IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AeA?AEAAE ? I?AAA ?i . A.I. EI?AOeUeEIAI

?iaeaen OAeE 342.9.07-351.

AeAI*AIEI NA?A?E OAAeI?IAE*

I?AAI?CAOe?EII-I?AAIAA CAAACIA*AIIss

?AOe?IIAEUeIIAI AEEI?ENOAIIss

IAOA??AEUeIEO ?ANO?N?A A OE?A?I?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.07 ( Oai??y oi?aae?iiy; aaei?i?no?aoeaia

i?aai ? i?ioean;
o?iainiaa i?aai;

aaie?anueea i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? i?aaiaeo i?iaeai aa?a?iiai, caiaeueiiai oa
aeieia?/iiai i?aaa ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee ( aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

NAI*EE A?oae?e ?aaiiae/, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: ( aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

II?EOEI A?oae?e Oaaei?iae/, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie

( aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe

AANEEUe?A Aiaoie?e Naiaiiae/, aeaeai aeiiii?ei-th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?. Ia/ieeiaa

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y ( Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
th?eaee/iee oaeoeueoao, eaoaae?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
i?aaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «26» ethoiai 1999 ?. i 17 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.236.03. ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe a ?inoeooo?
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i. Ee?a-1,
aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «25» n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee
ONAIEI ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oiiaao aeaiie?aoecaoe??
noni?euenoaa, i?eeiyooy iiaeo aeo?a caeiiiaeaanoaa, ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, iiaoaeiae iioeiaeueii? iiaeae? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a Oe?a?ie. Eiinoeoooe?eia cae??ieaiiy
aaaeeeaiai iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui caiey, iaae?a, aoiinoa?ia iia?o?y,
aiaei? oa ?io? i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie, i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne ?? eiioeiaioaeueiiai oaeueoo, aeeeth/ii?
(ii?nueei?) aeiiii?/ii? ciie ? ia’?eoaie i?aaa aeaniino? Oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, aeiaaa? noai?aiiy aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo iniia aeey ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.

Ui??/ii a ainiiaea?nueeee iai?io caeo/a?oueny aeecueei 1,5 ie?ae. o.
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. A?aenoae?noue oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ooai?aiiy aaee/acii? e?eueeino? a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaea?eueoa
?o ooai?th?oueny i?e caaaa/aii? ?oaeii? ? ia?oaeii? ne?iaeie (305 iei.
eoa. i.), aeaeiaooeo oa caaaa/aii? aoa?eey (105 iei. eoa. i.). Iaeiae
a?aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa ua iaeaea ia aeei?enoiaothoueny. ??aaiue
ooee?caoe?? i?iieneiaeo a?aeoiae?a neeaaea? anueiai 30 %. Aoi?eiia
ne?iaeia, ui ooai?th?oueny a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a,
ia iae?eiao?oueny ? ia eiio?ieth?oueny, a?aenooi? aaeaine ?o caaio?ae?
oa niiaeeaaiiy.

O no/ani?e Oe?a?i?, ye i?eiee ?ai?oa, niinoa??aa?oueny niaae
ae?iaieoeoaa, ui iaaeeaea?oueny aei e?eciai? iaae?. Ia oeueiio oii?
iineeth?oueny caeaaei?noue e?a?ie a?ae ?iii?oo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo
?ano?n?a. Ii?yae c oeei o aea?aeaa? ?niothoue aaee/aci? ?aca?ae
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a. Ana oea
iio?aao? ia eeoa aeiiii?/iiai, aea e iaoeiai-i?aaiaiai inieneaiiy c
iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy th?eaee/iiai iaoai?cio, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai
iiaeia aeinyaoe aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy an?o ?aca?a?a ae?iaieoeoaa. Ca
i?ae?aooieaie oao?aoe?a oea iiaea caaacia/eoe i?yio aeiiii?th
iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao ia aeanyoee i?euey?ae?a a?eaaiue, a oaeiae nooo?ai
ciaioeoe eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy, ine?eueee ?aae?caoe?y
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo caoiae?a aeiaaa? eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue o 3-5 ?ac?a
iaioa, i?ae noai?aiiy iiooaeiinoae aeey aeiaeaoeiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a o oeo aea ianyaao.

Aoaeoeaia i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe a aaeoc? i?aeaeuaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yie?a aeaaaeaiiy e?a?ie
c aeiiii?/ii? e?ece. Iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa? ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c i?iaeai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a o ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao
c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith, a yeeo oe? i?iaeaie iino?eii ia?aaoaathoue o
iie? ci?o ia eeoa aeiiii?no?a, aea e th?eno?a. O iao?e e?a?i? ieoaiiy
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy aein? i?eaa?oaee oaaao ia?aaaaeii a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a.
Ui noino?oueny i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a oeeo i?ioean?a, oi aiie i?aeoe/ii aoee
iica oaaaith a?o/eciyieo oao?aoe?a-th?eno?a. E??i oiai, oae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue caeaa?eueoiai ca oiia ?nioaaiiy
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy a eieeoiueiio
Nithc? ?N?.

I/aaeaeia iaaeinoaoi?noue iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ?c cacia/aii? i?iaeaiaoeee,
a?aenooi?noue oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue oa a?aeiia?aeii? ii?iioai?/i?
i?aeoeee ia iiaea iaaaoeaii ia a?aeaeaaoenue ia i?ioeanao caaacia/aiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?.

Ioaea, aea?aeaai? ? noni?euei? ?ioa?ane aeiaaathoue
eiioeaiooaeueiiai aecia/aiiy ?ie? caeiio, i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aoaeoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Caaacia/eoe
iaeaaeio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io ni?yiiaai?noue, nenoaii?noue oa
ci?noiaio iine?aeiai?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a o e?a?i?
iiaeia eeoa ia iniia? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy,
?aoi?ioaaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace, ia’?aeiaiiy coneeue i?aai?a
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee oa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy o noai?aii? oiia aeey
caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.

Ona aeeeaaeaia ? iaoiiaeth? nai?/ani?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ocaiaeaeo?oueny c oe?eueiaith
eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith «?ic?iaea i?aaiaeo cania?a caaacia/aiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iie aeiae?eey» ?inoeoooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie (iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? ?E 0196 U 012891).

Ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaee iaoai?ci ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?ano?niei?enooaaiiy oa
oi?aae?inuee? a?aeiineie a noa?? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo, a o./.
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ni?yiiaaii? ia ?aoe?iiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo ? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a, a oaeiae
aiae?c a?aeiia?aeieo ii?i aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai, o?iainiaiai,
i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai, ainiiaea?nueeiai oa aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o oiio, uia
a?oiooth/enue ia aea/aii? ? aiae?c? ca?oa?aeiiai oa a?o/eciyiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa c i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?, noi?ioethaaoe oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ?
i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace
?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei o oe?e aaeoc?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iniiaia oaaaa aoea i?eae?eaia
ae??oaiith ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

( ia iniia? aiae?co caeiiiaeaanoaa oa aeina?aeo aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiaieo
e?a?i, a?o/eciyiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c’ynoaaoe caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino?
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a;

( aeine?aeeoe niaoeeo?eo oi?i oa iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy o
aaeoc? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a;

( aecia/eoe oeyoe e caniae aeinyaiaiiy ??aiy i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?, yeee
iaeneiaeueii a a?aeiia?aeaa i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaei noaiaea?oai;

