.

Організаційно-педагогічні особливості фізичного виховання старшокласників у сучасних молодіжних організаціях: Автореф. дис… канд. наук з фіз. вихова

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18

AIEEINUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? EAN? OE?A?IEE

I A ? O E I

Iao?i Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 796.011 (477)

I?AAI?CAOe?EII – IAAeAAIA?*I? INIAEEAINO?

O?CE*IIAI AEOIAAIIss NOA?OIEEANIEE?A

O NO*ANIEO IIEIAe?AEIEO I?AAI?CAOe?ssO

24.00.02 – O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo

Eooeuee-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio ?inoeooo? o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e. Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao Oe?a?ie c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? In?i/oe
Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/, Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie A?eue/eianueeee Aaeoa?ae Noai?neaaiae/,
?inoeooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy

aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe Aieiaaoee Ieeiea Oaaei?iae/, I?ae?aa?iiaeueia
aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo iaiaaeaeiaioo oa
a?ciano

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?
nii?oo Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “14” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. ia 11.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 32. 051. 02 Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (263000, i.Eooeuee, aoe.
Aeiie/aiea, 30)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (263000, i.Eooeuee, aoe.
Aeiie/aiea, 30)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “14 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Oeueinue A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. C ooai?aiiyi Oe?a?ie ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae noaei
iiaeeeaei ooaa?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ye a
aea?aeaaieo caeeaaeao ina?oe, oae ? a a?iiaaenueeeo ia`?aeiaiiyo.
Oeueiio ni?ey? i?eeiyoa inoaii?i /anii iecea aea?aeaaieo aeieoiaio?a.

Iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaia caaaeueia eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy aeiaaa? iiooeo oeyo?a ?? ?aae?caoe?? a ??cieo
eaieao noni?eueiiai aeeooy, a oiio /ene? a iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo.
I?ae oei, ua aeiiaaeaaia ia iieiae?aeiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? aeoaea neeueii
iicia/aeinue noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei iieiae? ye aei ia’?eoa
nioe?aeueiiai ae?yiiy nai?o aeoiaieo oa ?aeaieia?/ii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueeeo
?inoeooo?a, canoiniaoth/e ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia?, oae caaiee,
caeeoeiaee i?eioeei. Ia aeaeue, i?iaeaia aeeoy/eo ? iieiae?aeieo
ia’?aeiaiue o?eaaeee /an ?icaeyaeaeany a/aieie (ss.Iaie??anueeee, 1997;
A.Aieiaaiueei, 1998) aeineoue iaeiia?/ii, o?aeooth/e ?o ae?yeuei?noue ye
ai?i?ciaaio, ao?aeoacio nenoaio aeoiaaiiy, iaoooth/e ?o aoiai?noe/ieie
aeoiaieie oe?eyie.

I?ae oei, ia’?eoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ye neeaaeiai? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
o?eueee ?icii/eia?oueny (A.Aieiaaiueei, 1997). Iei?, eiee a?ae/oaa?ii
aino?o iio?aao a /?oe?e eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy oa
iiaa?oa?iiny aei iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e aeoiaaiiy iieiae?, aeaia
ieoaiiy ? iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiei. Aiae?c ae?yeueiino? ??cieo
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e ye ae?aciee?a ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi oa
iie?oe/ieo iai?yie?a aeicaiey? i?inoaaeeoe aaiaco iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iacaaaeath/e ia /eneaii? iaoeia? i?aoe?, a yeeo aena?oeththoueny ??ci?
aniaeoe i?aeaeuaiiy ?ooiai? aeoeaiino? o/i?a (A.A?ao’?a, A.Noie?oaiei,
1997), iaoiaeeea ?iceoeo ?ooiaeo yeinoae (E.Aieeia, 1980; A.Aaeaaoiai,
1991), iicaeeania oa iicaoe?eueia o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy (A.Ia?iyeia, 1989;
A.Aiaaeaiia,1989), i?aai?caoe?y iaaeaaia?/iiai eiio?ieth ca o?ce/iith
i?aeaioiaeith oeiey??a (I.Iaaaoi?eiaa, 1982; A.Iiainaeuenueeee, 1980),
o?ce/ia i?aeaioiaeai?noue iieiae? c eiaeiei ?ieii iia??oo?oueny.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei oaeiai noaio ? iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiei.

A inoaii? ?iee c’yaeeeny aeine?aeaeaiiy (I.Aieiaaoee, 1993; I.Aaoeaaa,
1996; ss.Iaie??anueeee, 1996; A.Aieiaaiueei, 1997; ?.Aiae?oo?a, 1997),
i?enay/ai? ie?aiei aniaeoai ae?yeueiino? iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e.
Iaeiae o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaia ?iaioa a no?oeoo?? no/anieo iieiae?aeieo
i?aai?caoe?e ? iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeaiith, ui aeaco? ia aeooaeuei?noue
aea?aii? oaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia i?aenoaa? Caaaeaiiai ieaio IAe? I?i?noa?noaa
Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iieiae? ? nii?oo ia 1994-1998 ?.?. a ?aieao oaie
1.3.5. “Oe?a?inueea ia?iaeia o?ce/ia eoeueoo?a (oai?aoeei iaoiaee/i?
aniaeoe aeei?enoaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao)”, iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0194 V 0035072.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae ? ia oe?e iniia? – aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ?iaioo iieiae?aeieo
i?aai?caoe?e iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

A aeine?aeaeaii? ae??ooaaeeny oae? caaea/?:

– aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo canaae o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a oe?a?inueeeo
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo;

– aeine?aeeoe nooi?iue iioe?aiiy caiyoue o?ce/iith eoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii
o iicaiaa/aeueiee /an na?aae noa?oieeaniee?a oa i?e/eie, eio??
aieeaathoue ia caeo/aiiy oeiey??a aei oeeo caiyoue;

– aeine?aeeoe i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o no/anieo
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo;

– ?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaoaaoe i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey
iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a o no/anieo
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui a
?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue:

