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo aeeiiaaoe?a a?ae 50 aei 100 /ie. Oae?
o??ie iaoeiooue ??cio no?oeoo?o ? ??aaiue iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a
(aeea. oaae. 5), ??ci? oi?aae?inuee? no?oeoo?e ? iaa?oue oa?aeoa?
a?aeiinei a i?ae?yaeiiio ?eieo. Ioaea, aecia/eii eaoaai??th “ae??aieo” —
1-19 /ie., eaoaai??th “iaeeo” aeioe?eueii ?icae?eeoe ia aea?:
“iae?-iae?” — 20-49 /ie. ? “iae?-aaeee?” — 50-99 /ie. Eaoaai??y
“na?aaei?o” — 100-500 /ie. caeia? iniaeeaa i?noea a no?oeoo??, oiio ui
aiie /ano?oa iiaeooue aooe ia’?aeioth/ith eaieith a i?ae?yaeiiio ?eieo.

Oaaeeoey 5

Aecia/aiiy eaoaai??e o??i

??/iee ae?ia?oie, oen.a?i. *enaeuei?noue, /ie. ??/iee ianya ?iaio,
oen.a?i. Oiiaeia?aeaea/a, a?i. Aa?o?noue IAO, oen.a?i. Eaoaai??y

20 aei 19 20-380 4 5-99 ae??ai?

20 20-49 400-980 4 100-349 iae?-iae?

25 50-99 1000-1980 3 350-699 iae?-aaeee?

25 100-500 2000-10000 3 700-3350 na?aaei?

AENHIAEE

1. Na?oiaa i?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui i?ae?yaeiee aaeocaaee ?eiie
ooai?th?oueny iayai?noth neeaaeii? no?oeoo?e aoae?aaeueii? aaeoc?, yea
aeeth/a? aaeee?, na?aaei?, iae? ? ae??ai? aoae?aaeuei? o??ie. Ae??ai? ?
iae? o?pie noaaeyoue 96- 99% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aoae?aaeueieo
o??i a e?a?iao; aeeiiothoue a?eueoa 55 — 65% caaaeueiiai ianyao
aoae?aaeueieo ?ia?o ? oo?eiothoue aeecueei 70% o?oaeiaiai ?ano?no
aaeoc?. Aoaeoeai?noue ?o ae?yeueiino? caaacia/o?oueny cia/iei ??aiai
niaoe?ae?caoe??, aoaeoeaiei iniauaiiyi oa aenieei i?ioan?eiei p?aiai
ia?niiaeo. Ae??ai?, iae? ? na?aaei? o??ie iathoue i?aeo?eieo aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a oa a?iiaaenueeeo ?inoeoooe?e.

A Oepa?i? aaeocue aoae?aieoeoaa neaai no?oeoo?iaaia, aaeee? aoae?aaeuei?
i?aai?caoe?? ua i?aeoe/ii oopeiothoue a nai?io neeaae? napaaei? ? iae?
ipaai?caoe?? c ??cieie oi?iaie caeaaeiino?. Iae? ? napaaei? o?pie, ui
iathoue noaoon a?eueieo ae?iaiee?a neeaaeathoue ua aeoaea iaeo /anoeio
uiaei caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aoae?aaeueieo o??i.

2. ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono??? (ia?aae? aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e) ? aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith ia oeyoo noai?aiiy i?ae?yaeiiai
?eieo c iaiao?aeiei eiieo?aioiei na?aaeiaeuai. I?e iayaiino? iaaii?
i?aaiai? aace aeey noai?aiiy naiino?eieo niaoe?ae?ciaaieo o??i iaeiai ?
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a Oepa?i? ni?aaa aaeueio?oueny a?aenooi?noth
iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? oaeiai i?aaa ? iiaeeeainoae a oiio /ene? ?
a?eueo-iaio iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiaeieia?? ? iaoiae?a oi?ioaaiiy ae??aieo,
iaeeo oa na?aaei?o aoae?aaeueieo o?pi ye naiino?eieo noa’?eo?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia iniia? aiae?co ? ioe?iee
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ii? niaoeeo?ee aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