( ocaaaeueieoe oa oai?aoe/ii inieneeoe e ioe?ieoe aeina?ae ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a ? ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie noaiaea?oecaoe?? oa eiio?ieth o oe?e
noa??;

( noi?ioethaaoe iaoeia? aeniiaee ? a?aeiia?aei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a oa ?nioaaiiy ??cieo
oi?i aeaniino?.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea? i?eioeei ?noi?ecio oa
ae?aeaeoe/iiai aca?iica’yceo ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, cie?aia ?icaeoeo ? noaiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui ?aaoeth? a?aeiineie o noa?? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, a
oaeiae i?eioeei nioe?aeueii? aeaoa?i?iiaaiino? aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo yaeu.
Oea aeieeaa? c aa/aiiy iayaiino? iaaieo caeiiii??iinoae ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, ye?, i?ioa, ia iiaeooue niiioaiii
?aae?coaaoenue iica oe?eani?yiiaaiith ii?iioai?/ith (cie?aia (
caeiiioai?/ith) ae?yeuei?noth. I?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae canoiniaoaaeenue caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee
nioe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a naia: nenoaiiee,
eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/iee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee, ?noi?e/iee,
ii??aiyeueiee.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee, i?aoe?
a/aieo-th?eno?a Oe?a?ie, ?in?? oa ?ioeo aea?aeaa c ieoaiue oai???
oi?aae?iiy, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai, aeieia?/iiai oa ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa.
?noioia cia/aiiy aeey i?aeaioiaee aeena?oaoe?? iaee iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o/eciyieo th?eno?a, cie?aia: A.A.Aaa?’yiiaa,
A.?.Aiae?aeoeaaa, A.N.Aaneeue?aa, E.E.Ai?iiiai?, A.I.Aaa?eeeoeia,
A.I.Aeaieniaa, N.A.E?aaeiaa, I.?.Eictha?e, A.A.Eii?e/eeiaa, ?.A.Eoaea,
A.I.Ia?/oea, I.?.Iaeeoaai?, A.E.Iaiooiaa, I.I.Ie?iiaiei,
A.I.Iaa?aaaeueiiai, I.I.I?c?oa, A.O.Ii?eoea, ?.N.Iaaeianueeiai,
I.I.Iia??aiiai, A.E.Iiiiaa, I.I.?aaeiiae/a, A.I.Nae?aaiiaa, A.O.N??aiea,
A.?.Nai/eea, TH.I.Oiaeeee, A.A.Oea?oeiaa, TH.N.Oaioo/aiea,
I.O.O?eoeueeiai, A.A.TH?/eoeia oa ?i., iaoeiaoe?a c ?ioeo e?a?i (
N.N.Aeaen??aa, ?.E.Aa/eei, Ae.I.Aa?o?ai?, N.?.Eaiai?oeueei?,
A.I.Eaca??aa, I.?.I?neio?ia, TH.I.Oeoiie?iaa oa ?i..

Ii?iaoeaii-?ioi?iaoe?eieie aeaea?aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee Eiinoeoooe?y
Oe?a?ie; caeiie Oe?a?ie: «I?i i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?», «I?i
aeani?noue», «I?i i?aei?e?iieoeoai», «I?i i?aei?e?inoaa a Oe?a?i?», «I?i
aea?aeaaio neoaeao», «I?i aea?aeaaiee iaoa??aeueiee ?aca?a», «I?i
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy», «I?i aeaeo?iaia?aaoeeo», «I?i ?iaanoeoe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue», «I?i ioi?iio iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua»,
«I?i oaa?eiiee na?o», «I?i ioi?iio aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y», «I?i
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiee oiiae Oe?a?ie», «I?i iao?ieia?th oa iao?ieia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue», «I?i i?eaaoecaoe?th aea?aeaaiiai iaeia», Caiaeueiee
eiaeaen Oe?a?ie, Eiaeaen Oe?a?ie i?i iaae?a, E?niaee eiaeaen Oe?a?ie oa
?io? caeiiiaeaa/? ? i?aecaeiii? aeoe.

Oaeoieia?/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia iaoa??aeao c ieoaiue
oi?aae?iiy iaoa??aeueieie ?ano?naie, noaeiai? i?aeoeee (cie?aia, Aeuiai
A?a?o?aaeiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie), ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeoao i?i?noa?noa ?
a?aeiinoa Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoao eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c ieoaiue aoaeoeaiino? caeiiiaeaanoaa oa aeeiiaiiy
noaeiaeo ??oaiue, cae?eniaieo aaoi?ii ?acii ?c ni?a?ia?oieeaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai oeaio?o Aeuiai A?a?o?aaeiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie o
1996-1998 ?ieao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oei a Oe?a?i?
eiiieaeniei iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeooaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy. I?i
iaoeiao iiaecio na?ae/eoue iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? uiaei caaacia/aiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a i?ioean?
ae?iaieoeoaa, caa??aaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??, aeniiaee ?
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoai aenieiaoaeoeaieo ? ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e,
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeinyaiaiue oa ia?aaeiaiai
aeina?aeo. A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e th?eaee/i?e iaooe?
i?iaaaeaii ocaaaeueithth/ee iaoeiai-i?aaiaee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
aoaeoeaiino? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a aeiiii?oe? iaoi? e?a?ie ?
aeniei?icaeiaieo ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaaao, a oaeiae ia a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoaao ? ia’?aeiaiiyo c ??cieie oi?iaie aeaniino?.

Iiaecio aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaeaathoue ianaiia?aae oae? iaeaaaeeea?o?
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy:

( aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aenieicao?aoia aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a
a aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie ia? i?noea ?c-ca iecueei? aoaeoeaiino?
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, a?aenooiino?
aeinoaoiueiai o?iainoaaiiy caoiae?a uiaei cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? ?
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? aia?aaoe/ieo ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a;

( iieiaeaiiy i?i iayai?noue a?aei?iiinoae a aea?aeaaiiio oi?aae?ii?
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiyi a Oe?a?i? ? ?icaeiaieo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao,
?ica?aei?noue i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy oa i?aaiaeo cania?a aeiiii?? ne?iaeie ? iaoa??ae?a;

( aeniiaie, ui iecueea aoaeoeai?noue i?aai?caoe?? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ia?
i?noea ?c-ca iaocaiaeaeaiino? ae?e o oe?e noa?? i?aai?a caeiiiaeaa/i? ?
aeeiiaa/i? a?eie aeaaee, a oaeiae i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, a iayaiino?
aaaaoia?aeii/ino?, ia?aeae?cio ? aeoaethaaiiy o iaoai?ci? oi?aae?iiy
iaoa??aeueieie ?ano?naie;

( eeaneo?eaoe?y iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaoa??aeueieie ?
i?e?iaeieie ?ano?naie, cie?aia aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaiaeo oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a, ?o ci?no ? oeyoe canoinoaaiiy o
no/anieo oiiaao;

( iieiaeaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue i?aaiaiai aecia/aiiy ooieoe?e,
eiiiaoaioe?? ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee oa ?o
iinaaeiaeo in?a c ieoaiue aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo, o?iainiaeo ?
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a;

( aecia/aiiy i?ia?aeii? ?ie? a?a?o?aaeieo noae?a Oe?a?ie uiaei caoenoo
i?aa ? ?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae ? noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
on?o oi?i aeaniino? a noa?? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ? o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a, a oaeiae ioi?iie i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a;

( aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a Oe?a?i? a?aenooiy aoaeoeaia i?aaiaa aaca aeey
nenoaiiiai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, ui
noai?th? oiiae aeey aaca?aeiia?aeaeueiiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy noa’?eoaie
??cieo oi?i aeaniino?;

( aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iaiao?aeii iineeeoe an? aeaee th?eaee/ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ia?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaioii io?eiaii o
i?ioean? eiai aaciina?aaeiuei? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe a ?inoeooo?
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, iniaenoi?
ae?yeueiino? a i?aaiao oi?aae?iiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iei iinoa/aiiyi,
Aeuiai a?a?o?aaeiiai noaeo Oe?a?ie, oai?/iai aiae?co ? e?eoe/iiai
inieneaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa ? i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy iaoa??aeueieie ?
i?e?iaeieie ?ano?naie ia iniia? naiino?eiiai aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy
iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai??? oi?aae?iiy ? aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? aeoiaeea c iaiao?aeiino? canoinoaaiiy
iiaeo i?aeoiae?a ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy ?ano?naie a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai??? ?
i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy iaoa??aeueieie ?ano?naie a i?iieneiai ?icaeiaieo
e?a?iao. Aaoi? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaa iaoeiao iiceoe?th, ui a
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, iaoiiaeaiiai
i?ioeanaie i?eaaoecaoe??, oaeoe/ii? ?oeiaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a c
e?a?iaie NIAe, ia iiaeia iiai?noth a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy iaoa??aeueieie ? i?e?iaeieie ?ano?naie. Iaaiaee, eiai
iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe ia iniia? iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy o aeai?e noa??. Aaaeeeaei iai?yieii
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ? ni?eyiiy i?aeaeuaiith ?ioa?ano
i?aei?e?ioe?a aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee, iia?oi?o
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo,
aia?aaoe/ieo, i?e?iaeieo ? o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe?? ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa oa aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
iaoa??aeueieie ?ano?naie. Ca iniaenoith o/anoth aeena?oaioa
i?aeaioiaeaiee ? iiaeaiee aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie i?iaeo Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy».

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, ui eiai
?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a:

( iiaeaeueoeo caaaeueii-oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo ieoaiue caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a Oe?a?ie ye ia ??ai? ae??oaiiy
caaaeueieo i?iaeai i?aaiciaanoaa, oae ? ia ??ai? ?ic?iaee aniaeo?a,
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaieo c ae?yeuei?noth i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee,
th?eaee/ieo ? o?ce/ieo in?a;

( caeiiioai?/?e ae?yeueiino? uiaei ?ic?iaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii
aaeineiiaeaiith i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei, iia’ycaieo ?c
caa?aaeaiiyi oa ?aoe?iiaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a
oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? no/anieo e?eciaeo yaeu a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie;

( iiaeaeueoeo eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo noaio ? aeeiai?ee
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a e?a?i?; cie?aia, oe? ?acoeueoaoe
iaaiith i??ith iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ?
iaoiae?a oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? aaeocaaeo i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa
Oe?a?ie, aeey ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, o?ce/ieo
oa th?eaee/ieo in?a, ye? ca?ioa?aniaai? o ?aoe?iiaeueiiio
aeei?enoaii? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a;

( o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee th?eaee/ieo eaae??a, ea??aiee?a
i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa oa ?ioeo oao?aoe?a, a oaeiae o i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? i?aaioai?/eo oa i?aaicanoiniaoth/eo i?aai?a, o
th?eaee/iiio anaiao/? a?iiaaeyi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iieiaeaiiy ?
aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeaaiaaeoeyoe
iioae?eiaaieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo aeena?oaioa, a oaeiae o aeiiia?aeyo ?
iia?aeiieaiiyo ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo (o oiio /ene? i?aeia?iaeieo)
eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao, eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? noaeae?a
i?e Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio oeaio?? Aeuiai a?a?o?aaeiiai noaeo Oe?a?ie.
Noi?ioeueiaai? o aeena?oaoe?? iaoeia? aeniiaee ? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie
«I?i ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy», a caeiiii?iaeoao i?i ci?ie ? aeiiiaiaiiy aei
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i noaeiono??e Oe?a?ie oa i?i ainiiaea?nueea
noaei/einoai, i?e aenia?oec? caeiiii?iaeo?a i?i aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa ?i.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe coiiaeth?oueny iniaeeainoyie aaoi?nueeiai i?aeoiaeo aei
?ic?iaee ia?aii? i?iaeaie, ye? iieyaathoue o ii?aeiaii? ??
caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiai aiae?co c aea/aiiyi ia iniia? aeo?a
caeiiiaeaanoaa, noaoenoe/ieo oa nioe?ieia?/ieo aeaieo, ?aaeueiiai
aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy oa i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i? oa aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao ?
?ic?iaeith i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e iaoiaee/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aei yeeo aoiaeyoue n?i
i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao?? oa aeiaeaoeo. Caaaeueiee ianya
?iaioe ( 186 noi??iie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia?aoiao? 135
iaeiaioaaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie (ieaiaie, oaiaie),
aecia/athoueny ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao, iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa ?
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia oa ii?iaoeaii-?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia, iniaenoee iaoeiaee aianie caeiaoaa/a,
oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy oiui.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iaeaie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a» iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia
aeine?aeaeaiith oi?i oa iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a noa??
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy.

I?ae?icae?e ia?oee i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi i?aai?caoe?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ? aeiiiiiiai aeo?a/aiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ye
iaiao?aeii? oiiae ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa oa ye ia’?eoa aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy. Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae,
aeo?a caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? e?a?i c ?icaeiaiith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith
(NOA, I?ia//eie, Eaiaaee, Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?aioe??, ssiii?? oa ?i.)
aeiaaaeaii, ui a Oe?a?i? ?niothoue cia/i? ?aca?ae ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ca
?aooiie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a oa
aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace caaacia/aiiy oeeo i?ioean?a.
Aoaeoeaia caeiiiaeaa/a aaca iiaeiia ni?eyoe i?enei?aiiio
cai?iaaaeaeaiith i?ia?aneaieo iai?yie?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, a
yeiio iaoa e?a?ia nooo?ai iinooia?oueny ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiaiei
ca?oa?aeiei aea?aeaaai, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii o ?iaio? a?aeiia?aeieie
noaoenoe/ieie oa ?ioeie aeaieie.

sse iieacaei aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo, a e?a?iao c ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith aeei?enoiao?oueny oe?ieee niaeo? caoiae?a i?aaiaiai,
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oi?aae?inueeiai aieeao, ui
iathoue a?aee?eoee oa?aeoa? ? ?aaoethth/? aeanoeaino?. Ioaea, oe?
caoiaee iiaeooue caaaeaee aeiiiaithaaoenue oa aaeineiiaethaaoenue a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, aaeocaaeo, ?aa?iiaeueieo oa
iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae.

A ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiaieo aea?aeaaao ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ? iaeiei c
iniiaieo iai?yie?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Iai?eeeaae, a NOA i?ney i?eeiyooy Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiio i?i
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaee a aaeoc? caaacia/aiiy ne?iaeiith oa
iaoa??aeaie iaoeiai-aeine?aei? oa i?aeoe/i? ?iaioe ii
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiith ia?aeoee a ?aia aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee.