– ocaaaeueiaii a?aeiiino? i?i noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo canaae o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a oe?a?inueeeo
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo;

– ?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th no/anieo iieiae?aeieo oa aeeoy/eo
i?aai?caoe?e ca noaoooieie caaaeaiiyie;

– aecia/aii iioeaaoe?ei? /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia caeo/aiiy
noa?oieeaniee?a aei caiyoue o?ce/iith eoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii;

– iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaii i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey
iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o no/anieo iieiae?aeieo
i?aai?caoe?yo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o:

– ?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii? a nenoaio ae?yeueiino? iieiae?aeieo
i?aai?caoe?e iiai? i?aai?caoe?eii? oi?ie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy –
nooaeaionueeiai nii?oeaiiai oanoeaaeth;

– ?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey ?ino?oeoi??a o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa ea??aiee?a
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ye? aeicaieythoue iie?aueoe i?ioean o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy /eai?a oeeo i?aai?caoe?e oeyoii: a) i?iaaaeaiiy nai?ia??a aeey
?ino?oeoi??a o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o oaoiaino?; a)
i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/eo caoiae?a a ?aieao
nayoeoaaiue eoeueoo?ii-?ae?a?eieo nayo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. C?a?aii a?aeiiino? i?i o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy a
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo? oa ia no/aniiio aoai?.
Aea/aia noaoooia ? i?ia?aiii-ii?iaoeaia ae?yeuei?noue iieiae?aeieo
i?aai?caoe?e oa ?ic?iaeaia ?o eeaneo?eaoe?y. Aeine?aeaeaii e
ocaaaeueiaii aeai? i?i nooi?iue iioe?aiiy caiyoue o?ceoeueoo?ith ?
nii?oii na?aae noa?oieeaniee?a, a oaeiae ??aaiue o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo oa
o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? ae?oae noa?oiai oe?eueiiai a?eo. ?ic?iaeaii
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy o no/anieo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
i?aaenoaaeai? ia Ia?o?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoe?iiaeueia
no?aoiaa iaaee/ia caaacia/aiiy Oe?a?ie” (Euea?a, 1995), ia
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ina?oa a aaeoc? o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e: noai, i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae” (Euea?a, 1996), ia
anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “?ieue o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e a caei?iaiio niinia? aeeooy” (Euea?a, 1996; Euea?a,1997), ia
II ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?i
e iaoiaeia ainieoaiey o/aueony iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeie” (A?oaanuee,
1997), ia ia?o?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? ani??aio?a aaeoc?
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo “Iieiaea nii?oeaia iaoea Oe?a?ie” (Euea?a,
1997), ia ae?oa?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? ani??aio?a
“Iieiaea nii?oeaia iaoea Oe?a?ie” (Euea?a, 1998), ia “e?oaeiio” noie?
“Iieiae?aei? i?aai?caoe?? nueiaiaei?” (Ee?a, 1997), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iieiae?aei? i?iaeaie a Oe?a?i?: noai oa oeyoe ae??oaiiy”
(Euea?a, 1997), ia ui??/ieo /eoaiiyo ?inoeoooo i?iaeai iieiae? (Ee?a,
1998), ia Na?oiaiio Eiia?an? Iieiae?aeieo I?aai?caoe?e (Ee?a, 1998), ia
i?aenoieiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a ? ani??aio?a Euea?anueeiai Ae?OE
(1994-1998??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aena?oeai? o 16 ioae?eaoe?yo, c
yeeo 7 noaoae o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a ?aooa – ioae?eaoe?? o
ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a ? oac iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 187 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno ? i?noeoue anooi, i’youe ?icae?e?a, aeniiaee, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae – 225 aeaea?aea, aeiaeaoie. Aeey e?auiai
ni?eeiyooy iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiue a aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii 17
?enoie?a ? 11 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/aii iaoo oa caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe,
iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a, aeaco?oueny noa?a ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Cia/aiiy, ci?no ? iaoiaeeea o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
noa?oieeaniee?a” a?aei?/aii, ui aieea noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaae ia
iniaeno?noue i?ioiaeeoue iiina?aaeeiaaii /a?ac neeaaeio nenoaio
nioe?aeueieo iina?aaeiee?a: n?i’th, iaa/aeueii-aeoiai? caeeaaee,
iieiae?aei? i?aai?caoe??, caniae ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??, ??ci?
iaoi?iaeuei? a?oie. sse cacia/athoue oao?aoe? (A.Aauaiei, 1997;
I.Aeoiaanueeee, 1996; A.Aeaia?oeueeee, 1989; I.Aaeoiaiei, 1987), a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy i?aai?caoe?? oa ?icaeoeo nenoaiii? ae?yeueiino?
noni?euenoaa, iniaeeainoae eiai aieeao ia iniaeno?noue /a?ac aeuaiacaai?
iina?aaeieee ii-??ciiio i?ioiaeeoue i?ioean i?eeiyooy, ona?aeiieaiiy ?
ia?aoai?aiiy o/iyie iio?aa noni?euenoaa o aeanio noa’?eoeaio
iaiao?aei?noue. Ia aeoieo iaaeaaia?a (A.Nooiieeinueeee, 1967;
E.Ooeinueeee, 1979), ae?yeuei?noue, a ye?e a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino?, ? noni?eueiith oa nioe?aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth. Naia /a?ac
oe? aeaee ae?yeueiino? o/aiue aeeth/a?oueny a nenoaio ia’?eoeaieo
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, aa?o/e ia naaa iaai? nioe?aeuei? ?ie? ?
i?iyaeyth/e o ?o aeeiiaii? naith ?iaeea?aeoaeueio nooi?noue.