3. Aoae?aieoeoai, c iiaeyaeo ia niaoeeo?eo eiai oaoiieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e,
yea coiiaeth? iaaiee nooi?iue ia?aaeoaaiiy oa ne?aeoaaiiy aeeiiaiiy
iaaieo eiiieaen?a ?ia?o, noai?th? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey niaoe?ae?caoe??
aoae?aaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a oa eiiia?aoe?? ?o ?iaioe ia ia’?eoao. Oae?
i?ae?icae?ee iiaeooue aooe naiino?eieie o??iaie ??cii? aaee/eie ?
eiiia?oaaoenue ia iniia? eiio?aeo?a (?icae?eaiee i?ae?yae, noai?ae?yae ?
o.i.). ?o naiino?ei?noue iieyaaoeia a oi?ii? ciaeoe ? ona?aeiieoe nai?
i?noea a nenoai? a?aeiinei i?ae?yaeiiai ?eieo.

4. Aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith ia oeyoo caoaeaeaiiy ? i?aeo?eiee ?i?oe?aoeae
aei ooai?aiiy naiino?eieo o??i iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a
aoae?aieoeoa? ? iaaeaiiy oaei? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?aei?e?ioeth yea a iaaeaea
ciiao ia?aoe ? ioe?ieoe iaaiee iai?yiie niaoe?ae?caoe??.

Aei noai?aiiy no?oeoo?iaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie aeioe?eueii
nei?enoaoenue ?ai?o iai?aoeueiaaiei aeaea?aeii «?ic?aooieia? ii?iaoeae
aeey neeaaeaiiy i?iaeo?a i?aai?caoe?? aoae?aieoeoaa» (/anoeie ?-O???).

5. O ianea? «?ic?aooieiaeo ii?iaoea?a…» i?noeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui
noino?oueny aaeocae ae?iaieoeoaa, iieaciee?a noiniaii iiynieo oa
a?oiiaeo a?aei?i, aeo?ao ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ia iniiai? oaoiieia?/i?
i?ioeane ? o.i. A oe?eiio ianea oo?eio? aeecueei 45,8o107 ie?aieo
aeaiaio?a ?ioipiaoe?? (iieaciee?a).

6. C iaoith iieaaoeoe iiooe iaiao?aeii? ?ioipiaoe?? a ianea?
iia?aeiieaiue, ui i?noyoueny a O???-oe /anoeiao «?icpaooieiaeo
iipiaoea?a…» cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia a?oioaaiiy ia’?eo?a aoae?aieoeoaa
ca aaeocaaeie, oaoiieia?/ieie, ?aa?iiaeueieie iciaeaie.

7. Eeaneo?eaoe?y ca aaeocaaeie oa oaoiieia?/ieie iciaeaie aea? ciiao
iiaoaeoaaoe cai?iiiiiaaio iao?eoeth ia?aeiiiai iiooeo iai?yieo
niaoe?ae?caoe?? oa aeeaapneo?eaoe?? o??i iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a
aoae?aieoeoa?. ?acoeueoao iapaeiiiai iiooeo noa? i?aaeiaoii aeaoaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eeiyooy inoaoi/iiai ??oaiiy.

8. I?eeiyooy p?oaiiy uiaei iapaeiiiai aeai?o aai ci?ie niaoe?ae?caoe??
o??ie iia’ycaii c aenieei nooiaiai iaaecia/aiino?. Oiio ia?oei e?ieii
?iaioe ioneoue aooe eiie?aoecaoe?y iaae iiooeo oeyoii iiaoaeiae
eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae? ni?iuaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? a iaaeao a?oie (eeano)
ia’?eo?a, aecia/aieo /a?ac iaopeoeth iapaeiiiai iiooeo.

Iiaeaeueoee iiooe p?oaiiy i?iiiio?oueny cae?enithaaoe ia i?eioeeiao ?
iaoiaeao oai??? ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a ? canoinoaaii?
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae.