A oe?eiio ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a i?iieneiai
?icaeiaieo e?a?iao ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeaaaeeea?oee oaeoi?, ui
caaacia/o? aeiiii?/io oa iie?oe/io iacaeaaei?noue aea?aeaae. Noaoon
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ia?aaeaa/a? ii?aeiaiiy ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ?
caiia?aeieo caoiae?a ia iniia? oe?ieiianooaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaeia?aeoiaeieo oa aaca?aeoiaeieo oaoiieia?e, eiioeaio?aoe?th
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oa ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ia aeinyaiaiiy aeniei?
?ioaineo?eaoe?? niiaeea/eo aeanoeainoae (noai?aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
?ano?niaeiiii?/ii? oa iaae?eii? oaoi?ee), noaa?e?caoe?th oa nei?i/aiiy
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?iii?oo a ?ano?nicaa?aaeaii?, oe?ieiianooaaia
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ai?oa inai?ieo ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e, a
oaeiae ?ic?iaeaiiy, inai?iiy oa canoinoaaiiy iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e,
oaoi?ee ? iaoa??ae?a. Ana oea ciaeoei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aaiaiio
?aaoethaaii? a?aeiia?aeieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, oiaoi noaei aeiiaith
caeiio.

Aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo a aaeoc? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy iieacaei, ui
oe? aeinyaiaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoii aeiaaino?ieiai? oe?eani?yiiaaii?
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy oa iianthaeiiai ia?aoiaeo ia
ne?iaeiiicaa??aath/? oaoiieia??. A iniia? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo ( oe?ieee
eiiieaen eiie?aoieo caoiae?a aeiiii?/iiai, i?aaiaiai oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeiai oa?aeoa?o, ui iiaeooue aooe oni?oii
aeei?enoai? o ?aoi?ioaaii? oa ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

A on?o i?iieneiai ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao na?oo inoaii?i /anii cia/ii
aeoea?coaaeanue caeiiiaeaa/a ae?yeuei?noue i?e ae??oaii? ieoaiue
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa aeiiii?? ?ano?n?a: noai?ai? niaoe?aeuei?
i?aaie, ye? caaacia/othoue ?aae?caoe?th aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy. Iaaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ii?yaeeo a iie?oeoe?
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy iaaoaa? ca?ac iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? o ca’yceo c
iaaecae/aeieie caoiaeaie, ui aaeeaa? o?yae ii noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie oa aeaaaeaiiy ?? c e?eciaiai noaio. Ii?yae c oeei iiaeiia aooe
caae?yia nenoaia aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aaiaeo caoiae?a, yea caaacia/eea a
caeo/aiiy a aeiiii?eo an?o ?aca?a?a oa noeioethaaea i?enei?aiee ?icaeoie
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ia aac? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
i?ia?ano. Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui
ia?oi/a?aiai iaiao?aeii aaeeoe caoiae?a ?ano?nicaa??aath/i?
ni?yiiaaiino? oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy: a) aio/eiai i?eueaiaiai
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oa e?aaeeooaaiiy oeo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo iaoee, oaoi?ee ?
oaoiieia??, ye? caaacia/aoue ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy; a)
nenoaie oe?iiooai?aiiy, ui aeicaieeea a noeioethaaoe aeione i?ia?aneaieo
aeae?a i?iaeoeoe?? oa nei?i/oaaoe aeione canoa??ei? ? iaaoaeoeaii?
i?iaeoeoe??; a) aii?oecaoe?eii? iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia noai?aiiy oiia
aeey i?enei?aiiy aii?oecaoe?? iniiaieo oiiae?a ? ianaiia?aae ?o aeoeaii?
/anoeie. Iaiao?aeii aaeineiiaeeoe ae?th/? noaiaea?oe oa oaoi?/i? oiiae,
i?eaanoe ?o o a?aeiia?aei?noue c aeiiaaie i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a.

Ii?yae ?c cacia/aiei a aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny noai?eoe oe?e?nio ?
aca?iiocaiaeaeaio nenoaio caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ye? caaacia/oaaee a
?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ne?iaeiieo ? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a oa aecia/eee
iaae? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy oe??th ae?yeuei?noth.

C iaoith i?enei?aiiy ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai i?ia?aneaieo
aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano aeioe?eueii noai?eoe iaeaaei?
i?aaia? oiiae aeey caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo, cie?aia aeey
ia?ainiauaiiy i?aei?e?inoa a?enueeiai-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, i?eaeaaiiy
iaeia?aaeia?oi? oaoi?ee, iaeaaeiaiiy, oaoiieia?e. Aeey oeueiai ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai? Oe?a?ia ciooaia aoaea i?iaeiaaeoaaoe i?iaeaae
ne?iaeiieo ?ano?n?a ca a?eueii eiiaa?oiaaio aaethoo. Iaoii?noue
iaea?aeai? a ?acoeueoao? oeueiai aaethoi? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iathoue aooe
ni?yiiaai? ia ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie ia?a?iaee ne?iaeie oa
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy a iaoe?iiaeueia ainiiaea?noai
e?a?ie. Oea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue cia/ii oaeaeoa aeinyaiooe iiceoeaiiai
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai aoaeoo. Cacia/aia iaaeanoue iiaeeea?noue
Oe?a?i? c ?? iiooaeiei ?ano?niei oa i?iieneiaei iioaioe?aeii aeeoe ia
ia?aaeia? ?oaaae? ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, iaoee ? oaoi?ee. Aaaeeeai ia
oiia?eueiyoe oaiie ?icaeoeo oeo iai?yie?a iaoee ? oaoi?ee, o yeeo
aea?aeaaa ia? i??i?eoaoe, caaacia/eoe i?iaaaeaiiy aeaaaeaii? aea?aeaaii?
?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee.

I?eeiyooy cai?iiiiiaaiiai a aeena?oaoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy» ? ?aae?caoe?y ia?aaeaa/aieo iei aeiiii?/ieo
caoiae?a, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeicaieeoue i?enei?eoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoai aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, aeiiii?/ii
ca?ioa?ano? i?aei?e?inoaa o cieaeaii? iaoa??aeii?noeino? ae?iaieoeoaa,
iaoaei- oa aia?aii?noeino? i?iaeoeoe??, i?aeaeuaii? ?? yeino?,
iaae?eiino?, eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oa aeo?ae ia na?oiaee ?eiie.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny oi?ie oa iaoiaee aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy a aaeoc? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a,
aiae?co?oueny ii?iioai?/a i?aeoeea i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, yea
aeooae?co?oueny c iiyaith i?iaeaie iia?eueiino? oa aaeaeaaoiino?
?aaeoe?? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ia ?nioth/o oi?aae?inueeo neooaoe?th.
Eiina?aaoeci ? noaa?euei?noue caeiiiaeaanoaa iathoue aeiiiaithaaoeny
onoiaiiyi eie?c?e ? i?iaaeei o i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii?, no/aniith iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaiith ii?iaoeaiith ?aaeaiaioaoe??th iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a
i?aaia?aeiinei. Eeoa /a?ac caeii aea?aeaaia aeaaea ia aciic? nai?/anii
ioiieoe oa anaa?/ii aii?yaeeoaaoe oi?aae?inuee? i?ioeane, ye?
ia?aaoaathoue o aacia?a?aiiio ?icaeoeo. Ii?iioai?/?noue i?aai?a
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ia? i?aecaeiiiee oa?aeoa? ? o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
ia noia?a/eoue caeiiai, i?ioa eiie?aoeco? caeiiiaeaa/ee aeo ia noaae??
?aae?caoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi i?noey a i?aaia?e ???a?o?? oa o?iainiaeo
iiaeeeainoae.