Na?aae oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaio aeoeai?noue
o/i?a iiaeia aeae?eeoe ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iniaeeaino?, a?aeiioaiiy n?i`?,
iaaeaaia?/iiai eieaeoeao oeiee, ?iaaniee?a aei caiyoue o?ceoeueoo?ith ?
nii?oii, a oaeiae iayai?noue iaeaaeii? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace,
??ciiiai?oiiai ?iaaioa?y, a?aeiia?aeieo a?a??i?/ieo oiia. A oie aea /an,
aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? o/i?a aei caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie
iaiao?aeii oi?ioaaoe o ieo ?ioa?an oa iioeaaoe?th. O naith /a?ao,
?ioa?an aei o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaii? ae?yeueiino? noi?io?oueny a o/i?a
oiae?, eiee aiie ciiaeooue ?aae?coaaoe nai? ciaiiy ? ai?iiy a ??cieo
oi?iao, eiee aiie iiaa/aoue nai? oni?oe a oe?e ae?yeueiino? ? eiee oe?
oni?oe aoaeooue ii?eethaeithaaoeny. Naia oae? oiiae iaiao?aeii noai?eoe
o/iyi, uia caioioeoe ?o aei caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ?ic?iaeai? oa ai?iaiaai? aaeaeaaoi? iaoiaeeee
?icaeoeo o?ce/ieo yeinoae aeey o/i?a-noa?oieeaniee?a (E.Aieeia,1988;
ss.Aaeaaoiai, 1991), ye? a?aoiaothoue a?eia? oa noaoaa? iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo i?aai?cio a cacia/aiee a?eiaee ia??iae. A/aieie (A.Ia?iyeia,
1989; A.Oeyi, 1986) iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy c
iieiaeaeth ??cieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a
iicaiaa/aeueiee /an. ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? (A.Iiainaeuenueeee, 1980;
?.I??iaiaa, 1989), ui iioei?cothoue ?o i?iaaaeaiiy /a?ac aaeaeaaoi?noue
i?aeai?o iaaaioaaeaiiy oa aoaeoeai?noue iaoiae?a eiio?ieth ca
o?aioaaeueiei i?ioeanii. ?acoeueoaoe cacia/aieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? iieiae?, ia
ci?oeiaiiy ?? caei?ia`y, ? c eiaeiei ?ieii oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue noa?
ana a?eueoa. Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia ana oea, c ?ieo a ??e ciaioo?oueny
e?euee?noue noa?oieeaniee?a, ye? a?aea?aeothoue caiyooy o?ceoeueoo?ith ?
nii?oii a iicaiaa/aeueiee /an, a ??aaiue ?o caei?ia`y iino?eii
iia??oo?oueny. A ca’yceo c oeei, iaiao?aeii aea/eoe, yea iioeaaoe?y
ni?ey? caeo/aiith noa?oieeaniee?a aei caiyoue o?ceoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii,
a oaeiae aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny a iicaiaa/aeueiee /an a ??cieo onoaiiaao,
cie?aia o no/anieo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaee oa i?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy”
?ice?eaathoueny iaoiaee, ui canoiniaoaaeeny aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo
caaea/, a naia: aiae?c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e; aiae?c a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a; iieooaaiiy (aieaooaaiiy, ?ioa?a’thaaiiy); iaaeaaia?/i?
niinoa?aaeaiiy; aio?iiiiao?e/i? aei??e, iaaeaaia?/i? oanoe;
iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio, iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny i?ioyaii 1994-1998 ??. ia aac? i?aai?caoe?e
Ieano, Niaaeueia, N?/, NIIO, a i?nueeeo oeieao Eueaiaa, Naiai?a, Eiaaey
oa a n?euenueeeo oeieao Euea?anueei?, ??aiainueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei?
iaeanoae ai?iaeiaae ianooiieo aoai?a:

1. Oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie, aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy
e?oa?aoo?ieo ? aeieoiaioaeueieo aeaea?ae, aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino?
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e.

2. I?iaaaeaiiy iieooaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a aeey aea/aiiy nooiai?
iioe?aiiy na?aae ieo caiyoue o?ceoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii. I?iaaaeaiiy
iaaeaaia?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o no/anieo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo. ?ic?iaea
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a o no/anieo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo.

3. I?iaaaeaiiy aio?iiiiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue oa iaaeaaia?/iiai
oanooaaiiy oeiey??a 15-17 ?ie?a. I?iaaaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo
aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaieo i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. A aenia?eiaio? acyei o/anoue 255 noa?oieeaniee?a, c ieo
64 oeiioe? ? 48 ae?a/ao – aenia?eiaioaeueia a?oia (AA) (/eaie IOI
“Niaaeueia”), oa 87 oeiioe?a ? 56 ae?a/ao – eiio?ieueia a?oia (EA).

4. Ia?iaea oa aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioethaaiiy aeniiae?a ?iaioe.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo canaae o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a oe?a?inueeeo
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo” cacia/a?oueny, ui oe?a?inueeee iieiae?aeiee
?oo ia? aeeaie? ei?ai?. Iaoeiaoe? (ss.Iaie??anueeee, 1997;
A.Aieiaaiueei,1998), iiae?eyth/e eiai ia e?eueea aoai?a,
noaa?aeaeothoue, ui ca?iaeaeoaaany a?i o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaenueeeo no?oeoo?, ye? ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo c’yaeeeny aeineoue
aeaaii, nyaath/e nai?ie ei??iiyie a aeio?enoeyinuee? /ane. O?ce/ia
aeoiaaiiy a eiyae? /ane oa aeiao eica//eie iaei a?enueeiai-i?eeeaaeia
ni?yioaaiy, a na?aaeiueia?//y, a a?aonoaao, aiii aoei aaaaeaia ye
neeaaeiaa nenoaie oiai/anii? ina?oe, a a iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy – nii/aoeo
aenooiaei iniiaiei eiiiiiaioii i?aeaioiaee aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?
? iaei nii?oeaii-i?eeeaaeio ni?yiiaai?noue, a i?ci?oa, i?ae /an Ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie, – a?enueeiai-i?eeeaaeio ni?yiiaai?noue.

A ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae iieiae?aeiee ?oo a Oe?a?i?, a iniiaiiio, ?nioaaa
o?eueee o oi?i? aeaio i?aai?caoe?e: eiiniiieo ? i?iia???. O?ce/iiio
aeoiaaiith /eai?a oeeo i?aai?caoe?e i?eae?eyeany aaeeea oaaaa: aaeany
naeoe?eia ?iaioa c ??cieo aeae?a nii?oo, i?iaiaeeeeny ciaaaiiy,
i?aai?ciaoaaeeny oo?enoe/i? iioiaee, o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/? oa
nii?oeai? oaai?e, a ye? caeo/aeany aaeeea e?euee?noue iieiae?. Oiio
o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy a i?iia?nueei-eiiniiieuenueeeo i?aai?caoe?yo iaei
nii?oeaii-ianiao ni?yiiaai?noue.

I?ae aieeaii ia?aaoaeia/eo i?ioean?a (1985-1991??.) iieiae?aeiee ?oo
ia?aoiaeeoue ia ye?nii iiaee aoai naiai ?icaeoeo. Nii/aoeo, a oiiaao
iiaiai, ia?aaoaeia/iai eo?no, a?i oi?ioaaany ye iaoi?iaeueiee ?
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany eeoaii-ao?oeiaith ae?yeuei?noth. Ca ni?yioaaiiyi oea
aoa ?oo i?ioanoo i?ioe iiiiiie?? eiiniiieo. Aiiaa?i oeueiai aoaio noaea
iie?oecaoe?y iieiae?aeieo oi?ioaaiue. Ii?yae c oei, noai?thaaeeny
o?ceoeueoo?i? ia’?aeiaiiy /a?ac a?ae?iaeaeaiiy noa?eo oi?i ae?yeueiino?
iieiae?aeieo oiaa?enoa. Oaeei /eiii, a?aeiiaeee naith ae?yeuei?noue
neaoonuee? i?aai?caoe?? “Ieano”, Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ia
i?aai?caoe?y “Ieanooi”, Ea?iaonueeee eauaoa?nueeee eeoa, Euea?anueea
e?aeiaa i?aai?caoe?y oe?a?inueeee n?/iaee nithc oa ?i.

Iei?oi?e iieiae?aeiee ?oo Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeeie iniiaieie
/eiieeaie, ye aeaiie?aoe/i?noth, ??ciiiai?oi?noth ca iai?yieaie
ae?yeueiino? oa iie?oe/ieie oiiaeiaaiiyie, ?aa?iiaeueieie iniaeeainoyie
(iieiae?aeiee ?oo ?ioaa?iaaiee ia?aaaaeii a ?aa?iiaeuei?, a ia
anaoe?a?inuee? no?oeoo?e) oiui. Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue a Oe?a?i? ae??
aeecueei 40 iieiae?aeieo ia’?aeiaiue. Aiae?c noaooo?a no/anieo
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e aeicaieea ?ic?iaeoe ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th ca
noaoooieie caaaeaiiyie, aeae?eeaoe iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeueii ci???ioiaai?,
i?ioan?eii ni?yiiaai?, aeoiai?, ?ae?a?ei?, iaoeeo?nonuee?, nii?oeai?,
ienoaoeuee?, aeieia?/i? oa ?io? ia’?aeiaiiy. Iacaaaeath/e ia
??ciiiai?oi?noue iai?yie?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy, eiaeia iieiae?aeia
i?aai?caoe?y a a?eueo?e /e iaio?e i??? o nai?e ae?yeueiino? aeei?enoiao?
caniae o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui
iiioey?i?noth na?aae /eai?a iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e ei?enoothoueny
?a?ia? aeaee nii?oo, cie?aia oooaie, aieaeaie, aaneaoaie oiui. C
eiaeieie ?ieii na?aae iaoe?iiaeueii iaeaooiaaieo i?aai?caoe?e
iiioey?i?noue iaaoaathoue o?aaeeoe?ei? ia?iaei? ?a?e, caaaae, ?icaaae,
ye? i?iaiaeyoueny i?ae /an ??ciiiai?oieo nayoeoaaiue. Aiie ia
aeiaaathoue iniaeeaeo oiia aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ? aeicaieythoue caae?yoe
cia/io e?euee?noue iieiae?. Cacia/ai? aeaee ?ooiai? aeoeaiino?
i?iaiaeyoueny ye oi?ia aeoeaiiai a?aeii/eieo, oiio ni?yiiaai?noue
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o no/anieo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo iiaeia
aecia/eoe ye icaei?ia/i-?icaaaeaeueio.

Oaeei /eiii, o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii? iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e
eoeueoeaoaaeeny caniae oa i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie, ye? a?aeiia?aeaee
iai?yieo ae?yeueiino? oeeo i?aai?caoe?e ? iaee ia iao? ianiaa caeo/aiiy
iieiae? aei /eainoaa a ieo.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Iniaeeaino? caiyoue o?ceoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii
noa?oieeaniee?a o iicaiaa/aeueiee /an” oeyoii aieaooaaiiy aecia/a?oueny
nooi?iue iioe?aiiy caiyoue o?ceoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii na?aae oeiey??a
15-17 ?ie?a oa i?e/eie, eio?? ia oea aieeaathoue. ?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy
aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui eeoa 19% ?aniiiaeaio?a o a?eueiee
a?ae iaa/aiiy /an a?aea?aeothoue caiyooy o?ceoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii
(?en.1).

?en. 1. ??ciiaeaee ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a o a?eueiee /an

Oiiai? iicia/aiiy: 1 – ia?aaeyae a?aeai; 2 – i?ineooiaoaaiiy ioceee; 3 –
caiyooy o?ceoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii; 4 – a?aea?aeoaaiiy ?icaaaeaeueieo
caoiae?a; 5 – cono??/? c ae?ocyie; 6 – ia?aaeyae
oaeaia?aaea/; 7 – i?iaoeyiee; 8 – /eoaiiy ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e; 9 –
a?aea?aeoaaiiy eaoa, aa??a; 10 – /eoaiiy ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue; 11 –
aeneo?n?? ? oo?eci; 12 – aca?oi? ?a?e; 13 – ?ioa.