Canoinoaaiiy i?aaee ? e?eoa???a ia iniia? oai?aie Aaeana aeathoue ciiao
iinooiiai cieaeoaaoe aieea oaeoi??a iaaecia/aiino? /apac iiaeaethaaiiy
?o aeiaaeeiaeie ia?ai?iieie.

Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo aaaiaeo eiao?oe??io?a ? oaaeeoe? aecia/aeueieo
iciae aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aaao noi?iiaaieo a?oi epeoap??a (iciae
ia?aiao??a) ca yeeie aecia/a?oueny no?aoaa?y ae?e ? i?eeia?oueny
p?oaiiy.

Aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iioei?caoe?? iieacieea e?eoa??y c
o?aooaaiiyi aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei aeicaiey? iioei?coaaoe iai??e c
o?aooaaiiyi aeiaaeeiaeo oaeoi??a ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

9. Aea?? i?n?? aecia/a? i?aaeiao ae?iaieoeoaa o?pie, ?? iai??e ?
iieiaeaiiy a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?, iai?pe uiaei ianyao aepiaieoeoaa,
eaoaai??? ? o.i.

I?iiiio?oueny iaa?oiooaaoe eaoaai??eiee ?yae o??i iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o no?aoaa?/iiai ? iioaioe?aeo : /enaeueiino?
i?aoethth/eo, ??aiy ? oa?aeoa?o ?o oiiaeiica?i?iino?, oiia i?aai?caoe??
aepiaieoeoaa. Aecia/ai? /ioe?e eaoaaip??: ae??ai? (/enaeuei?noue 1 —
19/ie.), iae?-iae? (20 — 49/ie.), iae? — aaeee? (50 — 99/ie.), na?aaei?
(100 — 500/ie.).

10. O??io o?aaa oyaeyoe ye iaaio nenoaio aca?iiiia’ycaieo aeie?a :
i?iaeoeoiaee, oaoiieia?/iee, aeiiii?/iee, aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ?
nioe?aeueiee. Aeiee iia’ycai? iaaiith iine?aeiai?noth ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
? aecia/athoue iaaiith i??ith aeai?eoi iiaoaeiae o??ie.

11. Ia iniia? aiae?co ipaai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ii? aace noai?aiiy
aepiaie/eo no?oeoo?: oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ??oaiiy uiaei aeai?o
iai?yieo niaoe?ae?caoe??, i?iiiio?oueny aeai?eoi i?iaeooaaiiy
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? o??ie iaeiai ? napaaeiueiai a?ciano a aoae?aieoeoa?.

A aeai?eoi? cai?iiiiiaaia caaaeueia noaia ? i?aeoiaee p?oaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii — oaoiieia?/ieo caaea/ ? aaeaioaoe?y iai?aoeueiaaieo
iaoiae?a aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ipaai?caoe?eii — oaoiieia?/ieo caoiae?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

I?eiainyi I.?., Aaciaeee ?.Ae. Iniiaiee iieaciee aoaeoeaiino?
aoae?aieoeoaa: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue — E.: EAeOOAA, 1996. — N. 9-10.

I?eiainyi I.?., Iiai?aeueoeaa A.I. Iiiyooy ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono???: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue — E.: EAeOOAA, 1996.
— N. 36-40.

I?eiainyi I.?., Iiai?aeueoeaa A.I. Oi?aae?iiy oaiaea?aie: Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E: EAeOOAA, 1996 . — N. 43-44.

I?eiainyi I.?., Iiai?aeueoeaa A.I. ?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca aeey iaeiai
a?ciano a aoae?aieoeoa?: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue — E.: EAeOOAA, 1997 ,
N. 44-47.

I?eiainyi I.?. Iaa?oiooaaiiy ??oaiiy ia iniia? ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?aco:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E.: EAeOOAA, 1997. — N. 143-145.

I?eiainyi I.?. Iiooe i?n?? o??ie: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E.:
EAeOOAA, 1997. — N. 197-199.

I?eiainyi I.?., Aaciaeee ?.Ae. ?ioi?iaoe?y a i?iaeai? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??.
// Aoae?aieoeoai Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — ?3. — N. 6-8.

Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei i?iaaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c
aeenoeeie?ie “I?aai?caoe?y aoae?aieoeoaa”, “Oi?aae?iiy aoae?aieoeoaii”
aeey nooaeaio?a niaoe?aeueiino? 7.0921101 IOeA ( Aaciaeee ?.Ae.,
Oaaei?aiei A.A., Iaoa??anueeee N.A., I?eiainyi I.?.) — E.: EAeOOAA,
1998. — N. 4-18.

Aiioaoe?y

I?eiainyi I.?. I?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy iaeeo oa
na?aaei?o aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e a ?eieiaeo oiiaao. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.01 — aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa oa i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa (oaoi?/i? iaoee). — Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aoae?iaeono??? Oe?a?ie,
cie?aia, i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/iiio aniaeoo noai?aiiy
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iaeeo ? na?aaei?o aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e. Aeey
iiooeo iai?yieo niaoe?ae?caoe?? a aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeei
iiaoaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ?nioth/i?
ii?iaoeaii-oaoiieia?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? ? i?eioeei?a a?oioaaiiy ia’?eo?a
aoae?aieoeoaa. Cai?iiiiiaaii canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a
aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue noiniaii niaoe?ae?caoe??
aoae?aaeueieo o??i; iaaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th o??i iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano a aoae?aieoeoa?, aeai?eoi ? iaoiaee i?iaeooaaiiy oaeeo o??i.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?yo ei?ii?aoe?? «Oe?iiioaaeniaoeaoae» oa a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoae?aaeueia ?iaeono??y, i?ae?yaeiee ?eiie,
?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a, eaoaai?oaaiiy o??i.

Aiiioaoeey

Ieeiainyi I.E. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneea iniiau oi?ie?iaaiey iaeuo
e n?aaeieo no?ieoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.01 — yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa (oaoie/aneea iaoee). — Eeaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee no?ieeiaeono?ee Oe?aeiu, a
/anoiinoe, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneiio aniaeoo nicaeaiey
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo iaeuo e n?aaeieo no?ieoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey
iienea iai?aaeaiey niaoeeaeecaoeee a aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeai i?eioeei
iino?iaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey
nouanoaothuae ii?iaoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee e i?eioeeiia
a?oiie?iaaiey iauaeoia no?ieoaeuenoaa. I?aaeeiaeaii i?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia
?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia aeey iainiiaaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee,
eanathueony niaoeeaeecaoeee no?ieoaeueiuo oe?i; i?eaaaeaia
eeanneoeeaoeey oe?i iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana a no?ieoaeuenoaa,
aeai?eoi e iaoiaeu i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaeeo oe?i.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?eiaiaiea a no?ieoaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo ei?ii?aoeee «Oe?iiioaaeniaoeno?ie» e a o/aaiii i?ioeanna.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: no?ieoaeueiay eiaeono?ey, iiae?yaeiue ?uiie,
?aniiciaaaiea ia?acia, eaoaai?e?iaaiea oe?i.

Annotation

Nikogosyan N.I. Prganizational and Technological Foundations of the
Formation of Small and Medium Civil Engineering Prganizations in the
Conditions of Market Economy. — Manuscript.

Thesis for obtaining the scientific degree of Candidate of Technical
Sciences by the speciality 08.06.01 — Economics of an Enterprise and
Prganization of Production (technical sciences).- Kyiv State Technical
University of Civil Engineering and Architecture. Kyiv, 1998.

The thesis concerns the restructuring of civil engineering in Ukraine,
in particular, to Prganizational and technical aspect of establishing
specialized small and medium civil engineering Prganizations. In order
to find the direction of specialization, the thesis proposes the
principle of creating the information system on the basis of applying
the existing norm and technical documentation and principle of uniting
the objects of construction into groups. It is proposed to apply the
image identification methods as the foundation for the management
decisions which related to specialization of the civil engineering
companies; classification of small and medium business companies in
civil engineering, algorithm and methods of projecting these companies
are provided.

The main results of this work have been implemented in civil engineering
Prganizations of the «Ukrmontazhspetsbud» Corporation and in training
process.

Key words: civil engineering, contract market, image identification,
categorization of the companies.

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