Aaei?i?no?aoeaia ii?iioai?/?noue, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ? aoaeoeaiei
aaaeaeai oi?aae?iiy, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai aecia/athoueny iaea?eueo
caaaeuei? oeiia? i?aaeea, oiaoi caaea?oueny aecia/aia ? ?ic?aoiaaia ia
aacia?a?ai?noue ?aeeia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy. Iaea?eueo iiaii ooieoe?y
a?aeii/i? ii?iioai?/ino? ?aae?co?oueny oeyoii aeaeaiiy ??ciiai ?iaeo
caaaeueiioi?aae?inueeeo oa a?aeii/eo i?aaee, iaeac?a, iieiaeaiue oa
?ino?oeoe?e, ui noinothoueny iiaaae?iee i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy,
i?aea?aeii/eo ?i i?aei?e?inoa, i?aai?caoe?e oa onoaiia, a oaeiae
iiaaae?iee a?iiaaenueeeo oi?ioaaiue ? a?iiaaeyi a noa?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy. Aaei?i?no?aoeaia ii?iioai?/?noue aecia/a? eiie?aoi?
caaaeaiiy, i?aaa oa iaia’ycee, iiaiiaaaeaiiy oa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
o/aniee?a oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei; oi?io? iniiai? e?i?? aca?iiae?? i?ae
??cieie aeaiaioaie nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy; anoaiiaeth?
iaoiiaeai? niaoeeo?eith oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei iaiaaeaiiy oa caai?iie.
A iaiao?aeieo aeiaaeeao ca aeiiiiiaith aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ii?iioai?/ino?
iieeaaeathoueny niaoe?aeuei? iaia’ycee aai iaaeathoueny niaoe?aeuei?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy; cae?eniththoueny i?aaiioi?iii? ooieoe?? oi?aae?inueeiai
oa?aeoa?o (iai?eeeaae, anoaiiaeaiiy iaaiiai i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio) oa
ia?aaeaa/athoueny th?eaee/i? aa?aio?? ioi?iie anoaiiaeaiiai a noa??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ii?yaeeo a?aeiinei, a oaeiae eiie?aoecothoueny
ii?ie aeui? th?eaee/ii? neee (iai?eeeaae, aeaeaiiy i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee iaeac?a, ?ino?oeoe?e, ?ic’yniaiue o ca’yceo c i?eeiyooyi
oiai /e ?ioiai caeiio).

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e?, i?enay/aiiio iniiaiei iai?yieai oa ci?noo
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ii caaacia/aiith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ?icaeyaeathoueny iaea?eueo
iioeiaeuei? oeyoe ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?, aei yeeo ia? aooe
i?eaa?iooa oaaaa a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy. Uiaei aecia/aiiy
iniaeeainoae aaeocaaeo i?iaeai ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, oi iaea?eueo
aaaeeeaeie ? ieoaiiy ?o aaeineiiaeaiiy a oaeeo noa?ao ye yaea?ia
aia?aaoeea, i?iieneia?noue, n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, o?ainii?o, noa?a
aeei?enoaiiy i?iieneiaeo a?aeoiae?a, aiaei?, caiaeuei?, e?nia?
?ano?ne, i?e?iaeiioi?iiia oa a?aeiiaethaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy uiaei
caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a o
caaaeaieo noa?ao aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ci?no, iniaeeaino? oa oeyoe
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaeo iniia aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiyi, ine?eueee ae??oaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo i?iaeai
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c ?ica’ycaiiyi i?iaeai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae iaoeiaeo aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe??
uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee o noa?? caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a. Cie?aia, a aaeoc? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy oe? i?aaie iathoue
cina?aaeeoe oaaao ia oaeeo iniiaieo iai?yieao, ye aeiiii?y oa
iaeneiaeueia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a ia iniia? eiio?ieth oa oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ii?i
aeo?ao iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, oe?ieiai ?icaeoeo aaeainiai-ii?iaoeaieo
iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy iio?aa oa oi?ioaaiiy caiiaeaiue i?iieneiaino? ?
eiio?ieth ca caa?aaeaiiyi oa aeei?enoaiiyi iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.
I?enei?aiiy ia?ao ?ano?n?a aenoaa? ia ia?oee ieai oae? ooieoe?? i?aai?a
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ye eiio?ieue ca ??aiai iaeiie/aiiy iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a ia i?aei?e?inoaao ? c o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai aea?? aeiiii?/ii
aea?aeieo ?ioa?aae?a iinoa/aiiy, caeo/aiiy a ia?a iaaeii?iaoeaieo oa
iaaeei?enoaieo ?ano?n?a; nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao i?aei?e?inoa i?e
o?ainii?ooaaii? i?iaeoeoe?? ia iniia? oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeei?enoaiiy i?aei?e?inoaaie
ciaia’ycaiue uiaei iinoa/aiiy ia canaaeao /?oei aecia/aii? iia?aoeaii?
nenoaie eiio?ieth oa ?aaoethaaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai iinoa/aiiy.

Ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? ianaiia?aae iaeaaeeoue ae??oeoe oae?
oi?aae?inuee? ieoaiiy : ?aaoethaaiiy aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a
i?noeaaiai cia/aiiy; aecia/aiiy ii?iaoea?a caa?oaeiaiiy i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua oa ?ici?uaiiy a?aeoiae?a; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy; i?iaaaeaiiy iii?oi?eiao oa iae?eo
ia’?eo?a i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua; i?iaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeieia?/ii? aenia?oece; cae?eniaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca aeio?eiaiiyi i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa; ?ic?iaeaiiy i?ia?ai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
caoiae?a, aecia/aiiy oa ?aae?caoe?y aoaeoeaii? ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee
oiui.

O i?ae?icae?e? /aoaa?oiio aiae?cothoueny i?iaeaie noaiaea?oecaoe?? oa
eiio?ieth o aaeoc? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.
Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui o caaacia/aii? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a aaeeea ?ieue iaeaaeeoue noaiaea?oecaoe?? oa
eiio?ieth. Naia ca ?o aeiiiiiaith caaacia/o?oueny iioeiaeueiee ?aaeei
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, nei?i/othoueny no?iee oa aeo?aoe ia ia?a?iaeo
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, i?enei?th?oueny ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai
aeinyaiaiue iaoee.

Ca aeiiiiiaith noaiaea?o?a aea?aeaaa a oeaio?ae?ciaaiiio ii?yaeeo
aecia/a? iioeiaeueiee ??aaiue yeino? ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae ??aaiue
aeei?enoaiiy ? caa?aaeaiiy ?ano?n?a. A?o/eciyi? noaiaea?oe iiaeii?
a?aeiia?aeaoe i?aeia?iaeiei aoaeiiai oa anoaiiaethaaoe ?aeei? aeiiae aei
caa?aaeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a.