C ieo ia?aaoey?ii caeiathoueny na?aae i?nueeeo oeiioe?a 15 ?ie?a –
20,2%, 16 ?ie?a – 47,6%, 17 ?ie?a – 51,4% ?aniiiaeaio?a, na?aae ae?a/ao
– a?aeiia?aeii 36,5%, 57,5% ? 63,4% ?aniiiaeaio?a, na?aae n?euenueeeo
oeiioe?a – a?aeiia?aeii 37,1%, 54,7% ? 61,4% ?aniiiaeaio?a, a na?aae
ae?a/ao – a?aeiia?aeii 42,3%, 57,0% ? 60,1% ?aniiiaeaio?a. Na?aae oeo,
ooi a?aea?aeo? caiyooy o?ceoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii a iicaiaa/aeueiee /an
nenoaiaoe/ii ia?aaaaeathoue noa?oieeanieee, eio?? caeiathoueny aea?/? ia
oeaeaeaiue (i?nuee? oeiioe? – a?aeiia?aeii 33,7%, 29,4%, 26,1%
?aniiiaeaio?a; ae?a/aoa – a?aeiia?aeii 26,3%, 24,1%, 20,9%
?aniiiaeaio?a; n?euenuee? oeiioe? – a?aeiia?aeii 28,4%, 27,1%, 24,3%
?aniiiaeaio?a; ae?a/aoa – a?aeiia?aeii 19,2%, 19,1%, 18,4% ?aniiiaeaio?a
a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iieoaieo). C ?ioiai aieo, eeoa 37,9% oeiey??a
caaeiaieai? i?iaaaeaiiyi naiai a?eueiiai /ano. Oea aeaco? ia oa, ui
iaeiei ?c oeyo?a aaeaeaaoiiai oi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?e aeica?eey
noa?oieeaniee?a iiaea noaoe ?o caeo/aiiy aei caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie.

Na?aae i?e/ei, ye? aeeeeeathoue o oeiey??a ?ioa?an aei
o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaii? ae?yeueiino? ne?ae a?aei?oeoe iiaeeea?noue
aanaei i?iaanoe /an, iiaeeea?noue aeoiaoaaoe oa?aeoa?, aieth ?
ioaei?noue oa iiaeeea?noue aeiiiaoeny aenieeo nii?oeaieo aeinyaiaiue. A
oie aea /an, c a?eii o oeiioe?a ? ae?a/ao aei caiyoue o?ceoeueoo?ith ?
nii?oii c?inoa? ?ioa?an /a?ac iiaeeea?noue ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith nai??
?icoiiai? i?aoeacaeaoiino?, aaaeaiiy aooe caei?iaei ? neeueiei,
aaaeaiiy aeinyaoe ia?aaaae iaae ?ioeie ?, iaeii/anii, iaioa oaaae
iieiaeue caa?oa? ia iiaeeea?noue aanaei i?iaanoe /an, aeiiiaoeny aenieeo
nii?oeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaoe aenieo ioe?ieo c o?ceoeueoo?e,
iie?ioeoe aeenoeeie?io ? naiii?aai?caoe?th. Na?aae oeiey??a, ye?
nenoaiaoe/ii a?aea?aeothoue o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeai? caiyooy, ia?aaaaea?
aeaui ?ioa iioeaaoe?y, a naia: iiaeeea?noue iie?aueoe aoaeiao o?ea oa
i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? o oeiioe?a /a?ac o?ce/io
i?aeaioiaeo, a o ae?a/ao – aaeineiiaeeoe naith ciai?oi?noue. ?ioeie
iioeaaie, ui niiioeathoue o/i?a aei o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaii?
ae?yeueiino?, ? iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?aiiy eiea nai?o ciaeiieo ?
caa?aaeaiiy oa ci?oeiaiiy caei?ia’y.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy o caeo/aii? oeiey??a aei o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaii?
ae?yeueiino? iaeaaeeoue i?iiaaaiae? ??cieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ? ia?o ca ana, /a?ac caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.
E??i oiai, aaaiiee aieea ia caeo/aiiy aei caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie o
oeiioe?a ia? aeoiea ?o iaeiieeaniee?a ? ae?oc?a, a o ae?a/ao – ?o
??aeieo ? aeecueeeo. C ?ioiai aieo, aeyaeaii, ui iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith
aieeao ia o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaio aeoeai?noue o/i?a oa ?aae?caoe?th ?o
?ioa?an?a ? aaaeaiiy naiiaeyaeoeny.

Na?aae i?e/ei, ye? a?aeooiaoothoue iieiaeue a?ae
o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaieo caiyoue ne?ae a?aei?oeoe iiaaio i?aai?caoe?th ?
i?iaaaeaiiy caiyoue c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a oeie?, iniaeeai o aeioneieo
eeanao, iacaaeia?eueia iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy oeeo caiyoue.
E??i oiai, iaeaea iieiaeia n?euenueeeo oeiey??a ? o?aoeia i?nueeeo
oeiey??a ia a?aea?aeothoue iicaoe?euei? caiyooy o?ceoeueoo?ith ? nii?oii
/a?ac oa, ui ia ciathoue aea oae? caiyooy i?iaiaeyoueny aai ia iathoue
iiaeeeaino? ?o a?aea?aeoaaoe.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth iieiae?aeiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? ? iaaecae/aeii
oe?iea iae?o?a ae?yeueiino? ??cieo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e. Iaoa oaaaa
aoaea caa?iaia ia o? anaoe?a?inuee? iieiae?aei? i?aai?caoe??, ye? ?
/enaeueieie ? ia?aaeaa/athoue o nai?o noaoooieo caaaeaiiyo o?ce/ia
aeoiaaiiy ?o /eai?a. Aei oaeeo i?aai?caoe?e ne?ae i?e/eneeoe
I?aai?caoe?th oe?a?inueei? iieiae? “Niaaeueia”, “Ieano – Oe?a?inueeo
Neaoonueeo i?aai?caoe?th”, Ni?eeo i?iia?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie
(NIIO), Ni?eeo Oe?a?inueei? Iieiae? (NOI), Oe?a?inueea
aeeoy/i-thiaoeueea oiaa?enoai “N?/”. Ae?yeuei?noue ia?ae?/aieo
i?aai?caoe?e a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue o iicaoe?eueiiio o?ce/iiio e
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iiio aeoiaaii? oeiey??a. Caeo/aiiy ae?oae aei
oeeo a?iiaaenueeeo ia`?aeiaiue aeicaiey? ii?aeioaaoe ??ciia?/i? ?ioa?ane
iieiae?.