C iaoith aeinyaiaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, noaiaea?oecaoe?y ia? cae?enithaaoeny ca
aeiiiiiaith a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiae?a, ui caaacia/othoue ?? ?aaeuei?noue oa
aoaeoeai?noue, iniiaieie c yeeo ?: a) oi?o?eaoe?y ( caaaeaiiy ?ano?n?a,
ae?ia?a oa oaoiieia?e aei iaeiiiai?oiino? ia iniia? anoaiiaeaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai /enea ?o ??ciiaeae?a; a) oeiecaoe?y ( ?ic?iaea ?
anoaiiaeaiiy oeiiaeo eiino?oeoi?nueeeo, oaoiieia?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo
??oaiue, ui aecia/athoue oeiia? i?iaeaie ? aniaeoe i?ioeano
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy; a) neiie?eaoe?y, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaiaaeaiiyi
iiiaieeaoo?e iniiaieo oa aeiiii?aeieo iaoa??ae?a, ui canoiniaothoueny a
i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa aei e?eueeino?, yea caaeiaieueiy? iio?aae
i?aei?e?inoaa /e i?aai?caoe??; a) aa?aaaooaaiiy ( noai?aiiy iaoei,
nenoai oi?aae?iiy ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeooaaiiy oi?o?eiaaieo aeaoaeae oa
aeaiaio?a; ae) na?oeo?eaoe?y ( i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino?
oaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaaiiai aeaeo i?iaeoeoe?? aeiiaai noaiaea?o?a oa
aeieoiaio?a, ui i?eeiyo? o a?aeiia?aei?e aaeoc? ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio /e
i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai?.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei ii ?aoe?iiaeueiiio
aeei?enoaiith iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?» aena?oeththoueny
i?iaeaie no/anii? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaii? a?aeiinei
o noa?? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a. Oe? ieoaiiy caeeoathoueny
iaae??oaieie ia eeoa ia i?eeeaaeiiio ??ai?, aea e ia oai?aoe/iiio.
Ianaiia?aae iio?aao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy ? i?enoinoaaiiy aei
aeiia ?ano?nicaa?aaeiiy ?yae i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c i?aaiaei
?aaoethaaiiyi a oe?eiio ? i?aaiaei ?aaoethaaiiyi o aaeoc?
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy. Ae??oaiiy naia oai?aoeei-i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai
iaaeanoue iiaeeea?noue (oea aeiaaaeaii aeina?aeii ?icaeiaieo e?a?i)
caaacia/eoe aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? a?aeoai?eoe
caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy.

Iciaeith oi?aa?naeueiino? iaoiaeo i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? oie oaeo, ui
eiai neeaaeia? /anoeie ( aeica?e, i?eien oa caai?iia, iathoue
caeaoi?noue aenooiaoe a ??cieo oi?iao noiniaii oeo eiie?aoieo ca’yce?a
oa yaeu nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua, ye? iio?aaothoue
a?aeiia?aeii? aca?iiae??. Aaoi? iiae?ey? aeoieo N.N.Aeaen??aa i?i
oa, ui oe? aeaiaioe iaoiaeo i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i? a yeiio ?ac? ia
anoaiiaeththoue yeeoinue oaaeii?a /e noaiaea?o?a, iaoai?/ii
canoiniaoaaieo a ??cieo neooaoe?yo. sse aeaiaioe i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeicaiee, i?eien oa caai?iia ii?aeiothoue a nia? aeineoue oe?ieee niaeo?
aeanoeainoae, ui o nai?e noeoiiino? iieeeeai? cae?enieoe iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiee aieea ia noni?euei? a?aeiineie.

Iaoiae i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ye nenoaiia yaeua iiaea ?nioaaoe eeoa o
oi?i? ia’?aeiaiiy a ?aeeia oe?ea an?o /ioe?ueio cacia/aieo ia?aeiieo
eiiiiiaio?a (aeaiaio?a). I?e/iio aeaia nenoaia caniiaaia ia o?ni?e
aca?iiae?? oa aca?iicaaacia/aii? oeeo eiiiiiaio?a.

Aeica?e, i?eien, caai?iia oa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue caaaeaee aenooiathoue
ye aioo??oi? neeaaeia? /anoeie (aeaiaioe) iaoiaeo i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy. Oiiaii eaaeo/e, aiie iiaeooue aooe i?aaenoaaeai? o
aeaeyae? iaaieo nioe?aeueieo eii?aeeiao, ca yeeie ?icai?oa?oueny
i?aaiaee aieea ia a?aeiia?aei? nenoaii? aeaiaioe i?aaeiaoo i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy. A yeino? nenoaiieo aeaiaio?a ?aeeiiai iaoiaeo i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeicaiee, i?eiene, caai?iia oa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue /a?ac
iaoai?ci ?o canoinoaaiiy i?aai?/ii aca?iiae?thoue i?ae niaith.

Cia/ia /anoeia aeena?oaoe?? i?enay/aia aiae?co eiie?aoieo caeiiiaeaa/eo
oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ui ?aaoeththoue i?aaia?aeiineie a
noa?? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy.

O ca’yceo c iaaeineiiae?noth i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a aaeoc?
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeieeea iaaaeueia
iio?aaa o ?ic?iaoe? aeiaeaoeiaeo ? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
i?eien?a, ia?aaeon?i ( caeii?a. Oe? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeothoueny o
ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo aeena?oaoe??. Cie?aia,
aiae?co?oueny i?iaeaia uiaei oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?nii? nenoaie
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ni?yiiaaiiai ia a?aaoeueiaaiiy i?aaia?aeiinei o noa??
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.

?nioth/ee iaoai?ci i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, ye
iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaaaoia?aeii/?noth,
ia?aeae?ciii, aeoaethaaiiyi oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e, iaaecia/ai?noth
th?eaee/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ie?ai? ii?ooaiiy o oe?e noa??
ae?yeueiino?, iaaaeaeaaoi?noth ia’?eoa ? noa’?eoa oi?aae?iiy,
ii?aeiaiiyi ?aaoethth/eo ? eiio?iethth/eo ooieoe?e oa ainiiaea?nueeiai
aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a.

Ia?ao?ae Oe?a?ie aei ?aaoeueiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iaoiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue ci?i i??i?eoao?a o cae?eniaii? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ia aaeocaaiio oa ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo, a oaeiae
?aaoeyoeaii? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae a oe?eiio. Ii?yae c iineeaiiyi
?aaoeyoeaiiai (aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai) aieeao o oe?e noa??, yeee ?ai?oa aoa
?aeeiei aaaeaeai ia oeyoo caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy,
a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia?oi?yaeio ?ieue iathoue
a?ae?a?aaaoe aeiiii?/i? aaaeae? oa oeea?eueii-i?aaia? iaoai?cie.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aaiaeo iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ? iaeiei c ia?oi/a?aiaeo caaaeaiue aea?aeaae. Naia
a?ae oni?oiiai ae??oaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue
aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa, caeaoi?noue
aeiiii?ee e?a?ie aei noaa?eueiiai ? i?ia?aneaiiai naii?icaeoeo. Oiio
caniae i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy oa i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy
iiaeii? ni?yiiaoaaoeny ia aeinyaiaiiy aa?iii?? ? iioeiaeueieo
?acoeueoao?a, a ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ( ia aeinyaiaiiy aeiionoeiiai
eiii?ii?no i?ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii ? iaiao?aei?noth
iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? oa a?aeiiaeaiiy i?e?iaeii
ainiiaea?nueei? caaeainiaaiino? ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

Ia iniia? aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co aeaieo i?ioean?a aeena?oaioii
cai?iiiiiaai? eiie?aoi? caoiaee uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy a aaeoc? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy. Cie?aia, oea noino?oueny
noaae?? aeaeiaoaaiiy aai aeeo/aiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. C o?aooaaiiyi
aeina?aeo canoinoaaiiy na?oiaiai i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oeae
i?ioean iaiao?aeii ?aaoethaaoe oeyoii aeaea/? niaoe?aeueieo aeicaie?a
(e?oeaic?e) ia i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aeae?a ?ia?o, anoaiiaeaiiy
aei?noeeo th?eaee/ieo ii?iaoea?a ? e?i?o?a oa i?aai?caoe?? ?ic?iaee ?
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeieia?/ieo noaiaea?o?a.

Ia noaae?? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy
ia? cae?enithaaoenue ye oeyoii aeaea/? e?oeaic?e ia ?o niaoe?aeueia
aeei?enoaiiy, caoaa?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo e?i?o?a, i?aai?caoe??
?ic?iaee ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeieiai-aeiiii?/ieo noaiaea?o?a, oae ?
anoaiiaeaiiy ii?iaoea?a ieaoe ca niaoe?aeueia aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
(ia?aaeon?i ( i?e?iaeieo) ?ano?n?a, canoinoaaiiy aio/ei? iiaeaoeiai?
iie?oeee oa aeiiii?/iiai noeioethaaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaiue
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e.

Aeae? a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? cacia/a?oueny, ui ?nioth/ee a
Oe?a?i? iaoai?ci noyaiaiiy oo?ao?a ca caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey iio?aao?
aaeineiiaeaiiy. Ia?aaeaa/aiee /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii ii?yaeie ?iciiae?eo
ieaoaae?a ca caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, ca
yeei 70 % eioo?a aeoioeth?oueny a iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiaeao ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua i?noeaaeo ?aae aaciaiai ??aiy, a
oaeiae i?aai oeeo ?aae ia anoaiiaeaiiy eiao?oe??io?a e?aoiino? ieaoe oa
ca?eueiaiiy ie?aieo caa?oaeithaa/?a a?ae ieaoe ca iiiaaee?i?oia
caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey, ?iaeyoue oeae iaoai?ci a?ii?caeeei, neeaaeiei ?
caieooaiei, a ioaea ( iaaeineiiaeei ? iaeiaoaeoeaiei. Aaoi?ii
iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue ci?i aei /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c oei, uia
cai?iaaaeeoe i?eioeei ?iciiae?eo ieaoaae?a ca caa?oaeiaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co ? c iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy o noa?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a
aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaaiee i?iaeo Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy», a yeiio noi?ioeueiaaiee oe?e?niee ? eiiieaeniee
i?aeo?ae aei ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.

O i?ae?icae?e? o?aoueiio aiae?cothoueny ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c
th?eaee/iith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth ca i?aaiii?ooaiiy o aaeoc?
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a. Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai oa
nenoaiiiai aiae?co a?o/eciyiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa aeo?a caeiiiaeaanoaa
e?a?i ?a?iiaenueei? aeiiii?/ii? ni?aae?oaeiino? (Aeai??, Ii?ooaae??,
I?aea?eaiae?a, I?ia//eie oa ?ioeo) aaoi? ?icaeyaea? caaaeuei? i?eioeeie
th?eaee/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aac aeie.
Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee c oeeo ieoaiue aeiiiaiththoueny ? i?aee??ieththoueny
aiae?cii a?o/eciyii? noaeiai? i?aeoeee. Cie?aia, a ?iaio? aeaoaeueii
?icaeyiooi i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy aeeiiaiiy aeiaiai??a iinoaaee ?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?o ii?ooaiiy. Oe?iei aeei?enoai? ?ic’yniaiiy
Aeuiai A?a?o?aaeiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, ui aeeeaaeai? a eiai ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oa ?ino?oeoeaieo eenoao. I?iaiae?ciaaia aoaeoeai?noue ?yaeo caeii?a, ui
?aaoeththoue a?aeiineie o noa?? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a
(eiaeaene ( caiaeueiee, e?niaee, aiaeiee, a??ie/ee oiui; caeiie Oe?a?ie
( «I?i i?aei?e?iieoeoai», «I?i i?aei?e?inoaa a Oe?a?i?», «I?i
ainiiaea?nuee? oiaa?enoaa», «I?i aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy», «I?i ?iaanoeoe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue», «I?i aeaeo?iaia?aaoeeo», «I?i aea?aeaaiee iaoa??aeueiee
?aca?a», «I?i i?eaaoecaoe?th aea?aeaaiiai iaeia», «I?i oaa?eiiee na?o»,
«I?i i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiee oiiae Oe?a?ie», «I?i ioi?iio aoiinoa?iiai
iia?o?y» oa ?io?).

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? oi?ioeththoueny iaenooo?a?o? ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiinyoueny eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
iiaeeeaiai iiaeaeueoiai ?icoe?aiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie o aaeoc?
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?.
Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ia?oi/a?aiai ne?ae cai?iaaaeeoe aio/ea i?eueaiaa
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oa e?aaeeooaaiiy, aeaaaeaio nenoaio oe?iiooai?aiiy oa
aoaeoeaio aii?oecaoe?eio iie?oeeo ui noeioethaaei a aeione i?ia?aneaieo
aeae?a i?iaeoeoe?? ? nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.
I?iiiio?oueny noai?eoe oe?e?nio nenoaio caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, eio?? a
/?oei aecia/aee aea?aeaaio iie?oeeo uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ne?iaeiieo ? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?. Aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo i?i
aeioe?euei?noue i?eeiyooy Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy», yeee
ae ia o?eueee iineethaaa aaei?i?no?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a oeth
noa?o, aea a no/anieo oiiaao iaaeaaaa ae i??i?eoao aeiiii?/iei oa
oeea?eueii-i?aaiaei /eiieeai. Caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiith i?iaeaiith, yea iiaeiia
ae??ooaaoenue eiiieaenii a iaaeao a?aeiia?aeieo aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai. Ia
iniia? aiae?co ii?iioai?/i? i?aeoeee i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aea?aeaaa ia aciic? eeoa /a?ac caeii
aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia oi?aae?inuee? i?ioeane. Oiio, ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
aaei?i?no?aoeaia ii?iioai?/?noue ? iaiao?aeiei ? aoaeoeaiei caniaii
caaacia/aiiy ?aeeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, o oiio /ene?, e
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiyi. Noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae iaoeiaeo aeniiae?a ?
i?iiiceoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee o noa?? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, cie?aia: iiaeieaiiy
aaaaoia?aeii/?no?, ia?aeae?cio, aeoaethaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e;
/?oeiai aecia/aiiy th?eaee/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ie?ai? ii?ooaiiy o
noa?? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy; i?eaaaeaiiy o a?aeiia?aei?noue ia’?eoa ?
noa’?eoa oi?aae?iiy; onoiaiiy ii?aeiaiiy a iaeiiio e oiio ae i?aai?
oi?aae?iiy ?aaoethth/eo ? eiio?iethth/eo ooieoe?e oa ainiiaea?nueeiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a. C?iaeaii oaeiae ?io? iaoeia?
aeniiaee oa iaa?oioiaaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iie?ioaiiy i?aaiaiai
caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo
aaoi?a:

1. Iaeioi?ua aii?inu niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
?anioaeeeaineie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee «I?iaeaiu
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii». ( Aeiiaoee:
EYI ONN?, 1978. — N. 79-81.