A on?o aeuaia?ae?/aieo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo aaaeeeaa i?noea
iin?aea? o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaia ae?yeuei?noue, yea ?aae?co?oueny
ia?aaaaeii o oi?iao, iaaaaeaieo a oaaeeoe? 1. I?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie a
iniiaiiio ni?aiaaeathoue, oi/a /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny niaoeeo?ea
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a eiaeiiio a?iiaaenueeiio ia`?aeiaii?. Na?aae
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaeiioe?ai?oeie a on?o
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo ? oo?enoe/i? iioiaee ? oaai?e. Cacia/ai?
i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie ? i?eaaaeeaeie aeey iieiae?, ine?eueee
ia?aaeaa/athoue naiino?ei?noue ? ?iiaioeeo. Aei ni?eueieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo iniaeeainoae on?o iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e ne?ae
a?aeianoe eoeueoeaoaaiiy oaai??a e?oi?o ? naciiieo, a oaeiae –
noaoe?iia?ieo ? ia?anoaieo. E??i oiai, a ?aieao oaai??a i?iaiaeyoueny
oioiaei? oi?ie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. ?acii c oei, a ??cieo iieiae?aeieo
i?aai?caoe?yo aeyaeaii i?aai?caoe?ei? a?aei?iiino?. Oae, ii?yae ?c
i?oeie oo?enoe/ieie i?iaoeyieaie ? iaiae??aeaie a “Niaaeuei?” /an a?ae
/ano i?iaiaeyoue iaiae??aee ia aaeaea?eao, a “Ieano?” ? “NOI?”
nenoaiaoe/ii i?iaiaeyoue iaiae??aee ia aaeaea?eao ? aaeineiaaeao, a
“N?/?” – ia eiiyo, a a NIIO – ia aaeaea?eao, aaeineiaaeao ? aaoiiia?eyo.

Oaaeeoey 1

Oi?ie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o no/anieo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo

OI?IE O?CE*IIAI AEOIAAIIss

Oo?enoe/i? i?iaoeyiee ? iaiae??aeeI?o?Ia aaeineiaaeaoIa eiiyoIa
aaeaea?eaoIa aaoiiia?eyo

Naeoe?ei? caiyooyAieiaee aiiaeNo?aei? aeaee iaeiiai?noaNii?oeaia
i???iooaaiiyE?iiee nii?oAeuei?i?ci?a?ia? aeaee
nii?ooAoeaoeciOaai?eNoaoe?iia?i?Ia?anoai?O?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/?
caoiaee i?ae /an eoeueoo?ii-?ae?a?eieo, ?noi?e/ieo oa aea?aeaaieo nayo

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe i?aai?caoe?ei? iniaeeaino? a i?iaaaeaii? oaai??a. sseui
a NIIO ia?aaaaeathoue oaai?e o noaoe?iia?ii i?enoiniaaieo i?ei?uaiiyo,
oi a ?ioeo iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo – oaai?e ia?aaaaeii ia?anoai?, a
ae?oeo – o?eueee ia?anoai?. I/aaeaeii oea iia`ycaii c ??ciei
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iei caaacia/aiiyi i?aai?caoe?e. Oae, eeoa o NIIO ?
aeani? i?ei?uaiiy aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oaai??a. ?io? i?aai?caoe?? i?e
iio?aa? i?aiaeothoue oae? i?ei?uaiiy.

A iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo /?oei i?inoaaeothoueny iniaeeaino?
i?iaaaeaiiy naeoe?eii? ?iaioe. Oae, o “Niaaeuei?” i?iaiaeyoueny caiyooy
c aieiaiai aiiaea ? nii?oeaiiai i???iooaaiiy, a “N?/?” – c eicaoeueeeo
aieiaeo ienoaoeoa ? e?iiiai nii?oo, a ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?yo – c oooaieo,
aieaeaieo, aaneaoaieo oiui.

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe iniaeeaino? a i?aeoiae? aei ea??aieoeoaa
o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaiith ae?yeuei?noth. sseui a NIIO ? “Ieano?” ??cieie
oi?iaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ea?othoue oao?aoe?, oi a ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?yo
iae/ano?oa oaea ea??aieoeoai cae?eniththoue aeoea?noe i?aai?caoe?e, ye?
ia iathoue iaeaaeii? ina?oe.