2. I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? caniae aaeineiiaeaiiy iinoa/aiiy a
ainiiaea?nueeiio iaoai?ci?. — E.: Ciaiiy, 1981. — 47 n.

3. TH?eaee/i? aa?aio?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a. — E.: Ciaiiy, 1983. — 47 n.

4. Aeiaia?? ia neoaea? aeiiii?? oa aa?aaeeeaino? // ?aaeyinueea i?aai. —
1984. — ? 3. — N. 41-44.

5. Aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee e iia?aoeaiinoue ?aoaiey //
Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea. —1984. — ? 9. — N. 59-61. (o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c E?aa/aiei I.N.).

6. N o/aoii iiauo iaoiaeia oicyenoaiaaiey // Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia
niaaaeaiea. — 1986.— ? 8. — N. 34-36.

7. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy (i?aaia? ieoaiiy ) //
?aaeyinueea i?aai. — 1986. —? 4. — N. 25-28.

8. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiaiai iaania/aiey ?aaeeia yeiiiiee // Iaoa?eaeu
?anioaeeeaineie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee » I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey
?anioaeeeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa». *anoue ??. — Eeaa: EAeI AI
Oe?aeineie NN?, 1986. — N. 419-422.

9. I?aaia? iniiae ?aae?caoe?? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a // ?aaeyinueea
i?aai. — 1987. — ? 10. — N. 15-18.

10. I?aaia? i?iaeaie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a
a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei // Oace aeiiia?aeae ?anioae?eainueei?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (22-24 ea?oiy 1992 ?.). «Caeiiiaeaanoai
Oe?a?ie — iniiaa i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaionueei? oa o/i?anueei?
iieiae?». — Ee?a: IIE i?e I?iaoc? Oe?a?ie, 1992. — N. 78-79.

11. I?aai? i?iaeaie ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy // Ca??iee ??oaiue oa
a?a?o?aaeii? i?aeoeee Aeuiai a?a?o?aaeiiai noaeo Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a:
Oe?a?inueea i?aaie/a ooiaeaoe?y, 1995. — N. 226-230.

12. Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy o noa?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a: Ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue «I?aaiaa aea?aeaaa».
Aeione aeaa’yoee. — E.: «?i TH?a», 1998. — N. 143-148.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeai/aiei N.O. I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.07 — Oai??y oi?aae?iiy; aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?aai
? i?ioean; o?iainiaa i?aai, aaie?anueea i?aai. ( ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ?
i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

I?noeoue eiiieaen oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaei caaacia/aiiyi ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a. A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeothoueny oai?aoe/i? i?aaia? ?
i?eeeaaei? i?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oi?aae?iiy,
noaiaea?oecaoe?? ? eiio?ieth o noa?? caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ? aeiiiiiiai aeo?a/aiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?.
Noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeia? aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
/eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? i?aaicanoinoaaiiy o aeai?e noa??. Iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue i?eeiyooy ? cai?iiiiiaaii aaoi?nueeee aa??aio Caeiio
Oe?a?ie «I?i ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy» ye oe?e?niiai ? eiiieaeniiai
caeiiiaeaa/iai aeoa, iniiaiith iaoith yeiai ? aecia/aiiy ?aeeieo
caaaeueieo i?aaiaeo, aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo iniia
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa aeiiiiiiai aeo?a/aiiy iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia aiae?co niaoeeo?ee oi?i ?
iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy o aaeoc? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo ?ano?n?a, ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeai aaeineiiaeaiiy oeeo
oi?i ? iaoiae?a a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Aeine?aeaeothoueny i?aaia? ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy oa aeiiiiiiai aeo?a/aiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ye
iaiao?aeii? oiiae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie ? ye ia’?eoa aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy iaeaaeieo oiia
aeey caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia?aaeiai?
oaoi?ee oa oaoiieia?e.

?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie uiaei aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo iai?yie?a
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?.
Noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeia? aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia
aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy a noa?? caaacia/aiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey i?aai?a caeiiiaeaa/i? oa aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, a oaeiae
aeey noae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoa??aeuei? ?ano?ne, ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, aea?aeaaia
oi?aae?iiy, aeeiiaa/a aeaaea, noaiaea?oecaoe?y oa eiio?ieue o aaeoc?
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa, th?eaee/ia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o aaeoc? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeai/aiei N.O. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaia iaania/aiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a Oe?aeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.07 — Oai?ey oi?aaeaiey; aaeieieno?aoeaiia
i?aai e i?ioeann; oeiainiaia i?aai, aaieianeia i?aai. — Einoeooo
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ei. A.I. Ei?aoeeiai IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Niaea?aeeo eiiieaen oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo aii?inia, naycaiiuo n
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaui iaania/aieai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
?ano?nia. A ?aaioa enneaaeothony oai?aoe/aneea i?aaiaua e i?eeeaaeiua
i?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, oi?aaeaiey,
noaiaea?oecaoeee e eiio?iey a noa?a eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia. Ia iiuoa yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai iieacaiu ?aaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe i?aaiauo n?aaenoa a iaania/aiee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a Oe?aeia, noi?ioee?iaaiu iao/iua
auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeaenoaothuaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e i?aaii?eiaiaiey. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey
eniieueciaaeenue i?e ?ac?aaioea i?aeoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey i?aaiia
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, a oaeaea aeey noaeia.

Enneaaeothony i?aaiaua aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey e yeiiiiiiai iio?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia eae
iaiaoiaeeiiai oneiaey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu e eae iauaeoa
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey
niioaaonoaothueo oneiaee aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea aeey
aiaae?aiey ia?aaeiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee.

?anniao?eaathony i?iaeaiu ii ii?aaeaeaieth iioeiaeueiuo iai?aaeaiee
iaania/aiey ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey ia Oe?aeia. Noi?ioee?iaaiu iao/iua
auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey, iai?aaeaiiua ia niaa?oainoaiaaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey a noa?a iaania/aiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea,
ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea, eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue, noaiaea?oecaoeey e
eiio?ieue a noa?a ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey, niaa?oainoaiaaiea aeaenoaothuaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue a noa?a
?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey.

SUMMARY

Demchenko S.F. Legal and Organizational Support for Rational Utilization
of Material Resources in Ukraine. ( The Manuscript.

The dissertation for obtaining a scientific degree of candidate of legal
sciences by 12.00.07 specialization ( «The Theory of Management;
Administrative Law and Process; Financial Law; Bank Law». ( The V.M.
Koretsky Institute of State and Law of the National Academy of Sciences
of Ukraine. Kyiv, 1999.

It contains a comprehensive set of theoretical and practical issues
related to legal and organizational support for expedient utilization of
material resources. The research provides a thorough analysis of legal
and practical issues connected with the improvement of legal regulation
of management, standardization, supervision and liabilities in the field
of rational utilization of material resources in Ukraine. Scientific
conclusions and proposals were made in respect to improvement of current
legislation and its enforcement in this area. The outcomes of research
were used for drafting practical recommendations for the legislative and
executive powers as well as for judges.

Key terms: material resources, resources saving, government management,
executive power, standardization, supervision and judicial liability in
the sphere of resources saving, improvement of the current legislation,
judicial liability in the sphere of resources saving.

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