Oa?aeoa?iith iaaeaaia?/iith iniaeea?noth o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaii?
ae?yeueiino? iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e ? caeo/aiiy aei o/ano? a ??cieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?iao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy /eai?a ??ciiai a?eo. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? noi?ioaaoe a iieiaeoeo /eai?a i?aai?caoe?? ?ioa?an
aei caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie /a?ac i?eeeaae ?o noa?oeo oiaa?eo?a, ye?
ca?aeii c ?acoeueoaoaie iieooaaiiy, ? aeey ieo a?eueoei aaoi?eoaoii,
i?ae aei?ine?, ? cae?eniththoue ia ieo iiceoeaiee aieea. Ianooiiith
iaaeaaia?/iith iniaeea?noth ? niaoeeo?ea oaiaoe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino?
oaai??a. Aiie aoaathoue a?aeii/eieia?, aeieia?/i?, aoiia?ao?/i?,
aeoe?euei?, ?ino?oeoi?nuee?. Eiaeai /eai i?aai?caoe??, ye i?aaeei,
i?ioiaeeoue oaai?e naia a oae?e iine?aeiaiino?, ui aeicaiaey?, o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei i?eioeeio iinooiiaino?, /a?ac iiceoeai? a?aaeaiiy
a?ae ?icaaa o a?aeii/eieiaeo oaai?ao caeo/aoe thiaea /e ae?a/eio aei
oe?eaai? ianeeaaeii? aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a aeieia?/ieo,
aoiia?ao?/ieo oa ?ioeo oaai?ao, a aeae? aei a?eueo neeaaei?oi? ?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?oi? ae?yeueiino? o aeoe?eueieo oa ?ino?oeoi?nueeeo
oaai?ao. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? aeoiaoaaoe o iieiae? aeoeai?noue,
naiino?ei?noue, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oiui. A oie aea /an, a ??cieo
a?iiaaenueeeo ia`?aeiaiiyo niinoa??aa?oueny ??cia ni?yiiaai?noue
aeine?aeieoeueeeo oaai??a oa oo?enoe/ieo i?iaoeyiie ? iaiae??aie. Oae, a
NIIO cacia/ai? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie iathoue, a iniiaiiio, aeieia?/io oa
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueio ni?yiiaai?noue, a oie /an ye a ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?yo
aeii?iothoue iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ia oa eoeueoo?ii-?ae?a?eia
ni?yiiaai?noue.

Aaaeeeaith iaaeaaia?/iith iniaeea?noth aenooia? i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?aeaieia?/iei canaaeai
iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e. Oae, “Niaaeueia”, “Ieano”, NOI i?iaiaeyoue
o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/? caoiaee, a ?aieao ?ae?a?eieo oa ?noi?e/ieo nayo
? ??aeoa – a ?aieao aea?aeaaieo nayo, “N?/” a a?eueo?e i???
i???ioo?oueny ia ?noi?e/i? ? a iaio?e i??? – ia ?ae?a?ei? oa aea?aeaai?
nayoa, a NIIO – ia aea?aeaai? oa ?noi?e/i? nayoa ? ia aa?a o/anoue a
?ae?a?eieo nayoeoaaiiyo. E??i oiai, ??ci? iieiae?aei? i?aai?caoe??
i?iaiaeyoue o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/? caoiaee i?ae /an ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo
aeao.

Oaeei /eiii, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy a iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo
a?aecia/a?oueny nai?th niaoeeo?/i?noth, ui i?iyaey?oueny o ?aae?caoe??
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ??cii? ni?yiiaaiino?, cie?aia, ?icaaaeaeueieo,
?ae?aaoeaieo, i?ciaaaeueieo, nii?oeaii-o?aioaaeueieo. Oea aeicaiey?
caeo/eoe an?o /eai?a i?aai?caoe?? aei caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie,
a?aoiaoth/e aaaeaiiy eiaeiiai c ieo. A oie aea /an, iiaaia
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy oa iaaeinoaoi?noue eaae?o?eiaaieo
eaae??a ia?aoeiaeaeathoue iieiae? a?aoe aeoeaio o/anoue a ??cieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?iao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy oeiey??a, ye? ? /eaiaie iieiae?aeieo
i?aai?caoe?e, oae ? oeo, ye? ia iaeaaeaoue aei ieo, a oaeiae,
aeuacacia/ai? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? iniaeeaino?
o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e,
iaaiaeyoue ia aeoieo, ui aeey iie?auaiiy i?ioeano o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a
oeeo a?iiaaenueeeo ia`?aeiaiiyo iaiao?aeii aianoe ?yae ci?i. Iaeia?oa,
a?eueoa oaaae ne?ae cina?aaeeoe ia oi?ioaaiiy o iieiae? iioeaaoe?? aei
nenoaiaoe/ieo caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie. Ca?aeii ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaeaaaii?oeie iioeaaie, ye? niiioeathoue oeiey??a aei
caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie, ? iiaeeea?noue aanaei i?iaanoe /an a eie?
iaeiie?oe?a, iie?aueoe naith o?ce/io i?aeaioiaeai?noue oa i?iyaeoe naaa,
?aae?coaaoe na?e iioaioe?ae. Oiio iaiao?aeii cai?iiiioaaoe oeiey?ai oae?
i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ye? a caaeiaieueiyee cacia/ai?
aeiiae.

Ine?eueee naeoe?eio ?iaioo a “Niaaeuei?” i?iaiaeyoue aeoea?noe
iieiae?aeii? i?aai?caoe??, ye? ia iathoue niaoe?aeueii? ina?oe, aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy ?o oaoiaiai ??aiy aoee i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?e, ye? aeeth/aee a
naaa oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? caiyooy. I?ia?aia eiaeiiai nai?ia?o
ia?aaeaa/aea 6 eaeoe?e ? 3 i?aeoe/i? caiyooy. Oaie eaeoe?e
a?ae??ciyeeny ca ni?yiiaai?noth ? ia?aaeaa/aee aeeeaae iaoa??aeo, ui
iaiao?aeiee aeey eaae?o?eiaaiiai i?iaaaeaiiy oo?enoe/ieo iioiae?a,
naeoe?eieo caiyoue, oaai??a, o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/eo caoiae?a.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioa?ano aei o?ceoeueoo?i-icaei?ia/eo caoiae?a a ?aieao
nayoeoaaiue aoee ?ic?iaeai? noeaia??? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iecee
iieiae?aeieo eoeueoo?ii-?ae?a?eieo nayo, a naia: a ia?aaeaeaiue Aiae??y
(12 a?oaeiy), ia Iiaee ??e, ia Aaeeeaeaiue, ia Eoiaea. A iniiao oeeo
nayo aoei iieeaaeaii ??ci? aeaee ?ooiai? aeoeaiino? (a?a, no?eaee,
iaoaiiy oiui), ye? i?aai?/ii iia`ycai? c oei /e ?ioei nayoii ? iienai? a
??cieo aoiia?ao?/ieo aeaea?aeao.

Aa?o/e aei oaaae oa, ui iieiaeue ooea? iia? ciaeiinoaa, a oaeiae i?aaia
i?iyaeoe naaa, aoei i?aai?ciaaii ? i?iaaaeaii nooaeaionueeee nii?oeaiee
oanoeaaeue, yeee c /anii iaaoa noaoono Anaoe?a?inueeiai. I?ia?aia
oanoeaaeth ia?aaeaa/a? ciaaaiiy na?aae aiaoi??a c aeaa`yoe aeae?a nii?oo
(eaaea aoeaoeea, i?i?-oooaie, aieaeaie, aaneaoaie, aaaei?ioii,
iano?eueiee oai?n, oaoe, a?i?ane?ia oa nii?oeaia i???iooaaiiy), iaoeiao
eiioa?aioe?th “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iieiae? oa oeyoe ae??oaiiy”,
ienoaoeuee? aenoaaee, caien oaeaia?aaea/? euea?anueeiai oaeaaa/aiiy
“Aoaeeoi??y”, i?enay/aii? oai? oanoeaaeth, e?oae? noiee, aa/i?e
a?aeii/eieo. Aei o/ano? o oanoeaae? cai?iooaaeeny nooaeaioe aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe I-IV ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe?? oa oeiey?? noa?oeo eean?a.
Iniaeeaee noaoon iaee i?aaenoaaieee iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e. Oaeei
/eiii, aeuaiienai? caoiaee aoee ai?iaaaeaeai? o o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaio
?iaioo IOI “Niaaeueia”, aecia/eaoe ci?no iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo.

Ai?iaeiaae aenia?eiaioo o?e/? aecia/aany ??aaiue o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo
(?O?) ? o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? (?OI) noa?oieeaniee?a AA ? EA. Ia
ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo o noa?oieeaniee?a AA ? EA, ye o oeiioe?a, oae ? o
ae?a/ao, i?ae iieacieeaie c?inoo, aaae ? ianyao a?oaeii? ee?oee (IAE),
ye? a?aeiia?aeaee na?aaeiueiio ?O?, aaeeeeo ?ica?aeiinoae ia aeyaeaii. A
e?ioe? aenia?eiaioo o oeiioe?a AA ia a?aei?io a?ae iaeiie?oe?a EA
aeyaeaii e?au? iieacieee c?inoo oa IAE, ye? a?aeiia?aeaee aeuiio ca
na?aaei?e ?O?. O ae?a/ao AA a ii??aiyii? c ae?a/aoaie EA a e?ioe?
aenia?eiaioo ca?eueoeeany ??cieoey i?ae iieacieeaie IAE, iaoii?noue o
ae?a/ao EA ca?eueoeeeny iieacieee iane o?ea, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
iaaei??io aaao. A e?ioe? aenia?eiaioo aenieee ?O? cao?eniaaii o 14,1%
oeiioe?a ? 18,8% ae?a/ao AA oa a 9,3% oeiioe?a ? 12,5% ae?a/ao EA,
aeuee ca na?aaei?e ?O? – o a?aeiia?aeii 37,5%, 25,0% oa 28,7%, 25,0%
noa?oieeaniee?a, na?aaei?e – o a?aeiia?aeii 34,3%, 33,3% oa 43,6%, 35,8%
noa?oieeaniee?a. Ioaea, a e?ioe? aenia?eiaioo ca?eueoeeany e?euee?noue
noa?oieeaniee?a AA, ye? iathoue aeuee ca na?aaei?e ?O?, a oie /an ye a
EA nooo?aeo ci?i ia a?aeaoeiny. Ana oea aeaco? ia oa, ui cai?iiiiiaai?
iaie i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey iie?auaiiy
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaii? /eai?a IOI “Niaaeueia” iiceoeaii aieeioee ia
o?ce/iee ?icaeoie noa?oieeaniee?a.

Ai?iaeiaae o?ueio ?ie?a aeey aeyaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo o?ce/ieo
yeinoae oeiey??a aecia/aany ??aaiue ?o o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino?, yeee
ioe?ithaaany ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaiiy o?ce/ieo ai?aa, ui aeeth/ai? o
Aea?aeaai? oanoe. ?acoeueoaoe iiaeai? a oaaeeoe? 2.

Ia ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo na?aaei? iieacieee on?o aeae?a aei?iaoaaiue o
noa?oieeaniee?a AA ye o oeiioe?a, oae ? o ae?a/ao, ia?aaaaeaee na?aaei?
iieacieee noa?oieeaniee?a EA. Iaeiae, c eiaeiei ?ieii ca?eueooaaeany
??cieoey i?ae na?aaei?ie ?acoeueoaoaie aei?iaoaaiue o oeiey??a AA ? EA.
Iniaeeai c?inea ??cieoey o oeiioe?a i?ae ?acoeueoaoaie caeiaiiy ?
?icaeiaiiy ?oe a oii?? eaaea/e ia i?aeeic? (2,8% ia ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo
? 9,4% a e?ioe? aenia?eiaioo), i?aei?iaiiy a n?ae ca 1 oa. (3,1% ? 8,9%
a?aeiia?aeii), no?eaea a aeiaaeeio c i?noey (0,8% ? 6,5 a?aeiia?aeii) oa
iaoeeo ooeoaa aia?aae c iieiaeaiiy neaey/e (5,3% ? 13,8% a?aeiia?aeii),
a a ae?a/ao i?ae ?acoeueoaoaie caeiaiiy ? ?icaeiaiiy ?oe a oii?? eaaea/e
ia i?aeeic? (8,3% ? 15,1% a?aeiia?aeii), i?aei?iaiiy a n?ae ca 1 oa.
(7,6% ? 13,4% a?aeiia?aeii) ? iaoeeo ooeoaa aia?aae c iieiaeaiiy
neaey/e (2,5% ? 8,4% a?aeiia?aeii). Ioaea, iino?eia o/anoue o
cai?iiiiiaaieo iaie i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?iao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ni?eyea
nooo?aiio ?icaeoeo (p

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